Iqbal’s letter to Jinnah- A civil war has been going on for in the shape of Hindu Muslim Riots (28/05/1937)

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    DATE: 28th May, 1937 My dear Mr. Jinnah, Thank you so much for your letter which reached me in due course. I am glad to hear that you will bear in min
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    c.570–632 Life of the Prophet Muhammad
    711–713 Conquest of Sind and Multan by Muhammad ibn Qasim.
    998–1030 Reign of Mahmud of Ghazni. Raids on India.
    1020 Lahore becomes part of Ghaznavid empire.
    1151 Rise of Ghuri empire.
    1186 Capture of Lahore by Muhammad Ghuri.
    1192 Defeat of Prithvi Raj by Muhammad Ghuri at Tarain.



    1- “Islam” is used for the religion, “Muslim” for a member of the religious community.
    2-R. C. Majumdar, “The Arab Invasion of India,” Journal of Indian History, Vol. X (1931), supplement.
    3- H. M. Elliot and John Dowson, The History of India as Told by Its Own Historians (London, 1867-1877)



    1-W. H. Moreland and A. C. Chatterjee, A Short History of India (London, 1945), p. 193.
    2-K. M. Sen, Medieval Mysticism in India (London, 1936), p. viii.
    3-Quoted in Tarachand, The Influence of Islam on Indian Culture (Allahabad, 1946), p. 228.
    4-M. T. Kennedy, The Chaitanya Movement (Calcutta, 1925), pp. 92–93.
    5-T. K. Raychaudhuri, Bengal under Akbar and Jahangir (Calcutta, 1953), pp. 94–95.
    6-E. C. Sachau, Alberuni’s India (London, 1914), I, 22.
    7-Mahdi Husain, The Rehla of Ibn Battuta (Baroda, 1953), p. 182.


    Memoirs of Zehir-ed-Din Muhammed Babur, trans. by J. Leyden and W. Erskine, rev. by Sir Lucas King (2 vols.; London, 1921), provides account of Babur’s reign.



    1-Abul Fazl, Ain-i-Akbari, trans. by H. Blockmann et al. (Calcutta, 1927–1941), I, 3.
    2-Abdul Qadir Badauni, Muntakhab-ut-Tawarikh, trans. by G. S. A. Ranking, W. H. Lowe, and Sir Wolseley Haig (Calcutta, 1884–1925), III, 216.
    3-Abdul Qadir Baudauni, Muntakhab-ut-Tawarikh, trans. by G. S. A. Ranking, W. H. Lowe, and Sir Wolseley Haig (Calcutta, 1884–1925), III, 127.


    Infallibility Decree of 1579

    Whereas Hindustan has now become the center of security and peace, and the land of justice and beneficence, a large number of people, especially learned men and lawyers, have immigrated and chosen this country for their home. Now we, the principal ulama, who are not only well versed in the several departments of the law and in the principles of [[159]] jurisprudence, and well acquainted with the edicts which rest on reason or testimony, but are also known for our piety and honest intentions, have duly considered the deep meaning, first, of the verse of the Quran: “Obey God and obey the Prophet, and those who have authority among you”; and secondly, of the genuine tradition: “Surely, the man who is dearest to God on the day of judgment is the imam-i-adil; whosoever obeys the Amir obeys Thee; and whoever rebels against him rebels against Thee” ; and thirdly, of several other proofs based on reasoning or testimony; and we have agreed that the rank of a sultan-i-adil is higher in the eyes of God than the rank of a mujtahid. Further, we declare that the King of Islam, Amir of the Faithful, Shadow of God in the world, Abul Fath Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar Padshah Ghazi (whose kingdom God perpetuate), is a most just, most wise, and a most God-fearing king. Should, therefore, in the future, a religious question come up, regarding which the opinions of the mujtahids are at variance, and His Majesty, in his penetrating understanding and clear wisdom, be inclined to adopt, for the benefit of the nation, and as a political expedient, any of the conflicting opinions, which exist on that point, and issue a decree to that effect, we do hereby agree that such a decree shall be binding on us and on the whole nation.
    Further, we declare that should His Majesty think it fit to issue a new order, we and the nation shall likewise be bound by it, provided always that such order be not only in accordance with some verse of the Quran, but also of real benefit to the nation; and further, that any opposition on the part of his subjects to such an order passed by His Majesty shall involve damnation in the world to come, and loss of property and religious privileges in this life.

    This document has been written with honest intentions, for the glory of God and the propagation of Islam, and is signed by us, the principal ulama and lawyers, in the month of Rajab of the year nine hundred and eight-seven. [ Abdul Qadir Baudauni, Muntakhab-ut-Tawarikh, trans. by G. S. A. Ranking, W. H. Lowe, and Sir Wolseley Haig (Calcutta, 1884–1925), III, 127]



    by Dara Sikha

    This small tract is of supreme importance to a student of comparative religion as it embodies, so far as I know, the first and perhaps the last attempt of its kind to reconcile the two apparently divergent religions. It is the last original work of Dara Shikuh and, as such, has an importance of its own. And, according to one authority, it was this very work which brought about his death. It is said that this tract was laid before the ecclesiasts who declared its author a heretic and sentenced him to death, which was only too faithfully carried out by his over-zealous brother.

    An examination of the concluding portion of the work will show that it was written in 1065 A.H., that is, when Dara was 42. It ap|)ears from the Introduction that Dara wrote this work, according to his own inspiration and taste, for the members of his family.’’ He declares openly, I have nothing to do with the common folk of both the communities.”

    The tract begins with an Introduction and contains Twenty sections having the following headings : —

    1. The Elements.

    2. The Senses.

    3. The Religious Exercises.

    4. The Attributes.

    5. The Wind.

    6. The Four Worlds.

    7. The Fire.

    8. The Light.

    9. The Beholding of God.

    10. The Names of God, the Mo»t High.

    11. The Apostleship and the Prophetship.

    12. On Barhmdnd

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