Category Archives: USA Laws

Code of Laws of the United States- United States Code- U.S. Code- U.S.C.- USC

Codified and collected  54 Titles of Law. Titles 1–54, excepting Title 53, only “general and permanent” laws are codified in the United States Code. The U.S. Code was first published in 1926, subsequent main editions have been published every six years since 1934. Of the 53 titles, the following titles have been enacted into positive (statutory) law: 1, 3, 4, 5, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 17, 18, 23, 28, 31, 32, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 44, 46, 49, 51, and 54. When a title of the Code was enacted into positive law, the text of the title became legal evidence of the law. Titles that have not been enacted into positive law are only prima facie evidence of the law.

Titles are divided into the following manners , ie in general following pattern have been adopted :

Title [54 in Number]

  • Subtitle [ Multiple individual statutes]
    • Chapter [ of any individual statute]
      • Subchapter
        • Part
          • Subpart
            • Section
              • Subsection
                • Paragraph
                  • Subparagraph
                    • Clause
                      • Subclause
                        • Item
                          • Subitem

U.S. Code: Table of Contents

TITLE 1 – GENERAL PROVISIONS
TITLE 2 – THE CONGRESS
TITLE 3 – THE PRESIDENT
TITLE 4 – FLAG AND SEAL, SEAT OF GOVERNMENT, AND THE STATES
TITLE 5 – GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATION AND EMPLOYEES
TITLE 5a – FEDERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ACT
TITLE 6 – DOMESTIC SECURITY
TITLE 7 – AGRICULTURE
TITLE 8 – ALIENS AND NATIONALITY
TITLE 9 – ARBITRATION
TITLE 10 – ARMED FORCES
TITLE 11 – BANKRUPTCY
TITLE 11a – BANKRUPTCY RULES
TITLE 12 – BANKS AND BANKING
TITLE 13 – CENSUS
TITLE 14 – COAST GUARD
TITLE 15 – COMMERCE AND TRADE
TITLE 16 – CONSERVATION
TITLE 17 – COPYRIGHTS
TITLE 18 – CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE
TITLE 18a – UNLAWFUL POSSESSION OR RECEIPT OF FIREARMS
TITLE 19 – CUSTOMS DUTIES
TITLE 20 – EDUCATION
TITLE 21 – FOOD AND DRUGS
TITLE 22 – FOREIGN RELATIONS AND INTERCOURSE
TITLE 23 – HIGHWAYS
TITLE 24 – HOSPITALS AND ASYLUMS
TITLE 25 – INDIANS
TITLE 26 – INTERNAL REVENUE CODE
TITLE 27 – INTOXICATING LIQUORS
TITLE 28 – JUDICIARY AND JUDICIAL PROCEDURE
TITLE 28a -JUDICIAL PERSONNEL FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS
TITLE 29 – LABOR
TITLE 30 – MINERAL LANDS AND MINING
TITLE 31 – MONEY AND FINANCE
TITLE 32 – NATIONAL GUARD
TITLE 33 – NAVIGATION AND NAVIGABLE WATERS
TITLE 34 – CRIME CONTROL AND LAW ENFORCEMENT
TITLE 35 – PATENTS
TITLE 36 – PATRIOTIC AND NATIONAL OBSERVANCES, CEREMONIES, AND ORGANIZATIONS
TITLE 37 – PAY AND ALLOWANCES OF THE UNIFORMED SERVICES
TITLE 38 – VETERANS’ BENEFITS
TITLE 39 – POSTAL SERVICE
TITLE 40 – PUBLIC BUILDINGS, PROPERTY, AND WORKS
TITLE 41 – PUBLIC CONTRACTS
TITLE 42 – THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE
TITLE 43 – PUBLIC LANDS
TITLE 44 – PUBLIC PRINTING AND DOCUMENTS
TITLE 45 – RAILROADS
TITLE 46 – SHIPPING
TITLE 47 – TELECOMMUNICATIONS
TITLE 48 – TERRITORIES AND INSULAR POSSESSIONS
TITLE 49 – TRANSPORTATION
TITLE 50 – WAR AND NATIONAL DEFENSE
TITLE 50a – WAR AND NATIONAL DEFENSE [ELIMINATED]
TITLE 51 – NATIONAL AND COMMERCIAL SPACE PROGRAMS
TITLE 52 – VOTING AND ELECTIONS
TITLE 53 -[Reserved]
TITLE 54 – NATIONAL PARK SERVICE AND RELATED PROGRAMS

United States Code Titles as Positive Law

The following titles of the United States Code were enacted into positive law by the acts enumerated below:

Title 1, General Provisions—Act July 30, 1947, ch. 388, §1, 61 Stat. 633.

Title 3, The President—Act June 25, 1948, ch. 644, §1, 62 Stat. 672.

Title 4, Flag and Seal, Seat of Government, and the States—Act July 30, 1947, ch. 389, §1, 61 Stat. 641.

Title 5, Government Organization and Employees—Pub. L. 89–554, §1, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 378.

Title 9, Arbitration—Act July 30, 1947, ch. 392, §1, 61 Stat. 669.

Title 10, Armed Forces—Act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, §1, 70A Stat. 1.

Title 11, Bankruptcy—Pub. L. 95–598, title I, §101, Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2549.

Title 13, Census—Act Aug. 31, 1954, ch. 1158, 68 Stat. 1012.

Title 14, Coast Guard—Act Aug. 4, 1949, ch. 393, §1, 63 Stat. 495.

Title 17, Copyrights—Act July 30, 1947, ch. 391, §1, 61 Stat. 652, as amended Oct. 19, 1976, Pub. L. 94–553, title I, §101, 90 Stat. 2541.

Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure—Act June 25, 1948, ch. 645, §1, 62 Stat. 683.

Title 23, Highways—Pub. L. 85–767, §1, Aug. 27, 1958, 72 Stat. 885.

Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure—Act June 25, 1948, ch. 646, §1, 62 Stat. 869.

Title 31, Money and Finance—Pub. L. 97–258, §1, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 877.

Title 32, National Guard—Act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, §2, 70A Stat. 596.

Title 34, Navy—See Title 10, Armed Forces.

Title 35, Patents—Act July 19, 1952, ch. 950, §1, 66 Stat. 792.

Title 36, Patriotic and National Observances, Ceremonies, and Organizations—Pub. L. 105–225, §1, Aug. 12, 1998, 112 Stat. 1253.

Title 37, Pay and Allowances of the Uniformed Services—Pub. L. 87–649, §1, Sept. 7, 1962. 76 Stat. 451.

Title 38, Veterans’ Benefits—Pub. L. 85–857, §1, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1105.

Title 39, Postal Service—Pub. L. 86–682, §1, Sept. 2, 1960, 74 Stat. 578, as revised Pub. L. 91–375, §2, Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 719.

Title 40, Public Buildings, Property, and Works—Pub. L. 107–217, §1, Aug. 21, 2002, 116 Stat. 1062.

Title 41, Public Contracts—Pub. L. 111–350, §3, Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3677.

Title 44, Public Printing and Documents—Pub. L. 90–620, §1, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1238.

Title 46, Shipping—Pub. L. 98–89, §1, Aug. 26, 1983, 97 Stat. 500; Pub. L. 99–509, title V, subtitle B, §5101, Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1913; Pub. L. 100–424, §6, Sept. 9, 1988, 102 Stat. 1591; Pub. L. 100–710, title I, §102, Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4738; Pub. L. 109–304, Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1485.

Title 49, Transportation—Pub. L. 95–473, §1, Oct. 17, 1978, 92 Stat. 1337; Pub. L. 97–449, §1, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2413; Pub. L. 103–272, §1, July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 745.

Title 51, National and Commercial Space Programs—Pub. L. 111–314, §3, Dec. 18, 2010, 124 Stat. 3328.

Title 54, National Park Service and Related Programs—Pub. L. 113–287, §3, Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3094.

Title 26, Internal Revenue Code

The Internal Revenue Code of 1954 was enacted in the form of a separate code by act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 1. Pub. L. 99–514, §2(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that the Internal Revenue Title enacted Aug. 16, 1954, as heretofore, hereby, or hereafter amended, may be cited as the “Internal Revenue Code of 1986”. The sections of Title 26, United States Code, are identical to the sections of the Internal Revenue Code.

U.C.C. – ARTICLE 2 – SALES (2002)

Uniform Commercial Code—sales

DMR

PART 1. SHORT TITLE, GENERAL CONSTRUCTION AND SUBJECT MATTER

2-101. Short Title.
2-102. Scope; Certain Security and Other Transactions Excluded From This Article.
2-103. Definitions and Index of Definitions.
2-104. Definitions: “Merchant”; “Between Merchants”; “Financing Agency”.
2-105. Definitions: Transferability; “Goods”; “Future” Goods; “Lot”; “Commercial Unit”.
2-106. Definitions: “Contract”; “Agreement”; “Contract for sale”; “Sale”; “Present sale”; “Conforming” to Contract; “Termination”; “Cancellation”.
2-107. Goods to Be Severed From Realty: Recording.


PART 2. FORM, FORMATION AND READJUSTMENT OF CONTRACT

2-201. Formal Requirements; Statute of Frauds.
2-202. Final Written Expression: Parol or Extrinsic Evidence.
2-203. Seals Inoperative.
2-204. Formation in General.
2-205. Firm Offers.
2-206. Offer and Acceptance in Formation of Contract.
2-207. Additional Terms in Acceptance or Confirmation.
2-208. Course of Performance or Practical Construction.
2-209. Modification, Rescission and Waiver.
2-210. Delegation of Performance; Assignment of Rights.


PART 3. GENERAL OBLIGATION AND CONSTRUCTION OF CONTRACT

2-301. General Obligations of Parties.
2-302. Unconscionable contract or Clause.
2-303. Allocation or Division of Risks.
2-304. Price Payable in Money, Goods, Realty, or Otherwise.
2-305. Open Price Term.
2-306. Output, Requirements and Exclusive Dealings.
2-307. Delivery in Single Lot or Several Lots.
2-308. Absence of Specified Place for Delivery.
2-309. Absence of Specific Time Provisions; Notice of Termination.
2-310. Open Time for Payment or Running of Credit; Authority to Ship Under Reservation.
2-311. Options and Cooperation Respecting Performance.
2-312. Warranty of Title and Against Infringement; Buyer’s Obligation Against Infringement.
2-313. Express Warranties by Affirmation, Promise, Description, Sample.
2-314. Implied Warranty: Merchantability; Usage of Trade.
2-315. Implied Warranty: Fitness for Particular Purpose.
2-316. Exclusion or Modification of Warranties.
2-317. Cumulation and Conflict of Warranties Express or Implied.
2-318. Third Party Beneficiaries of Warranties Express or Implied.
2-319. F.O.B. and F.A.S. Terms.
2-320. C.I.F. and C. & F. Terms.
2-321. C.I.F. or C. & F.: “Net Landed Weights”; “Payment on Arrival”; Warranty of Condition on Arrival.
2-322. Delivery “Ex-Ship”.
2-323. Form of Bill of Lading Required in Overseas Shipment; “Overseas”.
2-324. “No Arrival, No sale” Term.
2-325. “Letter of Credit” Term; “Confirmed Credit”.
2-326. Sale on Approval and Sale or Return; Consignment Sales and Rights of Creditors.
2-327. Special Incidents of Sale on Approval and Sale or Return.
2-328. Sale by Auction.


PART 4. TITLE, CREDITORS AND GOOD FAITH PURCHASERS

2-401. Passing of Title; Reservation for Security; Limited Application of This Section.
2-402. Rights of Seller’s Creditors Against Sold Goods.
2-403. Power to Transfer; Good Faith Purchase of Goods; “Entrusting”.


PART 5. PERFORMANCE

2-501. Insurable Interest in Goods; Manner of Identification of Goods.
2-502. Buyer’s Right to Goods on Seller’s Insolvency.
2-503. Manner of Seller’s Tender of Delivery.
2-504. Shipment by Seller.
2-505. Seller’s Shipment Under Reservation.
2-506. Rights of Financing agency.
2-507. Effect of Seller’s Tender; Delivery on Condition.
2-508. Cure by Seller of Improper Tender or Delivery; Replacement.
2-509. Risk of Loss in the Absence of Breach.
2-510. Effect of Breach on Risk of Loss.
2-511. Tender of Payment by Buyer; Payment by Check.
2-512. Payment by Buyer Before Inspection.
2-513. Buyer’s Right to Inspection of Goods.
2-514. When Documents Deliverable on Acceptance; When on Payment.
2-515. Preserving Evidence of Goods in Dispute.


PART 6. BREACH, REPUDIATION AND EXCUSE

2-601. Buyer’s Rights on Improper Delivery.
2-602. Manner and Effect of Rightful Rejection.
2-603. Merchant Buyer’s Duties as to Rightfully Rejected Goods.
2-604. Buyer’s Options as to Salvage of Rightfully Rejected Goods.
2-605. Waiver of Buyer’s Objections by Failure to Particularize.
2-606. What Constitutes Acceptance of Goods.
2-607. Effect of Acceptance; Notice of Breach; Burden of Establishing Breach After Acceptance; Notice of Claim or Litigation to Person Answerable Over.
2-608. Revocation of Acceptance in Whole or in Part.
2-609. Right to Adequate Assurance of Performance.
2-610. Anticipatory Repudiation.
2-611. Retraction of Anticipatory Repudiation.
2-612. “Installment contract”; Breach.
2-613. Casualty to Identified Goods.
2-614. Substituted Performance.
2-615. Excuse by Failure of Presupposed Conditions.
2-616. Procedure on Notice Claiming Excuse.


PART 7. REMEDIES

2-701. Remedies for Breach of Collateral contracts Not Impaired.
2-702. Seller’s Remedies on Discovery of Buyer’s Insolvency.
2-703. Seller’s Remedies in General.
2-704. Seller’s Right to Identify Goods to the Contract Notwithstanding Breach or to Salvage Unfinished Goods.
2-705. Seller’s Stoppage of Delivery in Transit or Otherwise.
2-706. Seller’s Resale Including Contract for Resale.
2-707. “Person in the Position of a Seller”.
2-708. Seller’s Damages for Non-acceptance or Repudiation.
2-709. Action for the Price.
2-710. Seller’s Incidental Damages.
2-711. Buyer’s Remedies in General; Buyer’s Security Interest in Rejected Goods.
2-712. “Cover”; Buyer’s Procurement of Substitute Goods.
2-713. Buyer’s Damages for Non-delivery or Repudiation.
2-714. Buyer’s Damages for Breach in Regard to Accepted Goods.
2-715. Buyer’s Incidental and Consequential Damages.
2-716. Buyer’s Right to Specific Performance or Replevin.
2-717. Deduction of Damages From the Price.
2-718. Liquidation or Limitation of Damages; Deposits.
2-719. Contractual Modification or Limitation of Remedy.
2-720. Effect of “Cancellation” or “Rescission” on Claims for Antecedent Breach.
2-721. Remedies for Fraud.
2-722. Who Can Sue Third Parties for Injury to Goods.
2-723. Proof of Market Price: Time and Place.
2-724. Admissibility of Market Quotations.
2-725. Statute of Limitations in Contracts for Sale.


 

Uniform Commercial Code-Act 174 of 1962

DMR

Commercial codes govern business and commercial transactions in USA and ratified most of the States. The objective of the Code has been stated below:-

“AN ACT to enact the uniform commercial code, relating to certain commercial transactions in or regarding personal property and contracts and other documents concerning them, including sales, commercial paper, bank deposits and collections, letters of credit, bulk transfers, warehouse receipts, bills of lading, other documents of title, investment securities, leases, and secured transactions, including certain sales of accounts, chattel paper and contract rights; to provide for public notice to third parties in certain circumstances; to regulate procedure, evidence and damages in certain court actions involving such transactions, contracts or documents; to make uniform the law with respect thereto; to make an appropriation; to provide penalties; and to repeal certain acts and parts of acts”.

Structure of the Law under  UCC

Following transactions have been collected in the code within a specific Article( 1 to 9)

Article – General Provisions

  • Sales (Amended Article 2);
  • Leases (Amended Article 2A);
  • Negotiable Instruments, previously known as Commercial Paper (Revised Article 3);
  • Bank Deposits and Collections (Amended Article 4);
  • Funds Transfers (Article 4A);
  • Letters of Credit (Revised Article 5);
  • Bulk Sales, previously known as Bulk Transfers (Revised Article 6);
  • Documents of Title (Revised Article 7);
  • Investment Securities (Revised Article 8); and
  • Secured Transactions (Revised Article 9).

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