The word “opium” is derived from Greek word “Opion”. In Arabia it was known as Afyun, in Chinese it is “Yapien”, in Persian it is known as “Afium”, in Sanskrit the ancient Indo-aryan language it is known as “Aahi Phen” meaning snake venom.In the North-East part of India, it is referred to as ‘Kani’. [CBN India]
Opium poppy has been cultivated in India since the 10th century. The ‘Dhanvanatari Nighantu’ an ancient Indian medical treatise of the 10th century lists opium as a remedy for a variety of ailments. In the early part of 16th century, opium was cultivated in India as a federal monopoly during the Moghul period. The ‘Ain-e-Akbari’, a historical record of the times and period of Moghul Emperor – Akbar (1556 to 1605AD) states that opium was cultivated in all the provinces of North India scattered over an area of more than one million sq. km. After the decline of Moghuls, the Britishers controlled opium production from year 1773. In 1750, the British East India Company assumes control of Bengal and Bihar, opium-growing districts of India. British companies extracted huge profits by smuggling opium trade out of Calcutta to China. After independence the Indian Government checks and monitors its production and usage.
The following products are manufactured by the Government Opium and Alkaloid Factories:
Codeine Phosphate [A drug used to treat pain, cough, and diarrhea]
Codeine Sulphate [A drug used to treat pain]
Dihydrocodeine Bi Tartarate
Hydrocodone Bi Tartarate
- The Opium revenue in India-1868
- Opium Revenue(The)-William Muir-1875
- Personal consumption of drug or psychotropic substance in India
- Narcotic Drugs Controlled under Indian NDPS Act
- Amar Farooqui – Smuggling as Subversion : Colonialism, Indian Merchants and the Politics of Opium : New Age International (P) Ltd. Publisher, New Delhi, 1998
- Booth, Martin. Opium: A History. London: Simon & Schuster, Ltd., 1996. Latimer, Dean, and Jeff Goldberg with an Introduction by William Burroughs.
- Flowers in the Blood: The Story of Opium. New York: Franklin Watts, 1981
- McCoy, Alfred W. The Politics of Heroin: CIA Complicity in the Global Drug Trade. New York: Lawrence Hill Books, 1991.
- Musto, David F. The American Disease: Origins of Narcotic Control. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.