Execution of Decree Passed by Civil Court in a Civil Suit

CONNECTED PROVISIONS UNDER CODE OF CIVIL PROCEDURE

2(2) “Decree” means the formal expression of an adjudication which, so far as regards the Court expressing it, conclusively determines the rights of the parties with regard to all or any of the matters in controversy in the suit and may be either preliminary or final. It shall be deemed to include the rejection of a plaint and the determination of any question within section 144, but shall not include–
(a) any adjudication from which an appeal lies an appeal from an order, or
(b) any order of dismissal for default.
Explanation: A decree is preliminary when further proceedings have to be taken before the suit can be completely disposed of. It is final when such adjudication completely disposes of the suit. It may be partly preliminary and partly final;

(3) “decree-holder” means any person in whose favour a decree has been passed or an order capable of execution has been made;

(10) “judgment-debtor” means any person against whom a decree has been passed or an order capable of execution has been made;

  • PART 2  SECTIONS  36-74  EXECUTION
  • ORDER 21 : EXECUTION OF DECREES AND ORDERS

Some issues :

  1. When a criminal case filed under section 138 of the negotiable instruments act, 1881 referred to by the magistrate court to lok adalat is settled by the parties and an award is passed recording the settlement, can it be considered as a decree of a civil court and thus executable? Yes.
  2. whether the Award of the learned Arbitrator tantamounts to a Decree or not, the language used in Section 36 of the Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996, makes it very clear that such an Award has to be enforced under the Code of Civil Procedure in the same manner as it were a Decree of the Court.
Devider

CONTENTS

The limitation to file the application

Application for Execution

Notice to the Opposite Party

Objection by the Opposite Party

Plea of Res- Judicata

Question to be decided by the Executing Court

Application for Stay

Execution Order Passed by the Court

Resistance of the Execution

Any just cause [determination of ]

Withdrawl of the Execution Petition

Devider

PART II : EXECUTION  [Sections 36 to 74 ]

General

  1. Application to orders
  2. Definition of Court which passed a decree
    Courts by which decrees may be executed
  3. Court by which decree may be executed
  4. Transfer of decree
  5. Transfer of decree to Court in another State
  6. Result of execution-proceedings to be certified
  7. Powers of Court in executing transferred decree
  8. Execution of decrees passed by Civil Courts in places to which this Code does not extend
  9. Execution of decrees passed by Revenue Courts in places to which this Code does not extend
    44-A. Execution of decrees passed by Courts in reciprocating territory
  10. Execution of decrees outside India
  11. Precepts
    Question to be determined by Court executing decree
  12. Questions to be determined by the Court executing decree
  13. [Repealed]

Transferees and legal representatives

  1. Transferee
  2. Legal representative
    Procedure in execution
  3. Powers of Court to enforce execution
  4. Enforcement of decree against legal representative
  5. Liability of ancestral property
  6. Partition of estate or separation of share

Arrest and detention

  1. Arrest and detention
  2. Prohibition of arrest or detention of women in execution of decree for money
  3. Subsistence allowance
  4. Detention and release
  5. Release on ground of illness

Attachment

  1. Property liable to attachment and sale in execution of decree
  2. Partial exemption of agricultural produce
  3. Seizure of property in dwelling house
  4. Property attached in execution of decrees of several Courts
  5. Private alienation of property after attachment to be void

Sale

  1. Purchasers title
  2. [Repealed]
  3. Power for State Government to make rules as to sales of land in execution of decrees for payment of money
    Delegation of Collector of power to execute decree against immoveable property
    68-72. [Repealed]

Distribution of assets

  1. Proceeds of execution-sale to be rateably distributed among decree-holders

Resistance to execution

  1. Resistance to execution

[Sections 36 to 74 ]

GENERAL

SECTION 36: APPLICATION TO ORDERS

The provisions of this Code relating to the execution of decrees (including provisions relating to payment under a decree) shall, so far as they are applicable, be deemed to apply to the execution of orders (including payment under an order).]
SECTION 37: DEFINITION OF COURT WHICH PASSED A DECREE
The expression “Court which passed a decree”, or words to that effect, shall, in relation to the execution of decrees, unless there is anything repugnant in the subject or context, be deemed to include,–
(a) where the decree to be executed has been passed in the exercise of appellate jurisdiction, the court of first instance, and
(b) where the Court of first instance has ceased to exist or to have jurisdiction to execute it, the Court which, if the suit where in the decree was passed was instituted at the time of making the application for the execution of the decree, would have jurisdiction to try such suit.
Explanation : The Court of first instance does not cease to have jurisdiction to execute a decree merely on the ground that after the institution of the suit where in the decree was passed or after the passing of the decree, any area has been transferred from the jurisdiction of that Court to the jurisdiction of any other court; but, in every such case, such other court shall also have jurisdiction to execute the decree, if at the time of making the application for execution of the decree it would have jurisdiction to try the said suit.

COURTS BY WHICH DECREES MAY BE EXECUTED

SECTION 38: COURT BY WHICH DECREE MAY BE EXECUTED

A decree may be executed either by the court which passed it, or by the court to which it is sent for execution.

SECTION 39: TRANSFER OF DECREE

(1) The Court which passed a decree may, on the application of the decree holder, send it for execution to another court of competent jurisdiction,–
(a) if the person against whom the decree is passed actually and voluntarily resides or carries on business, or personally works for gain, within the local limits of the jurisdiction of such other court, or
(b) if such person has no property within the local limits of the jurisdiction of the court which passed the decree sufficient to satisfy such decree and has property within the local limits of the jurisdiction of such other court, or
(c) if such decree directs the sale or delivery of immovable property situate outside the local limits of the jurisdiction of the court which passed it, or
(d) if the court which passed the decree considers for any other reason, which it shall record in writing, that the decree should be executed by such other court.
(2) The Court which passed a decree may of its own motion send it for execution to any subordinate court of competent jurisdiction.
(3) For the purposes of this section, a court shall be deemed to be a court of competent jurisdiction if, at the time of making the application for the transfer of decree to it, such court would have jurisdiction to try the suit in which such decree was passed.]

[(4) Nothing in this section shall be deemed to authorise the Court which passed a decree to execute such decree against any person or property outside the local limits of its jurisdiction .]

SECTION 40: TRANSFER OF DECREE TO COURT IN ANOTHER STATE

Where a decree is sent for execution in another State, it shall be sent to such court and executed in such manner as may be prescribed by rules in force in that State.

SECTION 41: RESULT OF EXECUTION PROCEEDINGS TO BE CERTIFIED

The court to which a decree is sent for execution shall certify to the court which passed it the fact of such execution, or, where the former court fails to execute the same the circumstances attending such failure.

SECTION 42: POWERS OF COURT IN EXECUTING TRANSFERRED DECREE

(1) The Court executing a decree sent to it shall have the same powers in executing such decree as if it had been passed by itself. All persons disobeying or obstructing the execution of the decree shall be punishable by such court in the same manner as if it had passed the decree. And its order in executing such decree shall be subject to the same rules in respect of appeal as if the decree had been passed by itself.
(2) Without prejudice to the generality of the provisions of sub-section (1), the powers of the Court under that sub -section shall include the following powers of the court which passed the decree, namely:–
(a) power to send the decree for execution to another Court under section 39
(b) power to execute the decree against the legal representative of the deceased judgment debtor under section 50;
(c) power to order attachment of a decree.
(3) A court passing an order in exercise of the powers specified in sub-section (2) shall send a copy thereof to the court which passed the decree.
(4) Nothing in this section shall be deemed to confer on the court to which a decree is sent for execution any of the following powers, namely:–
(a) power to order execution at the instance of the transferee of the decree,
(b) in the case of a decree passed against a firm, power to grant leave to execute such decree against any person, other than such a person as is referred to in clause (b) or clause (c), of sub-rule (1) of rule 50 of Order XXI.

SECTION 43: EXECUTION OF DECREES PASSED BY CIVIL COURTS IN PLACES TO WHICH THIS CODE DOES NOT EXTEND

Any decree passed by any Civil Court established in any part of India to which the provisions of this Code do not extend or by any court established or continued by the authority of the Central Government outside India, may, if it cannot be executed within the jurisdiction of the Court by which it was passed, be executed in the manner herein provided within the jurisdiction of any Court in the territories to which this Code extends.]

SECTION 44: EXECUTION OF DECREES PASSED BY REVENUE COURTS IN PLACES TO WHICH THIS CODE DOES NOT EXTEND

The State Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, declare that the decrees of any Revenue Court in any part of India of which the provisions of this Code do not extend, or any class of such decrees, may be executed in the State as if they had been passed by courts in that State.]

SECTION 44A: EXECUTION OF DECREES PASSED BY COURTS IN RECIPROCATING TERRITORY

(1) Where a certified copy of a decree of any of the superior courts of any reciprocating territory has been filed in a District Court, the decree may be executed in India as if it had been passed by the District Court.
(2) Together with the certified copy of the decree shall be filed a certificate from such superior court stating the extent, if any, to which the decree has been satisfied or adjusted and such certificate shall, for the purposes of proceedings under this section, be conclusive proof of the extent of such satisfaction or adjustment.
(3) The provisions of section 47 shall as from the filing of the certified copy of the decree apply to the proceedings of a District Court executing a decree under this section, and the District Court shall refuse execution of any such decree, if it is shown to the satisfaction of the Court that the decree falls within any of the exceptions specified in clauses (a) to (f) of section 13.

Explanation I : “Reciprocating territory” means any country or territory outside India which the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, declare to be a reciprocating territory for the purposes of this section, and “Superior Courts”, with reference to any such territory, means such courts as may be specified in the said notification.
Explanation II : “Decree” with reference to a superior court means any decree or judgment of such court under which a sum of money is payable, not being a sum payable in respect of taxes or other charges of a like nature or in respect of a fine or other penalty, but shall in no case include an arbitration award, even if such an award is enforceable as a decree or judgment.

SECTION 45: EXECUTION OF DECREES OUTSIDE INDIA

So much of the foregoing sections of this part as empowers a court to send a decree for execution to another court shall be construed as empowering a court in any State to send a decree for execution to any court established by the authority of the Central Government outside India] to which the State Government has by notification in the official Gazette declared this section to apply.

SECTION 46: PRECEPTS

(1) Upon the application of the decree holder the court which passed the decree may, whenever it thinks fit, issue a precept to any other court which would be competent to execute such decree to attach any property belonging to the judgment debtor and specified in the precept.

(2) The court to which a precept is sent shall proceed to attach the property in the manner prescribed in regard to the attachment of property in execution of decree:

PROVIDED that no attachment under a precept shall continue for more then two months unless the period of attachment is extended by an order of the court which passed the decree or unless before the determination of such attachment the decree has been transferred to the court by which the attachment has been made and the decree holder has applied for an order for the sale of such property.

SECTION 47: QUESTIONS TO BE DETERMINED BY THE COURT EXECUTING DECREE

(1) All questions arising between the parties to the suit in which the decree was passed, or their representatives, and relating to the execution, discharge or satisfaction of the decree, shall be determined by the Court executing the decree and not by a separate suit.
(3) Where a question arises as to whether any person is or is not the representative of a party, such question shall, for the purposes of this section, be determined by the court.

Explanation I : For the purposes of this section, a plaintiff whose suit has been dismissed and a defendant against whom a suit has been dismissed are parties to the suit.

Explanation II : (a) For the purposes of this section, a purchaser of property at a sale in execution of a decree shall be deemed to be a party to the suit in which the decree is passed; and
(b) All questions relating to the delivery of possession of such property to such purchaser or his representative shall be deemed to be questions relating to the execution, discharge or satisfaction of the decree within the meaning of this section.]

LIMIT OF TIME FOR EXECUTION

SECTION 48: EXECUTION BARRED IN CERTAIN CASES

TRANSFEREES AND LEGAL REPRESENTATIVES

SECTION 49: TRANSFEREE
Every transferee of a decree shall hold the same subject to the equities (if any) which the judgment debtor might have enforced against the original decree holder.

SECTION 50: LEGAL REPRESENTATIVE
(1) Where a judgment debtor dies before the decree has been fully satisfied, the holder of the decree may apply to the court which passed it to execute the same against the legal representative of the deceased.
(2) Where the decree is executed against such legal representative, he shall be liable only to the extent of the property of the deceased which has come to his hands and has not been duly disposed of; and, for the purpose of ascertaining such liability, the court executing the decree may, of its own motion or on the application of the decree holder, compel such legal representative to produce such accounts as it thinks fit.

PROCEDURE IN EXECUTION

SECTION 51: POWERS OF COURT TO ENFORCE EXECUTION

Subject to such conditions and limitations as may be prescribed, the court may, on the application of the decree holder, order execution of the decree–
(a) by delivery of any property specifically decreed;
(b) by attachment and sale or by sale without attachment of any property;
(c) by arrest and detention in prison for such period not exceeding the period specified in section 58, where arrest and detention is permissible under that section];
(d) by appointing a receiver; or
(e) in such other manner as the nature of the relief granted may require:
PROVIDED that, where the decree is for the payment of money, execution by detention in prison shall not be ordered unless, after giving the judgment debtor an opportunity of showing cause why he should not be committed to prison, the court, for reasons recorded in writing, is satisfied–
(a) that the judgment debtor, with the object or effect of obstructing or delaying the execution of the decree,–
(i) is likely to abscond or leave the local limits of the jurisdiction of the Court, or
(ii) has, after the institution of the suit in which the decree was passed, dishonestly transferred, concealed, or removed any part of his property, or committed any other act of bad faith in relation to his property, or
(b) that the judgement debtor has, or has had since the date of the decree, the means to pay the amount of the decree or some substantial part thereof and refuses or neglects or has refused or neglected to pay the same, or
(c) that the decree is for a sum for which the judgment debtor was bound in a fiduciary capacity to account.

Explanation : In the calculation of the means of the judgment debtor for the purposes of clause (b), there shall be left out of account any property which, by or under any law or custom having the force of law for the time being in force, is exempt from attachment in execution of the decree.

SECTION 52: ENFORCEMENT OF DECREE AGAINST LEGAL REPRESENTATIVE

(1) Where a decree is passed against a party as the legal representative of a deceased person, and the decree is for the payment of money out of the property of the deceased, it may be executed by the attachment and sale of any such property.
(2) Where no such property remains in the possession of the judgment debtor and he fails to satisfy the court that he has duly applied such property of the deceased as is proved to have come into his possession, the decree may be executed against the judgment debtor to the extent of the property in respect of which he has failed so to satisfy the court in the same manner as if the decree had been against him personally.

SECTION 53: LIABILITY OF ANCESTRAL PROPERTY

For the purposes of section 50 and section 52, property in the hands of a son or other descendant which is liable under Hindu law for the payment of the debt of a deceased ancestor, in respect of which a decree has been passed, shall be deemed to be property of the deceased which has come to the hands of the son or other descedant as his legal representative.

SECTION 54: PARTITION OF ESTATE OR SEPARATION OF SHARES

Where the decree is for the partition of an undivided estate assessed to the payment of revenue to the Government, or for the separate possession of a share of such an estate, the partition of the estate or the separation of the share shall be made by the Collector or any gazetted subordinate of the Collector deputed by him in this behalf, in accordance with the law (if any) for the time being in force relating to the partition, or the separate possession of shares, of such estates.

ARREST AND DETENTION

SECTION 55: ARREST AND DETENTION

(1) A judgment debtor may be arrested in execution of a decree at any hour and on any day, and shall, as soon as practicable, be brought before the Court, and his detention may be in the civil prison of the district in which the court ordering the detention is situate, or, where such civil prison does not afford suitable accommodation, in any other place which the State Government may appoint for the detention of persons ordered by the courts of such district to be detained:
PROVIDED, firstly that for the purpose of making an arrest under this section, no dwelling house shall be entered after sunset or before sunrise:
PROVIDED, secondly, that, no outer door of a dwelling house shall be broken open unless such dwelling house is in the occupancy of the judgment debtor and he refuses or in any way prevents access thereto, but when the officer authorised to make the arrest has duly gained access to any dwelling house, he may break open the door of any room which he has reason to believe the judgment debtor is to be found:
PROVIDED, thirdly, that, if the room is in the actual occupancy of a woman who is not the judgment debtor and who according to the customs of the country does not appear in public, the officer authorised to make the arrest shall give notice to her that she is at liberty to withdraw, and, after allowing a reasonable time for her to withdraw and giving her reasonable facility for withdrawing, may enter the room for the purpose of making the arrest:
PROVIDED, fourthly, that, where the decree in execution of which a judgment debtor is arrested, is a decree for the payment of money and the judgment debtor pays the amount of the decree and the costs of the arrest to the officer arresting him, such officer shall at once release him.
(2) The State Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, declare that any person or class of persons whose arrest might be attended with danger or inconvenience to the public shall not be liable to arrest in execution of a decree otherwise than in accordance with such procedure as may be prescribed by the State Government in this behalf.
(3) Where a judgment debtor is arrested in execution of a decree for the payment of money and brought before the court, the court shall inform him that he may apply to be declared insolvent, and that he may be discharged] if he has not committed any act of bad faith regarding the subject of the application and if he complies with the provisions of the law of insolvency for the time being in force.
(4) Where a judgment debtor expresses his intention to apply to be declared an insolvent and furnishes security, to the satisfaction of the court, that he will within one month so apply, and that he will appear, when called upon, in any proceeding upon the application or upon the decree in execution of which he was arrested, the court may release] him from arrest, and, if he fails so to apply and to appear, the court may either direct the security to be realised or commit him to the civil prison in execution of the decree.

SECTION 56: PROHIBITION OF ARREST OR DETENTION OF WOMEN IN EXECUTION OF DECREE FOR MONEY

Notwithstanding anything in this part, the court shall not order the arrest or detention in the civil prison of a woman in execution of a decree for the payment of money.

SECTION 57: SUBSISTENCE ALLOWANCE

The State Government may fix scales, graduated according to rank, race and nationality, of monthly allowances payable for the subsistence of judgment debtors.

SECTION 58: DETENTION AND RELEASE

(1) Every person detained in the civil prison in execution of a decree shall be so detained,–
(a) where the decree is for the payment of a sum of money exceeding 1[ five thousand rupees, for a period not exceeding three months, and ],
(b) where the decree is for the payment of a sum of money exceeding two thousand rupees, but not exceeding five thousand rupees, for a period not exceeding six weeks :]
PROVIDED that he shall be released from such detention before the expiration of the said period of detention–
(i) on the amount mentioned in the warrant for his detention being paid to the officer in charge of the civil prison, or
(ii) on the decree against him being otherwise fully satisfied, or
(iii) on the request of the person on whose application he has been so detained, or
(iv) on the omission by the person, on whose application he has been so detained, to pay subsistence allowance:
PROVIDED, also, that he shall not be released from such detention under clause (ii) or clause (iii), without the order of the court.
(1A) For the removal of doubts, it is hereby declared that no order for detention of the judgment debtor in civil prison in execution of a decree for the payment of money shall be made, where the total amount of the decree does not exceed 3[ two thousand rupees ].
(2) A judgment debtor released from detention under this section shall not merely by reason of his release be discharged from his debt, but he shall not be liable to be re-arrested under the decree in execution of which he was detained in the civil prison.

SECTION 59: RELEASE ON GROUND OF ILLNESS
(1) At any time after a warrant for the arrest of a judgment debtor has been issued, the court may cancel it on the ground of his serious illness.
(2) Where a judgment debtor has been arrested, the court may release him if, in its opinion, he is not in a fit state of health to be detained in the civil prison.
(3) Where a judgment debtor has been committed to the civil prison, he may be released therefrom–
(a) by the State Government, on the ground of the existence of any infectious or contagious disease, or
(b) by the committing court, or any court to which that court is subordinate, on the ground of his suffering from any serious illness.
(4) A judgment debtor released under this section may be re-arrested, but the period of his detention in the civil prison shall not in the aggregate exceed that prescribed by section 58.

ATTACHMENT

SECTION 60: PROPERTY LIABLE TO ATTACHMENT AND SALE IN EXECUTION OF DECREE
(1) The following property is liable to attachment and sale in execution of a decree, namely, lands, houses or other buildings, goods, money, bank notes cheques, bills of exchange, hundis, promissory notes, Government securities, bonds or other securities for money, debts, shares in a corporation and, save as hereinafter mentioned, all other saleable property, movable or immovable, belonging to the judgment debtor, or over which, or the profits of which, he has a disposing power which he may exercise for his own benefit, whether the same be held in the name of the judgment debtor or by another person in trust for him or on his behalf:

PROVIDED that the following particulars shall not be liable to such attachment or sale, namely:–
(a) the necessary wearing apparel, cooking vessels, beds and bedding of the judgment debtor, his wife and children, and such personal ornaments as, in accordance with religious usage, cannot be parted with by any woman;
(b) tools of artisans, and, where the judgment debtor is an agriculturist, his implements of husbandry and such cattle and seed grain as may in the opinion of the court, be necessary to enable him to earn his livelihood as such, and such portion of agricultural produce or of any class of agricultural produce as may have been declared to be free from liability under the provisions of the next following section;
(c) houses and other buildings (with the materials and the sites thereof and the land immediately appurtenant thereto and necessary for their enjoyment) belonging to an agriculturist or a labourer or a domestic servant] and occupied by him;
(d) books of account;
(e) a mere right to sue for damages;
(f) any right of personal service;
(g) stipends and gratuities allowed to pensioners of the Government or of a local authority or of any other employer], or payable out of any service family pension fund notified in the Official Gazette by the Central Government or the State Government in this behalf, and political pension;
(h) the wages of labourers and domestic servants, whether payable in money or in kind;
(i) salary to the extent of the first  one thousand rupees  and two-thirds of the remainder in execution of any decree other than a decree for maintenance:

PROVIDED that where any part of such portion of the salary as is liable to attachment has been under attachment, whether continuously or intermittently, for a total period of twenty four months, such portion shall be exempt from attachment until the expiry of a further period of twelve months, and, where such attachment has been made in execution of one and the same decree, shall, after the attachment has continued for a total period of twenty four months, be finally exempt from attachment in execution of that decree;]
(ia) one-third of the salary in execution of any decree for maintenance;
(j) the pay and allowances of persons to whom the Air Force Act, 1950, or the Army Act, 1950, or the Navy Act, 1957, applies;]
(k) all compulsory deposits and other sums in or derived from any fund to which the Provident Funds Act, 1925 (19 of 1925), for the time being applies, in so far as they are declared by the said Act not be liable to attachment;
(ka) all deposits and other sums in or derived from any fund to which the Public Provident Fund Act, 1968 (23 of 1968), for the time being applies, in so far as they are declared by the said Act as not to be liable to attachment;
(kb) all moneys payable under a policy of insurance on the life of the judgment debtor;
(kc) the interest of a lessee of a residential building to which the provisions of law for the time being in force relating to control of rents and accommodation apply;
(l) any allowance forming part of the emoluments of any servant of the Government or of any servant of a railway company or local authority which the appropriate Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, declare to be exempt from attachment, and any subsistence grant or allowance made to any such servant while under suspension;
(m) an expectancy of succession by survivorship or other merely contingent or possible right or interest;
(n) a right to future maintenance;
(o) any allowance declared by any Indian law to be exempt from liability to attachment or sale in execution of a decree; and
(p) where the judgment debtor is a person liable for the payment of land revenue, any movable property which, under any law for the time being applicable to him, is exempt from sale for the recovery of an arrear of such revenue.
Explanation I : The moneys payable in relation to the matters mentioned in clauses (g), (h), (i), (ia), (j), (l) and (o) are exempt from attachment or sale, whether before or after they are actually payable, and, in the case of salary, the attachable portion thereof is liable to attachment, whether before or after it is actually payable.]
Explanation II : In clauses (i) and (ia)], “salary” means the total monthly emoluments, excluding any allowance declared exempt from attachment under the provisions of clause (l), derived by a person from his employment whether on duty or on leave.]
Explanation III: In clause (l) “appropriate Government” means —
(i) as respects any person in the service of the Central Government, or any servant of a Railway Administration] or of a cantonment authority or of the port authority of a major port, the Central Government;
[Clause (ii) omitted by AO 1948]
(iii) as respects any other servant of the Government or a servant of any others local authority, the State Government.]
Explanation IV : For the purposes of this proviso, “wages” includes bonus, and “labourer” includes a skilled, unskilled or semi skilled labourer.
Explanation V : For the purposes of this proviso, the expression “agriculturist” means a person who cultivates land personally and who depends for his livelihood mainly on the income from agricultural land, whether as owner, tenant, partner or agricultural labourer.
Explanation VI: For the purposes of Explanation V, an agriculturist shall be deemed to cultivate land personally, if he cultivates land–
(a) by his own labour, or
(b) by the labour of any member of his family, or
(c) by servants or labourers on wages payable in cash or in kind (not being as a share of the produce), or both.
(IA) Notwithstanding anything contained in any other law for the time being in force, an agreement by which a person agrees to waive the benefit of any exemption under this section shall be void.]
(2) Nothing in this section shall be deemed to exempt houses and other buildings (with the materials and the sites thereof and the lands immediately appurtenant thereto and necessary for their enjoyment) from attachment or sale in execution of decrees for rent of any such house, building, site or land.

SECTION 61: PARTIAL EXEMPTION OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCE

The State Government may, by general or special order published in the Official Gazette, declare that such portion of agricultural produce, or of any class of agricultural produce, as may appear to the State Government to be necessary for the purpose of providing until the next harvest for the due cultivation of the land and for the support of the judgment debtor and his family, shall, in the case of all agriculturists or of any class of agriculturists, be exempted from liability to attachment or sale in execution of a decree.

SECTION 62: SEIZURE OF PROPERTY IN DWELLING HOUSE

(1) No person executing any process under this Code directing or authorizing seizure of movable property shall enter any dwelling house after sunset and before sunrise.
(2) No outer door of a dwelling house shall be broken open unless such dwelling house is in the occupancy of the judgment debtor and he refuses or in any way prevents access thereto, but when the person executing any such process has duly gained
access to any dwelling house, he may break open the door of any room in which he has reason to believe any such property to be.
(3) Where a room in a dwelling house is in the actual occupancy of a woman who, according to the customs of the country, does not appear in public, the person executing the process shall give notice to such woman that she is at liberty to withdraw; and, after allowing reasonable time for her to withdraw and giving her reasonable facility for withdrawing, he may enter such room for the purpose of seizing the property, using at the same time every precaution, consistent with these provisions, to prevent its clandestine removal.

SECTION 63: PROPERTY ATTACHED IN EXECUTION OF DECREES OF SEVERAL COURTS

(1) Where property not in the custody of any court is under attachment in execution of decrees of more courts than one, the court which shall receive or realise such property and shall determine any claim thereto and any objection to the attachment thereof shall be the court of highest grade, or, where there is no difference in grade between such courts, the court under whose decree the property was first attached.
(2) Nothing in this section shall be deemed to invalidate any proceeding taken by a court executing one of such decrees.
Explanation : For the purposes of sub-section (2), “proceeding taken by a court” does not include an order allowing, to a decree holder who has purchased property at a sale held in execution of a decree, set off to the extent of the purchase price payable by him.

SECTION 64: PRIVATE ALIENATION OF PROPERTY AFTER ATTACHMENT TO BE VOID

(1)  Where an attachment has been made, any private transfer or delivery of the property attached or of any interest therein and any payment to the judgment debtor of any debt, dividend or other moneys contrary to such attachment, shall be void as against all claims enforceable under the attachment.

Explanation : For the purposes of this section, claims enforceable under an attachment include claims for the rateable distribution of assets.

[(2) Nothing in this section shall apply to any private transfer or delivery of the property attached or of any interest therein, made in pursuance of any contract for such transfer or delivery entered into and registered before the attachment .]

SECTION 65: PURCHASER’S TITLE

Where immovable property is sold in execution of a decree and such sale has become absolute, the property shall be deemed to have vested in the purchaser from the time when the property is sold and not from the time when the sale becomes absolute.

SECTION 67: POWER FOR STATE GOVERNMENT TO MAKE RULES AS TO SALES OF LAND IN EXECUTION OF DECREES FOR PAYMENT OF MONEY

(1) The State Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, make rules for any local area imposing conditions in respect of the sale of any class of interests in land in execution of decrees for the payment of money, where such interests are so uncertain or undetermined as, in the opinion of the State Government, to make it impossible to fix their value.
(2) When on the date on which this Code came into operation in any local area, any special rules as to sale of land in execution of decrees were in force therein, the State Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, declare such rules to be in force, or may by a like notification, modify the same.
Every notification issued in the exercise of the powers conferred by this sub-section shall set out the rules so continued or modified.]
(3) Every rule made under this section shall be laid, as soon as may be after it is made, before the State Legislature.]

DELEGATION TO COLLECTOR OF POWER TO EXECUTE DECREES AGAINST IMMOVABLE PROPERTY

DISTRIBUTION OF ASSETS

SECTION 73: PROCEEDS OF EXECUTION SALE TO BE RATEABLY DISTRIBUTED AMONG DECREE HOLDERS
(1) Where assets are held by a court and more persons than one have, before the receipt of such assets, made application to the court for the execution of decrees for the payment of money passed against the same judgment debtor and have not obtained satisfaction thereof, the assets, after deducting the costs of realization, shall be rateably distributed among all such persons:
PROVIDED as follows:–
(a) where any property is sold subject to a mortgage or charge, the mortgagee or incumbrancer shall not be entitled to share in any surplus arising from such sale;
(b) where any property liable to be sold in execution of a decree is subject to a mortgage or charge, the Court may, with the consent of the mortgagee or incumbrancer, order that the property be sold free from the mortgage or charge, giving to the mortgagee or incumbrancer the same interest in the proceeds of the sale as he had in the property sold;
(c) where any immovable property is sold in execution of a decree ordering its sale for the discharge of an incumbrance thereon, the proceeds of sale shall be applied firstly, in defraying the expenses of the sale; secondly, in discharging the amount due under the decree; thirdly, in discharging the interest and principal moneys due on subsequent incumbrances (if any); and fourthly, rateably among the holders of decrees for the payment of money against the judgment debtor, who have, prior to the sale of the property, applied to the court which passed the decree ordering such sale for execution of such decrees, and have not obtained satisfaction thereof.
(2) Where all or any of the assets liable to be rateably distributed under this section are paid to a person not entitled to receive the same, any person so entitled may sue such person to compel him to refund the assets.
(3) Nothing in this section affects any right of the Government.

SECTION 74: RESISTANCE TO EXECUTION

Where the court is satisfied that the holder of a decree for the possession of immovable property or that the purchaser of immovable property sold in execution of a decree has been resisted or obstructed in obtaining possession of the property by the judgment debtor or some person on his behalf and that such resistance or obstruction was without any just cause, the court may, at the instance of the decree holder or purchaser, order the judgment debtor or such other person to be detained in the civil prison for a term which may extend to thirty days and may further direct that the decree holder or purchaser be put into possession of the property.

Order 21

EXECUTION OF DECREES AND ORDERS

1. Modes of paying money under decree. — (1) All money, payable under a decree shall be paid as follows, namely :—
(a) by deposit into the Court whose duty it is to execute the decree, or sent to that Court by postal money order or through a bank; or
(b) out of Court, to the decree-holder by postal money order or through a bank or by any other mode wherein payment is evidenced in writing; or
(c) otherwise, as the Court which made the decree, directs.
(2) Where any payment is made under clause (a) or clause (c) of sub rule (1), the judgment-debtor shall give notice thereof to the decree-holder either through the Court or directly to him by registered post, acknowledgement due.(3) Where money is paid by postal money order or through a bank under clause (a) or clause (b) of sub-rule(1), the money order or payment through bank, as the case may be, shall accurately state the following particulars, namely : —
(a) the number of the original suit;
(b) the names of the parties or where there are more than two plaintiffs or more than two defendants, as the case may be, the names of the first two plaintiffs and the first two defendants;
(c) how the money remitted is to be adjusted, that is to say, whether it is towards the principal, interest or costs;
(d) the number of the execution case of the Court, where such case is pending; and
(e) the name and address of the payer.
(4) On any amount paid under clause (a) or clause (c) of sub-rule (1) interest, if any, shall cease to run from the date of service of the notice referred to in sub-rule (2).(5) On any amount paid under clause (b) of sub-rule (1) interest, if any, shall cease to run from the date of such payment :Provided that, where the decree-holder refuses to accept the postal order or payment through a bank, interest shall cease to run from the date on which the money was tendered to him, or where he avoids acceptance of the postal money order or payment through bank, interest shall cease to run from the date on which money would have been tendered to him in the ordinary course of business of the postal authorities or the bank, as the case may be.

2. Payment out of Court to decree-holder. – (1) Where any money payable under a decree of any kind is paid out of Court. or decree of any kind is otherwise adjusted in whole or in part to the satisfaction of the decree-holder, the decree-holder shall certify such payment or adjustment to the Court whose duty it is to execute the decree, and the Court shall record the same accordingly.(2) The judgment-debtor or any person who has become surety for the judgment-debtor also may inform the Court of such payment or adjustment, and apply to the Court to issue a notice to the decreeholder to show cause, on a day to be fixed by the Court, why such payment or adjustment should not be recorded as certified; and if, after service of such notice, the decree-holder fails to show cause why the payment or adjustment should not be recorded as certified, the Court record the same accordingly.(2A) No payment or adjustment shall be recorded at the instance of the judgment-debtor unless. —
(a) the payment is made in the manner provided in rule 1; or
(b) the payment or adjustment is proved by documentary evidence; or
(c) the payment or adjustment is admitted by, or on behalf of, the decree-holder in his reply to the notice given under sub-rule (2) of rule 1, on before the Court.
(3) A payment or adjustment, which has not been certified or recorded as aforesaid, shall not be recognized by any Court executing the decree.

Courts Executing Decrees

3. Lands situate in more than one jurisdiction. – Where immovable property forms one estate or tenure situate within the local limits of jurisdiction of two or more Court, any one of such Courts may attach and sell the entire estate or tenure.4. Transfer to Court of Small Causes. – Where a decree has been passed in a suit of which the value as set forth in the plaint did not exceed two thousand rupees and which, as regards its subject-matter, is not excepted by the law for the time being in force from the cognizance of either a Presidency or a Provincial Court of Small Causes, and the Court which passed it wishes it to be executed in Calcutta, Madras or Bombay, such Court may send to the Court of Small Causes in Calcutta, Madras or Bombay, as the case may be, the copies and certificates mentioned in rule 6; and such Court of Small Causes shall thereupon execute the decree as if it had been passed by itself.

5. Mode of transfer. — Where a decree is to be sent for execution to another Court, the Court which passed such decree shall send the decree directly to such other Court whether or not such Court is situated in the same State, but the Court to which the decree is sent for execution shall, if it has no jurisdiction to execute the decree, send it to the Court having such jurisdiction.6. Procedure where Court desires that its own decree shall be executed by another Court. – The Court sending a decree for execution shall send—
(a) a copy of the decree;
(b) a certificate setting forth that satisfaction of the decree has not been obtained by execution within the jurisdiction of the Court by which it was passed, or, where the decree has been executed in part, the extent to which satisfaction has been obtained and what part of the decree remains unsatisfied; and
(c) a copy of any order for the execution of the decree, or, if no such order has been made, a certificate to that effect.

7. Court receiving copies of decree, etc. to file same without proof. – The Court to which a decree is so sent shall cause such copes and certificates to be filed, without any further proof of the decree or order for execution, or of the copies thereof, unless the Court, for any special reasons to be recorded under the hand of the Judge, requires such proof.

8. Execution of decree or order by Court to which it is sent. – Where such copies are so filed, the decree or order may, if the Court to which it is sent is the District Court, be executed by such or be transferred for execution to any subordinate Court of competent jurisdiction.

9. Execution of High Court of decree transferred by other Court. – Where the Court to which the decree is sent for execution is a High Court, the decree shall be executed by such Court in the same manner as if it had been passed by such Court in exercise of its ordinary original civil jurisdiction.
Application For Execution

10. Application for execution. – Where the holder of a decree desires to execute it, he shall apply to the Court which passed the decree or to the officer (if any) appointed in this behalf, or if the decree has been sent under the provisions hereinbefore contained to another Court then to such Court or to the proper officer thereof.

11. Oral application. – (1) Where a decree is for the payment of money the Court may, on the oral application of the decree-holder at the time of passing of the decree, order immediate execution thereof by the arrest of the judgment-debtor, prior to the preparation of a warrant if he is within the precincts of the Court.(2) Written application.—Save as otherwise provided by sub-rule(1), every application for the execution of a decree shall be in writing, signed and verified by the applicant or by some other person proved to the satisfaction of the Court to be acquainted with the facts of the case, and shall contain in a tabular form the following particulars, namely—
(a) the number of the suit;
(b) the names of the parties;
(c) the date of the decree;
(d) whether any appeal has been preferred from the decree;
(e) whether any, and (if any) what, payment or other adjustment of the matter in controversy has been made between the parties subsequently to the decree;
(f) whether any, and (if any) what, previous applications have been made for the execution of the decree, the dates of such applications and their results;
(g) the amount with interest (if any) due upon the decree, or other relief granted thereby, together with particulars of any cross-decree, whether passed before or after the date of the decree sought to be executed;
(h) the amount of the costs (if any) awarded;
(i) the name of the person against whom execution of the decree is sought; and
(j) the mode in which the assistance of the Court is required whether—
(i) by the delivery of any property specifically decreed;
(ii) by the attachment, or by the attachment and sale, or by the sale without attachment, of any property;
(iii) by the arrest and detention in prison of any person;
(iv) by the appointment of a receiver;
(v) otherwise, as the nature of the relief granted may require.
(3) The Court to which an application is made under sub-rule (2) may require the applicant to produce a certified copy of the decree.

11A . Application for arrest to state grounds. — Where an application is made for the arrest and detention in prison of the judgment-debtor, it shall state, or be accompanied by an affidavit stating, the grounds on which arrest is applied for.12. Application for attachment of movable property not in judgment-debtor’s possession. – Where an application is made for the attachment of any movable property belonging to a judgment-debtor in his possession, the decree-holder shall annex to the application an inventory of the property to be attached, containing a reasonably accurate description of the same.13. Application for attachment of immovable property to contain certain particulars. – Where an application is made for the attachment of any immovable property belonging to a judgment-debtor, it shall contain at the foot—
(a) a description such property sufficient to identify the same and, in case such property can be identified by boundaries or numbers in a record of settlement or survey, a specification of such boundaries or numbers; and
(b) a specification of the judgment-debtor’s share or interest in such property to the best of the belief of the applicant, and so far as he has been able to ascertain the same.

14. Power to require certified extract from Collector’s register in certain cases. – Where an application is made for the attachment of any land which is registered in the office of the Collector, the Court may require the applicant to produce a certified extract from the register of such office, specifying the persons registered as proprietors of, or as possessing any transferable interest in, the land or its revenue, or as liable to pay revenue for the land, and the shares of the registered proprietors.

15. Application for execution by joint decree-holders. – (1) Where a decree has been passed jointly in favour of more persons than one, any one or more such persons may, unless the decree imposes any condition to the contrary, apply for the execution of the whole decree for the benefit of them all, or, where of them has died, for the benefit of the survivors and the legal representatives of the deceased.(2) Where the Court sees sufficient cause for allowing the decree to be executed on an application made under this rule, it shall make such order as it deems necessary for protecting the interest of the persons who have not joined in the application.

16. Application for execution by transferee of decree. – Where a decree or, if a decree has been passed jointly in favour of two or more persons, the interest of any decree-holder in the decree in transferred by assignment in writing or by operation of law, the transferee may apply for execution of the decree to the Court which passed if, and the decree may be executed in the same manner and subject to the same conditions as if the application were made by such decree-holder :Provided also that, where the decree, or such interest as aforesaid, has been transferred by assignment, notice of such application shall be given to the transferor and the judgment-debtor, and the decree shall not be executed until the Court has heard their objections (if any) to its execution :Provided also that, where a decree for the payment of money against two or more persons has been transferred to one of them, it shall not be executed against the others.

Explanation.—Nothing in this rule shall affect the provisions of section 146, and a transferee of rights in the property, which is the subject matter of the suit, may apply for execution of the decree without a separate assignment of the decree as required by this rule.

17. Procedure on receiving application for execution of decree. – (1) On receiving an application for the execution of a decree as provided by rule 11, sub-rule (2), the Court shall ascertain whether such of the requirement’s of rules 11 to 14 as may be applicable to the case have been complied with; and if, they have not been complied with, the Court shall allow the defect to be remedied then and there or within a time to be fixed by it.(1-A) If the defect is not so remedied, the Court shall reject the application:
Provided that where, in the Court, there is some inaccuracy as to the amount referred to in clauses (g) and
(h) of sub-rule (2) of rule 11, the Court, instead of rejecting the application, decide provisonally (without prejudice to the right of the parties to have the amount finally decided in the course of the proceedings) the amount and make an order for the execution of the decree for the amount so provisionally decided.
(2) Where an application is amended under the provisions of sub-rule (1), it shall be deemed to have been an application in accordance with law and presented on the date when it was first presented.(3) Every amendment made under this rule shall be signed or initialled by the Judge.(4) When the application is admitted, the Court shall enter in the proper register a note of the application and the date on which it was made, and shall, subject to the provisions hereinafter contained, order execution of the decree according to the nature of the application:Provided that, in the case of a decree for the payment of money, the value of the property attached shall, as nearly as may be, correspond with the amount due under the decree.

18. Execution in case of cross-decrees. – (1) Where applications are made to a Court for the execution of cross-decrees in separate suits for the payment of two sums of money passed between the same parties and capable of execution at the same time by such Court, then—
(a) if the two sums are equal, satisfaction shall be entered upon both decrees; and
(b) if the two sums are unequal execution may be taken out only by the holder of the decree for the larger sum and for so much only as remains after deducting the smaller sum, and satisfaction for the smaller sum shall be entered on the decree for the larger sum as well as satisfaction on the decree for the smaller sum.
(2) This rule shall be deemed to apply where either party is an assignee of one of the decrees and as well in respect of judgment-debts due by the original assignor as in respect of judgment-debts due by the assignee himself.(3) This rule shall not be deemed to apply unless—
(a) the decree holder in one of the suits which the decrees have been made is the judgment-debtor in the other and each party files the same character in both suits; and
(b) the sums due under the decrees are definite.
(4) The holder of a decree passed against several persons jointly and severally my treat is as a cross-decree in relation to a decree against him singly in favour of one or more of such persons.

Illustrations
(a) A holds a decree against B for Rs. 1,000. B holds a decree against A for the payment of Rs. 1,000 in case A fails to deliver certain goods at a future day. B cannot treat his decree as a cross-decree under this rule.
(b) A and B, co-plaintiffs, obtain a decree for Rs. 1,000 against C, and C obtain a decree for Rs. 1,000 1,000 against B. C cannot treat his decree as a cross-decree under this rule.
(c) A obtains a decree against B for Rs. 1,000 C, who is a trustee for B, obtains a decree on behalf of B against A for Rs. 1,000 B cannot treat C’s decree as a cross-decree under this rule.
(d) A, B, C, D and E are jointly and severely liable for Rs. 1,000 under a decree obtained by F. A obtains a decree for Rs. 1,000 against F singly and applies for execution to the Court in which the joint-decree is being executed. F may treat his joint-decree as cross-decree under this rule.

19. Execution in case of cross-claims under same decree. – Where application is made to a Court for the execution of a decree under which two parties are entitled to recover sums of money from each other, then—
(a) if the two sums are equal, satisfaction for both shall be entered upon the decree; and
(b) if the two sums are unequal, execution may be taken out only by the party entitled to the larger sum and for so much only as remains after deducting the smaller sum, and satisfaction for the smaller sum shall be entered upon the decree.
20. Cross-decrees and cross-claims in mortgage-suits. – The provisions contained in rules 18 and 19 shall apply to decrees for sale in enforcement of a mortgage or charge.
21. Simultaneous execution. – The Court may, in its discretion, refuse execution at the same time against the person and property of the judgment-debtor.

22. Notice to show cause against execution in certain cases. – (1) Where an application for execution is made,—

(a) more than two years after the date of the decree, or
(b) against the legal representative of a party to the decree or where an application is made for execution of a decree filed under the provisions of section 44A, or
(c) against the assignee or receiver in insolvency, where the party to the decree has been adjudged to be an insolvent,

91 the Court executing the decree shall issue a notice to the person against whom execution is applied for requiring him to show cause, on a date to be fixed, why the decree should not be executed against him :Provided that no such notice shall be necessary in consequence of more than two years having elapsed between the date of the decree and the application for execution if the application is made within two years from the date of the last order against the party against whom execution is applied for, made on any previous application for execution, or in consequence of the application being made against the legal representative of the judgment-debtor if upon a previous application for execution against the same person the Court has ordered execution to issue against him.(2) Nothing in the foregoing sub-rule shall be deemed to preclude the Court from issuing any process in execution of a decree without issuing the notice thereby prescribed, if, for reasons to be recorded, it considers that the issue of such notice would cause unreasonable delay or would defeat the ends of justice.

22A . Sale not to be set aside on the death of the judgment-debtor before the sale but after the service of the proclamation of sale. — Where any property is sold in execution of a decree, the sale shall not be set aside merely by reason of the death of the judgment-debtor between the date of issue of the proclamation of sale and the date of the sale notwithstanding the failure of the decree-holder to substitute the legal representative of such deceased judgment-debtor, but, in case of such failure, the Court may set aside the sale if it is satisfied that the legal representative of the deceased judgment-debtor has been prejudiced by the sale.23. Procedure after issue of notice. – (1) Where the person to whom notice is issued under rule 22 does not appear or does not show cause to the satisfaction of the Court why the decree should not be executed the Court shall order the decree to be executed.(2) Where such person offers any objection to the execution of the decree, the Court shall consider such objection and make such order as it thinks fit.

Process For Execution

24. Process for execution. – (1) When the preliminary measures (if any) required by the foregoing rules have been taken, the Court shall, unless it sees cause to the contrary, issue its process for the execution of the decree.(2) Every such process shall bear date the day on which it is issued, and shall be signed by the Judge or such officer as the Court may appoint in this behalf, and shall be sealed with the seal of the Court and delivered to the proper officer to be executed.(3)In every such process, a day shall be specified on or before which it shall be executed and a day shall also be specified on or before which it shall be returned to the Court, but no process shall be deemed to be void if no day for its return is specified therein.

25. Endorsement on process. – (1) The officer entrusted with the execution of the process shall endorse thereon the day on, and the manner in which it was executed, and, if the latest day specified in the process for the return thereof has been exceeded, the reason of the delay, or, if it is executed, the reason why it was not executed, and shall return the process with such endorsement to the Court.(2) Where the endorsement is to the effect that such officer is unable to execute the process, the Court shall examine him touching his alleged inability, and may, if it thinks fit, summon and examine witnesses as to such inability, and shall record the result.

Stay Of Execution

26. When Court may stay execution. – (1) the Court to which a decree has been sent for execution shall, upon sufficient cause being shown, stay the execution of such decree for a reasonable time, to enable the judgment-debtor to apply to the Court by which the decree was passed, or to any Court having appellate jurisdiction in respect of the decree or the execution thereof, for an order to stay execution, or for any other order relating to the decree or execution which might have been made by such Court of first instance or Appellate Court if execution had been issued thereby, or if application for execution had been made thereto.(2) Where the property or person of the judgment-debtor has been seized under an execution, the Court which issued the execution may order the restitution of such property or the discharge of such person pending the result of the application.(3) Power to require security from, or impose conditions upon, judgment-debtor—Before making an order to stay execution, or for the restitution of property or the discharge of the judgment-debtor, the Court shall require such security from, or impose such conditions upon, the judgment-debtor as it thinks fit.

27. Liability of judgment-debtor discharged. – No order of restitution or discharge under rule 26 shall prevent the property or person of a judgment-debtor from being retaken in execution of the decree sent for execution.
28. Order of Court which passed decree or of Appellate Court to be binding upon Court applied to. – Any order of the Court by which the decree was passed, or of such Court of appeal as aforesaid, in relation to the execution of such decree, shall be binding upon the Court to which the decree was sent for execution.

29. Stay of execution pending suit between decree-holder and judgment-debtor. – Where a suit is pending in any Court against the holder of a decree of such Court or of a decree which is being executed by such Court, on the part of the person against whom the decree was passed, the Court may, on such terms as to security or otherwise, as it thinks fit, stay execution of the decree until the pending suit has been decided :Provided that if the decree is one for payment of money, the Court shall, if it grants stay without requiring security, record its reasons for so doing.

Mode Of Execution

30. Decree for payment of money. – Every decree for the payment of money, including a decree for the payment of money as the alternative to some other relief, may be executed by the detention in the civil prison of the judgment-debtor, or by the attachment and sale of his property, or by both.

31. Decree for specific movable property. – (1) Where the decree is for any specific movable, or for any share in a specific movable, it may be executed by the seizure, if practicable, of the movable or share, and by the delivery thereof to the party to whom it has been adjudged, or to such person as he appoints to receive delivery on his behalf, or by the detention in the civil prison of the judgment-debtor, or by the attachment of his property, or by both.(2) Where any attachment under sub-rule (1) has remained in force for three months if the judgmentdebtor has not obeyed the decree and the decree-holder has applied to have the attached property sold, such property may be sold, and out of the proceeds the Court may award to the decree-holder, in cases where any amount has been fixed by the decree to be paid as an alternative to delivery of movable property, such amount, and, in other cases, such compensation as it thinks fit, and shall pay the balance (if any) to the judgment-debtor on his application.(3) Where the judgment-debtor has obeyed the decree and paid all costs of executing the same which he is bound to pay, or where, at the end ofthree months from the date of attachment, no application to have the property sold has been made, or, if made, has been refused, the attachment shall cease.

32. Decree for specific performance for restitution of conjugal rights, or for an injunction. – (1) Where the party against whom a decree for the specific performance of a contract, or for restitution of conjugal rights, or for an injunction, has been passed, has had an opportunity of obeying the decree and has wilfully failed to obey it, the decree may be enforced in the case of a decree for restitution of conjugal rights by the attachment of his property or, in the case of a decree for the specific performance of a contract or for an injunction by his detention in the civil prison, or by the attachment of his property, or by both.
(2) Where the party against whom a decree for specific performance or for an injunctions been passed is a corporation, the decree may be enforced by the attachment of the property of the corporation or, with the leave of the Court by the detention in the civil prison of the directors or other principal officers thereof, or by both attachment and detention.
(3) Where any attachment under sub-rule (1) or sub-rule (2) has remained in force for six months if the judgment-debtor has not obeyed the decree and the decree-holder has applied to have the attached property sold, such property may be sold; and out of the proceeds the Court may award to the decree-holder such compensation s it thinks fit, and shall pay the balance (if any) to the judgment-debtor on his application.
(4) Where the judgment-debtor has obeyed the decree and paid all costs of executing the same which he is bound to pay, or here, at the end ofsix months from the date of the attachment, no application to have the property sold has been made, or if made has been refused, the attachment shall cease.
(5) Where a decree for the specific performance of a contract or for an injunction has not been obeyed, the Court may, in lieu of or in addition to all or any of the processes aforesaid, direct that the act required to be done may be done so far as practicable by the decree-holder or some other person appointed by the Court, at the cost of the judgment-debtor, and upon the act being done the expenses incurred may be ascertained in such manner as the Court may direct and may be recovered as if they were included in the decree.
Explanation.-For the removal of doubts, it is hereby declared that the expression “the act required to be done” covers prohibitory as well as mandatory injunction.

33. Discretion of Court in executing decrees for restitution of conjugl rights. – (1) Notwithstanding anything in rule 32, the Court, either at the time of passing a decree agaisnt a husband for the restitution of conjugal rights or at any time afterwards, may order that the decree shall be executed in the manner provided in this rule.(2) Where the Court has made an order under sub-rule (1) ***, it may order that, in the event of the decree not being obeyed within such period as may be fixed in this behalf, the judgment-debtor shall make to the decree-holder such periodical payments as may be just, and, if it thinks fit, require that the judgment-debtor shall, to its satisfaction, secure to the decree-holder such periodical payments.(3) The Court may from time to time vary or modify any order made under sub-rule (2) for the periodical payment of money, either by altering the times of payment or by increasing or diminishing the amount, or may temporilay suspend the same as to the whole or any part of the money so ordered to be paid, and again review the same, either wholly or in part as it may think just.(4) Any money ordered to be paid under this rule may be recovered as though it were payble under a decree for the payment of money.

34. Decree for executin of document, or endoresment of negotiable instrument. – (1) Where a decree is for the execution of a document or for the endorsement for a negotiable instrument and the judgment-debtor neglects or refuses to obey the decree, the decree-holder may prepare a draft of the document or endoresement in accordance with the terms of the decree and delvier the same to the Court.(2) The Court shall thereupon cause the draft to beserved on the judgment-debtor together with a notice requiring his objections (if any) to be made within such time as the Cout fixes in this behalf.(3) Where the judgment-debtor object tot he draft, his objections shall be stated in writing within such time, and the court shall make such order approving or altering the draft, as it thinks fit.(4) The decree-holder shall deliver to the Court a copy of the draft with such alterations (if any) as the Court may have directed upon the proper stamp-paper if a stamp is required by the law for the time being in force; and the Judge or such officer as may be appointed in this behalf shall execute the document so delivered.(5) The execution of a document or the endorsement of a negotiable instrument under this rule may be in the following form, namely :—”C.D., Judge of the Court of(or as the case may be), for A.B. in suit by E.F. against A.B.”and shall have the same effect as the execution of the document or the endorsement of the negotiable instrument by the party ordered to execute or endorese the same.
(6) (a) Where the registration of the document is required under any law for the time being in force, the Court, or such officer of the court as may be authorised in this behalf by the Court, shall cause the document to be registered in accordance with such law.
(b) Where the registration of the doucment is not so required, but the decree-holder desires it to be registered, the Court may make such order as it thinks fit.
(c) Where the Court makes any order for the registration of any document, it may make such order as it thinkgs fit as to the expenses of registration.
35. Decree for immovable property. – (1) Where a decree is for the delivery of any immovable property, possession thereof shall be delviered to the party to whom it has been adjudged, or to such person as he may appoint to receive delivery on his behalf, and, if necessary, by removing any person bound by the decree who refuses to vacate the property.
(2) Where a decree is for the joint possession of immovable property, such possession shall be delivered by afixing a copy of the warrant in some conspicuous place on the property and proclamining the beat of drum, or other customary mode, at some convenient place, the substance of the decree.
(3) Where possession of any building on enclosure is to be delivered and the person in possession, being bound by the decree, does not afford free access, the Court, through its officers, may, after giving reasonable warning and facility to any woman not appearing in public according to the customs of the country to withdraw, remove or open any lock or bolt or break open any door or do any other act necessary for putting the decree-holder in possession.

36. Decree for delivery of immovable property when in occupancy of tenant. – Where a decree is for the delivery of any immovable property in the occupancy of a tenant or other person entitled to occupy the same and not bound by the decree to relinguish such occupancy, the Court shall order delivery to be made by affixing a copy of the warrant in some conspicuous place on the property, and proclaiming to the occupant by beat of drum or other customary mode, at some convenient place, the substance of the decree in regard to the property.

Arrest And Detention In The Civil Prison

37. Discretionary power to permit judgment debtor to show cause against detention in prison. – (1)Notwithstanding anything in these rules, where an application is for the execution of a decree for the payment of money by the arrest and detention in the civil prison of a judgment-debtor who is liable to be arrested in pursuance of the application, the Court shall, instead of issuing a warrant for his arrest, issue a notice calling upon him to appear before the Court on a day to be specified in the notice and show cause why he should not be committed to the civil prison:Provided that such notice shall not be necessary if the Court is satisfied, by affidavit, or otherwise, that, with the object or effect of delaying the execution of the decree,the judgment-debtor is likely to abscond or leave the local limits of the jurisdiction of the Court.(2) Where appearance is not made in obedience to the notice, the Court shall, if th decree-holder so requires, issue a warrant for the arrest of the judgment-debtor.

38. Warrant for arrest to direct judgment-debtor to be brought up. – Every warrant for the arrest of a judgment-debtor shall direct the officer entrusted with its execution to bring him before the Court with all convenient speed, unless the amount which he has been ordered to pay, together with the interest thereon and the costs (if any) to which he is liable, be sooner paid.

39. Subsistence allowance. – (1) No judgment-debtor shall be arrested in execution of a decree unless and until the decree-holder into Court such sum as the Judge thinks sufficient for the subsistence of the judgment-debtor from the time of his arrest until he can be brought before the Court.(2) Where a judgment-debtor is committed to the civil prison in execution of a decree, the Court shall fix for his subsistence such monthly allowance as he may be entitled to according to the seales fixed under section 57, or, where no such scales have been fixed, as it considers sufficient with reference to the class to which he belongs.(3) The monthly allowance fixed by the Court shall be supplied by the party on whose application the judgment-debtor has been arrested by monthly payments in advance before the first day of each month.(4) The first payment shall be made to the proper officer of the Court for such portion of the current month as remains unexpired before the judgment-debtor is committed to the civil prison, and the subsequent payments (if any) shall be made to the officer in charge of the civil prison.(5) Sums disbursed by the decree-holder for the subsistence of the judgment-debtor in the civil prison shall be deemed to be costs in the suit :Provided that the judgment-debtor shall not be detained in the civil prison or arrested on account of any sum so disbursed.

40. Proceedings on appearance of judement-debtor in obedience to notice or after arrest. – (1) When a judgment-debtor appears before the Court in obedience to a notice issued under rule 37, or is brought before the Court after being arrested in execution of a decree for the payment of money, the Court shall proceed to hear the decree-holder and take all such evidence as may be produced by him in support of his application for execution and shall then give the judgment-debtor an opportunity of showing cause why he should not be committed to the civil prison.(2) Pending the conclusion of the inquiry under sub-rule (1) the Court may, in its discretion, order the judgment-debtor to be detained in the custody of an officer of the Court or release him on his furnishing security to the satisfaction of the Court for his appearance when required.(3) Upon the conclusion of the inquiry under sub-rule (1) the Court may, subject to the provisions of section 51 and to the other provisions of the Code, make an order for the detention of the judgment-debtor in the civil prison and shall in that event cause him to be arrested if he is not already under arrest:Provided that in order to give the judgment-debtor an opportunity of satisfying the decree, the Court may, before making the order of detention, leave the judgment-debtor in the custody of an officer of the Court for a specified period not exceeding fifteen days or release him on his furnishing security to the satisfaction of the Court for his appearance at the expiration of the specified period if the decree be not sooner satisfied.(4) A judgment-debtor released under this rule may be re-arrested.(5) When the Court does not make an order of detention under sub-rule (3), it shall disallow the application and, if the judgment-debtor is under arrest, direct his release.

Attachment Of Property

41. Examination of judgment-debtor as to his property. – (1) Where a decree is for the payment of money the decree-holder may apply to the Court for an order that—
(a) The judgment-debtor, or
(b) where the judgment-debtor is a corporation, any officer thereof, or
(c) any other person, be orally examined as to whether any or what debts are owing to the judgment-debtor and whether the judgment-debtor has any and what other property or means of satisfying the decree; and the Court may make an order for the attendance and examination of such judgment-debtor, or officer or other person, and for the production of any books or documents.
(2) Where a decree for the payment of money has remained unsatisfied for a period of thirty days, the Court may, on the application of the decree-holder and without prejudice to its power under sub-rule (1), by order require the judgment-debtor or where the judgment-debtor is a corporation, any officer thereof, to make an affidavit stating the particulars of the assets of the judgment-debtor.(3) In case of disobedience of any order made under sub-rule (2), the Court making the order, or any Court to which the proceeding is transferred, may direct that the person disobeying the order be detained in the civil prison for a term not exceeding three months unless before the expiry of such term the Court directs his release.
42. Attachment in case of decree for rent or mesne profits or other matter, amount of which to be subsequently determined. – Where a decree directs an inquiry as to rent or mesne profits or any other matter, the property of the judgment-debtor may, before the amount due from him has been ascertained, be attached, as in the case of an ordinary decree for the payment of money.
43. Attachment of movable property, other than agricultural produce, in possession of judgment-debtor. -Where the property to be attached is movable property, other than agricultural produce, in the possession of the judgment-debtor, the attachment shall be made by actual seizure, and the attaching officer shall keep the property in his own custody or in the custody of one of his subordinates, and shall be responsible for the due custody thereof:
Provided that, when the property seized is subject to speedy and natural decay, or when the expense of keeping it in custody is likely to exceed its value, the attaching officer may sell it at once.

43A . Custody of movable property. — (1) Where the property attached consists of live-stock, agricultural implements or other articles which cannot conveniently be removed and the attaching officer does not act under the proviso to rule 43, he may, at the instance of the judgment-debtor or of the decreeholder or of any other person claiming to be interested in such property, leave it in the village or place where it has been attached, in the custody of any respectable person (hereinafter referred to as the “custodian”).
(2) If the custodian fails, after due notice, to produce such property at the place named by the Court before the officer deputed for the purpose or to restore it to the person in whose favour restoration is ordered by the Court, or if the property, though so produced or restored, is not in the same condition as it was when it was entrusted to him,—
(a) the custodian shall be liable to pay compensation to the decree-holder, judgment-debtor or any other person who is found to be entitled to the restoration thereof, for any loss or damage cause by his default; and
(b) such liability may be enforced—
(i) at the instance of the decree-holder, as if the custodian were a surety under section 145;
(ii) at the instance of the judgment-debtor or such other person, on an application in execution; and
(c) any order determining such liability shall be appealable as a decree.

44. Attachment of agricultural produce. – Where the property to be attached is agricultural produce, the attachment shall be made by affixing a copy of the warrant of attachment,—
(a) where such produce is a growing crop, on the land on which such crop has grown, or
(b) where such produce has been cut or gathered, on the threshing floor or place for treading out grain or the like or fodder-stack on or in which it is deposited, and another copy on the outer door or on some other conspicuous part of the house in which the judgmentdebtor ordinarily resides or, with the leave of the Court, on the outer door or on some other conspicuous part of the house in which he carries on business or personally works for gain or in which he is known to have last resided or carried on business or personally worked for gain; and the produce shall thereupon be deemed to have passed into the possession of the Court.

45. Provisions as to agricultural produce under attachment. – (1) Where agricultural produce is attached, the Court shall make such arrangements for the custody thereof as it may deem sufficient and, for the purpose of enabling the Court to make such arrangements, every application for the attachment of a growing crop shall specify the time at which it is likely to be fit to be cut or gathered.(2) Subject to such conditions as may be imposed by the Court in this behalf either in the order of attachment or in any subsequent order, the judgment-debtor may tend, cut, gather and store the produce and do any other act necessary for maturing or preserving it; and if the judgment-debtor fails to do all or any of such acts, the decree-holder may, with the permission of the Court and subject to the like conditions, do all or any of them either by himself or by any person appointed by him in this behalf and the costs incurred by the decree-holder shall be recoverable from the judgment-debtor as if they were included in, or formed part of, the decree.(3) Agricultural produce attached as a growing crop shall not be deemed to have ceased to be under attachment or to require re-attachment merely because it has been severed from the soil.(4) Where an order for the attachment of a growing crop has been made at a considerable time before the crop is likely to be fit to be cut or gathered, the Court may suspend the execution of the order for such time as it thinks fit, and may, in its discretion, make a further order prohibiting the removal of the crop pending the execution of the order of attachment.(5) A growing crop which from its nature does not admit of being stored shall not be attached under the rule at any time less than twenty days before the time at which it is likely to be fit to be cut or gathered.

46. Attachment of debt, share and other property not in possession of Judgment-debtor . – (1) In the case of—
(a) a debt not secured by a negotiable instrument,
(b) a share in the capital of a corporation,
(c) other movable property not in the possession of the judgment-debtor, except property deposited in, or in the custody of, any Court, the attachment shall be made by a written order prohibiting,—
(i) in the case of the debt, the credit or from recovering the debt and the debtor from making payment thereof until the further order of the Court;
(ii) in the case of the share, the person in whose name the share may be standing from transferring the same or receiving any dividend thereon;
(iii) in the case of the other movable property except as aforesaid, the person in possession of the same from giving it over to the judgment-debtor.
(2) A copy of such order shall be affixed on some conspicuous part of the court-house, and another copy shall be sent in the case of the debt, to the debtor, in the case of the share, to the proper officer of the corporation and, in the case of the other movable property (except as aforesaid), to the person in possession of the same.(3) A debtor prohibited under clause (i) of sub-rule (1) may pay the amount of his debt into Court, and such payment shall discharge him as effectually as payment to the party entitled to receive the same.46A. Notice to garnishee. — (1) The Court may in the case of a debt (other than a debt secured by a mortgage or a charge) which has been attached under rule 46, upon the application of the attaching creditor, issue notice to the garnishee liable to pay such debt, calling upon him either to pay into Court the debt due from him to the judgment-debtor or so much thereof as may be sufficient to satisfy the decree and costs of execution, or to appear and show cause why he should not do so.(2) An application under sub-rule (l) shall be made on affidavit verifying the facts alleged and stating that in the belief of the deponent, the garnishee is indebted to the judgment-debtor.(3) Where the garnishee pays in the Court the amount due from him to the judgment-debtor or so much thereof as is sufficient to satisfy the decree and the costs of the execution, the Court may direct that the amount may be paid to the decree-holder towards satisfaction of the decree and costs of the execution.

46B . Order against garnishee. – Where the garnishee does not forthwith pay into Court the amount due from him to the judgment-debtor or so much thereof as is sufficient to satisfy the decree and the costs of execution, and does not appear and show cause in answer to the notice, the Court may order the garnishee to comply with the terms of such notice, and on such order, execution may issue as though such order were a decree against him.46C . Trial of disputed questions. – Where the garnishee disputes liability, the Court may order that any issue or question necessary for the determination of liability shall be tried as if it were an issue in a suit, and upon the determination of such issue shall make such order or orders as it deems fit:Provided that if the debt in respect of which the application under rule 46A is made is in respect of a sum of money beyond the pecuniary jurisdiction of the Court, the Court shall send the execution case to the Court of the District Judge to which the said Court is subordinate, and thereupon the Court of the District Judge or any other competent Court to which it may be transferred by the District Judge shall deal with it in the same manner as if the case had been originally instituted in that Court.46D . Procedure where debt belongs to third person. – Where it is suggested or appears to be probable that the debt belongs to some third person, or that any third person has a lien or charge on, or other interest in such debt, the Court may order such third person to appear and state the nature and particulars of his claim, if any, to such debt and prove the same.46E . Order as regards third person. – After hearing such third person and any person or persons who any subsequently be ordered to appear, or where such third or other person or persons do not appear when so ordered, the Court may make such order as is hereinbefore provided, or such other order or orders upon such terms, if any, with respect to the lien, charge or interest, as the case may be, of such third or other person or persons as it may deem fit and proper.46F . Payment by garnishee to be valid discharge. – Payment made by the garnishee on notice under rule 46A or under any such order as aforesaid shall be a valid discharge to him as against the judgment-debtor and any other person ordered to appear as aforesaid for the amount paid or levied, although the decree in execution of which the application under rule 46A was made, or the order passed in the proceedings on such application may be set aside or reversed.
46G . Costs. – The costs of any application made under rule 46A and of any proceeding arising therefrom or incidental thereto shall be in the discretion of the Court.
46H . Appeals. – An order made under rule 46B, rule 46C or rule 46E shall be appealable as a decree.46I . Application to negotiable instruments. – The provisions of rule 46A to 46H (both inclusive) shall, so far as may be, apply in relation to negotiable instruments attached under rule 51 as they apply in relation to debts.

47. Attachment of share in movables. – Where the property to be attached consists of the share or interest of the judgment-debtor in movable property belonging to him and another as co-owners, the attachment shall be made by a notice to the judgment-debtor prohibiting him from transferring the share or interest or charging it in any way.
48. Attachment of salary or allowances of servant of the Government or railway company or local authority. -(1) Where the property to be attached is the salary or allowances of a servant of the Government or of a servant of a railway company or local authority or of a servant of a corporation engaged in any trade or industry which is established by a Central, Provincial or State Act, or a Government company as defined in section 617 of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956) the Court, whether the judgment-debtor or the disbursing officer is or is not within the local limits of the Court’s jurisdiction, may order that the amount shall, subject to the provisions of section 60, be withheld from such salary or allowances either in one payment or by monthly instalments as the Court may direct; and, upon notice of the order to such officer as the appropriate Government may be notification in the Official Gazette appoint in this behalf,—
(a) where such salary or allowances are to be disbursed within the local limits to which this Code for the time being extends, the officer or other person whose duty it is to disburse the same shall withhold and remits to the Court the amount due under the order, or the monthly instalments, as the case may be;
(b) where such salary or allowances are to be disbursed beyond the said limits, the officer or other person within those limits whose duty it is to instruct the disbursing authority regarding the amount of the salary or allowances to the disbursed shall remit to the Court the amount due under the order, or the monthly instalments, as the case may be, and shall direct the disbursing authority to reduce the aggregate of the amounts from time to time, to be disbursed by the aggregate of the amounts from time to time remitted to the Courts.
(2) Where the attachable proportion of such salary or allowances is already being withheld and remitted to a Court in pursuance of a previous and unsatisfied order of attachment, the officer appointed by the appropriate Government in this behalf shall forthwith return the subsequent order to the Court issuing it with a full statement of all the particulars of the existing attachment.
(3) Every order made under this rule, unless it is returned in accordance with the provisions of sub-rule(2) shall, without further notice or other process, bind the appropriate Government or the railway company or local authority or corporation or Government company, as the case may be, while the judgment-debtor is within the local limits to which this Code for the time being extends and while he is beyond those limits, if he is in receipt of any salary or allowances payable out of the Consolidated Fund of India or the consolidated Fund of the State or the funds of a railway company or local authority or corporation or Government Company in India; and the appropriate Government or the railway company or local authority or corporation or Government company, as the case may be, shall be liable for any sum paid in contravention of the rule.
Explanation.—In this rule, “appropriate Government” means,—
(i) as respects any person in the service of the Central Government, or any servant of a railway administration or of a cantonment authority or of the port authority of a major port, or any servant of a corporation engaged in any trade or industry which is established by Central Act, or any servant of a Government company in which any part of the share capital is held by the Central Government or by more than one State Governments or partly by the Central Government and partly by one or more State Governments, the Central Government;
(ii) as respects any other servant of the Government, or a servant of any other local or other authority, or any servant of a corporation engaged in any trade or industry which is established by a Provincial or State Act, or a servant of any other Government company, the State Government.

48A. Attachment of salary or allowances of private employees.— (1) Where the property to be attached is the salary or allowances of an employee other than an employee to whom rule 48 applies, the Court, where the disbursing officer of the employee is within the local limits of the Court’s jurisdiction, may order that the amount shall, subject to the provisions of section 60, be withheld from such salary or allowances either in one payment or by monthly instalments as the Court may direct; and upon notice of the order to such disbursing officer, such disbursing officer shall remit to the Court the amount due under the order, or the monthly instalments, as the case may be.
(2) Where the attachable portion of such salary or allowances is already being withheld or remitted to the Court in pursuance of a previous and unsatisfied order of attachment, the disbursing officer shall forthwith return the subsequent order to the Court issuing it with a full statement of all the particulars of the existing attachment.
(3) Every order made under this rule, unless it is returned in accordance with the provisions of sub-rule (2), shall, without further notice or other process, bind the employer while the judgment-debtors is within the local limits to which this Code for the time being extents and while he is beyond those-limits, if he is in receipt of salary or allowances payable out of the funds of an employer in any part of India; and the employer shall be liable for any sum paid in contravention of this rule.

49. Attachment of partnership property. – (1) Save as otherwise provided by this rule, property belonging to a partnership shall not be attached or sold in execution of a decree other than a decree passed against the firm or against the partners in the firm as such.
(2) The Court may, on the application of the holder of a decree against a partner, make an order charging the interest of such partner in the partnership property, and profits with payment of the amount due under the decree, and may, by the same or a subsequent order, appoint a receiver of the share of such partner in the profits (whether already declared or accruing) and of any other money which may be coming to him in respect of the partnership, and direct accounts and inquiries and make an order for the sale of such interest or other orders as might have been directed or made if a charge had been made in favour of the degreeholder by such partner, or as the circumstances of the case may require.
(3) The other partner or partners shall be at liberty at any time to redeem the interest charged or, in the case of a sale being directed, to purchase the same.
(4) Every application for an order under sub-rule (2) shall be served on the judgment-debtor and on his partners or such of them as are withinIndia.
(5) Every application made by any partner of the judgment-debtor under sub-rule (3) shall be served on the decree-holder and on the judgment-debtor, and on such of the other partners as do not join in the application and as are within India.(6) Service under sub-rule (4) or sub-rule (5) shall be deemed to be service on all the partners and all orders made on such application shall be similarly served.

50. Execution of decree against firm. – (1) Where a decree has been passed against a firm, execution may be granted—
(a) against any property of the partnership;
(b) against any person who has appeared in his own name under rule 6 or rule 7 of Order 30 or who has admitted on the pleadings that he is, or who has been adjudged to be, a partner;
(c) against any person who has been individually served as a partner with a summons and has failed to appear:
Provided that nothing in this sub-rule shall be deemed to limit or otherwise affect the provisions of section 30 of the Indial Partnership Act, 1932 (9 of 1932).(2) Where the decree-holder claims to be entitled to cause the decree to be executed against any person other than such a person as is referred to in sub-rule (1), clauses (b) and (c), as being a partner in the firm he may apply to the Court which passed the decree for leave, and where the liability is not disputed, such court may grant such leave, or, where such liability is disputed, may order that the liability of such person be tried and determined in any manner in which any issue in a suit may be tried and determined.
(3) Where the liability of any person has been tried and determined under sub-rule (2) the order made thereon shall have the same force and be subject to the same conditions as to appeal or otherwise as if it were a decree.
(4) Save as against any property of the partnership, a decree against a firm shall not lease, render liable or otherwise affect any partner therein unless he has been served with a summons to appear and answer.
(5) Nothing in this rule shall apply to a decree passed against a Hindu Undivided Family by virtue of the provision of rule 10 of Order XXX.

51. Attachment of negotiable instruments. – Where the property is a negotiable instrument not deposited in a Court, not in the custody of a public officer, the attachment shall be made by actual seizure, and the instrument shall be brought into Court and held subject to further orders of the Court.

52. Attachment of property in custody of Court or public officer. – Where the property to be attached is in the custody of any Court or public officer, the attachment shall be made by a notice to such Court or officer, requesting that such property, and any interest or dividend becoming payable thereon, may be held subject to the further orders of the Court from which the notice is issued:Provided that, where such property is in the custody of a Court, any question of title or priority arising between the decree-holder and any other person, not being the judgment-debtor, claiming to be interested in such property by virtue of any assignment, attachment or otherwise, shall be determined by such Court.

53. Attachment of decrees. – (1) Where the property to be attached is a decree, either for the payment of money or for sale in enforcement of a mortgage or charge, the attachment shall be made,—
(a) if the decrees were passed by the same Court, then by order of such Court, and
(b) if the decree sought to be attached was passed by another Court, then by the issue to such other Court of a notice by the Court which passed the decree sought to be executed, requesting such other Court to stay the execution of its decree unless and until—
(i) the Court which passed the decree sought to be executed cancels the notice, or
(ii) (a) the holder of the decree sought to be executed, or
(b) his judgment-debtor with the previous consent in writing of such decree-holder, or with the permission of the attaching Court, applies to the Court receiving such notice to execute the attached decree.
(2) Where a Court makes an order under clause (a) of sub-rule (1), or receives an application under subhead (ii) of clause (b) of the said sub-rule, it shall, on the application of the creditor who has attached the decree or his judgment-debtor, proceeds to execute the attached decree and apply the net proceeds in satisfaction of the decree sought to be executed.
(3) The holder of a decree sought to be executed by the attachment of another of decree the nature specified in sub-rule (1) shall be deemed to be the representative of the holder of the attached decree and to be entitled to executive such attached decree in any manner lawful for the holder thereof.
(4) Where the property to be attached in the execution of a decree is a decree other than a decree of the nature referred to in sub-rule (1) the attachment shall be made by a notice by the Court which passed the decree sought to be executed, to the holder of the decree sought to be attached, prohibiting him from transferring or charging the same in any way; and, where such decree has been passed by any other Court, also by sending to such other Court a notice to abstain from executing the decree sought to be attached until such notice is cancelled by the Court from which it was sent.
(5) The holder of a decree attached under this rule shall give the Court executing the decree such information and aid as may reasonably be required.
(6) On the application of the holder of a decree sought to be executed by the attachment of another decree, the Court making an order of attachment under this rule shall give notice of such order to the judgmentdebtor bound by the decree attached; and no payment or adjustment of the attached decree made by the judgment-debtor in contravention of such order with knowledge thereof or after receipt of notice thereof, either through the Court or otherwise, shall be recognized by any Court so long as the attachment remains in force.

54. Attachment of immovable property. – (1) Where the property is immovable, the attachment shall be made by an order prohibiting the judgment-debtor from transferring or charging the property in any way, and all persons from taking any benefit from such transfer or charge.(1A) The order shall also require the judgment-debtor to attend Court on a specified date to take notice of the date to be fixed for settling the terms of the proclamation of sale.(2) The order shall be proclaimed at some place on or adjacent to such property by beat of drum or other customary mode, and a copy of the order shall be affixed on a conspicuous part of the property and then upon a conspicuous part of the court-house, and also, where the property is land paying revenue to the Government in the office of the Collector of the district in which the land is situate and, where the property is land situate in a village, also in the office of the Gram Panchayat, if any, having jurisdiction over that village.

55. Removal of attachment after satisfaction of decree. – Where—
(a) the amount decreed with costs and all charges and expenses resulting from the attachment of any property are paid into Court, or
(b) satisfaction of the decree is otherwise made through the Court or certified to the Court, or
(c) the decree is set aside or reversed, the attachment shall be deemed to be withdrawn, and, in the case of immovable property, the withdrawal shall, if the judgment-debtor so desires, be proclaimed at his expense, and a copy of the proclamation shall be affixed in the manner prescribed by the last preceding rule.

56. Order for payment of coin or currency notes to party entitled under decree. – Where the property attached is current coin or currency notes, the Court may, at any time during the continuance of the attachment, direct that such coin or notes, or a part thereof sufficient to satisfy the decree, be paid over to the party entitled under the decree to receive the same.

57. Determination of attachment. — (1) Where any property has been attached in execution of a decree and the Court, for any reason, passes an order dismissing the application for the execution of the decree, the Court shall direct whether the attachment shall continue or cease and shall also indicate the period up to which such attachment shall continue or the date on which such attachment shall cease.

(2) If the Court omits to give such direction, the attachment shall be deemed to have ceased.
Adjudication of claims and objections

58. Adjudication of claims to, or objections to attachment of, property. – (1) Where any claim is preferred to, or any objection is made to the attachment of, any property attached in execution of a decree on the ground that such property is not liable to such attachment, the Court shall proceed to adjudicate upon the claim or objection in accordance with the provisions herein contained:Provided that no such claim or objection shall be entertained—
(a) where, before the claim is preferred or objection is made, the property attached has already been sold; or
(b) where the Court considers that the claim or objection was designedly or unnecessarily delayed.
(2) All questions (including questions relating to right, title or interest in the property attached) arising between the parties to a proceeding or their representatives under this rule and relevant to the adjudication of the claim or objection, shall be determined by the Court dealing with the claim or objection and not by a separate suit.(3) Upon the determination of the questions referred to in sub-rule (2), the Court shall, in accordance with such determination,—
(a) allow the claim or objection and release the property from attachment either wholly or to such extent as it thinks fit; or
(b) disallow the claim or objection; or
(c) continue the attachment subject to any mortgage, charge or other interest in favour of any person; or
(d) pass such order as in the circumstances of the case it deems fit.
(4) Where any claim or objection has been adjudicated upon under this rule, the order made thereon shall have the same force and be subject to the same conditions as to appeal or otherwise as if it were a decree.(5) Where a claim or an objection is preferred and the Court, under the proviso to sub-rule (1), refuses to entertain it, the party against whom such order is made may institute a suit to establish the right which he claims to the property in dispute; but, subject to the result of such suit, if any, an order so refusing to entertain the claims or objection shall be conclusive.

59. Stay of sale. – Where before the claim was preferred or the objection was made, the property attached had already been advertised for sale, the Court may—
(a) if the property is movable, make an order postponing the sale pending the adjudication of the claim or objection, or
(b) if the property is immovable, make an order that, pending the adjudication of the claim or objection, the property shall not be sold, or, that pending such adjudication, the property may be sold but the sale shall not be confirmed, and any such order may be made subject to such terms and conditions as to security or otherwise as the Court thinks fit.

Sale Genrally

64. Power to order property attached to be sold and proceeds to be paid to person entitled. – Any Court executing a decree may order that any property attached by it and liable to sale, or such portion thereof as may see necessary to satisfy the decree, shall be sold, and that the proceeds of such sale, or a sufficient portion thereof, shall be paid to the party entitled under the decree to receive the same.

65. Sales by whom conducted and how made. – Save as otherwise prescribed, every sale in execution of a decree shall be conducted by an officer of the Court or by such other person as the Court may appoint in this behalf, and shall be made by public auction in manner prescribed.

66. Proclamation of sales by public auction. – (1) Where any property is ordered to be sold by public auction in execution of a decree, the Court shall cause a proclamation of the intended sale to be made in the language of such Court.(2) Such proclamation shall be draw up after notice to the decree-holder and the judgment-debtor and shall state the time and place of sale, and specify as fairly and accurately as possible—
(a) the property to be sold or, where a part of the property would be sufficient to satisfy the decree, such part;
(b) the revenue assessed upon the estate, where the property to be sold is an interest in an estate or in part of an estate paying revenue to the Government;
(c) any incumbrance to which the property is liable;
(d) the amount for the recovery of which the sale is ordered; and
(e) every other thing which the Court considers material for a purchaser to know in order to judge of the nature and value of the property:
Provided that where notice of the date for settling the terms of the proclamation has been given to the judgement-debtor by means of an order under rule 54, it shall not be necessary to give notice under this rule to the judgment-debtor unless the Court otherwise directs:Provided further that nothing in this rule shall be construed as requiring the Court to enter in the proclamation of sale its own estimate of the value of the property, but the proclamation shall include the estimate if any, given, by either or both of the parties.
(3) Every application for an order for sale under this rule shall be accompanied by a statement signed and verified in the manner hereinbefore prescribed for the signing and verification of pleadings and containing, so far as they are known to or can be ascertained by the person making the verification, the matters required by sub-rule (2) to be specified in the proclamation.(4) For the purpose of ascertaining the matters to be specified in the proclamation, the Court may summon any person whom it thinks necessary to summon and may examine him in respect to any such matters and require him to produce any document in his possession or power relating thereto.

67. Mode of making proclamation. – (1) Every proclamation shall be made and published, as nearly as may be, in the manner prescribed by rule 54, sub-rule (2).(2) Where the Court so directs, such proclamation shall also be published in the Official Gazette or in a local newspaper, or in both, and the costs of such publication shall be deemed to be costs of the sale.(3) Where property is divided into lots for the purpose of being sold separately, it shall not be necessary to make a separate proclamation for each lot, unless proper notice of the sale cannot, in the opinion of the Court, otherwise be given.

68. Time of sale. – Save in the case of property of the kind described in the proviso to rule 43, no sale hereunder shall, without the consent in writing of the judgment-debtor, take place until after the expiration of at least fifteen days in the case of immovable property, and of at leastseven days in the case of movable property, calculated from the date on which the copy of the proclamation has been affixed on the court-house of the Judge ordering the sale.
69. Adjournment or stoppage of sale. – (1) The Court may, in its discretion, adjourn any sale hereunder to a specified day and hour, and the officer conducting any such sale may in his discretion adjourn the sale, recording his reasons for such adjournment:Provided that, where the sale is made in, or within the precincts of, the court-house, no such adjournment shall be made without the leave of the Court.(2) Where a sale is adjourned under sub-rule (1) or a longer period than thirty days a fresh proclamation under rule 67 shall be made, unless the judgment-debtor consents to waive it.(3) Every sale be stopped if, before the lot is knocked down, the debt and costs (including the costs of the sale) are tendered to the officer conducting the sale, or proof is given to his satisfaction that the amount of such debt and costs has been paid into the Court which ordered the sale.

70. Saving of certain sales.. – Omitted

71. Defaulting purchaser answerable for loss on re-sale. – Any deficiency of price which may happen on a re-sale by reason of the purchaser’s default, and all expenses attending such re-sale, shall be certified to the Court *** by the officer or other person holding the sale, and shall, at the instance of either the decree-holder or the judgment-debtor, be recoverable from the defaulting purchaser under the provisions relating to the execution of a decree for the payment of money.
72. Decree holder not to bid for or buy property without permission. – (1) No holder of a decree in execution of which property is sold shall, without the express permission of the Court, bid for or purchase the property.(2) Where decree-holder purchases, amount of decree may be taken as payment—Where a decree-holder purchases with such permission, the purchase-money and the amount due on the decree may, subject to the provisions of section 73, be set off against one another, and the Court executing the decree small enter up satisfaction of the decree in whole or in part accordingly.(3) Where a decree-holder purchases, by himself or through another person, without such permission, the Court may, if it thinks fit, on the application of the judgment-debtor or any other person whose interests are affected by the sale, by order set aside the sale; and the costs of such application and order, and any deficiency of price which may happen on the re-sale and all expenses attending it, shall be paid by the decree-holder.

72A . Mortgagee not to bid at sale without the leave of the Court. — (1) Notwithstanding anything contained in rule 72, a mortgagee of immovable property shall not bid for or purchase property sold in execution of a decree on the mortgage unless the Court grants him leave to bid for or purchase the property.(2) If leave to bid is granted to such mortgagee, then the Court shall fix a reserve price as regards the mortgagee, and unless the Court otherwise directs, the reserve price shall be—
(a) not less than the amount then due for principal, interest and costs in respect of the mortgage if the property is sold in one lot; and
(b) in the case of any property sold in lots, not less than such sum as shall appear to the Court to be properly attributable to each lot in relation to the amount then due for principal, interest and costs on the mortgage.
(3) In other respects, the provisions of sub-rules (2) and (3) of rule 72 shall apply in relation to purchase by the decree-holder under that rule.

73. Restriction on bidding or purchase by officers. – No officer or other person having any duty to perform in connection with any sale shall, either directly or indirectly, bid for, acquire or attempt to acquire any interest in the property sold.
Sale Of Movable Property

74. Sale of agricultural produce. – (1) Where the property to be sold is agricultural produce, the sale shall be held,—
(a) if such produce is a growing crop, on or near the land on which such crop has grown, or
(b) if such produce has been cut or gathered, at or near the threshing floor or place for treading out grain or the like or fodder-stack on or in which it is deposited:
Provided that the Court may direct the sale to be held at the nearest place of public resort, if it is of opinion that the produce is thereby likely to sell to greater advantage.(2) Where, on the produce being put up for sale,—
(a) a fair price, in the estimation of the person holding the sale, is not offered for it, and
(b) the owner of the produce or a person authorized to act in his behalf applies to have the sale postponed till next day or, if a market is held at the place of sale, the next market-day, the sale shall be postponed accordingly and shall be then completed, whatever price may be offered for the produce.

75. Special provisions relating to growing crops. – (1) Where the property to be sold is a growing crop and the crop from its nature admits of being stored but has not yet been stored, the day of the sale shall be so fixed as to admit of its being made ready for storing before the arrival of such day, and the sale shall not be held until the crop has been cut or gathered and is ready for storing.(2) Where the crop from its nature does not admit of being stored, it may be sold before it is cut and gathered and the purchaser shall be entitled to enter on the land, and to do all that is necessary for the purpose of tending and cutting or gathering it.

76. Negotiable instruments and shares in corporations. – Where the property to be sold is a negotiable instrument or a share in a corporation, the Court may, instead of directing the sale to be made by public auction, authorize the sale of such instrument or share through a broker.

77. Sale by public auction. – (1) Where movable property is sold by public auction the price of each lot shall be paid at the time of sale or as soon after as the officer or other person holding the sale directs, and in default of payment the property shall forthwith be re-sold.
(2) On payment of the purchase-money, the officer or other person holding the sale shall grant a receipt for the same, and the sale shall become absolute.
(3) Where the movable property to be sold is a share in goods belonging to the judgment-debtor and a coowner, and two or more persons, of whom one is such co-owner, respectively bid the same sum for such property or for any lot, the bidding shall be deemed to be the bidding of the co-owner.

78. Irregularity not to vitiate sale, but any person injured may sue. – No irregularity in publishing or conducting the sale of movable property shall vitiate the sale; but any person sustaining any injury by reason of such irregularity at the hand of any other person may institute a suit against him for compensation or (if such other person is the purchaser) for the recovery of the specific property and for compensation in default of such recovery.

79. Delivery of movable property, debts and shares. – (1) Where the property sold is movable property of which actual seizure has been made, it shall be delivered to the purchaser.
(2) Where the property sold is movable property in the possession of some person other than the judgmentdebtor, the delivery thereof to the purchaser shall be made by giving notice to the person in possession prohibiting him from delivering possession of the property to any person except the purchaser.
(3) Where the property sold is a debt not secured by a negotiable instrument, or is a share in a corporation, the delivery thereof shall be made by a written order of the Court prohibiting the creditor from receiving the debt or any interest thereon, and the debtor from making payment thereof to any person except the purchaser, of prohibiting the person in whose name the share may be standing from making any transfer of the share to any person except the purchaser, or receiving payment of any dividend or interest thereon, and the manager, secretary or other proper officer of the corporation from permitting any such transfer or making any such payment to any person except the purchaser.

80. Transfer of negotiable instruments and shares. – (1) Where the execution of a document or the endorsement of the party in whose name a negotiable instrument or a share in a corporation is standing is required to transfer such negotiable instrument or share, the Judge or such officer as he may appoint in this behalf may execute such document or make such endorsement as may be necessary, and such execution or endorsement shall have the same effect as an execution or endorsement by the party.(2) Such execution or endorsement may be in the following form, namely:—A.B. by C.D. Judge of the Court of (or as the case may be), in a suit by E.F. against A.B.(3) Until the transfer of such negotiable instrument or share, the Court may, by order appoint some person to receive any interest or dividend due thereon and to sign a receipt for the same; and any receipt so signed shall be as valid and effectual for all purposes as if the same had been signed by the party himself.

81. Vesting order in case of other property. – In the case of any movable property not hereinbefore provided for, the Court may make an order vesting such property in the purchaser or as he may direct; and such property shall vest accordingly.

Sale Of Immovable Property

82. What Courts may order sales. – Sales of immovable property in execution of decrees may be ordered by any Court other than a Court of Small Causes.

83. Postponement of sale to enable judgment-debtor to raise amount of decree. – (1)Where an order for the sale of immovable property has been made, if the judgment-debtor can satisfy the Court that there is reason to believe that the amount of the decree may be raised by the mortgage or lease or private sale of such property, or some part thereof, or of any other immovable property of the judgment-debtor, the Court may, on his application, postpone the sale of the property comprised in the order for sale on such terms and for such period as it thinks proper, to enable him to raise the amount.
(2) In such case the Court shall grant a certificate to the judgment-debtor authorizing him within a period to be mentioned therein, and notwithstanding anything contained in section 64, to make the proposed mortgage, lease or sale:Provided that all moneys payable under such mortgage, lease or sale shall be paid, not to the judgmentdebtor, but, save in so far as a decree-holder is entitled to set-off such money under the provisions of rule 72, into Court:
Provided also that not mortgage, lease or sale under this rule shall become absolute until it has been confirmed by the Court.(3) Nothing in this rule shall be deemed to apply to a sale of property directed to be sold in execution of a decree for sale in enforcement of a mortgage of, or charge on, such property.
84. Deposit by purchaser and re-sale on default. – (1) On every sale of immovable property the person declared to be the purchaser shall pay immediately after such declaration a deposit of twenty-five per cent, on the amount of his purchase-money to the officer or other person conducting the sale, and in default of such deposit, the property shall forthwith be re-sold.(2) Where the decree-holder is the purchaser and is entitled to set-off the purchase-money under rule 72, the Court may dispense with the requirements of this rule.

85. Time for payment in full of purchase-money. – The full amount of purchase-money payable shall be paid by the purchaser into Court before the Court closes on the fifteenth day from the sale of the property:Provided, that, in calculating the amount to be so paid into Court, the purchaser shall have the advantage of any set-off to which he may be entitled under rule 72.

86. Procedure in default of payment. – In default of payment within the period mentioned in the last preceding rule, the deposit may, if the Court thinks fit, after defraying the expenses of the sale, be forfeited to the Government, and the property shall be re-sold, and the defaulting purchaser shall forfeit all claim to the property our to any part of the sum for which it may subsequently be sold.
87. Notification on re-sale. – Every re-sale of immovable, property, in default of payment of the purchasemoney within the period allowed for such payment, shall be made after the issue of fresh proclamation in the manner and for the period hereinbefore prescribed for the sale.

88. Bid of co-sharer to have preference. – Where the property sold is a share of undivided immovable property and two or more persons, or whom one is a co-sharer, respectively bid the same sum for such property or for any lot, the bid shall be deemed to be the bid of the co-sharer.
89. Application to set aside sale on deposit. – (1) Where immovable property has been sold in execution of a degree, any person claiming an interest in the property sold at the time of the sale or at the time of making the application, or acting for or in the interest of such person, may apply to have the sale set aside on his deposition in Court,—
(a) for payment to the purchaser, a sum equal to five per cent of the purchase-money, and
(b) for payment, to the decree-holder, the amount specified in the proclamation of sale as that for the recovery of which the sale was ordered less any amount which may, since the date of such proclamation of sale, have been received by the decree-holder.
(2) Where a person applies under rule 90 to set aside the sale of his immovable property, he shall not unless he withdraws his application, be entitled to make or prosecute an application under this rule.(3) Nothing in this rule shall relieve the judgment-debtor from any liability he may be under in respect of costs and interest not covered by the proclamation of sale.

90. Application to set aside sale on ground of irregularity or fraud. — (1) Where any immovable property has been sold in execution of a decree, the decree-holder, or the purchaser, or any other person entitled to share in a rateable distribution of assets, whose interests are affected by the sale, may apply to the Court to set aside the sale on the ground of a material irregularity or fraud in publishing or conduction it.(2) No sale shall be set aside on the ground of irregularity or fraud in publishing or conducting it unless, upon the facts proved, the Court is satisfied that the applicant has sustained substantial injury by reason of such irregularity or fraud.(3) No application to set aside a sale under this rule shall be entertained upon any ground which the applicant could have taken on or before the date on which the proclamation of sale was drawn up.
Explanation.—There mere absence of, or defect in, attachment of the property sold shall not, by itself, be a ground for setting aside a sale under this rule.

91. Application by purchaser to set aside sale on ground of judgment-debtor having no saleable interest. -The purchaser at any such sale in execution of a decree may apply to the Court to set aside the sale, on the ground that the judgment-debtor had no saleable interest in the property sold.

92. Sale when to become absolute or be set aside. – (1) When no application is made under rule 89, rule 90 or rule 91, or where such application is made and disallowed, the Court shall make an order confirming the sale, and thereupon the sale shall become absolute:Provided that, where any property is sold in execution of a decree pending the final disposal of any claim to, or any objection to the attachment of, such property, the Court shall not confirm such sale until the final disposal of such claim or objection.
(2) Where such application is made and allowed, and where, in the case of an application under rule 89, the deposit required by that rule is made within sixty days from the date of sale, or in cases where the amount deposited under rule 89 is found to be deficient owing to any clerical or arithmetical mistake on the part of the depositor and such deficiency has been made good within such time as may be fixed by the Court, the Court shall make an order setting aside the sale:Provided that no order shall be made unless notice of the application has been given to all persons affected thereby.Provided further that the deposit under this sub-rule may be made within sixty days in all such cases where the period of thirty days, within which the deposit had to be made, has not expired before the commencement of the Code of Civil Procedure (Amendment) Act, 2002. (3) No suit to set aside an order made under this rule shall be brought by any person against whom such order is made.(4) Where a third party challenges the judgment-debtor’s title by filing a suit against the auctionpurchaser, the decree-holder and the judgment-debtor shall be necessary parties to the suit.(5) If the suit referred to in sub-rule (4) is decreed, the Court shall direct the decree-holder to refund the money to the auction-purchaser, and where such an order is passed the execution proceeding in which the sale had been held shall, unless the Court directs, be revived at the stage at which the sale was ordered.

93. Return of purchase-money in certain cases. – Where a sale of immovable property is set aside under rule 92, the purchaser shall be entitled to an order for repayment of his purchase-money, with or without interest as the Court may direct, against any person to whom it has been paid.

94. Certificate to purchaser. – Where a sale of immovable property has become absolute, the Court shall grant a certificate specifying the property sold and the name of the person who at the time of sale of is declared to be the purchaser. Such certificate shall bear date the day on which the sale became absolute.

95. Delivery of property in occupancy of judgment-debtor. – Where the immovable property sold is in the occupancy of the judgment-debtor or of some person on his behalf or of some person claiming under a title created by the judgment-debtor subsequently to the attachment of such property and a certificate in respect thereof has been granted under rule 94, the Court shall, on the application of the purchaser, order to delivery to be made by putting such purchaser or any person whom he may appoint to receive delivery on his behalf in possession of the property, and, if need be, by removing any person who refuses to vacate the same.

96. Delivery of property in occupancy of tenant. – Where the property sold is in the occupancy of a tenant or other person entitled to occupy the same and a certificate in respect thereof has been granted under rule 94, the Court shall, on the application of the purchaser, order delivery to be made by affixing a copy of the certificate of sale in some conspicuous place on the property, and proclaiming to the occupant by beat of drum or other customary mode, at some convenient place, that the interest of the judgment-debtor has been transferred to the purchaser.

Resistance To Delivery Of Possession To Decree-Holder Or Purchaser

97. Resistance or obstruction to possession of immovable property. – (1) Where the holder of a decree for the possession of immovable property or the purchaser of any such property sold in execution of a decree is resisted or obstructed by any person in obtaining possession of the property, he may make an application to the Court complaining of such resistance or obstruction.
(2) Where any application is made under sub-rule (1), the Court shall proceed to adjudicate upon the application in accordance with the provisions herein contained.

98. Orders after adjudication. — (1) Upon the determination of the questions referred to in rule 101, the Court shall, in accordance with such determination and subject to the provisions of sub-rule (2),—
(a) make an order allowing the application and directing that the applicant be put into the possession of the property or dismissing the application; or

(b) pass such other order as, in the circumstances of the case, it may deem fit.

(2) Where, upon such determination, the Court is satisfied that the resistance or obstruction was occasioned without any just cause by the judgment-debtor or by some other person at his instigation or on his behalf, or by any transferee, where such transfer was made during the pendency of the suit or execution proceeding, it shall direct that the applicant be put into possession of the property, and where the applicant is still resisted or obstructed in obtaining possession, the Court may also, at the instance of the applicant, order the judgment-debtor, or any person acting at his instigation or on his behalf, to be detained in the civil prison for a term which may extend to thirty days.

99. Dispossession by decree-holder or purchaser. – (1) Where any person other than the judgment-debtor is dispossessed of immovable property by the holder of a decree for possession of such property or, where such property has been sold in execution of a decree, by the purchaser thereof, he may make an application to the Court complaining of such dispossession.
(2) Where any such application is made, the Court shall proceed to adjudicate upon the application in accordance with the provisions herein contained.

100. Order to be passed upon application complaining of dispossession. – Upon the determination of the questions referred to in rule 101, the Court shall, in accordance with such determination,—
(a) make an order allowing the application and directing that the applicant be put into the possession of the property or dismissing the application; or
(b) pass such other order as, in the circumstances of the case, it may deem fit.

101. Question to be determined. – All questions (including questions relating to right, title or interest in the property) arising between the parties to a proceeding on an application under rule 97 or rule 99 or their representatives, and relevant to the adjudication of the application, shall be determined by the Court dealing with the application and not by a separate suit and for this purpose, the Court shall, notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in any other law for the time being in force, be deemed to have jurisdiction to decide such questions.

102. Rules not applicable to transferee pendent lite. – Nothing in rules 98 and 100 shall apply to resistance or obstruction in execution of a decree for the possession of immovable property by a person to whom the judgment-debtor has transferred the property after the institution of the suit in which the decree was passed or to the dispossession of any such person.

Explanation.—In this rule, “transfer” includes a transfer by operation of law.

103. Orders to be treated as decrees. – Where any application has been adjudicated upon under rule 98 or rule 100 the other made thereon shall have the same force and be subject to the same conditions as to an appeal or otherwise as if it were a decree.

104. Order under rule 101 or rule 103 to be subject to the result or pending suit. — Every order made under rule 101 or rule 103 shall be subject to the result of any suit that may be pending on the date of commencement of the proceeding in which such order is made, if in such suit the party against whom the order under rule 101 or rule 103 is made has sought to establish a right which he claims to the present possession of the property.

105. Hearing of application. – (1) The Court, before which an application under any of the foregoing rules of this Order is pending, may fix a day for the hearing of the application.

(2) Where on the day fixed or on any other day to which the hearing may be adjourned the applicant does not appear when the case is called on for hearing, the Court may make an order that the application be dismissed.

(3) Where the applicant appears and the opposite party to whom the notice has been issued by the Court does not appear, the Court may hear the application ex parte and pass such order as it thinks fit.

Explanation.—An application referred to in sub-rule (1) includes a claim or objection made under rule 58.

106. Setting aside order passed ex parte, etc.. – (1) The applicant, against whom an order is made under sub-rule (2) rule 105 or the opposite party against whom an order is passed ex parte under sub-rule (3) of that rule or under sub-rule (1) of rule 23, may apply to the Court to set aside the order, and if he satisfies the Court that there was sufficient cause for his non-appearance when the application was called on for hearing, the Court shall set aside the order or such terms as to costs, or otherwise as it thinks fit, and shall appoint a day for the further hearing of the application.

(2) No order shall be made on an application under sub-rule (1) unless notice of the application has been served on the other party.

(3) An application under sub-rule (1) shall be made within thirty days from the date of the order, or where, in the case of an ex parte order, the notice was not duly served, within thirty days from the date when applicant had knowledge of the order.