Main Characteristics of On-line Journalism in Communication of Information

The traditional news media aresubject to some restrictionsof transmission speed. Transmission means of the newspaper with paper as a medium is the post and delivery. Therefore, its transmission speed is affected by transmission vehicle, salesservice and postman's role. Radio and TV broadcast transmit their informationto some regions by means of wireless electronic signals, thus being restricted by receiver regionswhere signals can be transmitted. A relaying auxiliary means needs to be where the signals fail to reach for their successful transmission.

Importance of good newspapers

The number of newspapers in England is 230( in 1841), and the annual average number of convictions for murder is thirteen. The number of newspapers in Spain a few years ago was one, and the annual number of convictions for murder was upwards of twelve hundred.

Freedom of press is not absolute, it has to respect public order, decency, privacy of individual and morality [KHC]

JACOB MATHEW AND ANOTHER Vs. MANIKANTAN ALIAS G. MANI AND ANOTHER -The question emerging for consideration is whether the publication of photographs, in the circumstances under which they were published, with regard to the sequence of events depicted by such publication, would give rise to criminal act/acts constituting the offences imputed against the petitioners, the publisher and printer and also the editor of the daily [ KERALA HIGH COURT ]

THE MATHRUBHOOMI PRINTING AND PUBLISIHING COMPANY LTD. AND OTHERS Vs. SUDHEESH K. AND OTHERS

Now coming back to the news item, it is clear from an impartial reading of the same that reference is made only to direct marketing agencies in general and not to any particular individual or concern. Of course, there is no need to refer to any person or concern specifically and it would be enough if the imputation is made in the form of an alternative or if the same is expressed ironically. The reference need not even be explicit and if the description and attendant circumstances suggest with a fair certainty, the identity of the person intended, the offence will be attracted. But at the same time, it is settled by now that the defamatory matter to be actionable, it must be such that it contains an imputation concerning some particular person or persons whose identity can be established.

SAHIB SINGH MEHRA Vs. STATE OF UTTAR PRADESH

a Public Prosecutor can file a complaint in writing in the Court of Session directly with respect to an offence u/s 500 I.P.C. committed against a public servant in respect of his conduct in the discharge of his public functions. Sub-section (3) of section 198B provides that no complaint under sub-section (1) shall be made by the Public Prosecutor except with the previous sanction of the Government concerned for the filing of complaint u/s 500 I.P.C.

Vituperative exercises or yellow journalism cannot pass muster under the guise of freedom of press [KHC]

V. SUBAIR Vs. P.K. SUDHAKARAN - In a free society, the press enjoys an important position and plays a vital role. It may articulate the yearnings and aspirations of the inarticulate and give voice and visage to them. A muffled or muted media cannot discharge the trust that it holds. But, the liberty of press, by its history and connotation must be deemed to have certain limitations. It has to keep within these bounds, and not transgress frontiers of decency and propriety. Vituperative exercises, or yellow journalism, cannot pass muster under the guise of freedom of press, no more than shilling shookers, or salacious press can masquerade, as literary works. The freedom of press is no more important, than the good name of the press. It must set the right tune.[ KERALA HIGH COURT ]

Yellow Journalism is not expected from the Newspaper like Times of India [PHC]

RANCHI TIMBER TRADERS ASSOCIATION AND OTHERS Vs. STATE AND OTHERS — Such sort of imputation by way of Yellow Journalism is not expected from the Newspaper like that of the Times of India. It appears that Order of this Court was also quoted in the publication under inverted comma, but such were not the wordings of the Court. Without verifying from the Court of the Certified copy of the Order, such sort of publication is unwarranted. Practically, the order of the Court cannot be published on the publication of November, 20th of the Times of India, when the order was signed on 20th November, 1996 itself in the morning hours.

Publishing scurrilous and defamatory articles in newspaper is not the job of a journalist [BHC]

SHRI DNYANDEVRAO TATYRAV WAGHMODE Vs. ALLABAKSHA GULAB NADAF AND OTHERS - The role of the journalist is far more noble. The media is called the fourth estate. But this type of misuse of the fourth estate is really deplorable. Once upon a time, journalists like Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak used this media for awakening the conscience of the people during the British Raj and for social, political and other worthy causes. Right to information is a fundamental right of the people, but this type of yellow journalism has to be condemned and those who resort to this type of cheap publicity and those who use their newspaper for blowing their own trumpet or for condemning and defaming others should be condemned themselves by the people. Using temperate, restrained and sophisticated language, which is at the same time effective and reaches and touches the soul of those who read it, is the key of success in the field of journalism. There are very few, who are endowed with these qualities. Newspapers like 'Janhit' and 'Agman' may be small newspapers. They are being circulated in a small town. They should aim at providing necessary and correct information and news-items to the people, to make them literate and more informative, so that they become aware as to what is going on around them.