Liberal Degree Vs Professional Degree Vs Specialist Degree

Liberal   degree

Liberal studies degrees are highly flexible degrees which allow you to build your depth of knowledge in one or more areas. Some liberal studies degrees can be taken with professional degrees, enabling you to develop knowledge across disciplines and expertise in a professionally accredited field. These degrees expose you to a wide variety of ideas, allowing you to develop both generalist knowledge as well as disciplinary expertise through your major and minor (or double major).

  • Build your depth of knowledge in one or more areas.
  • Design your own degree by combining studies from a broad range of disciplines.
    Combine your liberal studies degree with the Bachelor of Advanced Studies to extend your knowledge and deepen your critical thinking skills through advanced coursework and a major project.
  • Some liberal studies degrees can be taken with professional degrees, enabling you to develop knowledge across disciplines and expertise in a professionally accredited field.
  • Liberal studies degrees are available in arts and social sciences; business; science, agriculture, environment and veterinary science.

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Colourable piece of legislation-Definition

What is a colourable piece of legislation has been laid down by  Supreme Court in K. C. Gajapati Narayan Deo and others (1954) SCR 1. It was pointed there that:

“The question whether a law was a colourable legislation and as such void did not depend on the motive or bona fides of the legislature in passing the law but upon the competency of the legislature to pass that particular law, and what the courts have to determine in such cases is whether though the legislature has purported to act within the limits of its powers, it has in substance and reality transgressed those powers, the transgression being veiled by what appears, on proper examination, to be a mere pretence or disguise. The whole doctrine of colourable legislation is based upon the maxim that you cannot do indirectly what you cannot do directly.”

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K. C. Gajapati Narayan Deo and others Vs State of Orissa-29/05/1953


If the Constitution of a State distributes the legislative powers amongst different bodies, which have to act within their respective spheres marked out by specific legislative entries, or if there are limitations on the legislative authority in the shape of fundamental rights, questions do arise as to whether the legislature in a particular case has or has not, in respect to the subject-matter of the statute or in the method of enacting it, transgressed the limits of its constitutional powers. Such transgression may be patent, manifest or direct, but it may also be disguised, covert and indirect and it is to this latter class of cases that the expression “colourable legislation” has been applied in certain judicial pronouncements. The idea conveyed by the expression is that although apparently a legislature in passing a statute purported to act within the limits of its powers, yet in substance and in reality it transgressed these powers the transgression being velled by what appears, on proper examination, to be a mere pretence or disguise.

The legislature cannot violate the constitutional prohibitions by employing an indirect method.

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Quasi-judicial act-Definition

Supreme Court had occasion to consider the nature of the two kinds of acts, namely, judicial which includes quasi-judicial and administrative, a number of times. In Province of Bombay vs. Khusaldas S. Advani, (1950) SCR 621, it adopted the celebrated definition of a quasi-judicial body given by Atkin L. J. in R. V. Electricity Commissioners, 1924-1 KB 171, which is as follows:

“Whenever any body of persons having legal authority to determine questions affecting rights of subjects, and having the duty to act judicially act in excess of their legal authority they are subject to the controlling jurisdiction of the King’s Bench Division exercised in these writs.”

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A History of Slavery and its Abolition: Esther Copley-1836


Introduction—Design of the work

Section I.

The Nature of Slavery—Slavery defined—Distinguished—from the subjections of childhood—apprenticeship—Imprisonment

Section II.

The Origin of Slavery—Slavery not founded in nature—nor by Divine command—nor by the constitution of society—but by human depravity

Section III.

Slavery acknowledged in Scripture—Slavery recognized and regulated, but not sanctioned—The moral law the rule of human duty—The judicial law takes things as they are, not as they ought to be—The apostolic exhortations to slaves do not imply approbation of the state

Section IV.

Moral Effects of Slavery—Slavery injurious both to the master and slave

Section V.

Sources of Slavery—Crime—War—Debt—Treachery—Parentage

Section VI.

History of Slavery—Early introduction of slavery—Nimrod—The Ishmaelites—Joseph in Egypt—The Israelites in Egypt—Pyramids—Slavery among the Greeks—Spartans—Helots—Learned slave—Athens—Carthage

Section VII.

Slavery among the Romans—Slaves obtained by war— crime—sale—birth. Employment of slaves—Power of masters—Slaves reckoned as chattels—Slaves deserted in their old age—Rome enslaved—Crusades

Section VIII.

Slavery among the Jews—Slavery denounced as a punishment for idolatry—Possession of slaves among the Hebrews—Man-stealing forbidden—Manner of acquiring slaves—Treatment—Humanity enjoined—Observance of the sabbath—Conduct to female slaves—Voluntary servitude—Year of release—The nations of Canaan—Foreign oppressors of Israel—Captivity of the Jews in Assyria—Haman—Nehemiah’s expostulation with the Jews

Section IX.

Slavery in Europe—The feudal system—The Roman conquests—Condition of the peasantry—Britain—Children sold by their parents—Saxon heptarchy—Humane Sentiments—Irish generosity—Slavery by ancestry—Enfranchisement—Ensigns of slavery—Instance of manumission—Redemption of slaves—Decay of slavery in England—Germany—Poland—Russia—Turkey—Italy—Galley slaves—East Indies

Section X.

Negro Slavery—Geography and history of Africa and the West Indies—Origin of negro slavery—Ferdinand of Spain—Las Casas—Ximenes—Charles V.—Louis XIII.—Queen Elizabeth—Sir John Hawkins—Manner of procuring slaves—Anecdotes—Employment of negro slaves—The slave voyage—Despondency and disease—Anecdotes—The slave market—Separation of families—Slave labour—Cultivation of coffee—Cotton—Sugar—Slave driving—Slave wages—Waste of life and decrease of slave population—Legal hardships incident to negro slavery

Section XI.

Degradation connected with Negro Slavery—Branding—Working in chairs—Instruments of confinement and torture—Contempt of colour—Contempt of their country—Regarded as an inferior race—Punishments—Denied the means of instruction

Section XII.

Instances of aggravated Cruelty—Affecting anecdotes

Section XIII.

Partial Amelioration of Slavery

Section XIV.

History of the Abolition of Slavery

Section XV.

The early Advocates of the enslaved Africans— Ximenes—Charles V.—Pope Leo X.—Queen Elizabeth—Milton—Saunderson—Godwyn—Baxter—Tryon—Fox —Edmundson—Southern—Montesquieu—Hutcheson—Foster—Steele—The Society of Friends—Burling—Sandiford—Lay—Woolman—Churchman—Eastburne—Benezet—Whitefield—Wesley—Rush—Franklin—Dillwyn—Sharp—Pope—Thomson—Savage—Wallis—Hughes—Burke—Shenstone—Hayter—Dyer—Philmore—Postlethwaite—Jeffrey—Rousseau—Sterne—Warburton—Day—Beattie—Proyart—Smith—Millar—Robertson—Raynal—Paley—Porteus—Gregory—Wakefield—Ramsay—Smith

Section XVI.

Struggle for Freedom of Negroes in England—Jonathan Strong—Granville Sharp—Somerset

Section XVII.

Preliminary Steps towards the Abolition of the Slave Trade.—Granville Sharp’s appeal to Lord North—Petition from Virginia—Appeal of the Society of Friends—Information diffused—A society formed—Parliament petitioned—Barclay—Peckard—Thomas Clarkson—His prize essay—His convictions—His consecration to the cause—Publication of his work—Hancock—Phillips—Langton—Baker—Lord Scarsdale—Sir Charles Middleton—Hannah More—Hoare—Bevan—Sight of a slave vessel—Wilberforce—Newton—Scott—Reynolds—Boswell—Browne—Proposal to bring the slave trade before Parliament—Reflections

Section XVIII.

Active Measures of the Committee for the Abolition of the Slave Trade.—Clarkson’s “Summary View”— Roscoe’s “Wrongs of Africa”—Currie—Clarkson travels to collect evidence—Falconbridge—Liverpool—African specimens—Clarkson endangered—Rathbone—Manchester—Clarkson preaches—Clarkson’s illness—French correspondents—Accessions to cause of abolition—Oppression overruled—William Pitt—Lord Grenville—Temporizing—Spaarman and Wadstrom—Petitions—Publications—Charles James Fox—The question in Parliament—Fresh evidence—Hannah More— Arnold and Gardiner—Volume of evidence—Speeches in Parliament—Loss of the bill—Clarkson in France—Revolt of St. Domingo—Cowper’s Task—Sierra Leone Company—Abstinence from sugar—Petitions—Delays—Repeated defeats—False confidence—Death of Mr. Pitt—Lord Grenville’s administration—Death of Mr. Fox—Achievement of the abolition of the slave trade

Section XIX.

Measures towards the Abolition of Slavery.—Clarkson’s History of the Abolition—Other works commemorative of that event—The measure insufficient—Registry bill—Publications on slavery—Society for the abolition of slavery—Colonization of negroes—Bolivar—Steele in Barbadoes—Mr. Buxton’s motion in 1823—Mr, Canning’s modifications—Attempts at reform—Immediate emancipation advocated—Colonial contumely—Numerous petitions—Stephen’s “England enslaved by her own Colonies”—Eight successive measures—Anti slavery Society’s meeting—Brougham—Discussion in Parliament—Meetings in Ireland—Accession of King William—Attempts of pro-slavery advocates—Antislavery lectures—Meeting at Bath, at Bristol, Bury St. Edmund’s—Concurrent causes of success—Extension of knowledge—Diffusion of liberal sentiments—Reform Bill—Infatuated opposition—Popular meetings—Mr. Jeremie—Anecdotes—Proofs of negro capacity—West Indian manifesto—Liberated Africans—Negro instruction encouraged by government— Opposed by planters—Tumult excited—Insurrection in Jamaica—Charges against missionaries—Martial law—Missionaries imprisoned—Chapels destroyed—Missionaries’ memorial—Proclamation—Contumely—Intimidation—Negro testimony—Perjury recanted—Magistrates implicated—Interdicts against religion—Mr. Knibb released—Attack on Mr. Bleby—Mr. Baylis assaulted—Mr. Burchell’s departure—Negroes examined by Mr. Knibb—Conduct of religious negroes—Mr. Knibb visits England—Continued persecution in Jamaica—Results of persecution—Missionaries in England—Evidence before the Lords—Religious anniversaries—Anti-slavery meeting—Petition to the King—Mr. Buxton’s motion—Mr. Knibb’s speech—Resolutions of the Baptist Board—Official documents from the West Indies—Resolution of black freeholders—Protest of the missionaries—Speech of Mr. Watkis in the Colonial Assembly—Lord Goderich’s circular—Committee of inquiry—Calumny refuted—Persecution overruled—Lord Mulgrave in Jamaica—Whiteley’s pamphlet—Anti-slavery meeting—Meeting of delegates— Memorial—Mr. Stanley’s plan for emancipation—Objections—Simultaneous feeling—West Indian sentiments—House of Lords—Compensation and Apprenticeship—Death of Wilberforce—Passing of the bill—Provisions of the bill—Review of the bill—Grateful Acknowledgments

Section XX.

Anticipations.—Lord Mulgrave—Marquis of Sligo—Sir James C. Smith—Measures of Government—Return of missionaries—Restoration of chapels—The voluntary system—Benevolent expedients—Celebration of Aug. 1—Antigua, Dominica, Jamaica

Section XXI.

Duties resulting.—Christians’ obligations—Restitution—Missionary efforts—Moravians—Baptist missionaries—Wesleyan mission—London Missionary Society—Church Missionary Society—The London Central Negro’s Friend Society—The Ladies’ Society for promoting the education and improvement of the children of Negroes and people of colour in the West Indies.

Section XXII.

Concluding Observations.—The duty of extending religious instruction among the negroes—Of promoting the utter annihilation of Slavery—The evangelization of Africa


The Nature of Slavery- Esther Copley

St Paul: “Each one should remain in the situation which he was in when God called him. Were you a slave when you were called? Don’t let it trouble you — although if you can gain your freedom, do so.” (1 Corinthians 7:20-21 NIV)


What is slavery?

Slavery, in its widest sense, is the absolute subjection of one human being to the will of another. The slave is considered as the absolute property of the master, who feels himself entitled to do what he will with his own. The slave is constrained to labour, whether he will or not; and that for the benefit of his master, not his own; the master alone having authority to appoint the nature of work on which the slave shall be employed, the time when he shall be constrained to labour or permitted to rest, and the amount of work that he shall be required to perform. The master, also, fixes the subsistence, or means of obtaining a subsistence, which shall be given in return. It is also in the power of the master to inflict on the slave any severity he may think necessary, in order to make him perform the task required, or any sort or degree of punishment for failing to -perform it, or otherwise incurring the displeasure of his master. The master, also, claims as his property the children of his slaves, and is at liberty to send them where, and employ them how he pleases; and to give, sell, or bequeath them to other persons, the slave having no power of appeal, and government no power of interference. This is slavery. It may be better or worse according to the customs of different places, or according to the dispositions of masters, whether more or less humane and considerate, or tyrannical and cruel, but the condition, in itself, is the same.

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An essay on Buddha and Karl Marx -B. R. Ambedkar-1954

The Russians are proud of their Communism. But they forget that the wonder of all wonders is that the Buddha established Communism so far as the Sangh was concerned without dictatorship. It may be that it was a communism on a very small scale but it was communism without dictatorship a miracle which Lenin failed to do.

B. R. Ambedkar-1954


  1. The Creed of the Buddha
  2. The Original Creed of Karl Marx
  3. What survives of the Marxian Creed
  4. Comparision between Buddha and Karl Marx
  5. Means
  6. Evaluation of Means
  7. Whose Means are More Efficacious ?
  8. Withering away of the State

Buddha or Karl Marx

A comparison between Karl Marx and Buddha may be regarded as a joke. There need be no surprise in this. Marx and Buddha are divided by 2381 years. Buddha was born in 563 B.C. and Karl Marx in 1818 A.D. Karl Marx is supposed to be the architect of a new ideology-polity—a new Economic system. The Buddha on the other hand is believed to be no more than the founder of a religion which has no relation to politics or economics. The heading of this essay “Buddha or Karl Marx” which suggests either a comparison or a contrast between two such personalities divided by such a lengthy span of time and occupied with different fields of thought is sure to sound odd. The Marxists may easily laugh at it and may ridicule the very idea of treating Marx and Buddha on the same level. Marx so modern and Buddha so ancient! The Marxists may say that the Buddha as compared to their master must be just primitive. What comparison can there be between two such persons? What could a Marxist learn from the Buddha ? What can Buddha teach a Marxist ? None-the-less a comparison between the two is a attractive and instructive. Having read both and being interested in the ideology of both a comparison between them just forces itself on me. If the Marxists keep back their prejudices and study the Buddha and understand what he stood for I feel sure that they will change their attitude. It is of course too much to expect that having been determined to scoff at the Buddha they will remain to pray. But this much can be said that they will realise that there is something in the Buddha’s teachings which is worth their while to take note of.

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The Decline and Fall of Buddhism-B. R. Ambedkar-1954


The Decline and Fall of Buddhism.

The disappearance of Buddhism from India has been a matter of great surprize to everybody who cares to think about the subject and is also a matter of regret. But it lives in China, Japan, Burma, Siam, Annam, Indo-China, Ceylon and parts of Malaya-Archipalego. In India alone, it has ceased to exist. Not only it has ceased to live in India but even the name of Buddha has gone out of memory of most Hindus. How could such a thing have happened? This is an important question for which there has been no satisfactory answer. Not only there is no satisfactory answer, nobody has made an attempt to arrive at a satisfactory answer. In dealing with this subject people fail to make a very important distinction. It is a distinction between the fall of Buddhism and the decline of Buddhism. It is necessary to make this distinction because the fall of Buddhism is one, the reasons for which are very different from those which brought about its downfall. For the fall is due to quite obvious causes while the reasons for its decline are not quite so obvious.

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Caste and Congress are closely linked- B.R. Ambedkar-1954

The Congress always wins, so it is found. But no one asks why does the Congress win ? The answer is that Congress is very popular. But why is the Congress popular ? The true answer is that Congress always puts up candidates which belong to castes which are in the majority in the constituencies. Caste and Congress are closely linked. It is by exploiting the caste system that the Congress wins.

Dr. B.R. Ambedkar (14th April 1891 – 6th December 1956)

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All we know of Arrian is derived from the notice of him in the Bibliotheca of Photius, who was Patriarch of Constantinople in the ninth century, and from a few incidental references in his own writings. We learn from Suidas that Dion Cassius wrote a biography of Arrian; but this work is not extant. Flavius Arrianus was born near the end of the first century of the Christian era, at Nicomedia, the capital of Bithynia. He became a pupil of the famous Stoic philosopher Epictetus, and afterwards went to Athens, where he received the surname of the “younger Xenophon,” from the fact that he occupied the same relation to Epictetus as Xenophon did to Socrates. Not only was he called Xenophon by others, but he calls himself so in Cynegeticus (v. ); and in Periplus (xii. ; xxv. ), he distinguishes Xenophon by the addition the elder. Lucian (Alexander, ) calls Arrian simply Xenophon. During the stay of the emperor Hadrian at Athens, a.d. , Arrian gained his friendship. He accompanied his patron to Rome, where he received the Roman citizenship. In consequence of this, he assumed the name of Flavius. In the same way the Jewish historian, Josephus, had been allowed by Vespasian and Titus to bear the imperial name Flavius.

Photius says, that Arrian had a distinguished career in Rome, being entrusted with various political offices, and at last reaching the supreme dignity of consul under Antoninus Pius. Previous to this he was appointed (a.d. ) by Hadrian, Governor of Cappadocia, which province was soon after invaded by the Alani, or Massagetae, whom he defeated and expelled. When Marcus Aurelius came to the throne, Arrian withdrew into private life and returned to his native city, Nicomedia. Here, according to Photius, he was appointed priest to Demeter and Persephone. He died in the reign of Marcus Aurelius.

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