Category: Western Philosophy

Egotism in German Philosophy-G. Santana-1916

Protestantism was not a reformation by accident,because it happened to find the church corrupt; it is a reformation essentially, in that every individual must reinterpret the Bible and the practices of the church in his own spirit. If he accepted them without renewing them in the light of his personal religious experience, he would never have what Protestantism thinks living religion. German philosophy has inherited this characteristic; it is not a cumulative science that can be transmitted ready made.

Hegel’s Lectures on Aristotle-1822

There is a quite generally held opinion that the Aristotelian and Platonic philosophies are directly opposed, the one being idealistic and the other realistic, and that, indeed, in the most trivial sense. For Plato is said to have made the ideal his principle, so that the inward idea creates from itself; according to Aristotle, on the contrary, we are told that the soul is made a tabula rasa, receiving all its determinations quite passively from the outer world; and his philosophy is thus mere empiricism – Locke’s philosophy at its worst. But we shall see how little this really is the case. In fact Aristotle excels Plato in speculative depth, for he was acquainted with the deepest kind of speculation – idealism – and in this upholds the most extreme empirical development.


If this Discourse appear too long to be read at once, it may be divided into six Parts: and, in the first, will be found various considerations touching the Sciences; in the second, the principal rules of the Method which the Author has discovered, in the third, certain of the rules of Morals which he has deduced from this Method; in the fourth, the reasonings by which he establishes the existence of God and of the Human Soul, which are the foundations of his Metaphysic; in the fifth, the order of the Physical questions which he has investigated

Martin Heidegger: List of Works

Heidegger, M. (1975-) Gesamtausgabe (Collected Edition), Frankfurt: Vittorio Klostermann. Heidegger, M. (1914) Die Lehre vom Urteil im Psychologismus. Ein kritisch-positiver Beitrag zur Logik (The Doctrine of Judgment in Psychologism: A Critical-positive Contribution […]

Voltaire and his works

Voltaire-François-Marie Arouet (1694-1778) was a leading scholar and thinker at the period of the French Enlightenment. Voltaire, F.-M. A. de (1980) Oeuvres complètes de Voltaire (The Complete Works of Voltaire), ed. R. […]

Appearance and Reality-F. H. BRADLEY

THE fact of illusion and error is in various ways forced early upon the mind; and the ideas by which we try to understand the universe, may be considered as attempts to set right our failure. In this division of my work I shall criticize some of these, and shall endeavour to show that they have not reached their object. I shall point out that the world, as so understood, contradicts itself; and is therefore appearance, and not reality. In this chapter I will begin with the proposal to make things intelligible by the distinction between primary and secondary qualities.

Plato Fedr : The Idea

Socrates, Fedr Socrates . Dear Fedr, where and from where? [ Σωκράτης : ὦ φίλε Φαῖδρε, ποῖ δὴ καὶ πόθεν;] Fedr . From Lysias, Socrates, son of Kefal, I go for a walk […]

John Locke on Property

I think, it is very easy to conceive, without any difficulty, how labour could at first begin a title of property in the common things of nature, and how the spending it upon our uses bounded it. So that there could then be no reason of quarrelling about title, nor any doubt about the largeness of possession it gave. Right and conveniency went together; for as a man had a right to all he could employ his labour upon, so he had no temptation to labour for more than he could make use of