RD: India marks its 71th Republic Day today, the occasion commemorating the Indian Constitution coming into effect after careful deliberations in the Constituent Assembly. The day marked the completion of independent India’s transition towards a nation that defines itself a republic.
CAA: The European People’s Party (EPP) Group, a centre-right group that is the largest with 182 Members of the European Parliament (MEPs), said the CAA “is selective and excludes Muslims from provisions provided to other religious groups” and expressed concern about the “wide range of negative consequences that it might have for India’s international image and internal stability”.
MAN KI BAT: In his “Mann ki Baat” programme, Prime Minister Narendra Modi Sunday said the insurgency in the Northeast had reduced significantly due to “peaceful dialogue”. “Those who had strayed towards the path of violence, have expressed their faith in peace and decided to become a partner in the country’s progress and return to the mainstream,” Modi said, adding that as many as 644 militants of eight different militant groups had surrendered in Assam.
The RÁMÁYAN of VÁLMÍKI
Translated into English Verse
Ralph T. H. Griffith, M.A.
Principal of the Benares College
January 28, 2013
TREATY BETWEEN THE THE REPUBLIC OF INDIA AND PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF BANGLADESH RELATING TO EXTRADITION
The Government of the Republic of India and of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh
Desiring to make more effective the cooperation of the two countries in the suppression of crime by making further provision for the reciprocal extradition of offenders;
Recognizing that concrete steps are necessary to combat terrorism;
Have agreed as follows:
Obligation to Extradite
1. The Contracting States agree to extradite to each other, subject to the provisions of this Treaty, persons found in the territory of one of the Contracting States who have been proceeded against for or have been charged with or have been found guilty of, or are wanted for the enforcement of a judicially pronounced penalty for committing an extraditable offence, as described in Article 2, by the judicial authority of the other Contracting State.
Anti Terrorism Act, 2009
Act No. 16 of 2009
[24 February, 2009 / 12 Falgun, 1415]
An Act to make provisions for the prevention of certain terrorist activities, effective punishment therof and the matters ancillary thereto.
Whereas it is expedient and necessary to make provisions for the prevention of certain terrorist activities, effective punishment thereof and the matters ancillary thereto;
Therefore, it is hereby enacted as follows: –
1. Short title, extent and commencement.– (1) This Act may be called the Anti Terrorism Act, 2009.
(2) It extends to the whole of Bangladesh, and it applies also to persons on ships and Aircraft registered in Bangladesh, where ever they may be.
(3) It shall be deemed to have come into force on 11 June, 2008.
Anti Terrorism Rules, 2013
In exercise of the power conferred by section 43 of The Anti Terrorism Act, 2009
(Act No. XVI of 2009) the Government of Bangladesh hereby makes the following
Rules to fulfill the purposes of the Act.
1. Short title, extent and commencement.– (1) These rules may be called the Anti Terrorism Rules, 2013.
(2) It extends to the whole of Bangladesh, and it applies also to persons on ships and aircraft registered in Bangladesh, wherever they may be.
(3) It shall be deemed to have come into force from the date of issuance of the Statutory Regulatory Order (SRO).
CPI Index: The report of the corruption perception Index 2019 has been published by the Transparency International. The Corruption Perceptions Index ranks 180 countries and territories by their perceived levels of public sector corruption, according to experts and business people. This year’s analysis shows corruption is more pervasive in countries where big money can flow freely into electoral campaigns and where governments listen only to the voices of wealthy or well-connected individuals. Position of India is 41 out of 100 in rank.
The top countries are New Zealand and Denmark, with scores of 87 each, followed by Finland (86), Singapore (85), Sweden (85) and Switzerland (85).
The bottom countries are Somalia, South Sudan and Syria with scores of 9, 12 and 13, respectively. These countries are closely followed by Yemen (15), Venezuela (16), Sudan (16), Equatorial Guinea (16) and Afghanistan (16).
PADMA AWARD: Names of people to be awarded India’s second-highest civilian honour, the Padma awards were announced on the eve of the 71st Republic Day on Saturday evening. This year the President has approved conferment of 141 Padma Awards including 4 duo cases (in a duo case, the award is counted as one). The list comprises 7 Padma Vibhushan, 16 Padma Bhushan and 118 Padma Shri Awards. 34 of the awardees are women and the list also includes 18 persons from the category of Foreigners/Non-Resident Indians/Persons of Indian Origin/Overseas Citizens of India and 12 Posthumous awardees.
MILITARY HONOUR: Six soldiers have been awarded the Shaurya Chakra, including one posthumously, for displaying gallantry during anti-militancy and anti-insurgency operations, the Army said on Saturday. Lt Col Jyoti Lama, Maj Konjengbham Bijendra Singh, Naib Subedhar Narender Singh and Naik Naresh Kumar were among the recipients of the award. Naib Subedar Sombir was posthumously awarded the Shaurya Chakra.
A strategy for revolution associated with Ernesto “Che” Guevara, and formalized by Che and the radical French writer Régis Debray.
According to this theory it is not necessary to wait until conditions are right to launch either an insurrection or else a people’s war (depending on the nature of the country). Instead, at least in oppressed Third World countries, a dedicated band of revolutionaries can launch very small-scale, roving semi-guerrilla warfare at any time, which will supposedly serve as a focus (Spanish: foco) and inspiration for the rapid growth of more general guerrilla warfare and/or at some relatively early time a general uprising capable of seizing political power. The theory is that these paramilitary roving bands can themselves create the necessary conditions for revolution through their vanguard actions and moral example.
Unlike genuine people’s war, the foco theory is based on the assumption that a band of heroes can create a revolution, and that the mere existence of the foco makes it a vanguard without any necessity to merge deeply with the masses, forge close ties with them, participate seriously in their own struggles, and actually lead the masses in their own struggles. Foco theory, or focoism, is therefore a strongly elitist theory of revolution.
The origin of the foco theory lies in an idealist generalization of the experiences of Che and Fidel Castro in the Cuban Revolution. However, given the stategy followed by Castro, the success of that revolution was pretty much a lucky accident. This was at the time when there was already mass disgruntlement on the verge of boiling over against the Batista dictatorship. In other words, while the foco theory says it is not necessary for conditions to be particularly ripe for revolution, in Cuba itself they actually were. This circumstance also led to tremendous demoralization and ineffectiveness in Batista’s army, which almost totally fell apart after Castro’s small guerrilla force of a few hundred men took over a similarly small Cuban Army garrison of 250 men near the city of Santa Clara in December 1958 (the Battle of Yaguajay).
Mao’s Evaluations of Stalin
A Collection and Summary
Mao’s Evaluations of Stalin
“Generally speaking, all Communist Party members who have a certain capacity for study should study the theories of Marx, Engels, Lenin, and Stalin, study the history of our nation, and study the circumstances and trends of current movements; moreover, they should serve to educate members with a lower cultural level….
“The theories of Marx, Engels, Lenin, and Stalin are universally applicable. We should not regard their theories as dogma but as a guide to action.”
—“On the New Stage” (Oct. 12-14, 1938), MRP6, p. 537. In a slightly different translation in SW2, pp. 208-9.
[Edgar Snow writing:] “On another occasion I asked Mao whether, in his opinion, Russia’s occupation of Poland was primarily justified by strategic-military necessity or political necessity.
“Mao seemed to think that the governing factor was strategic necessity, but that the move was partly military and partly political. The political side was not related directly to the world condition of the revolutionary movement but to the Soviet Union’s historic relations with Eastern Poland. The Soviet-German Pact, on the other hand, was not political but a strategic-military necessity. Stalin wanted it in order to block Chamberlain’s effort to build a coalition against Russia. Mao claimed that Chamberlain had clearly indicated to Hitler that he had to make a choice between fighting Russia or fighting England. If Hitler attacked Russia, Chamberlain was prepared to tolerate his occupation of Poland, Rumania, Yugoslavia, and the Baltic states. If not, he would use Poland to oppose Hitler. Stalin was then compelled to seek his own agreement with Hitler.”
—Edgar Snow’s report of an interview with Mao, in “Interviews with Edgar Snow” (Sept. 24-26), 1939), MRP7, p. 229. Thus according to Snow, Mao fully supported Stalin’s decision to sign a non-aggression pact with Germany and to occupy eastern Poland. (See also pp. 221-228 of the Snow interviews.)
Chinese Foreign Policy during
the Maoist Era and its Lessons for Today
“U.S. Imperialism Get Out of Asia, Africa and Latin America!”
TABLE OF CONTENTS
A. The Chinese Revolution and its Internationalist Practice—
Korea and Vietnam p. 5
B. The Development of Neocolonialism and the Bandung Period
C. Mao Zedong and the Chinese Communist Party Launch the
Struggle against Soviet Revisionism
D. Maoist Revolutionaries Break with Soviet Revisionism–
India, the Philippines, Turkey, Nepal, Latin America and the U.S.
E. Support for National Liberation Movements in Asia, Africa
and the Middle East in the 1960s
F. Chinese Foreign Policy in the 1970s
G. The Response of the New Communist Movement in the U.S.
H. Some Lessons for Today
Degree awarded: Master of Laws (LLM)
Duration: 1 year (full-time)
Entry requirements: A minimum Upper Second class honours degree, or the equivalent, in law.
One can apply Four times in a year :
- 1 November (decision by 8 December; accept offer by 15 January);
- 7 January (decision by 14 February, accept offer by 16 March);
- 2 March (decision by 8 April, accept offer by 8 May);
- 1 May (decision by 1 June, accept offer by 1 July).