24/05/2022 at 12:06 #119980
Death for me would be a glorious deliverance rather than that I should be a helpless witness of the destruction of India, Hinduism, Sikhism and Islam. That destruction is certain if Pakistan ensures no equality of status and security of life and property for all professing the various faiths of the world, and if India copies her
[See the full post at: My Fast as a Protest – Gandhi’s Speech on the eve of last fast-12/01/1948]
25/02/2023 at 09:24 #124845
Chronological Sketch of MK Gandhi
2 October, 1869: Birth at Porbunder in Gujarat (Sudamapuri, Kathiawad)
1876 :Beginning of Education at Rajkot.
1883 : Married with Kasturba at Porbunder.
4th September, 1888 : Left for London to study Law.
12 January, 1891 : Passed the Law examination.
10-11 June, 1891 : Called to the British Bar and enrolled in the High Court.
12 June, 1891 : Set sail for home.
6 July, 1891 : In India, introduced to Raychandbhai (Whom Gandhiji regarded as his Guru).
16 November, 1891 : Applied for enrollment in the Bombay High Court.
24 May, 1892 : Came to Bombay to start practice in the High Court as Barrister.
April, 1893 : Representing a Porbunder firm set sail for South Africa.
June, 1893 : At Pietermaritzberg station Gandhiji was ordered to go into the van compartment of the train although he held a first class ticket. On his refusal, a constable was brought and he was forcibly ejected, his bundles pitched out after him. He was left to shiver in the waiting room all night.
22 May, 1894 : Proposed an Organisation to watch the interest of Indians and to oppose colour bar against them in South Africa.
22 August, 1894 : Founded Natal Indian Congress to fight colour prejudice.
3 September, 1894 : Admitted to Natal Supreme Court despite opposition by Natal Law Society.
17 October, 1899 : Out break of Boer War and Gandhiji joined Ambulance Corps.
18 October, 1899 : Started for India assuring to return to South Africa in his service were to be needed.
27 December, 1901 : Moved a resolution on South Africa at Calcutta Congress session.
20 November, 1902 : At the growing pressure from Indians in South Africa, returned to South Africa.
1903 : Founded Transvaal British India Association.
1 October, 1904 : Took over entire management responsibility of ‘Indian Opinion’.
Nov.-Dec., 1904 : Founded Phoenix settlement.
September, 1906 : Started Passive Resistance Movement.
13-22November, 1909 : Wrote ‘Hind Swaraj’ in Gujarati on board S.S.Kildonan Castle on the way to South Africa from London.
9 January, 1915 : Returned to India.
25 May, 1915 : Founded Satyagraha Ashram at Kochrab, Ahemadabad.
April, 1917 : Champaran Satyagraha.
1918 : Ahemadabad mill workers & Kheda Peasant Satyagraha.
13 April, 1919 : Massacre at mass meeting at Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar, Gandhiji implored people to be calm 8 October, 1919 First issue of ‘Young India’ under Gandhiji’s Editorship.
1920-21 : Khilafat and non-Co-operation Movement.
5 February, 1922 : Chauri Chaura incident and withdrawal of Non Co-operation Movement.
10 March, 1922 : Arrested. On 21 March sent to Yervada Jail. Remained in jail till March 1924.
17 September, 1924 : Started 21 days fast for Hindu-Muslim unity.
December, 1924 : Presided over the Belgaum Congress.
December, 1928 : Attended Calcutta Congress where a draft Constitution of India was adopted on 31 December, 1928.
December, 1929 : Gandhiji’s resolution on Complete Independence was adopted at open session of Lahore Congress along with immediate boycott of legislatures.
26 January, 1930 : Pledge of Independence day taken all over India.
19 February, 1930 : All India Congress Committee adopted Civil Disobedience programme.
12 March, 1930 : At 6.30 a.m. with 78 Ashramaties Gandhiji started his famous Dandi March to break the Salt Law.
4 May, 1930 : Arrested and taken to Yervada jail.
26 January, 1931 : Released from Jail.
5 March, 1931 : Gandhi-Irwin Pact was announced.
29 March, 1931 : Left for London to attend Round Table Conference.
5 December, 1931 : Decided to restart Non Co-operation Movement.
4 January, 1932 : Started fast against separate electorate for the Harijans.
8 May, 1933 : Started 21 days fast for the improvement of Harijan’s condition and was released at 6 p.m. from jail.
31 July, 1933 : Individual Civil Disobedience started.
1 August, 1933 : Arrested and remained in Jail till 23 Aug.1933.
17 September, 1934 : Stated “I am going to resign from the Congress”.
28 October, 1934 : Declared his intention to retire from Congress.
1936 : Founded Sevagram Ashram at Wardha.
1937 : Wardha Scheme of Education.
May & Oct-Nov, 1938 : North West Frontier tours.
3 March, 1939: Started fast unto death at Rajkot and on settlement of the issue ended fast on 7 March, 1939.
15 October, 1940 : Started Anti-war individual Satyagraha with Vinoba as the first Satyagrahi.
15 January, 1942 : ‘My political successor is Jawaharlal’ Gandhiji said.
5 March, 1942 : Cripps arrives.
30 March, 1942 : The idea of ‘Quit India’ burst upon Gandhiji.
8 March, 1942 : Addressed All India Congress Committee of Bombay and Quit India resolution was passed.
9 August, 1942 : Arrested and taken to Agakhan Palace-Jail.
15 August, 1942 : Lighted the pyre of Mahadev Desai, his secretary who died in Jail.
10 February, 1943 : Started fast in Agakhan Palace-Jail.
3 March, 1943 : Ended fast-in-Jail.
22 February, 1944 : At 7.35 p.m. Kasturba died. The saree woven from yarn spun by Gandhiji was wrapped round her body.
6 May, 1944 : Released from Jail.
March, 1945 : Cabinet Mission.
Jan-July, 1945 : Simla Conference.
1946 : Cabinet plan accepted.
10 October, 1946 : In Naokhali and other districts in East Bengal inhuman atrocities started.
6 November, 1946 : Left Calcutta for Naokhali by a special train.
Jan-Dec., 1947 : Toured troubled areas of Bengal, Bihar & Delhi.
15 August, 1947 : At Calcutta, fasted as country was cut into two pieces.
13 January, 1948 : Started fast in Delhi against communal riots.
16 January, 1948 : ‘I do not with to live if peace is not established in India and Pakistan’.
18 January, 1948 : Broke fast by taking orange juice from Maulana Azad.
20 January, 1948 : A bomb exploded during prayer.
27 January, 1948 : Wrote that Congress should cease as political body
25/02/2023 at 10:48 #124850
The Great Calcutta Killing of 1946
The history of Calcutta during the years of the Second World War, and the troubled times that followed the conclusion of the war, was a prolonged nightmare. Blow fell upon blow like the continuous rains of the miserable rainy season in the city. There was hoarding, profiteering and black-marketing on an unprecedented scale. The sequel to this was the devastating Bengal famine of 1944.
Thousands poured into the city from the famished countryside Equally indelible was the impression made by the bloody massacres, the stabbings in the back alleys, and the night raids into neighbourhoods that followed Jinnah’s call for ‘Direct Action’ after the war.
This was the Great Calcutta Killing of 1946, when the Muslim League Ministry headed by Suhrawardy virtually placed Calcutta in a state of siege. Then followed the Partition of Bengal, the streams of refugees that poured into Calcutta from East Bengal and the far -reaching disruption of the entire economy of the city.
After that were to come industrial recession, rocketing prices, food scarcity, staggering unemployment, desperation among youths, renewed terrorism, street warfare between political gangs, collapse of public transport, paralysis of municipal services, the spread of slums, the stupendous increase in the number of pavement dwellers, ubiquitous destitution and beggary, the degradation of humanity to
unimaginably low levels. [Rajat Ray, pp. 225-26]
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