Judicial Dictionary

Blood

Blood [Apx 5 liters in the human body] is actually a tissue and it is always being made by the cells inside the bones [ spongy material called marrow]. Blood contains about 80% water and 20% solid. Blood is made mostly of plasma [where cells are suspended] and 3 main types of cells circulate with the plasma, Platelets, Red blood cells, White blood cell and hormones, fats, carbohydrates, proteins, and gases.

Blood cells formed in the bone marrow start out as stem cells. A stem cell (or hematopoietic stem cell) is the first phase of all blood cells. As the stem cell matures, several distinct cells evolve. These include red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Immature blood cells are also called blasts.

The foods contain mineral salts, which form electrolytes when they dissolve in the fluids in our bodies. The electrolytes are present in the plasma water only. They’re present in blood, urine, in the fluid inside the body’s cells and in the fluid in the space surrounding the cells. Sodium, calcium, chloride, magnesium, and potassium are the most common electrolytes in the human body. The body needs electrical impulses to make muscle cells contract. The generation of an electrical impulse by a cell requires an electrical voltage to be maintained across the membrane of that cell. The difference in electrolyte levels creates and maintains these electrical voltages.

Common blood tests

Test

Uses

CBC, which includes:

  • White blood cell count (WBC)

  • Red blood cell count (RBC)

  • Platelet count

  • Hematocrit red blood cell volume (Hct)

  • Hemoglobin (Hgb) concentration. The oxygen-carrying pigment in red blood cells

  • Differential blood count

To aid in diagnosing anemia and other blood disorders and certain cancers of the blood; to monitor blood loss and infection; or to monitor response to cancer therapy, such as chemotherapy and radiation.

Platelet count

To diagnose and monitor bleeding and clotting disorders.

Prothrombin time (PT) and partial thromboplastin time (PTT)

To evaluate bleeding and clotting disorders and to monitor anticoagulation (anticlotting) therapies.

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