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Indian Supreme Court

  • Legal presumption as to absence of consent, when can be raised-SC Explained Sec 114A of Evidence Act (30/01/2023) - Section 375 IPC-There is a difference between giving a false promise and committing breach of promise by the accused. In case of false promise, the accused right from the beginning would not have any intention to marry the prosecutrix and would have cheated or deceited the prosecutrix by giving a false promise to marry her only with a view to satisfy his lust, whereas in case of breach of promise, one cannot deny a possibility that the accused might have given a promise with all seriousness to marry her, and subsequently might have encountered certain circumstances unforeseen by him or the circumstances beyond his control, which prevented him to fulfill his promise. So, it would be a folly to treat each breach of promise to marry as a false promise and to prosecute a person for the offence under Section 376. As stated earlier, each case would depend upon its proved facts before the court.
  • Even a subordinate judicial officer inferior to the District Judge can be appointed as a Judge of a High Court-SC (10/03/1992) - The High Court Judges are appointed from two sources, members of the Bar and from amongst the persons who have held “judicial office” for not less than ten years. Even a subordinate judicial officer manning a court inferior to the District Judge can be appointed as a Judge of a High Court. The expression “judicial office” in generic sense may include wide variety of offices which are connected with the administration of justice in one way or the other. Under the Criminal Procedure Code, 1973 powers of judicial Magistrate can be conferred on any person who holds or has held any office under the Government. Officers holding various posts under the executive are often vested with the Magisterial powers to meet a particular situation. Did the framers of the Constitution have this type of `offices’ in mind when they provided a source of appointment to the high office of a Judge of High Court from amongst the holders of a “judicial office”. The answer has to be in the negative. We are of the view that holder of “judicial office” under Article 217(2)(a) means the person who exercises only judicial functions, determines causes inter-partes and renders decisions in a judicial capacity. He must belong to the judicial service which as a class is free from executive control and is disciplined to uphold the dignity, integrity and independence of judiciary.”