Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam-1990

CITATION: Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC), Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam, 5 August 1990,

The Member States of the Organization of the Islamic Conference,

Reaffirming the civilizing and historical role of the Islamic Ummah which God made the best nation that has given mankind a universal and well-balanced civilization in which harmony is established between this life and the hereafter and knowledge is combined with faith; and the role that this Ummah should play to guide a humanity confused by competing trends and ideologies and to provide solutions to the chronic problems of this materialistic civilization.

Wishing to contribute to the efforts of mankind to assert human rights, to protect man from exploitation and persecution, and to affirm his freedom and right to a dignified life in accordance with the Islamic Shari’ah;

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Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide -1948

Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide

Approved and proposed for signature and ratification or accession by General Assembly resolution 260 A (III) of 9 December 1948

Entry into force: 12 January 1951, in accordance with article XIII

The Contracting Parties ,

Having considered the declaration made by the General Assembly of the United Nations in its resolution 96 (I) dated 11 December 1946 that genocide is a crime under international law, contrary to the spirit and aims of the United Nations and condemned by the civilized world,

Recognizing that at all periods of history genocide has inflicted great losses on humanity, and

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United Nations Principles for Older Persons: UNGA 1991

Adopted by General Assembly resolution 46/91 of 16 December 1991
The General Assembly,

Appreciating the contribution that older persons make to their societies,

Recognizing that, in the Charter of the United Nations, the peoples of the United Nations declare, inter alia, their determination to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person, in the equal rights of men and women and of nations large and small and to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,

Noting the elaboration of those rights in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and other declarations to ensure the application of universal standards to particular groups,

In pursuance of the International Plan of Action on Ageing, adopted by the World Assembly on Ageing and endorsed by the General Assembly in its resolution 37/51 of 3 December 1982,

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CONVENTION ON THE ELIMINATION OF ALL FORMS OF DISCRIMINATION AGAINST WOMEN: UNGA-1979

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

Content and Significance of the Convention
PREAMBLE

PART I

Discrimination (Article 1)
Policy Measures (Article 2)
Guarantee of Basic Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (Article 3)
Special Measures (Article 4)
Sex Role Stereotyping and Prejudice (Article 5)
Prostitution (Article 6)

PART II

Political and Public Life (Article 7)
Representation (Article 8)
Nationality (Article 9)

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Guidelines on the Role of Prosecutors: UN Congress Havana 1990

Guidelines on the Role of Prosecutors

Adopted by the Eighth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders, Havana, Cuba,

27 August to 7 September 1990

Whereas in the Charter of the United Nations the peoples of the world affirm, inter alia, their determination to establish conditions under which justice can be maintained, and proclaim as one of their purposes the achievement of international cooperation in promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms without distinction as to race, sex, language or religion,

Whereas the Universal Declaration of Human Rights enshrines the principles of equality before the law, the presumption of innocence and the right to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal,

Whereas frequently there still exists a gap between the vision underlying those principles and the actual situation,

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Basic Principles on the Role of Lawyers: UN Congress in Havana 1990

Basic Principles on the Role of Lawyers

United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders, Havana, Cuba

Adopted by the Eighth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders, Havana, Cuba

27 August to 7 September 1990

Whereas in the Charter of the United Nations the peoples of the world affirm, inter alia , their determination to establish conditions under which justice can be maintained, and proclaim as one of their purposes the achievement of international cooperation in promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms without distinction as to race, sex, language or religion,

Whereas the Universal Declaration of Human Rights enshrines the principles of equality before the law, the presumption of innocence, the right to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, and all the guarantees necessary for the defence of everyone charged with a penal offence,

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Code of Conduct for Law Enforcement Officials-UN General Assembly resolution 34/169 of 17 December 1979

Code of Conduct for Law Enforcement Officials

The term “law enforcement officials”, includes all officers of the law, whether appointed or elected, who exercise police powers, especially the powers of arrest or detention.

Adopted by General Assembly resolution 34/169 of 17 December 1979

Article 1

Law enforcement officials shall at all times fulfil the duty imposed upon them by law, by serving the community and by protecting all persons against illegal acts, consistent with the high degree of responsibility required by their profession.

Commentary :

(a) The term “law enforcement officials”, includes all officers of the law, whether appointed or elected, who exercise police powers, especially the powers of arrest or detention.

(b) In countries where police powers are exercised by military authorities, whether uniformed or not, or by State security forces, the definition of law enforcement officials shall be regarded as including officers of such services.

(c) Service to the community is intended to include particularly the rendition of services of assistance to those members of the community who by reason of personal, economic, social or other emergencies are in need of immediate aid.

(d) This provision is intended to cover not only all violent, predatory and harmful acts, but extends to the full range of prohibitions under penal statutes. It extends to conduct by persons not capable of incurring criminal liability.

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HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE: PROTECTION OF PERSONS SUBJECTED TO DETENTION OR IMPRISONMENT

Rules pertaining to the right of the Prisoners

  • United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners (the Nelson Mandela Rules)
  • Basic Principles for the Treatment of Prisoners
  • Body of Principles for the Protection of All Persons under Any Form of Detention or Imprisonment
  • United Nations Rules for the Protection of Juveniles Deprived of their Liberty
  • Declaration on the Protection of All Persons from Being Subjected to Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
  • Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT)
  • Optional Protocol to the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (OPCAT)
  • Principles of Medical Ethics relevant to the Role of Health Personnel, particularly Physicians, in the Protection of Prisoners and Detainees against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
  • Principles on the Effective Investigation and Documentation of Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
  • Safeguards guaranteeing protection of the rights of those facing the death penalty
  • Code of Conduct for Law Enforcement Officials
  • Basic Principles on the Use of Force and Firearms by Law Enforcement Officials
  • United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for Non-custodial Measures (The Tokyo Rules)
  • United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice (The Beijing Rules)
  • Guidelines for Action on Children in the Criminal Justice System
  • United Nations Guidelines for the Prevention of Juvenile Delinquency (The Riyadh Guidelines)
  • Declaration of Basic Principles of Justice for Victims of Crime and Abuse of Power
  • Basic Principles on the Independence of the Judiciary
  • Basic Principles on the Role of Lawyers
  • Guidelines on the Role of Prosecutors
  • Principles on the Effective Prevention and Investigation of Extra-legal, Arbitrary and Summary Executions
  • Declaration on the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance
  • Basic Principles and Guidelines on the Right to a Remedy and Reparation
  • International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance
  • United Nations Rules for the Treatment of Women Prisoners and Non-custodial Measures for Women Offenders (the Bangkok Rules) (PDF)
  • Updated Set of principles for the protection and promotion of human rights through action to combat impunity.

 

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights-1966

INTERNATIONAL LAW

Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by General Assembly resolution 2200A (XXI) of 16 December 1966
entry into force 23 March 1976, in accordance with Article 49

Preamble

The States Parties to the present Covenant,

Considering that, in accordance with the principles proclaimed in the Charter of the United Nations, recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,

Recognizing that these rights derive from the inherent dignity of the human person,

Recognizing that, in accordance with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the ideal of free human beings enjoying civil and political freedom and freedom from fear and want can only be achieved if conditions are created whereby everyone may enjoy his civil and political rights, as well as his economic, social and cultural rights,

Considering the obligation of States under the Charter of the United Nations to promote universal respect for, and observance of, human rights and freedoms,

Realizing that the individual, having duties to other individuals and to the community to which he belongs, is under a responsibility to strive for the promotion and observance of the rights recognized in the present Covenant,

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International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination-1965

INTERNATIONAL LAW

Adopted and opened for signature and ratification by General Assembly resolution 2106 (XX) of 21 December 1965

entry into force 4 January 1969, in accordance with Article 19

The States Parties to this Convention,

Considering that the Charter of the United Nations is based on the principles of the dignity and equality inherent in all human beings, and that all Member States have pledged themselves to take joint and separate action, in co-operation with the Organization, for the achievement of one of the purposes of the United Nations which is to promote and encourage universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms for all, without distinction as to race, sex, language or religion,

Considering that the Universal Declaration of Human Rights proclaims that all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights and that everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set out therein, without distinction of any kind, in particular as to race, colour or national origin,

Considering that all human beings are equal before the law and are entitled to equal protection of the law against any discrimination and against any incitement to discrimination,

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