यज्ञक्रम-Yagna Krama

अथातो यज्ञक्रमाः

(१,५.७ ) अग्न्याधेयम्
(१,५.७ ) अग्न्याधेयात्पूर्णाहुतिः
(१,५.७ ) पूर्णहुतेरग्निहोत्रम्
(१,५.७ ) अग्निहोत्राद्दर्शपूर्णमासौ
(१,५.७ ) दर्शपूर्णमासाभ्यामाग्रयणम्
(१,५.७ ) आग्रयणाच्चातुर्मास्यानि
(१,५.७ ) चातुर्मास्येभ्यः पशुबन्धः
(१,५.७ ) पशुबन्धादग्निष्टोमः
(१,५.७ ) अग्निष्टोमाद्राजसूयः
(१,५.७ ) राजसूयाद्वाजपेयः
(१,५.७ ) वाजपेयादश्वमेधः
(१,५.७ ) अश्वमेधात्पुरुषमेधः
(१,५.७ ) पुरुषमेधात्सर्वमेधः
(१,५.७ ) सर्वमेधाद्दक्षिणावन्तः
(१,५.७ ) दक्षिणावद्भ्योऽदक्षिणाः
(१,५.७ ) अदक्षिणाः सहस्रदक्षिणे प्रत्यतिष्ठन्
(१,५.७ ) ते वा एते यज्ञक्रमाः
(१,५.७ ) स य एवमेतान् यज्ञक्रमान् वेद यज्ञेन सात्मा सलोको भूत्वा देवानप्येतीति ब्राह्मणम् ॥ ७ ॥

  Source: गोपथब्राह्मण

Explanation of Savita and Savitri as per Gopatha Brahmana

ओं नमोऽथर्ववेदाय नमः 


भोः कः सविता का सावित्री ॥ ३२ ॥

(१,१.३३ ) मन एव सविता वाक्सावित्री
(१,१.३३ ) यत्र ह्येव मनस्तद्वाग्यत्र वै वाक्तन् मन इति
(१,१.३३ ) एते द्वे योनी एकं मिथुनम्
(१,१.३३ ) अग्निरेव सविता पृथिवी सावित्री
(१,१.३३ ) यत्र ह्येवाग्निस्तत्पृथिवी यत्र वै पृथिवी तदग्निरिति
(१,१.३३ ) एते द्वे योनी एकं मिथुनम्
(१,१.३३ ) वायुरेव सवितान्तरिक्षं सावित्री
(१,१.३३ ) यत्र ह्येव वायुस्तदन्तरिक्षं यत्र वा अन्तरिक्षं तद्वायुरिति
(१,१.३३ ) एते द्वे योनी एकं मिथुनम्
(१,१.३३ ) आदित्य एव सविता द्यौः सावित्री
(१,१.३३ ) यत्र ह्येवादित्यस्तद्द्यौर्यत्र वै द्यौस्तदादित्य इति
(१,१.३३ ) एते द्वे योनी एकं मिथुनम्
(१,१.३३ ) चन्द्रमा एव सविता नक्षत्राणि सावित्री
(१,१.३३ ) यत्र ह्येव चन्द्रमास्तन्नक्षत्राणि यत्र वै नक्षत्राणि तच्चन्द्रमा इति
(१,१.३३ ) एते द्वे योनी एकं मिथुनम्
(१,१.३३ ) अहरेव सविता रात्रिः सावित्री
(१,१.३३ ) यत्र ह्येवाहस्तद्रात्रिर्यत्र वै रात्रिस्तदहरिति
(१,१.३३ ) एते द्वे योनी एक मिथुनम्
(१,१.३३ ) उष्णमेव सविता शीतं सावित्री
(१,१.३३ ) यत्र ह्येवोष्णं तच्छीतं यत्र वै शीतं तदुष्णमिति
(१,१.३३ ) एते द्वे योनी एकं मिथुनम्
(१,१.३३ ) अभ्रमेव सविता वर्षं सावित्री
(१,१.३३ ) यत्र ह्येवाभ्रं तद्वर्षं यत्र वै वर्षं तदभ्रमिति
(१,१.३३ ) एते द्वे योनी एकं मिथुनम्
(१,१.३३ ) विद्युदेव सविता स्तनयित्नुः सावित्री
(१,१.३३श्) यत्र ह्येव विद्युत्तत्स्तनयित्नुर्यत्र वै स्तनयित्नुस्तद्विद्युदिति
(१,१.३३ अ) एते द्वे योनी एकं मिथुनम्
(१,१.३३ ब्) प्राण एव सवितान्नं सावित्री
(१,१.३३ च्) यत्र ह्येव प्राणस्तदन्नं यत्र वा अन्नं तत्प्राण इति
(१,१.३३ द्) एते द्वे योनी एकं मिथुनम्
(१,१.३३ ए) वेदा एव सविता छन्दांसि सावित्री [एद्. ओमित्स्सेन्तेन्चे एन्द्मर्केर्]
(१,१.३३ f) यत्र ह्येव वेदास्तच्छन्दांसि यत्र वै छन्दांसि तद्वेदा इति
(१,१.३३ ग्) एते द्वे योनी एकं मिथुनम्
(१,१.३३ ह्) यज्ञ एक सविता दक्षिणाः सावित्री
(१,१.३३ इ) यत्र ह्येव यज्ञस्तद्दक्षिणा यत्र वै दक्षिणास्तद्यज्ञ इति
(१,१.३३ ज्) एते द्वे योनी एकं मिथुनम्

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Nirmala Akhara origin of


The origin of the Nirmalas seems to be somewhat obscure and there are different traditions in connection with it. But it seems to be generally accepted that they came into existence in Guru govind Singh’s time. Defendant Kirpa Singh has himself admitted in his statement: vide p.85, part 1 of the Printed Paper Book, that “Nirmalas” are chelas of Guru Gobind Singh, and hence it is unnecessary to dilate on this point. But although the Nirmalas appear to have been originally followers of Guru Gobind Singh the important point for consideration is whether they are now distinct from the general body of the Sikhs and in particular from the Plaintiffs who are “Akalis.” On this point, the authorities seem to be agreed that the Nirmalas have drifted to a great extent towards the practices of the Hindu religion. The following extract from Sir Edward Maclagan’s Census report for this Province for the year 1891 is very instructive in this connection.

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Udasin Panchayati Bara Akhara

In the said Panth there is a custom that Mahant cannot marry and he is entitled to initiate a ‘Chela’. After the death of Mahant, his eldest chela succeeded to all rights and interests in the properties of his Guru.

It is also a custom in the Panth that on the tenth day of the death of Guru there is a ceremony called Dassehra. Akhand Path of Guru Granth Saheb is performed and Bhog is offered and eldest chela of the deceased Guru is acknowledged as the heir of the deceased, whereafter he is known as ‘Mahant’.

Deadline to file writ petition is extended 150 days from the date of lower court judgment due to Covid-19: US Supreme Court

These modifications to the Court’s Rules and practices do not apply to cases in which certiorari has been granted or a direct appeal or original action has been set for argument.

(ORDER LIST: 589 U.S.)



In light of the ongoing public health concerns relating to COVID-19, the following shall apply to cases prior to a ruling on a petition for a writ of certiorari:

IT IS ORDERED that the deadline to file any petition for a writ of certiorari due on or after the date of this order is extended to 150 days from the date of the lower court judgment, order denying discretionary review, or order denying a timely petition for rehearing. See Rules 13.1 and 13.3.

IT IS FURTHER ORDERED that motions for extensions of time pursuant to Rule 30.4 will ordinarily be granted by the Clerk as a matter of course if the grounds for the application are difficulties relating to COVID-19 and if the length of the extension requested is reasonable under the circumstances. Such motions should indicate whether the opposing party has an objection.

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Vedic Literature: Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay (1894)



I had recently occasion to inspect, as an official Visitor, a Vedic Tol, the only one, I believe, in this city. I found there were nine students only on the rolls—so to speak, and of these two or three only were graduates of the University. This appeared to me to be very disheartening evidence of the slight interest taken by our educated young men in the Vedic studies. I do not mean to say that all educated Hindus should be Vedic scholars—practically this would be impossible, but I am strongly of opinion that all Hindus who are willing to go through a course of “Higher Training”, as we call it, ought to possess a certain amount of knowledge, even if only second-hand knowledge, of the great Vedic Literature of our country: and that at least an appreciable proportion of them ought to be competent scholars who derive their knowledge from the original sources.

I do not forget that there are great difficulties in the way of Vedic studies. In the first place, the student of the Vedas must be a good Sanskrit scholar, and, I regret to think, that good Sanskrit scholars among our educated young men are now less numerous than they used to be before the bifurcation of studies sanctioned by the University. In the next place, not only must the student himself be a competent Sanskrit scholar, but he must also find a competent teacher for himself. By competent teacher, I mean one who has made the Vedas his special study, and has himself been trained in that study by a competent teacher. If it is rather rare to find among my educated countrymen, a good Sanskrit scholar, it is far rarer to find a duly qualified teacher. Then there is the caste difficulty—no orthodox Vedic teacher will consent to impart Vedic knowledge to a Sudra. Lastly, the life of a Vedic scholar is, in these days, a life of poverty, unless you can add to your devotion to the Vedas the energetic pursuit of some other calling more likely to soothe the pangs of hunger.

These are the difficulties in your way, but let us not forget that although a knowledge of Sanskrit is more general in this country than in Europe, there are probably more Vedic scholars in Europe than in this country. True, Europeans have not to contend with the same difficulties that we have. There are no caste distinctions there to deter the low-born Sudra from his coveted learning, and in the cold regions which are the favourite haunts of the Ocean-born Lakshmi, the pangs of hunger can hardly make themselves felt under the burden of exhaustless supply of meat and beer. What, however is more to the point is, that a race of men accustomed to solve unaided the most difficult problems of life and nature do not stand in need of teachers when any branch of knowledge has to be mastered. Most European Vedic scholars are men who have taught the Vedas to themselves. I do not mean to say that the help of such a teacher of the Vedas, as can be found among the natives of India only, would have not tended to improve the character of their Vedic knowledge. But still they are models of industry, perseverance, and energetic pursuit of knowledge, which you should keep before you when you take up in earnest such a study as Vedic Literature.

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Shiva sutram


Shiva sutram: English translation

Section 1
Shambhava Upaya

1. Pure consciousness, (which has absolute freedom in knowledge and action) is the nature of Reality.

2. Limited knowledge is the reason for the connectedness (fetters) of the empirical (perceived) self.

3. Maya (power of illusion) and related substances that form the source of the world; whose form is the activity through which worldly life is realized is also the cause of connectedness.

4. The letters of the alphabet (Sanskrit) from A अ to Ksh क्ष are the basis of limited knowledge.

5. The sudden manifestation of transcendental consciousness is Bhairava (the Supreme Reality, which contains the whole world in Himself).

6. By connecting through meditation with a combination of forces, the universe ceases to exist as something separate from consciousness.

7. In the various states of consciousness: wakefulness, dream with dreams, and deep sleep without dreams, there is the bliss of the fourth state.

8. Wakefulness (jagrat) – this is knowledge obtained through direct contact with the outside world.

9. Dream with dreams (svapna) – this is mental activity, carried out without direct contact with the outside world.

10. Deep sleep without dreams (sushupti) is the inability to distinguish (ie loss of consciousness), due to the power of illusion.

11. He who enjoys these three states is the Lord of the senses.

12. The steps of yoga amaze. 

13. The willpower of a yoga is Uma (radiance, Shiva energy), which is Kumari (unmarried girl)  .

14. All internal and external phenomena are perceived by the yogi as his own body.

15. When the mind is connected to the heart (ie, the core of consciousness), any observed phenomena and even emptiness are perceived as forms of consciousness.

16. In one who is constantly aware of the Pure Essence (ie Absolute Consciousness), there are no binding forces.

17. The intuitive awareness of “I am Shiva” – forms the knowledge of my essence.

18. The bliss that a yogi experiences, being in his nature knowing the world (including the subject and object) is the ecstasy of samadhi.

19. Connected with willpower is able to create a body of any kind at will.

20. Other supernatural powers of yoga: the ability to connect elements, the ability to separate elements, the ability to know from which elements and how the universe is formed.

21. Pure knowledge gives possession of all forces.

22. Through connection with the Great Lake of Divine Power, the source of all mantras (i.e., Higher Self-Consciousness) is experienced.

Section II
Shakta Upaya

1. The mind is a mantra.

2. The zealous and natural application brings the achievement of unity of the contemplator of the mantra and the Divine abiding in it.

3. The radiant being of Perfect Self-Consciousness, identical with the cosmos, abiding in a multitude of words, whose essence is knowledge of higher non-dualism – this is the secret of the mantra.

4. Ordinary knowledge, which is formed through the mind in the sphere of Maya, is like a dream.

5. With the manifestation of spontaneous, natural higher knowledge, movement is observed in an unlimited space of consciousness, which is the state of Shiva, ie Higher State of Reality.

6. Only a Guru who has achieved self-realization can help a student to achieve this.

7. With the help of a guru, knowledge of letter groups is achieved.

8. For a yoga body becomes a sacrifice burned in the fire of higher Consciousness. Then the body becomes a shell. 

9. Knowledge is food.

10. When hiding Pure knowledge, all kinds of mental constructions arise from it.

Section III
Anava Upaya

1. The individual soul (Atma) is a substance of consciousness (chitta).

2. Knowledge born of the mind is the source of connectedness (jnana bandha).

3. The non-discrimination of tattvas (such as kalaa, etc.) is Maya.

4. The dissolution of various tattvas in the body (gross, subtle and causal) should be practiced through meditation.

5. The dissolution of the flow of prana (flowing in the channels) in sushumna (the middle channel), control over the elements, distraction of the mind from the elements, separation from the elements is carried out by the yogi through meditation.

6. Supernatural forces are a cover cast by ignorance.

7. By means of an all-encompassing victory over maya, power comes over natural innate knowledge.

8. In one who is truly awake (that is, one who is always connected with Shakti) the world manifests itself as the radiance of its light.

9. The soul of one who has realized his essential spiritual nature is only an actor on the stage of the world.

10. The inner soul (that is, the subtle and causal aspects of the soul) is a scene.

11. The senses of the yogi – the audience of his game.

12. Through higher spiritual intuition, awareness of the light of the internal nature of the soul takes place (just as an actor depicts mental states through his talent.

13. Absolute freedom is achieved (in cognition and action).

14. Just as a yogi can exercise freedom in his own body, he can exercise it everywhere.

15. He must pay full attention to the active Light of Consciousness (ie the Higher Shakti), the source of peace, the seed of freedom, knowledge and bliss in the soul.

16. Affirmed in the higher power of the Divine Shakti, he easily enters the ocean of bliss and immortality.

17. He can create forms thanks to the creative aspect of Consciousness in which he abides.

18. As long as Pure Knowledge is present, there is no possibility of another birth.

19. Maheshwari and other deities, who have their own field of activity in the Ka group and other groups of letters and are the mothers of limited creatures, become their governing deities.

20. The fourth state of consciousness should flow as a continuous stream of oil in three states (wakefulness, sleep and deep sleep).

21. It is necessary to immerse yourself in it, realizing the inner “I” without mental constructions

22. When prana yoga moves properly, then he has the awareness of the identity of all things, i.e. consciousness of unity.

23. In the intermediate stages, lower states of consciousness arise.

24. When the actual Self-Consciousness is connected with objects, the transcendental state of consciousness (which was previously lost) reappears.

25. Such a yogi becomes like Shiva.

26. Staying in the body itself is for him the fulfillment of pious actions.

27. Even his usual conversation is for him a prayer (repetition of a mantra).

28. Knowing one’s essence is a gift that he gives to others.

29. One who has power over forces is indeed the vehicle of wisdom.

30. The universe is a manifestation of its power.

31. The maintenance of the manifested state and its absorption are also manifestations of its strength.

32. In the interval between the maintenance and dissolution of the world, observed after each other, there should not be a gap in the consciousness of a yogi, because he is an eternal, unchanging subject.

33. The yogi sees pleasure and pain as something external.

34. Being completely free from the influence of pleasure and pain, he remains fully affirmed in his true self, that is, in pure Consciousness.

35. But he who is in error is involved in good and evil deeds.

36. When the feeling of difference disappears, the yogi has the ability to create various living and non-living objects.

37. It is possible to realize the ability to create on the basis of personal experience.

38. Three states must be revived by one basic, which is the Absolute Power, full of creative bliss.

39. Just like the state of mind, the body, sense organs and external things must be enlivened by the bliss of the transcendental state.

40. When there is a desire, there is an outward orientation of an empirical individuality, which moves from one form of existence to another.

41. For a yogi, whose consciousness is fully affirmed in the fourth (transcendental) state, the state of empirical personality ceases with the cessation of desire.

42. When desire ceased, he uses a body consisting of gross elements only as a cover, and he becomes completely free and perfect as Shiva, the perfect Reality.

43. The connection of prana (universal life force) with the body is natural.

44. In all channels: left, right and central, there is prana shakti. Through the constant practice of awareness of Reality at the center of that abode of prana, this awareness is present in all circumstances and in all conditions.

45. Such a yogi realizes the divine again and again, inside and out.


लक्ष्मी -Lakshmi

Photo by Mr. Kartik Kundu Advocate

The Deity of Lakshmi and Her Tantrik Sadhana

 ओं हिरण्यवर्णायै नमः

ओं हिरण्मय्यै नमः।

साक्षिणी सर्वभूतानां लक्षयामि शुभाशुभम्।
लक्ष्मीश्चास्मि हरेर्नित्यं लक्ष्यं सर्वमितेरहम् ।।

ददती क्षेपणी चास्मि नित्या त्रिप्रेरणी तथा।
तथा ज्ञानस्वरूपाहं लक्षणीया मितौ मितौ ।।

लये निवासे निर्माणे प्रेरणी प्रकृतेरहम्।
लक्षणाख्यस्य भावस्य कलाकाष्ठादिरूपिणी ।।

अव्यक्तव्यक्तसत्त्वस्था प्रेरयित्री सदास्म्यहम्।
लक्षं नयामि चात्मानं लामि चान्ते क्षिपामि च ।। 

क्षिपामि क्षपयाम्येका क्षिणोमि दुरितं सताम्।
क्षमे क्षमा हि भूतानां मिमे मन्ये च मामि च ।।

ओं लक्ष्म्यै नमः। ओं लक्ष्म्यै नमः। ओं लक्ष्म्यै नमः।।


शब्द ब्रह्म स्वरूपत्वमाह

श्रीं ह्रीं ओं, ओं श्रियै नमः 

अथो लक्ष्मी स्वरूपं बक्षेहं।। 1 ।।

शब्दार्थप्रविभागेन द्विधा लक्ष्मीः प्रवर्तते।
शान्ता पश्याथ मध्या च वैखरी चेति संज्ञया ।। 2 ।।
प्रत्यस्तमितसंस्कारा स्वरवर्णादिवर्जिता ।। 3 ।।
शाब्दी या संस्थितिः प्राच्या सा शान्ता शान्तसाधना।
अर्थबोधकरूपं यच्छब्दशक्तेरसंस्कृतम् ।। 4 ।।
केवलो यः समुन्मेषः पश्यन्ती सा प्रकीर्तिता।
अर्थबोधकरूपं यत् स शब्दः परिकीर्तितः ।। 5 ।।
न हिंसयन्ति संस्कारा यदा मध्याथ सा तदा।
एवं संस्कारसंपन्ना विकल्पशतशालिनी ।। 6 ।।
विविधं रमते वैषु यतो न प्राकृतीष्वथ।
रूपं शकलशः कृत्वा स्थानेष्वष्टसु सा तदा ।। 7 ।।

वैखरी नाम सा वाच्या विविधं वक्ति वर्णिनी।
शान्ता नाम परा या सा सर्वत्र समतां गता ।। 8 ।।
कोटिकोटिसहस्रांशस्तस्या वागथ मद्यमा।
कोटिकोटिसहस्रांशस्तस्या वागथ वैखरी ।। 9 ।।
वर्णाः पदानि वाक्यानि त्रिविधा वैखरीगतिः।
संकोचं क्रमशो याति सेयं वर्णादिवर्त्मना ।। 10 ।।

इयं चतुर्विधा शक्तिः प्रतिलोमानुलोमजा।
चतुर्धा सोदयं याति शान्तापश्यादिभिः क्रमात् ।। 11 ।।
चतुर्धास्तमयं याति वैखरीमध्यमादिभिः।
व्यक्ता व्यक्तसमाव्यक्ता सा विज्ञेया त्रिधा पुनः ।। 12 ।।
व्यक्ता प्राणिशरीरस्था योदेत्यस्तमुपैति च।
वीणावेणुमृदङ्गाद्यैर्व्यक्ता तद्व्यज्यते हि या ।। 13 ।।
विवक्षाकरणोद्योगैः प्राणिभिः साथ तत्समा।
मरुदाघट्‌टनात् सिन्धुसरिद्गिरिदरीमुखैः ।। 14 ।।
व्यज्यते शब्दशक्तिर्या सा त्वव्यक्ता समीरिता।
उदयेऽस्तमये चासां पूर्वोक्तौ व्युत्क्रमोत्क्रमौ ।। 15 ।।

वाच्यं चतुर्विधं ज्ञेयं शान्तादिप्रविभागवत्।
एवं व्यवस्थिता शक्तिस्तारिकेति निरूपणम् ।। 16 ।।
जपोऽसौ मध्यमो नाम परितो वर्णवर्णनम्।
वर्णरूपा च शक्तिर्या या च संयोगसंभवा ।। 17 ।।
शक्तिनद्धानुविद्धा या विवक्षासंभवा च या।
एतच्छक्तिचतुष्कं तद्विनिर्णयपुरःसरम् ।। 18 ।।
अर्थाध्यासस्तु शब्दे यस्चरमोऽसौ प्रकीर्तितः।
वाच्यं बुद्ध्वा पृथग् बुद्ध्वा तां त्रिधाकारसंस्थिताम् ।। 19 ।।
तत्संबोधो हि यो मन्त्रैः स जपस्तु परावरः।
लक्ष्मीतन्त्रे समुद्दिष्टा त्वग्नीषोममयी हि या ।। 20 ।।
तत्तद्रूपमतिक्रम्य वाच्यवाचकसंज्ञितम्।
लक्ष्मीमयीं निशां तीर्त्वा तारिकारूपरूपिणीम् ।। 21 ।।
विशोध्य सकलान् मन्त्रास्तद्भावन्याससंयुतः ।। 22 ।।

तानुपास्य ततस्तस्यां तत्तदाप्यायनोज्ज्वलान्।
तत्सामान्यविशेषाभ्यां भावयेन्मन्त्रदेवताम् ।। 23 ।।
तथा युक्तो जपेन्मन्त्रान् नित्योऽयं पूजितो जपः।
तत्तच्छास्रोक्तसंस्थानसंस्कारक्रमशालिनीः ।। 24 ।।
तैस्तैर्भावैः समेताश्च भावयन्मन्त्रदेवताः।
जपेत सर्वदर्शी यज्जपोऽयं परमः स्मृतः ।। 25 ।।

 Source : लक्ष्मीतन्त्रम् अध्यायः ५७

मंत्र रूपा लक्ष्मी

श्रीः अथ मन्त्रमयं मार्गं शृणु वत्स पुरंदर।
प्रकाशानन्दरूपाहं पूर्णाहंता हरेरहम् ।। 1 ।।

मन्त्रमातेति मां विद्धि प्राणाख्यां शुद्धचिन्मयीम्।
उद्यन्ति मत्त एवैते यान्ति चास्तं मयि ध्रुवम् ।। 2 ।।

अहं च बलमेतेषां मद्रूपत्वं विदन्ति ते।
एकधा च द्विधा चैव त्रिधा चैवाहमूर्जिता ।। 3 ।।
चतुर्धा पञ्चधा षोढा सप्तधा चाष्टधा तथा।
तथा षोडशधा चैव पञ्चविंशतिधा तथा ।। 4 ।।
पञ्चाशद्धा पुनश्चैव पुनश्चाहं त्रिषष्टिधा।
उदेमि बहुधा चैव चिन्तामणिरिवेश्वरी ।। 5 ।।

स्वराश्च व्यञ्जनाश्चैव स्वरव्यञ्जनसंहतिः।
अक्षराणि पदान्येवं वाक्यप्रकरणैः सह ।। 6 ।।

आह्निकाध्याययोश्चैव शास्रतन्त्रव्यवस्थितिः।
आगमा बहुधा चैव बाह्याबाह्यव्यवस्थितिः ।। 7 ।।
लौकिका वैदिकाश्चैवं भाषाश्च विविधास्तथा।
मन्त्ररूपमिदं विद्धि सर्वं मद्रूपवेदिनाम् ।। 8 ।।

भावनातारतम्येन ग्राह्यग्राहकसंस्थितिः।
आसत्तिविप्रकर्षौ च भावनातारतम्यतः ।। 9 ।।

बीजं पिण्डं पदं संज्ञेत्येवं मन्त्राश्चतुर्विधाः।
तेषां प्रधानतो विद्धि पञ्च रत्नानि वासव ।। 10 ।।
मत्सूक्ते तानि बीजानि दध्नि सर्पिरिवाहितम्।
सूर्यसोमाग्निखण्डोत्थं नादवत् पाकशासन ।। 11 ।।

यदत्र सूर्यरूपं तज्जाग्रत्पदमुदाहृतम्।
वह्निः स्वाप्नं सुषिप्तिश्च सोमो माया पराह्वया ।। 12 ।।
खण्डं यदिन्दुखण्डाख्यं तुर्यं नादस्ततः परम्।
शक्तिः शान्तात्मिकावस्था नादस्यैव तु संस्थितिः ।। 13 ।।
ततः परं तु यद्‌ ब्रह्म लक्ष्मीनारायणं तु तत्।
स्वराणां षट्‌चतुःषट्‌कं सूर्याग्नीन्दुसमुद्गतम् ।। 14 ।।
शेषा वर्णाः स्वरोत्पन्ना इतीयं वर्णसंस्थितिः।
इतीदं परमं बीजं सर्वकामफलप्रदम् ।। 15 ।।

पुत्रदं पुत्रकामानां राज्यकामस्य राज्यदम्।
भूतिदं भूतिकामानां मोक्षकामस्य मोक्षदम् ।। 16 ।।
विध्वंसयति शत्रूंश्चाप्याकर्षयति वाञ्छितम्।
चिन्तामणरिदं नाम नैव चिन्तामणिर्मणिः ।। 17 ।।
तस्यैव चानुगं बीजं शकाद्यं सर्वकामदम्।
युग्मैर्मायाक्षरादेशैराद्यन्तस्वरषट्‌कयोः ।। 18 ।।
अङ्गक्लृप्तिरियं कार्या जातिमुद्रासमन्विता।
शिष्टबीजचतुष्कस्याप्येवमेव व्यवस्थितिः ।। 19 ।।
नानाविधो मन्त्रगणो मदीयत्वं प्रपद्यते ।। 20 ।।

मन्त्राणां देवता या सा सा मच्छक्त्यधिनिष्ठिता।
मद्भावभाविनी चैव तस्माद्ध्येयास्मि तत्र वै ।। 21 ।।
तां तां वै देवतां तत्र नारीरूपामनुस्मरेत्।
तत्तद्वर्णायुधाकारभूषणादिसमन्विताः ।। 22 ।।
मदीयत्वं समासाद्य ताः शीघ्रफलदास्तथा।
इति ते मन्त्रमार्गोऽयं लेशतः शक्र वर्णितः ।। 23 ।।

Source: लक्ष्मीतन्त्रम् अध्यायः ५२

सनातनी नारायणी लक्ष्मी

श्रीः-साधु संबोधिता सम्यग् वत्स वृत्रनिषूदन।
शृणु संक्षेपमाख्यामि तन्त्रादस्मात् समुद्धृतम् ।। 9 ।।

अहंता सर्वभूतानामहमस्मि सनातनी।
आरोहेणावरोहेण विश्वसिद्धिकरी स्मृता ।। 10 ।।
परमं यदहंताख्यं तुर्यातीतं तदुच्यते।
परं ब्रह्म परं धाम लक्ष्मीनारायणं तु तत् ।। 11 ।।
न तत्र प्रविबागो नौ भवद्भावव्यवस्थितौ।
उन्मेषस्तत्र यो नाम यथा चन्द्रोदयेऽम्बुधौ ।। 12 ।।

अहं नारायणी शक्तिः सिसृक्षालक्षणा तथा।
तुर्यावस्था च सा मे स्यात् परिणामोद्भवात्मिका ।। 13 ।।
शुद्धाशुद्धमयो भावः सर्वोऽप्यन्तर्गतस्तदा।
व्यूहाश्च विभवाश्चैव तथा व्यूहान्तरादिकाः ।। 14 ।।
अयं शुद्धमयो भावो यच्चान्यद्भगवन्मयम्।
व्यूहे च विभवे चैव तथा व्यूहान्तरादिके ।। 15 ।।
सुषुप्ताद्या अवस्था मे प्रत्येकं चैवमुन्नयेत्।
अव्यक्तमहदाद्याश्च तथा वैकारिकं जगत् ।। 16 ।।
शुद्धेतरस्त्वयं भावस्तिस्रोऽवस्थाश्च तत्र वै।
प्रत्येकमुन्नयेच्चैवं तत्र तत्र दिवस्पते ।। 17 ।।
भूते स्थिते च विज्ञेया दसा एताश्चतुर्विधाः।
अपरोऽस्ति क्रमस्त्वेवं शुद्धाशुद्धमयेऽध्वनि ।। 18 ।।
प्रमातृकरणज्ञेयेष्वारोहेषु मदात्मके।
शून्यप्राणादिभेदेन क्रमान्मातृगणा दश ।। 19 ।।
करणं द्विविधं विद्धि बाह्यमाभ्यन्तरं तथा।
उभयोरपि तावद्धि तूष्णींभावादिके क्रमे ।। 20 ।।

ज्ञेयं बहुविधं प्रोक्तं तत्राप्येवं समुन्नयेत्।
तुर्यातीतत्वमेतेषां भगवद्भाववेदनम् ।। 21 ।।
अवरोहोऽयमुद्दिष्ट आरोहमपि मे शृणु।
चरमां कोटिमारभ्य मदन्तोऽभूद्व्यवस्थितः ।। 22 ।।
आरोहः स तु विज्ञेयः शुद्धाशुद्धमयेऽध्वनि।
आरोहमवरोहं च संततं भावयन्नरः ।। 23 ।।
मच्चित्तो मद्गतप्राणो मद्भावं समुपाश्नुते।
आकारकालदेशान्मे परिच्छेदोऽस्ति नैव च ।। 24 ।।
मयैव ज्ञानरूपिण्या व्याप्तास्ते पाकशासन।
आत्मभित्तौ जगत् सर्वमिच्छयोन्मीलयाम्यहम् ।। 25 ।।
तद्रूपतारतम्येन ग्राह्यग्राहकसंस्थितिः।
वाच्यात्मपरिणामोऽयं लेशतस्ते प्रदर्शितः ।। 26 ।।

वाचकात्मानमस्य त्वं समाहितमनाः शृणु।
शुद्धसंविन्मयी पूर्वं विवर्ते प्राणरूपतः ।। 27 ।।
तत्तत्स्थानप्रसङ्गेन विवर्ते शब्दतस्तथा।
शान्ता सूक्ष्मा तथा मध्या वैखरीति विवेकिनी ।। 28 ।।
चतूरूपं चतूरूपवाचि वाच्यं स्वनिर्मितम्।
शान्ता विवर्तमानाहं प्रपद्ये सूक्ष्मसंस्थितिम् ।। 29 ।।
शक्तिर्नाद इति द्वेधा सूक्ष्मरूपव्यवस्थितिः।
सूक्ष्मा विवर्तमानाहं प्रपद्ये मध्यमां स्थितिम् ।। 30 ।।
बिन्दुसंस्कारसंपत्तिः सावस्थाक्षरसंततेः।
मध्या विवर्तमानाहं प्रपद्ये वैखरीस्थितिम् ।। 31 ।।
पञ्चाशदादिभेदेन सावस्थाक्षरसंततेः।
आरोहमवरोहं च संततं भावयन्निमौ।
शब्दब्रह्मणि निष्णातः शब्दातीतं प्रपद्येत् ।। 32 ।।

Source: लक्ष्मीतन्त्रम् -अध्यायः ५१

ओं हिरण्यवर्णायै नमः – हरिणीति नाम निरुच्यतेऽत्र। हरिणीवत् दूरधावनादिति, हरन्ति बध्नन्ति योगिन एनामिति च निर्वचनद्वयम् ।।

ऋद्धिः, वृद्धिः, समृद्धिः, विभूतिरिति चतस्रो लक्ष्मीसख्यः। तासां बीजमन्त्राः ऋं, वृं, सिं, विं इति  प्रत्येकं टं इति सहिताः ।। ओं ऋं टं ऋद्ध्यै स्वाहा इत्यादयो मन्त्राः।

ओं ह्रीं श्रीं नमो विष्णवे।

मानसिक उपासना रहश्य  

प्राणयन्ती प्राणती च प्राणा प्राणावबोधिनी।
परा बोधेति ता एता भ्रूमध्यान्तःस्थपद्मगाः ।। 46 ।।
रत्नदीपशिखाभेषु भावयेन्मां क्रमोत्क्रमात्।
गृणन्मां तारिकां दीर्घां दीर्घघण्टानदोपमाम् ।। 47 ।।
इत्थं मां चिन्तयन् योगी सुरूपां वापि संस्मरन्।
विहाय सकलं क्लेशं मद्भावं प्रतिपद्यते ।। 48 ।।

लक्षयेद्वापि पद्मेषु नवस्वेषु क्रमोत्क्रमात्।
आधारे त्रीणि पद्मानि हृदयाधोऽम्बुजत्रयम् ।। 49 ।।

मूर्ध्नोऽधस्रीणि पद्मानि नवपद्मविधिक्रमः।
द्वादशस्वथवाब्जेषु मूर्धाद्येषु द्विके द्विके ।। 50 ।।

षट्‌सु वा प्रथमाब्जेषु त्रिषु वा मूलहृद्भुवि।
भ्रूमध्ये चिन्तयेद्वापि तारिका तारनादिनीम् ।। 51 ।।

तद्बिन्दुं चिन्तयेत् पूर्वं मुद्गमात्रं सुभास्वरम्।
ततः सर्षपमात्रं तु ततश्चित्रमनाकृतिम् ।। 52 ।।

यो यो वा गृह्यते भावो घटकुड्यादिरूपवान्।
चिन्तयेत्तत्र तत्त्वानि यानि यावन्ति शास्रतः ।। 53 ।।
मन्मयीकृत्य तत्रैतान्यहंभावनया स्मरेत्।
हेतुमद्धेतुभूतानि लोके वस्तूनि यानि वा ।। 54 ।।
आश्रिताश्रयरूपाणि यानि स्वच्छघनानि वा।
भावतद्वत्स्वरूपाणि शुभाशुभमयानि च ।। 55 ।।
प्रसवाप्रसवात्मानि गुणगुण्याकृतीनि वा।
आधाराधेयभूतानि शक्तितद्वन्मयानि वा ।। 56 ।।
भोग्यभोक्तृस्वरूपाणि नारीनरमयानि वा।
क्रियाकर्तृस्वरूपाणि ह्युपायोपेयकानि वा ।। 57 ।।

स्रीपुंप्रत्ययरूपाणि शब्दरूपाणि यानि वा।
द्वन्द्वभूतानि वस्तूनि लोकेऽस्मिन् यानि कानिचित् ।। 58 ।।

तानि योगी धिया पश्येल्लक्ष्मीनारायणात्मना।
तन्त्रस्य परमं गुह्यं व्रतं शृणु पुरंदर ।। 59 ।।
योगिना यदनुष्ठेयं लक्ष्मीयोगविधिक्रमे।
प्रवर्तमानया पूर्वमादिदेवाज्जगद्विधौ ।। 60 ।।

आत्तं सीमन्तिनीरूपं मया साभिनिवेशया।
चिकीर्षुर्मत्प्रियं योगी लक्ष्मीतन्त्रविचक्षणः ।। 61 ।।

न स्मरेत् कामिनीनिन्दां कर्मणा मनसा गिरा।
यत्राहं तत्र तत्त्वानि यत्राहं तत्र देवताः ।। 62 ।।

यत्राहं तत्र पुण्यानि यत्राहं तत्र केशवः।
वनितायामहं तस्मान्नारी सर्वजगन्मयी ।। 63 ।।

योऽभिनिन्दति तां नारीं स लक्ष्मीमभिनिन्दति।
योऽभिनन्दति तां लक्ष्मीं त्रैलोक्यमभिनन्दति ।। 64 ।।
यो द्वेष्टि वनितां कांचित् स द्वेष्टि हरिवल्लभाम्।
यो हरेर्वल्लभां द्वेष्टि स द्वेष्टि सकलं जगत् ।। 65 ।।

ज्योत्स्नामिव स्रियं दृष्ट्वा यस्य चित्तं प्रसीदति।
नापध्यायति यत्किंचित् स मे प्रियतमो मतः ।। 66 ।।

यथा नारायणे नास्ति मयि वा शक्र किल्बिषम्।
यथा गवि यथा विप्रे यथा वेदान्तवेदिनि ।। 67 ।।
वनितायां तथा शक्र दुरितं नैव विद्यते।
अकल्मषा यथा गङ्गा यथा पुण्या सरस्वती ।। 68 ।।
अरुणा ह्यापगा यद्वत्तथा सीमन्तिनी वरा।
यदस्मि जननी नाम त्रयाणां जगतामहम् ।। 69 ।।
तदिदं नार्यवष्टम्भात् सा हि मे परमं बलम्।
त्रैलोक्यजननी देवी सर्वकामसमृद्धिनी ।। 70 ।।

मत्तनुर्वनिता साक्षाद्योगी कस्मान्न पूजयेत्।
न कुर्याद् वृजिननं नार्याः कुवृत्तं न स्मरेत् स्रियाः ।। 71 ।।

ऋते पापात् प्रियं नार्याः कार्यं योगमभीप्सता।
जननीमिव तां पश्येद्देवतामिव मामिव ।। 72 ।।

यो द्वेष्टि वनितां मोहात्तत्साहाय्यं न चाचरेत्।
इदं च शृणु देवेश यद्वक्ष्यामि प्रियोऽसि मे ।। 73 ।।

श्रुत्वा त्वयाप्यनुष्ठेयं नैव वाच्यं हि कस्यचित्।
या रूपिणी वरारोहा काचिद् दृष्टिपथं गता ।। 74 ।।

तस्यां मां भावयेद्योगी तारिकां मनसा गृणन्।
अलोलुपेन चित्तेन तस्या रूपमनुस्मरेत् ।। 75 ।।
प्राणं सूर्यं परात्मानं नारीहृदयपूरुषम्।
संस्मरेदनलं तत्र रूपलावण्यसंपदम् ।। 76 ।।
अशेषसंपदोपेतां तां नारीं मामनुस्मरेत्।
अनुस्मृत्य गृणन् ब्रह्म भावयेदेव मां धिया ।। 77 ।।
ततः समाधिसंपत्तौ तत्राविष्टा भवाम्यहम्।
स्तब्धसर्वाङ्गविस्रंसो मदावेशस्य लक्षणम् ।। 78 ।।

अलोलुपेन चित्तेन मां समाराध्य यत्नतः।
विरमेदेव युञ्जानः पाप्मानं परिवर्जयन् ।। 79 ।।

एतत्तु परदारेषु नैव कार्यं विजानता।
अयं समाधिर्यत्रासीत् सानुरज्यति तद् ध्रुवम् ।। 80 ।।

स्वस्रियामेव कुर्वीत साधारण्यामधापि वा।
विप्लवोऽपि न दोषोऽत्र यतो मद्भावभावना ।। 81 ।।

संस्पर्शजेषु भोगेषु यः संहर्षमहोदयः।
मद्रूपं तदनुध्यायेदविक्षिप्तेन चेतसा ।। 82 ।।

प्रशस्तविषयोत्थं यत् सुखं लेखनमन्थनात्।
स्मरतस्तत्प्रहर्षो यस्तद्भावमनुशीलयेत् ।। 83 ।।
चक्षुषा विषये दृष्टे या प्रीतिरुपजायते।
रसिते च श्रुते घ्राते सा मे सुखमयी तनुः ।। 84 ।।
यदृच्छोपनतेष्वेवं शब्दस्पर्शरसादिषु।
उपपत्तिरियं प्रोक्ता चेतो दमयतो यतेः ।। 85 ।।

ये हि संस्पर्शजा भोगा दुःखयोनय एव ते।
आदिमन्तोऽन्तवन्तश्च न तेषु रमयेन्मनः ।। 86 ।।
निरस्तरजसा ध्वस्ततमसा सत्त्ववर्तिना।
यदन्तःकरणेनान्तर्व्यज्यते सुखमुत्तमम् ।। 87 ।।
आद्यन्तविधुरं तन्मे सुखं ज्ञानमयं वपुः।
तत्तादृग्व्यज्यते नैव संस्पर्शैर्विषयाश्रितैः ।। 88 ।।
अनुबध्नन्ति यद्‌ दुःखं विषयाः सुखवाहिनः।
मध्वन्तर्विषसंसृष्टं मधुरं यदि भक्षणे ।। 89 ।।
किं तेनानन्तरं यत्तद्व्यापादयति भक्षिणम्।
क्रुद्धस्य फणिनश्छायां यः श्रयेदातपार्दितः ।। 90 ।।
स सेवेत नरो भोगान् सुखाय स्पर्शसंभवान्।
साध्यान् दुःखव्ययायासैः सुदर्शान् दुःखमिश्रितान् ।। 91 ।।
तनीयसः क्षयिष्णूंश्च कः श्रयेद्विषयान् सुखी।
जप्यपूतमिताहारदिव्यसत्त्वतनूकृतौ ।। 92 ।।

रजस्तमोगुणौ क्षिण्वन् मत्प्रियाचारकर्मणा।
योगी समाधये शश्वद्यत्नेन दमयेन्मनः ।। 93 ।।

जिते मनसि वै शश्वद्विश्वं तेन विजीयते।
जिते मनसि शुद्धा मे तनुरुन्मिषति स्वयम् ।। 94 ।। श्रीः

Photo credit: Mr. Kartik Kundu [Advocate Howrah District Court]

देवताः – Devata

एवं स भगवान्देवो लोकानां हितकाम्यया ।
धर्मस्य परमं गुह्यं ममेदं सर्वं उक्तवान् । । १२.११७ । ।

सर्वं आत्मनि संपश्येत्सच्चासच्च समाहितः ।
सर्वं ह्यात्मनि संपश्यन्नाधर्मे कुरुते मनः । । १२.११८ । ।

आत्मैव देवताः सर्वाः सर्वं आत्मन्यवस्थितम् ।
आत्मा हि जनयत्येषां कर्मयोगं शरीरिणाम् । । १२.११९ । ।

खं संनिवेशयेत्खेषु चेष्टनस्पर्शनेऽनिलम् ।
पक्तिदृष्ट्योः परं तेजः स्नेहेऽपो गां च मूर्तिषु । । १२.१२० । ।

मनसीन्दुं दिशः श्रोत्रे क्रान्ते विष्णुं बले हरम् ।
वाच्यग्निं मित्रं उत्सर्गे प्रजने च प्रजापतिम् । । १२.१२१ । ।

Manu Smriti मनुस्मृतिः

Hindu religion

In Shastri Yagnapurushdasji v. Muldas Bhundardas Vaishya, AIR 1966 SC 1119 a Constitution Bench of this Court was required to consider the question whether the Bombay High Court was right in holding that Swaminarayan Sampradaya sect to which the appellants before the Court belonged is not a religion distinct and separate from the Hindu religion. In that context, Gajendragadkar, C. J.who spoke for the Bench considered the questions eleborately as to who are Hindus and what are the broad features of Hindu religion, thus:

“(27) Who are Hindus and what are the broad features of Hindu religion, that must be the first part of our enquiry in dealing with the present controversy between the parties. The historical and etymological genesis of the word ‘Hindu’ has given rise to a controversy amongst Indologists; but the view generally accepted by scholars appears to be that the word ‘Hindu’ is derived from the river Sindhu otherwise known as Indus which flows from the Punjab. ‘That part of great Aryan race’, says Monier Williams, which immigrated from Central Asia, through the mountain passes into India, settled first in the districts near the river Sindhu (now called the Indus). The Perisian pronounced this word Hindu and named their Aryan brethren Hindus. The Greeks, who probably gained their first ideas of India Persian, dropped the hard aspirate, and called the Hindus ‘Indoi’.

(28) The Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, Vol. VI, has described ‘Hinduism’ as the title applied to that form of religion which prevails among the vast majority of the present population of the Indian Empire (p. 686). As Dr. Radhakrishnan has observed:’The Hindu civilization is so-called, since its original founders or earliest followers occupies the territory drained by the Sindhu (the Indus) river system corresponding to the North-West Frontier Province and the Punjab. This is recorded in the Rig Veda, the oldest of the Vedas, the Hindu scriptures which give their name to this period of Indian history. The people on the Indian side of the Sindhu were called Hindu by the Persian and the later western invaders [The Hindu View of Life by Dr. Radhakrishnan, p. 12]. That is the genesis of the word ‘Hindu’.

(29) When we think of the Hindu religion, we find it difficult, if not impossible, to define Hindu religion or even adequately describe it. Unlike other religions in the world, the Hindu religion does not claim any one prophet; it does not worship any one God; it does not subscribe to any one dogma; it does not believe in any one philosophic concept; it does not follow any one set of religious rites or performance; in fact, it does not appear to satisfy the narrow traditional features of any religion or creed. It may broadly be described as a way of life and nothing more.

(30) Confronted by this difficulty, Dr. Radhakrishnan realised that to many Hinduism seems to be a name without any content. Is it a museum of beliefs, a medley or rites, or a mere map, a geographical expression (The Hindu View of Life by Dr. Radhakrishnan, p. 11)?. Having posed these questions which disturbed foreigners when they think of Hinduism , Dr. Radhakrishnan has explained how Hinduism has steadily absorbed the customs and ideas of peoples with whom it has come into contact and has thus been able to maintain its supremacy and its youth. The term ‘Hindu’, according to Dr. Radhakrishnan, had originally a territorial and not a credal significance. It implies residence in a well defined geographical area. Aboriginal tribes, savage and half-civilized people, the cultured Dravidians and the Vedic Aryans were all Hindus as they were the sons of the same mother. The Hindu thinkers reckoned it the striking fact that the men and women dwelling in India belonged to different communities, worshiped different gods, and practiced different rites (The Hindu View of Life by Dr. Radhakrishnan, p. 12) (Kurma Purana).

(31) Monier Williams has observed that it must be borne in mind that Hinduism is far more than a mere form of theism resting on Brahmanism. It presents for our investigation a complex congeries of creeds and doctrines which in its gradual accumulation may be compared to the gathering together of the mighty volume of the Ganges, swollen by a continual influx of tributary rivers and rivulets, spreading itself over an ever-increasing area of country, and finally resolving itself into an intricate Delta of tortuous streams and jungly marshes… The Hindu religion is a reflection of the composite character of the Hindus, who are not one people but many. It is based on the idea of universal receptivity. It has ever aimed at accommodating itself to circumstances, and has carried on the process of adaptation through more than three thousand years. It has first borne with and then, so to speak, swallowed, digested, and assimilated something from all creeds (Religious Thought and Life in India by Monier Williams, p. 57).’…”

Dealing with broad sweep of the Hindu philosophic concept, it has been stated thus:

(33) The monistic idealism which can be said to be the general distinguishing feature of Hindu Philosophy has been expressed in four different forms:(1) Non-dualism or Advaitism; (2) Pure monism, (3) Modified monism; and (4) Implicit monism. It is remarkable that these different forms of monistic idealism purport to derive support from the same Vedic and Upanishadic texts. Shankar, Ramanuja, Vallabha and Madhva all based their philosophic concepts on what they regarded to be the synthesis between the Upanishads, the Brahmasutras and the Bhagvad Gita. Though philosophic concepts and principles evolved by different Hindu thinkers and philosophers varied in many ways and even appeared to conflict with each other in some particulars, they all had reverence for the past and accepted the Vedas as sole foundation of the Hindu philosophy. Naturally enough, it was realised by Hindu religion from the very beginning of its career that truth was many-sided and different views contained different aspects of truth which on one could fully express. This knowledge inevitably bred a spirit of tolerance and willingness to understand and appreciate the opponent’s point of view. That is how the several views set forth in India are considered to be the branches of the self-same tree. The short cuts and blind alleys are somehow reconciled with the main road of advance to the truth (ibid, p. 48).’ When we consider this broad sweep of the Hindu philosophic concepts, it would be realised that under Hindu philosophy, there is no scope for ex-communicating any notion or principle as heritable and rejecting it as such.”

Thereafter, the basic concepts of Hindu religion, are stated thus:

(35) …The first amongst these basic concepts is the acceptance of the Veda as the highest authority in religious and philosophic matters. This concept necessarily implies that all the systems claim to have drawn their principles from a common reservoir of thought enshrined in the Veda. The Hindu teachers were thus obliged to use the heritage they received from the past in order to make their views readily understood. The other basic concept which is common to the six system of Hindu philosophy is that all of them accept the view of the great world rhythm. Vast periods of creation, maintenance and dissolution follow each other in endless succession. This theory is not inconsistent with belief in progress:for it is not a question of the movement of the world reaching its goal times without number, and being again forced back to its starting-point. ….it means that the race of man enters up and retravels its ascending path of realization. This interminable succession of world ages has no beginning (Indian Philosophy by Dr. Radhakrishnan, Vol. II, p.26).’ It may also be said that all the systems of Hindu philosophy belief in rebirth and pre-existence. ‘Our life is a step on a road, the direction and goal of which are lost in the infinite. On this road, death is never an end or an obstacle but at most the beginning of new steps (Indian Philosophy by Dr. Radhakrishnan, Vol. II, p. 27).’ Thus, it is clear that unlike other religious and religious creeds, Hindu religion is not tied to any definite set of philosophic concepts as such.”

  1. Adverting to the question whether Hindus worship at their temples the same set or number of gods, it has been observed thus:

“(36) …Indeed, there are certain sections of the Hindu community which do not believe in the worship of idols; and as regards those sections of the Hindu community which believe in the worship of idols, their idols differ from community to community and it cannot be said that one definite idol or a definite number of idols are worshiped by all the Hindus in general. in the Hindu Pantheon the first gods that they worshipped in Vedic times were mainly Indra, Varuna, Vayu and Agni. Later, Brahma, Vishnu and Mahesh came to be worshipped. In course of time, Rama and Krishna secured a place of pride in the Hindu Pantheon, and gradually as different philosophic concepts held sway in different sects and in different sections of gods were added, with the result that today the Hindu Pantheon presents the spectacle of a very large number of gods who are worshipped by different sections of the Hindu.”

However, dealing with the development of the Hindu religion and philosophy from time to time, it is observed thus:

“(37) The development of Hindu religion and philosophy shows that from time to time saints and religious reformers attempted to remove from the Hindu thought and practices elements or corruption and superstition and that led to the formation of different sects. Buddha started Buddhism; Mahavir founded Jainism; Basava became the founder of Lingayat religion, Dhyaneshwar and Tukaram initiated the Varakari cult; Guru Nanak inspired Sikhism, Dayananda founded Arya Samaj, and Chaitanaya became Bhakti cult; and as a result of the teachings of Ramakrishna and Vivekananda, Hindu religion flowered into its most attractive progressive and dynamic form. If we study the teachings of these saints and religious reformers, we would notice an amount of divergence in their respective views; but underneath that divergence,there is a kind of subtle indescribable unity which keeps them within the sweep of the broad and progressive Hindu religion.”

Ultimately, reference is made to the working formula evolved by Tilak and is found to be adequate and satisfactory formula. That working formula is quoted thus:

“Acceptance of the Vedas with reverence; recognition of the fact that the means or ways to salvation are diverse; and realisation of the truth that the number of gods to be worshipped is large, that indeed is the distinguishing feature of Hindu religion. (B. G. Tilak’s Gitarahasya).”

N.B-The above definition is a judicial construction and may not properly describe the Hindu Religion, which is different from the connotation of ‘Sanatan Dharma’