International Courts

International courts

Attached to the UNO


Provisional courts

ICTY  – International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia

The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia was established in 1993 by United Nations Security Council resolution 827. He sits in The Hague, where he is responsible for judging those responsible for violations of international humanitarian law rules and conventions, committed between 1991 and 2001 in the various regions of the Bakans. His mandate expires in 2011.

TSL  – Special Tribunal for Lebanon

This international jurisdiction was set up by Security Council resolution 1757, adopted on May 30, 2007, it is the first time that an international body has been created to rule on a ground other than that of “war crime”. , “Crime against humanity” or “genocide”. The applicable law is Lebanese criminal law, with a derogation excluding the use of the death penalty and forced labor.

Permanent courts

ICJ – International Court of Justice

On the basis of the United Nations Charter and the statute of the Court annexed to it, the ICJ succeeded the Permanent Court of International Justice, as the permanent judicial body of the United Nations. Its mission is to settle disputes in accordance with the texts and general principles of international law. It is made up of 15 judges elected for 9 years by the General Assembly and the Security Council.

ITLOS  – International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea

The United Nations has established a jurisdiction to deal with disputes relating to the Montego Bay Convention on the Law of the Sea, in force since 1996 and ratified by 157 states. This tribunal sits in Hamburg, Germany and has 21 members elected for 9 years. Its decisions are in principle binding, subject to the limitations provided for in the Convention.

 Attached to other international organizations

CEDH  – European Court of Human Rights

The ECHR ensures that the rules of the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms are respected and interpreted within the framework of the Council of Europe. The particularity of this jurisdiction is that it can be seized directly by individuals once the domestic remedies have been exhausted.

IACHR  – Inter-American Court of Human Rights – 

The IACHR is the adjudicative body attached to the Organization of American States and sits in San José, Costa Rica. This Court is responsible for overseeing the interpretation and application of the rules set out in the American Convention on Human Rights, enacted in 1979.

ORD – Dispute Settlement Body

The DSB is the body for resolving trade disputes relating to the interpretation and proper conduct of commitments resulting from the WTO agreements. It is not a question here of a jurisdiction in the strict sense, in that the DSB does not have any autonomous power. Its members are usually the ambassadors of WTO member countries. An appeals body has also been set up, although the decisions are not legally binding.

ICC – International Criminal Court

The International Criminal Court is a permanent international jurisdiction distinct from the UN, which is not attached to any international system or organization. Its legal basis results from the adoption by 120 States of the Rome Statute alone, on July 17, 1998. This treaty entered into force on July 1, 2002, after its ratification by 60 countries. As of June 1, 2008, this international convention had 108 ratifications. It is responsible for ruling on the most serious crimes affecting the international community.

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