According to the attention restoration theory, exposure to nature (ETN) renews one’s capacity to focus attention, which decreases cognitive fatigue and therefore may increase positive emotions. Indeed, natural settings have been associated with high prevalence of happy facial expressions (HFE). However, how universal the association is, remains unclear. We explored the ETN-HFE association in Boston, US, representing a less collectivistic culture, and Yokohama, Japan, representing a more collectivistic one. Evidence from satellite images and social network data, using geoinformatics and statistical tools, revealed that individuals from both societies exhibited more happiness when they were photographed in more natural settings. These associations varied with temporal variations expressed through weekly and annual effects. In addition, we found that the presence of others was also associated with prevalence of HFE in natural settings at Yokohama and Boston but the relation was significantly stronger in Boston. Despite some relatively minor differences between the countries, these results support the universality of the association between ETN and HFE.

In Buddhism, marriage is not a “sacrament,” as such a concept does not exist. And it is not any part of the functions of Buddhist monks to join lay people together in holy wedlock (or deadlock). If it is occasionally done today in Japan, this is just a modern idea in conformity with a general tendency among Japanese Buddhists to imitate (often perhaps unwisely) Christian institutions.


Sections 153A and 505(2) of the Penal Code-the law of ‘hate speech’ recognises that all speakers are entitled to ‘good faith’ and ‘(no)-legitimate purpose’ protection. ‘Good faith’ means that the conduct should display fidelity as well as a conscientious approach in honouring the values that tend to minimise insult, humiliation or intimidation. The latter being objective, whereas the former is subjective. The important requirement of ‘good faith’ is that the person must exercise prudence, caution and diligence. It requires due care to avoid or minimise consequences.

In countries where statutes are oftener confined to the announcement of general principles, and there is no attempt to deal with details or particulars, legislation has less tendency to limit the freedom of the judge. That is why in our own law there is often greater freedom of choice in the construction of constitutions than in that of ordinary statutes. Constitutions are more likely to enunciate general principles, which must be worked out and applied thereafter to particular conditions. What concerns us now, however, is not the size of the gaps. It is rather the principle that shall determine how they are to be filled, whether their size be great or small. The method of sociology in filling the gaps puts its emphasis on the social welfare.

One or more successive civilizations, it is universally recognized, have existed on the Subcontinent since at least 1500 B.C. These are generally referred to as Indian, Indic, or Hindu, with the latter term being preferred for the most
recent civilization. In one form or another,

In my judgment, pornographic ideas are dangerous because they lodge in the mind. They lodge like the eggs of an icnumen fly, which hatch out, become living things and feed on the guts of the Toggle showing location of victim. The ideas of the pornographer do the same thing: they lodge in the mind, they spawn into prurient imagery which feeds off the mind of the victim and consumes all the decent feelings there.

I must now summarise the main proposals which the Committee wish to lay before the public. They offer a definition of pornography, though this is not a definition which would have any legal force. Our definition was:

“that which exploits and de-humanises sex, so that human beings are treated as things, and women in particular as sex objects.”

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