Advocatetanmoy Law Library

Information and Internet Law in India

Data processing, data transmitting and data protection are the main focus in this article and broadly speaking the whole mass of Internet Law in India moved around these three ideas.

INTRODUCTION TO THE CONCEPT CYBERSPACE :

Cyberspace is a complex environment consisting of interactions between people, software and services, supported by the worldwide distribution of information and communication technology (ICT) devices and networks.  Owing to the numerous benefits brought about by technological advancements, the cyberspace today is a common pool used by citizens, businesses, critical information infrastructure, military and governments in a manner that makes it difficult to draw clear boundaries among these different groups. The cyberspace is expected to be more complex in the foreseeable future, with many fold increase in networks and devices connected to it.

Information Technology (IT) is one of the critical sectors that rides on and resides in cyberspace. It has emerged as one of the most significant growth catalysts for the Indian economy. In addition to fuelling India’s economy, this sector is also positively influencing the lives of its people through direct and indirect contributions to the various socio-economic parameters such as employment, the standard of living and diversity among others. The sector has played a significant role in transforming India’s image to that of a global player in providing world-class technology solutions and IT business services. The government has been a key driver for increased adoption of IT-based products and IT-enabled services in Public services (Government to citizen services, citizen identification, public distribution systems), Healthcare (telemedicine, remote consultation, mobile clinics), Education (eLearning, virtual classrooms, etc) and Financial services (mobile banking / payment gateways), etc. Such initiatives have enabled increased IT adoption in the country through sectoral reforms and National programmes which have led to the creation of large scale IT infrastructure with corporate/private participation.


FOREIGN STATUTES

Data Protection Act 1998 (UK) 

An Act to make new provision for the regulation of the processing of information relating to individuals, including the obtaining, holding, use or disclosure of such information.

KEY IDEAS

Data means information which— (a) is being processed by means of equipment operating automatically in response to instructions given for that purpose,

(b) is recorded with the intention that it should be processed by means of such equipment,

(c) is recorded as part of a relevant filing system or with the intention that it should form part of a relevant filing system,
(d) does not fall within paragraph (a), (b) or (c) but forms part of an accessible record as defined by section 68; or
(e) is recorded information held by a public authority and does not fall within any of paragraphs (a) to (d)
 
  • Personal data means data which relate to a living individual who can be identified
(a) from those data, or
(b) from those data and other information which is in the possession of, or is likely to come into the possession of, the data controller,

and includes any expression of opinion about the individual and any indication of the intentions of the data controller or any other person in respect of the individual;

  • Sensitive personal data

In this Act “sensitive personal data” means personal data consisting of information as to

(a)the racial or ethnic origin of the data subject,

(b)his political opinions,

(c)his religious beliefs or other beliefs of a similar nature,

(d)whether he is a member of a trade union (within the meaning of the Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992),

(e)his physical or mental health or condition,

(f)his sexual life,

(g)the commission or alleged commission by him of any offence, or

(h)any proceedings for any offence committed or alleged to have been committed by him, the disposal of such proceedings or the sentence of any court in such proceedings.

  • Access of personal Data – U/S 7  An individual has the right of access to his personal data.

You have the right to request closed-circuit television (CCTV) footage of yourself.

Personal data shall be processed fairly and lawfully and, in particular, shall not be processed unless

1.(a) at least one of the conditions in Schedule 2 is met, and

(b)in the case of sensitive personal data, at least one of the conditions in Schedule 3 is also met.

2. Personal data shall be obtained only for one or more specified and lawful purposes, and shall not be further processed in any manner incompatible with that purpose or those purposes.

3. Personal data shall be adequate, relevant and not excessive in relation to the purpose or purposes for which they are processed.

4. Personal data shall be accurate and, where necessary, kept up to date.

5. Personal data processed for any purpose or purposes shall not be kept for longer than is necessary for that purpose or those purposes.

6. Personal data shall be processed in accordance with the rights of data subjects under this Act.

7. Appropriate technical and organisational measures shall be taken against unauthorised or unlawful processing of personal data and against accidental loss or destruction of, or damage to, personal data.

8. Personal data shall not be transferred to a country or territory outside the European Economic Area unless that country or territory ensures an adequate level of protection for the rights and freedoms of data subjects in relation to the processing of personal data.

In India we don`t have such type of law.

Information Technology Act, 2000 never protects personal data.


WE SHALL START WITH OUR INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ACT, 2000 TO ENTER IN THE DOMAIN OF CYBER LAW, OR MORE SPECIFICALLY IN THE LAW FIELD PERTAINING TO INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND INTERNET TECHNOLOGY.

The scope of the above statute is as stated ” An Act to provide legal recognition for transactions carried out by means of electronic data interchange and other means of electronic communication, commonly referred to as “electronic commerce”, which involve the use of alternatives to paper-based methods of communication and storage of information, to facilitate electronic filing of documents with the Government agencies and further to amend the Indian Penal Code, the Indian Evidence Act, 1872, the Banker’s Books Evidence Act, 1891 and the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto” . Again this Act shall extend to the whole of India and, save as otherwise provided in this Act, it applies also to any offence or contravention thereunder committed outside India by any person. 

The above Act has created the following two  institutions  and Other provisions :

  1.  The Controller of Certifying Authorities (CCA

U/S 17 -The Certifying Authorities (CAs) issue Digital Signature Certificates(DSC) for electronic authentication of users and issue license and regulate the working of Certifying Authorities and also to ensure that none of the provisions of the Act are violated. Any person aggrieved by an order made by controller or an adjudicating officer under IT Act 2000 may prefer an appeal to a Cyber Appellate Tribunal having jurisdiction in the matter.

2.   Cyber Appellate Tribunal

U/S 48(1) The Cyber Appellate Tribunal has powers to regulate its own procedure including the place at which it has its sittings. Every proceeding before the Cyber Appellate Tribunal shall be deemed to be a judicial proceeding within the meaning of sections 193 and 228, and for the purposes of section 196 of the Indian Penal Code and the Cyber Appellate Tribunal shall be deemed to be a civil court for the purposes of section 195 and Chapter XXVI of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973.

Other provisions under the IT Act –

  • DIGITAL SIGNATURE AND ELECTRONIC SIGNATURE
  • ELECTRONIC GOVERNANCE AND ELECTRONIC RECORDS MANAGEMENT(DATABASE)
  • ATTRIBUTION, ACKNOWLEDGMENT AND DESPATCH OF ELECTRONIC RECORDS
  • SECURING  “SECURE ELECTRONIC RECORDS ANS SECURE  ELECTRONIC SIGNATURE
  • REGULATION OF CERTIFYING AUTHORITIES
  • ISSUANCE OF “ELECTRONIC SIGNATURE CERTIFICATES'( EVIDENCE)
  • CRIME CONTROLLING -PENALTIES, COMPENSATION AND ADJUDICATION( OFFENCE) [OFFENCE U/Ss-43, 66,67,68,70,72,73,74]
  • PROTECTION OF CRITICAL INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURE
  • PUNISHMENT FOR BREACH OF PRIVACY
  • PROTECTION OF – “intermediary”, with respect to any particular electronic records, means any person who on behalf of another person receives, stores or transmits that record or provides any service with respect to that record and includes telecom service providers, network service providers, internet service providers, web-hosting service providers, search engines, online payment sites, online-auction sites, online-market places and cyber cafes. [intermediaries like Google, Facebook etc]
  • GRANTING POWER TO POLICE FOR SEARCH AND SEIZURE
  • PROVISION FOR ISSUING ELECTRONIC  & TRUNCATED CHEQUES

 Information Technology (Intermediary Guidelines) Rules, 2011.[ UNDER IT ACT ]

Rules  under the Information Technology Act 2000

OTHER RULES

An order issued by MeitY to ISP’s to adopt and implement IWF resources to prevent the distribution and transmission of online Child Sexual Abuse Materials (CSAM) into India :

Measures to block the access of Online Child Sexual Abuse Materials(CSAM)
An inter-ministerial committee was constituted by the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology(MeitY) to discuss the issues related to online child sexual abuse materials (CSAM) and its blocking in India. Based on the recommendation of the committee and the approval of Hon’ble Minister of Electronics and Information Technology, MeitY has issued an order dated. 18.04.2017 to Internet Service Providers(ISPs) to adopt and implement Internet Watch Foundation(IWF) resources on or before 31.07.2017 to prevent the distribution and transmission of Online CSAM into India.
Click here to download the copy of said order issued by MeitY.

Draft rules for Security of Prepaid Payment Instruments under provisions of IT Act 2000

Notification – Pilot scheme for Notifying Examiner of Electronic Evidence Under section 79A of the Information Technology Act 2000

National Encryption Policy

Notification of Rules under Section 52, 54, 69, 69A, and 69B

Notifications of Rules under section 6A, 43A and 79

Press Notes: Clarification on Rules Under Sections 43A and 79 of the Information Technology Act, 2000

Clarification on The Information Technology (Intermediary Guidelines) Rules, 2011

Minutes of the Cyber Regulation Advisory Committee meeting held on 5th September, 2014 in DeitY


Semiconductor Integrated Circuits Layout Design Act 2000

Act to provide for the protection of semiconductor integrated circuits layout-designs and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.

Semiconductor Integrated Circuits Layout Design Rules 2001

Semiconductor Integrated Circuits Layout Design Registry Notifications/Publications


 NATIONAL CYBERSECURITY POLICY

The cybersecurity policy is an evolving task and it caters to the whole spectrum of ICT users and providers including home users and small, medium and large enterprises and Government & nonGovernment entities. It serves as an umbrella framework for defining and guiding the actions related to the security of cyberspace. It also enables the individual sectors and organizations in designing appropriate cybersecurity policies to suit their needs. The policy provides an overview of what it takes to effectively protect the information, information systems & networks and also gives an insight into the Government’s approach and strategy for protection of cyberspace in the country. It also outlines some pointers to enable the collaborative working of all key players in public & private to safeguard the country’s information and information systems. This policy, therefore, aims to create a cybersecurity framework, which leads to specific actions and programmes to enhance the security posture of the country’s cyberspace.

INDIAN-COMPUTER EMERGENCY RESPONSE TEAM

A cyber breach can cause severe financial damage, bring the functioning of Government/Government organisation to a standstill. It is therefore imperative, that every organisation involved in the use of Information Technology in the discharge of its functions must identify and document its Information Security (IS) requirements that arise from various sources

Key Roles and Responsibilities of Chief Information Security Officers (CISOs) in Ministries/Departments and Organisations managing ICT operations


 INDUSTRIAL POLICY UNDER IT ACT 2000

  • National Policy on Information Technology 2012 aims to increase revenues of IT and BPM industry to US$ 300 billion by 2020. The policy also seeks to achieve the twin goals of bringing the full power of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) within the reach of the whole of India and harnessing the capability and human resources of the country to enable India to emerge as the Global Hub and Destination for IT and BPM Services by 2020.
  • Other Initiatives
    • Establishment of Software Technology Parks of India (STPIs)
    • Special Economy Zones (SEZs) Policy
    • National Task Force on IT and Software Development
    • National e-Governance Plan (NeGP)
    • National Cyber Security Policy 2013
  • FDI up to 100% under the automatic route is allowed in data processing, software development and computer consultancy services; software supply services; business and management consultancy services, market research services, technical testing and analysis services.

Basic Facts of the  IT INDUSTRY IN INDIA [ THE SCENARIO IS ROSY] 

  • Expected IT-BPM revenues – USD 143 bn in FY 2016 (estimated);
  • Exports – USD 108 bn in FY 2016 (estimated) (IT services – USD 61 bn; BPM – 24.4 bn; Engineering and R&D services (ER&D) and software products – USD 22.4 bn;)
  • More than 15,000 firms; of which 1000+ are large firms.
  • Largest private sector employer – 3.7 mn jobs
  • Sector accounts for largest share in total services exports (38%)
  • 600 offshore development centres (ODCs) of 78 countries

Business process management (BPM) is a field in operations management that focuses on improving corporate performance by managing and optimizing a company’s business processes. It can, therefore, be described as a “process optimization process”.

READ MORE FROM NASSCOM SITE


INTERNATIONAL CO-OPERATION IN THE FIELD OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

The International Cooperation Division (ICD) of the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology has been set up to promote international cooperation in the emerging and frontier areas of Electronics and Information Technology under bilateral, multilateral or regional frameworks. Additionally, to promote international cooperation in the emerging and frontier areas of electronics and information technology, explore ways to enhance investment and address regulatory mechanism, various collaborative efforts have been geared up to encourage sustainable development and strengthening synergetic partnerships with other countries

Information Technology Agreement(WTO)

The Information Technology Agreement (ITA) was concluded by 29 participants at the Singapore Ministerial Conference in December 1996. Since then, the number of participants has grown to 82, representing about 97 percent of world trade in IT products. The participants are committed to completely eliminating tariffs on IT products covered by the Agreement. At the Nairobi Ministerial Conference in December 2015, over 50 members concluded the expansion of the Agreement, which now covers an additional 201 products valued at over $1.3 trillion per year.


E-commerce

E-commerce in recent times has been growing rapidly across the world. It is a type of business model, or segment of a larger business model, that enables a firm or individual to conduct business over an electronic network, typically the internet. Electronic commerce operates in all four of the major market segments: business to business, business to consumer, consumer to consumer and consumer to business.

In India, there are three types of e-commerce business model are in the vogue (i) Inventory based model of e-commerce (ii) Marketplace based model of e-commerce (iii) Hybrid model of inventory based and market place model.

Indian Information Technology Act and E-commerce: Indian Information Technology (IT) Act gives legal recognition to electronic records and electronic signature. These are the foremost steps to facilitate paperless trading. Under this Act Ministry of Electronics & Information Technology also has Information Technology Rule, 2000 for Reasonable security practices and procedures and sensitive personal data or information. Under section 72A of IT Amendment Act, 2008, punishment for disclosure of information in breach of a lawful contract is laid down.

FDI guidelines for e-commerce by DIPP: DIPP has issued guidelines for FDI in e-commerce. In India 100% FDI is permitted in B2B e-commerce, however, No FDI was permitted in B2C e-commerce earlier. As per these new guidelines on FDI in e-commerce, 100% FDI under automatic route is permitted in the marketplace model of e-commerce, while FDI is not permitted in inventory-based model of e-commerce

E-commerce has become an important part of many multilateral negotiations such as Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), WTO, BRICS etc. Ministry of Electronics & Information Technology is leading such negotiations on e-commerce from the Indian side.

 


CONSTITUTIONALITY OF THE IT ACT:

Section 66A of the Information Technology Act, 2000 has been declared unconstitutional by the Supreme court in 2015:

SHREYA SINGHAL  vs  UNION OF INDIA

(a)Section 66A of the Information Technology Act, 2000 is struck down in its entirety being violative of Article 19(1)(a) and not saved under Article 19(2).

 (b) Section 69A and the Information Technology (Procedure & Safeguards for Blocking for Access of Information by Public) Rules 2009 are constitutionally valid.

(c) Section 79 is valid subject to Section 79(3)(b) being read down to mean that an intermediary upon receiving actual knowledge from a court order or on being notified by the appropriate government or its agency that unlawful acts relatable to Article 19(2) are going to be committed then fails to expeditiously remove or disable access to such material. Similarly, the Information Technology “Intermediary Guidelines” Rules, 2011 are valid subject to Rule 3 sub-rule (4) being read down in the same manner as indicated in the judgment. (d)Section 118(d) of the Kerala Police Act is struck down being violative of Article 19(1)(a) and not saved by Article 19(2)


 CYBER ADMINISTRATION BY GOVERNMENT OF INDIA

MINISTRY OF ELECTRONICS AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY  [To promote e-Governance for empowering citizens, promoting the inclusive and sustainable growth of the Electronics, IT & ITeS industries, enhancing India’s role in Internet Governance, adopting a multipronged approach that includes development of human resources, promoting R&D and innovation, enhancing efficiency through digital services and ensuring a secure cyber space].

THE ORGANISATIONS UNDER THE MINISTRY

National Informatics Centre (NIC) of the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology is providing network backbone and e-Governance support to Central Government, State Governments, UT Administrations, Districts and other Government bodies.

Established in the year 1980, STQC started its services in the area of Testing and Calibration based on the need of small and medium-sized electronics industries in the country. From a mere Testing, Calibration and Quality Assurance Support to Electronics Hardware Sector, STQC has positioned itself as a prime Assurance Service Provider to both Hardware and Software sectors.

NATIONAL INTERNET EXCHANGE

  • NIXI is a not for profit Organization under section 25 of the Companies Act 1956, and was registered on 19 th July, 2003. NIXI was set up for peering of ISPs among themselves for the purpose of routing the domestic traffic within the country, instead of taking it all the way to US/Abroad, thereby resulting in better quality of service (reduced latency) and reduced bandwidth charges for ISPs by saving on International Bandwidth. NIXI is managed and operated on a Neutral basis, in line with the best practices for such initiatives globally.
  • The National Internet Exchange of India is the neutral meeting point of the ISPs in India. Its main purpose is to facilitate exchange of domestic Internet traffic between the peering ISP members. This enables more efficient use of international bandwidth, saving foreign exchange. It also improves the Quality of Services for the customers of member ISPs, by avoiding multiple international hops and thus reducing latency.
  • CONNECTED NETWORKS BY EXCHANGE  [AIRTEL- TATA- BSNL- VODAPHONE etc.]
  • NIXI has sponsored three Root Servers, at Mumbai (I Root (External website that opens in a new window)), Delhi (K Root(External website that opens in a new window)) and Chennai (F Root(External website that opens in a new window)). These are hosted at our Exchange points at these locations. These root servers are part of the Domain Name Systems a worldwide-distributed database that is used to translate worldwide unique domain names such as http://www.pib.nic.in to other identifiers.

ERNET

ERNET    India is running MPLS enabled dual stack (IPv4 and IPv6) backbone. The ERNET backbone interconnects ERNET Point of Presence (PoP) spread throughout the country. The ERNET PoP at STPI, Bangalore integrate ERNET VSAT network with ERNET terrestrial network. ERNET has deployed many overlaid network over its backbone. The domestic traffic is routed via NIXI whereas international traffic from each PoP is routed out as ERNET is peering with upstream service providers at each PoP for faster access to Internet.


Controller of Certifying Authorities (CCA) Statutory Organisations of MeitY

 Companies of MeitY

Autonomous Societies of MeitY

AGENCIES AND SERVICE PROVIDERS CONNECTED WITH IT INDUSTRIES

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DOMAIN NAME DISPUTE 

The original role of a domain name was no doubt to provide an address for computers on the internet. But the internet has developed from a mere means of communication to a mode of carrying on commercial activity. With the increase of commercial activity on the internet, a domain name is also used as a business identifier. Therefore, the domain name not only serves as an address for internet communication but also identifies the specific internet site. In the commercial field, each domain name owner provides information/services which are associated with such domain name(Satyam Infoway Ltd. v. Siffynet Solutions Pvt. Ltd)

DOMAIN NAME VS TRADEMARK

There is a distinction between a trademark and a domain name which is not relevant to the nature of the right of an owner in connection with the domain name, but is material to the scope of the protection available to the right. The distinction lies in the manner in which the two operate. A trademark is protected by the laws of a country where such trademark may be registered. Consequently, a trademark may have multiple registration in many countries throughout the world. On the other hand, since the internet allows for access without any geographical limitation, a domain name is potentially accessible irrespective of the geographical location of the consumers. The outcome of this potential for universal connectivity is not only that a domain name would require worldwide exclusivity but also that national laws might be inadequate to effectively protect a domain name. The lacuna necessitated international regulation of the domain name system (DNS). This international regulation was effected through WIPO and ICANN. India is one of the 171 states of the world which are members of WIPO. WIPO was established as a vehicle for promoting the protection, dissemination and use of intellectual property through the world. Services provided by WIPO to its member states include the provision of a forum for the development and implementation of intellectual property policies internationally through treaties and other policy instruments.5 The outcome of consultation between ICANN and WIPO has resulted in the setting up not only of a system of registration of domain names with accredited Registrars but also the evolution of the Uniform Domain Name Disputes Resolution Policy (UDNDR Policy) by ICANN on 24th October 1999. As far as registration is concerned, it is provided on a first come first serve basis.

A prior registrant can protect its domain name against subsequent registrants. Trade Marks Act, 1999 itself is not extraterritorial and may not allow for adequate protection of domain names, this does not mean that domain names are not to be legally protected to the extent possible under the laws relating to passing off.


GUIDELINES FOR DOMAIN NAME REGISTRATION     [.IN ]

The Registry for the country code Top Level Domain (ccTLD) Name .IN is being managed by the National Internet Exchange of India (NIXI). Presently, more than 73 Registrars have been accredited to offer .IN domain name registration worldwide to customers. It has in turn also helped in the proliferation of Web hosting in the country and Indian language content in the Internet. 5.5 lakh .IN Domain Names have been registered till November 10, 2009. Two Data Centers have been established in Delhi and Chennai towards disaster management with an uptime of maximum 5 minutes.

In India, just under 7000 domains have been registered by the Registry at 2nd and 3rd levels under .IN country code over the past decade or so. In addition, the Internet Service Providers (ISPs) have registered about 500,000 .IN domain names at the 3rd level. This number does not truly represent the penetration of Information Technology (IT) in India when compared with a number of companies and public institutions engaged in IT and IT enabled services (ITeS). The slow growth of .IN domain has been adjudged to be largely due to the absence of contemporary processes and infrastructure, and an over cautious registration policy followed.


BACKGROUND OF DOMAIN DISPUTE

  • Globally, there are approximately 60 million Internet domain names registered. Of these, about 40 million are in generic top-level domain (gtld) category, while the remaining 20 million are in country code top level domain (cctld) category. The administration of gtld rests with the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), an internationally organized non-profit corporation, with membership from different countries and experts in the field. The responsibility for administration of cctld, on the other hand, has been entrusted to the individual countries who in general follow the guidelines provided by ICANN. These Internet domain names are used by the user entities to identify them in the networked Internet space. In the gtld category, .com and .net domains are the most popular, and have registered in largest numbers. In recent times, the cctld domain registrations are growing with the countries playing active role in the Internet space
  • The first dispute over a domain name occurred in 1993, over the name mtv.com. There have been very few rulings by supreme courts and all of them are recent. There have been decisions in Austria , Germany and France , but interestingly, there has not yet been a single Supreme Court order in the United States of America, where the Internet was born, its law developed and where the earliest domain name disputes were fought.
  • Supreme Court of India in Satyam Infoway Ltd. v. Siffynet Solutions Pvt. Ltd (6 May, 2004)  in  Appeal (civil) 3028 of 2004.

The defendant was the holder of two domain names, siffynet.com and siffynet.net. The plaintiff company, Satyam Infoway, incorporated in 1995, registered several domain names that included the fanciful word ‘sify’: sifynet.com, sifymall.com, sifyrealestate.com, etc. The similarity between these names registered in 1999 and the two domain names of Siffynet Solutions (registered later in 2001), led Satyam Infoway to file a suit in the City Civil Court of Bangalore on the basis that the defendant was passing off its business and services by using its business name and domain name. The Court acknowledged that the plaintiff was the prior user of the trade name ‘Sify’ and that it had earned a good reputation in connection with Internet and computer services under this name. The Court stated that Siffynet Solutions’ domain names were similar to the domain names of the plaintiff, and that confusion would be caused in the mind of the general public by such deceptive similarity. The Court was pleased to grant a temporary injunction in favour of the plaintiff. The case was brought before the High Court, which allowed the appeal. According to the High Court, the respondent was doing business other than what was being done by the appellant, so consumers could not be misled nor misguided, and would not get confused. The High Court also underscored the point that the plaintiff company had a separate trade name – Satyam Infoway – which it could use if it were not granted an order of injunction. Since the complaint was filed in order to protect a trade name, there could have been recourse to the UDRP procedure. Even if the UDRP has been designed for abusive registrations of trademarks, it is still possible to get protection for a trade name under it, when it is deemed equivalent to a trademark. This is despite the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) not being favourably disposed towards this trend. In fact there is already a precedent of an Indian firm having taken advantage of this broad interpretation of the UDRP rules. However, here, since the plaintiff chose to bring the case before a national court, it gave a chance to the Supreme Court of India to pronounce its first decision on domain names. The Court’s judgement offers an interesting perspective on domain name disputes to the legal community in India and beyond. It characterises the domain name under two main aspects – as “an address for computers” and, also as a “business identifier” owing to increased commercial activity on the Internet.


THE ULTIMATE GATEKEEPER ON INTERNET ICANN [ All Governments are under it]

ICANN – The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers

The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) is an internationally organized, non-profit corporation that has responsibility for Internet Protocol (IP) address space allocation, protocol identifier assignment, generic (gTLD) and country code (ccTLD) Top-Level Domain name system management, and root server system management functions. Originally, the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) and other entities performed these services under U.S. Government contract. ICANN now performs the IANA function. As a private-public partnership, ICANN is dedicated to preserving the operational stability of the Internet; to promoting competition; to achieving broad representation of global Internet communities; and to developing policy appropriate to its mission through bottom-up, consensus-based processes.

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GLOSSARY WATCH (technical )

Algorithms: Algorithms are essentially a set of well-defined finite sequence instructions used towards finishing a task. Algorithms are used extensively in computer science, bio-informatics, mathematics et al for calculation, data processing and other tasks. A computer program is one of the most basic.

Bandwidth: In the realm of computer networks, bandwidth refers to the capacity of data/information which can be carried through a channel (typically from website or server) in a given time interval. Bandwidth is thus a synonym for data transfer. As more information is carried through the channel greater is the use of bandwidth. So logically, a video would take up much more bandwidth than for example an e-mail. A bandwidth shortage is said to have occurred when at any point the demand to carry information exceeds the carrier or channel’s capacity.  A bandwidth is typically expressed in bits per second (bps).

Black Box:  A black box is a device which records the data typically in aircraft or ships and which can be retrieved in case of any eventuality.  However in software development a Black box assumes a different meaning. A Black Box is a testing technique where the tester does not have any knowledge of the intricacies of the program being tested. The tester may know about the input or the output but does not have any inkling of how the results are achieved. A Black Box component is a compiled program that cannot be altered as a programmer is able to access it only through an exposed interface.

Blast: In bioinformatics, Basic Local Alignment Search Tool or BLAST consists of a set of algorithms. BLAST is used to compare biological sequences like protein sequences or nucleotides. With BLAST a comparison of individual sequence can be done against a database of sequences and information obtained in case there is matching of sequences. Thus, BLAST can be applied for aligning two sequences and examining the resemblance between two or more sequences.

Biometry: Biometry, or Biometrics, is a division of Biology that uses statistical applications for conducting the study of living things. Biometric tools are widely used in studying growth, biological similarities and differences, authentication of individuals based on his/ her behavioural and physiological characteristics.

Body Area Networks: Body Area Networks, BAN in short is an emerging field of technology that has the potential to revolutionize healthcare and pathbreaking applications in sports, communications and security.  The technology leverages wireless communications protocols allowing low-powered sensors to intra-communicate and then transmit data to a local base station as well as to remote corners.  An example of BAN is placing of small flat sensors on or under the skin of patients so that doctors are able to monitor real time data, (the bio-signs) emanating from their patients.

Border Gateway Protocol: Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) Protocol addresses the issue of optimal routing path determination in modern networks.
In today’s Transmission-Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) networks it is the BGP that performs inter-domain routing. BGP has replaced the now obsolete Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP), its predecessor, as the core gateway-routing protocol for use in the global Internet.

Broadband: A word that is tossed up every now and then when talking about Internet and Telecom is the Broadband. To download games, checking on your Twitter or Facebook profile or watch video all you need is internet broadband connection. A broadband channel is able to carry multiple signals. The overall capacity is divided into multiple, independent bandwidth channels with each channel operating on a specific frequency range. A broadband is also known as a high-speed internet service.

Browser: A Browser is an user agent or a Software that allows a user to search, access and interact with different types of information on the Web.

Enterprise Resource Management: Enterprise Resource Management is a software tool for a systematic tracking of all that flows through a business. These include capital, manpower, inventory, ctc……. ERM is considered crucial for the efficiency and productivity of any organization.

Ethernet: Ethernet is a standard communications protocol and is the most popular technology for building a local area network (LAN). The Ethernet Technology has traversed a long distance from 1980s when it was first deployed widely, to modern Gigabit Ethernet technology displaying peak performance speeds up to 1000 Mbps. Internet Protocol (IP) and other high level network protocols use Ethernet for their mode of transmission.

Fiber Optics: Fiber Optics is essentially strands of optically pure glass or plastics that have revolutionized telecommunications-telephony, internet, cable TV et al. As thin as human hairs Fiber Optic lines are used for transmitting digital signals over long distances including under the sea. Optical Fibers are bundled up into thick optical cables for   transmitting light signals.Along with telecommunications, Optical fibers are also finding extensive use in medical and defence applications.

Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA): Field Programmable Gate array (FPGA) devices find extensive use in the logic or digital electronic circuits. An FPGA consists of Integrated circuits (IC). The IC includes a 2D array of general-purpose logic circuits, termed as logic blocks or cells. Their functions are programmable. All the cells are interlinked by programmable buses. The basic architecture of an FPGA device consists an array of configurable logic blocks (CLBs) which are embedded in a configurable interconnect structure. On all sides of the CLBS are the configurable I/O blocks (IOBs). FPGA technology applications find wide use in different spheres, right from equipment for video and imaging, circuitry for spacecraft and other strategic applications requiring high reliability and extreme environment applications.

Fluorescence Correlation Spectrometers: Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS) is a single-molecule detection technique for high-sensitivity measurement of molecular interactions. Unique features of FCS measurements make it ideal for use in assaying techniques.

CDMA: Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) is a 3rd generation digital cellular technology. It is quite popular in the highly competitive cellular service market.  A speciality of CDMA is that it makes available more bandwidth without limiting the frequency range of individual users in the communications network. This facilitates more number of users to communicate on the same network at any given point of time.

C-GREX: C-GREx or Chaos Game Representation Explorer is a handy Bioinformatics tool for exploring the sequence visualization and pattern analysis of biological sequences including RNA, DNA and amino acid sequences.

Cloud Computing: Cloud Computing is an emerging IT delivery model characterized by the new-age, internet-driven economics for increasing the capacities or adding capabilities without investment needs in infrastructure, training or software licensing. Today Cloud Computing is the new lingo for all the IT executives. In Cloud Computing, cloud is only a metaphor. It refers to the range of servers located remotely which hosts computing applications. A very simple illustration of what Cloud Computing Technology is all about is the email applications such as yahoomail or hotmail. Also, if you are using google docs in place of MS word on your Laptop you are very much part of the Cloud Computing environment. Cloud computing benefits include superior user experience, improved workload optimization and service delivery, reduced IT costs and complexities et al. Some of the common examples of Cloud Computing include SaaS (software as a service), MSP ((managed service providers), Utility computing et al.  Cloud Computing is finding its utility in several enterprise applications.

Clustal W: Clustal W is a general purpose alignment program for DNA and proteins. Clustal W boasts of an improved sensitivity for aligning divergent protein sequences.

Cryptanalysis: Cryptanalysis traces its origin from two Greek words. Kryptós means “hidden” while analýein means ‘to loosen’ or ‘to untie’.  It is the practice of codebreaking or cracking the code. Cryptanalysis is the study of methods to get to the exact meaning of encrypted information and typically involves finding a secret key. Thus meaning is obtained without access to the secret information which is general requirement for doing so. In the days of Cyber security threats Cryptanalysis assumes a lot of significance.

Capacitive Accelerometer: Capacitive accelerometers are among the most commercially popular Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). They are used in engine vibration tests, product shakers, fatigue testing, structural evaluation and a host of other applications. A Capacitive Accelerometer operates on the premise that, there is a repeatable change in capacitance whenever a sensing structure gets deflected due to an imposed acceleration. A Capacitive Accelerometer is similar in operation to a Piezoresistive Accelerometer but is comparatively more sensitive.  Some of the notable features of Capacitive Accelerometers are excellent frequency coverage, high level output signal and immunity to noise interference et al.

Carbon Nanotubes: Carbon Nanotubes are essentially molecular-scale tubes of graphitic carbon displaying electronic and other remarkable properties. The extremely thin Carbon Nanotubes with diameters about 10,000 times smaller than a human hair can be counted among the stiffest and strongest fibres.

Country Code Top level Domain (ccTLD): TLDs with two letters (such as .in – India, .cn-China, .fr- France, .kr -South Korea, .uk – United Kingdom etc) have been established for more than 250 countries and external territories. These are referred to as “country-code” TLDs or judt “ccTLDs”. ccTLDs are assigned by IANA or Internet Assigned Numbers Authority based on the ISO 3166-1alpha-2 country codes. Designated managers operate the ccTLDs according to local policies, which are adapted to meet the specific needs of the country or territory involved such as economic, linguistic, cultural and legal circumstances.

Cognitive Science: Cognitive science is an interdisciplinary field encompassing a broad range of both intertwining and contradictory theories about how thinking takes place, how information gets represented and transformed in the brain. Cognitive Science combines insights from several disciplines including artificial intelligence, neuroscience, linguistics et al.

CMOS: CMOS or Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor is one of the most popular semiconductor fabrication technology characterized by low energy consumption and high switching speeds. CMOS are semiconductors, used extensively in digital logic circuits, such as microprocessors, static RAM and microcontrollers. The reason for the name complementary stems from the fact that both n- and p-MOSFETs are needed by Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) circuits.

Contactless Smart Card: A Contactless Smart Card is used for applications where protecting personal information is paramount along with delivering secure and quick transactions. Some of the common applications include identity cards, payment cards, electronic passports et al. In mass transit systems, Contactless Smart Cards are ideal choice as they can be used without the need for taking out the cards from the purse. Contactless Smart Cards contain embedded smart card secure microcontrollers, internal memory and small antennas. The communication between the chip and the reader takes place through a contactless radio frequency (RF) interface.

 

[D]

DATA : means information in a form in which it can be processed

PERSONAL DATA : “personal data” means data relating to a living individual who can be identified either from the data or from the data in conjunction with other information in the possession of the data controller

 

Dielectric Materials: Dielectric Materials are characterized very low electrical conductivity thus they find extensive use in electronics and electrical components. In Dielectric materials electrical fields are sustained with minimal chances for leakage. Solids like glass, plastics, mica and porcelain (ceramic) are good Dielectric materials. A major application of Dielectric materials is in Semiconductor Chips where they are used for insulating transistors from each other.

Decision-Feedback Equalizers: Decision-Feedback Equalizers are nonlinear Equalizers having a forward and feedback filter. A primary advantage of using DFE is that it can cancel ISI (inter-symbol interference) as well as minimize noise enhancement in high speed data communications.

Domain-Name System (DNS): The Domain-Name System (DNS) of the Internet makes it possible for users to refer to Websites as well as other resources using the convenience of domain names (such as “www.icann.org(link is external)“) that are easy to remember in place of all-numeric complex IP addresses that are assigned to each computer on the World Wide Web. The domain names are made up of a series of character strings (also known as “labels”) which are separated by dots. TLD(top-level domain) is the name given to the right-most label in a domain. There are essentially two types of TLDs within the DNS. One is called the Country Code Top level Domain (ccTLD) and the other is known as Generic Top Level Domains (gTLDs).

Dot Net: Dot Net (.NET) is a Microsoft software application running on the Windows OS.  It provides necessary tools and libraries to the developers enabling them to create Windows software easily and quickly. End users can benefit from Dot Net by getting high quality and secured applications.

Domain Name System: The Domain Name System or DNS in short is a distributed internet directory service. In simple terms it provides the way to locate the internet domains and translate them into IP (Internet Protocols) addresses. The importance of DNS can be understood from the fact that if DNS is slow or fails to work we would not be able to locate web addresses and email transfers stalled.

Enterprise Resource Management: Enterprise Resource Management is a software tool for a systematic tracking of all that flows through a business. These include capital, manpower, inventory, time et al. ERM is considered crucial for the efficiency and productivity of any organization.

Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA): Field Programmable Gate array (FPGA) devices find extensive use in the logic or digital electronic circuits. An FPGA consists of Integrated circuits (IC). The IC includes a 2D array of general-purpose logic circuits, termed as logic blocks or cells. Their functions are programmable. All the cells are interlinked by programmable buses. The basic architecture of an FPGA device consists an array of configurable logic blocks (CLBs) which are embedded in a configurable interconnect structure. On all sides of the CLBS are the configurable I/O blocks (IOBs). FPGA technology applications find wide use in different spheres, right from equipment for video and imaging, circuitry for spacecraft and other strategic applications requiring high reliability and extreme environment applications.

Fluorescence Correlation Spectrometers: Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS) is a single-molecule detection technique for high-sensitivity measurement of molecular interactions. Unique features of FCS measurements make it ideal for use in assaying techniques.

Game Theory: Game Theory refers to a mathematical model of devising an optimum strategy in various fields like economics and biology to a given situation where players have choice of limited and fixed options.

Gigabit: A Gigabit (represented as Gb) of data is a unit of measurement for use in computers. One Gigabit equals one billion bits of data.  A Gigabit of data defined as above should not be confused with a Gigabit of Internet bandwidth.

Gene: A Gene refers to the basic unit of heredity found in living organisms. Genes contain a long strand of DNA storing the data to build and maintain cells and then pass the genetic information to the offspring.

Genotype: In the broadest sense Genotype refers to the genetic makeup of an organism or a virus.

Grid Computing: Grid Computing facilitates sharing of tasks over multiple computers. With Grid computing techniques resources of multiple machines can be used for performing data storage and complex calculations spread across geographical distances.

GNU Compiler Collection: The GNU Compiler Collection (GCC), is counted amongst the most popular compilers used now. GCC is a complete set of tools for compiling programs in C, C++, Objective C, JAVA et al.  The features of GCC which make them much sought after includes multilevel source code error checking, debugging information,  different levels of optimizations and generating code for more than 30 different computer architectures.

GSM: Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) is a globally accepted standard for digital cellular communication. It is one of the most advanced digital technologies available in the cellular marketplace. GSM wireless technology has spread its wings to more than 214 countries worldwide. In GSM wireless telephony Voice data is digitized and compressed.  Subsequently it is send across a channel along with two other streams of user data each according to its own time slot. GSM can operate at 900, 1800 or 1,900MHz frequency. Generic Top Level Domains (gTLDs): “generic” TLDs, or just “gTLDs” are TLDs with three or more characters. gTLDs can be further subdivided into two types, namely “sponsored” TLDs (sTLDs) and “unsponsored” TLDs (uTLDs). These are essentially International, private and commercial domain names which can be registered from anywhere in the world and are governed by the processes directly by ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers), USA.

HVAC: HVAC acronym stands for Heating, Ventilation, and Air-Conditioning. These three together are closely related fundamental functions at home, workplace or any other building.  The primary use of HVAC or Climate Control is for regulating room temperature, airflow and humidity so as to ensure they remain within acceptable range and provide comfort.

 

Infrared: Infrared is an energy radiation having a frequency invisible to our eyes. Infrared is widely used in communication and control devices. Integrated Circuits: Integrated Circuits (ICs) are also known as chips. ICs are etched onto tiny semiconductor (silicon) chips. Complex integrated circuits are used in most of today’s electronic gadgets and equipment.

Intelligent Home: Intelligent Homes are the new age wired-homes allowing to have a control of all the aspects of home environment. These include lighting, security, telecom, appliances, climate, music et al from any locations. A single point remote or keypad controls every aspect of the home.

Intelligent Transportation Systems: In simple terms, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) refers to use of computers and different forms of communications technologies to solve the problems of transportation. Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) facilitates collection of relevant data and intelligence for a proper implementation of a plan for smooth flow of traffic and other transport management issues.

Intelligent Sensors: Intelligent sensors are smart devices having Signal Processing functions which are shared by distributed machine intelligence. Robots which have the ability to perceive and reason are good example of Intelligent Sensors. Intelligent Sensors are now widely used in industrial setups in harsh environments detrimental to human safety.

Intranet and the Internet :Intranet and the website accessible on the open Internet are essentially two distinct information spaces. There are a number of differences between the two along various dimensions. It is always a good idea to have a separate user interface design to maintain such distinction. This is important because the users should readily know when they are on the internal net (Intranet) and the moment they access the World Wide Web. Further, a different design will also aid in better navigating, sense of place and a clear understanding of information management (information which is internal, secure and confidential vis-à-vis information which is freely shared).

Some of the major differences between an Intranet and the Internet are highlighted here:

  • Nature of Users: Access to Intranet is mostly open to employees of organisations having a fair idea about the company, its operations, organizational structure, terminologies and circumstances. Access is password protected and accessible only to employees or authorized users. Whereas an Internet site is more of a public face of an organisation accessed by customers with limited knowledge about it and not very keen to know about its day to day functioning.
  • Nature of Tasks: Intranet applies for facilitating the day to day work within an organisation, this may include complex applications whereas an Internet site maintained by an organisation is for the world to know what it does, product details et al.
  • Type and Quantum of Information: The Intranet verily by its nature will assimilate a variety of detailed information- draft reports, project status reports, HR information, internal progress and other information, whereas the Internet site primarily delves into more of marketing information as well as customer support information. The amount of information generated also differs. Typically, Intranet contains much more number of pages as compared to an organisation’s website. This can go even upto 100 times. This is chiefly because works by many departments are well documented on the Intranet even though they never publish anything publicly (on the internet).
  • Navigational System: An Intranet is generally supported by a stronger navigational system as compared to an Internet site. This is because Intranet encompasses a larger volume of information. A navigation system in an Intranet also facilitates movement between Servers whereas an internet public website is required to support within-site navigation.
  • Design: An Intranet design typically is focussed more on task-orientation and less flashy. There is generally a single Intranet design. An Intranet can be enriched with a large number of options and features without intimidating or overwhelming the users, which can be the case on the open Internet with rapid surfing between sites.
  • Bandwidth Specifications: Intranets may be accessible from the Internet but their speed is often much faster than Websites typically stuck at low-band or mid-band, server breakdowns and other problems. So it is not uncommon to see applications such as multimedia, rich graphics and other advanced high-bandwidth content, such as audio and video on Intranet pages.

Internet Protocol: Internet Protocol refers to the set of techniques for transmission of data over the Internet. Devices connected to a network, internet or even a local area network (LAN) is assigned an Internet Protocol number. This address helps in unique identification of the device among all other devices which are connected to the extended network.

Interactive Voice Response: An Interactive Voice Response (IVR) System allows callers to create complex voice response system over the telephone. IVR is very useful in providing 24×7 automated customer service and reducing clerical processing.

IPV6: Internet Protocol Version 6 or IPv6 in short is the next generation Internet Protocol for taking the place of the current IP version, IPV4( Internet Protocol, Version 4). IPV6 boasts of a lot of improvement over IPV4 in terms of routing, number of available addresses and network autoconfiguration.

In Silico Analysis: In Silico Analysis refers to performing an analysis using computers in tandem with informatics capabilities.

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[L]

LASER: Light Amplification by the Stimulated Emission of Radiation or LASER in short is a device that concentrates light into a narrow beam. The light thus produced is intense, coherent and unidirectional.  LASER has a wide variety of application in eye surgery (LASIK), high-speed metal cutting machines, CD players, hair replacement et al.

Ligand: Ligand is a term used for referring to small molecule or functional group that is bound to other larger molecule, such as carbohydrate, protein or lipid, inducing a biological activity.

LINAC: A Linear Accelerator (LINAC) is a particle accelerator commonly used for external beam radiation treatments of cancer patients. LINAc uses microwave technology to accelerate charged particles.

Linux: Linux is a free Unix-type OS (operating system), the source code for Linux is freely accessible to all users.

Lab-on-a-Chip: Lab-on-a-Chip devices have made it possible to conduct laboratory experiments on a small-scale and outside the confines of a laboratory. With Lab-on-a-Chip devices, medical diagnostics, chemical synthesis, studying complex cellular processes has just become easier.

 

Millimeter Wave: Millimeter Wave Technology is a technology to transmit signals at comparatively high frequencies.  Millimeter Wave Technology is increasingly making its mark commercially. In imaging applications at Airports and high security threat areas,   Millimeter Wave technology can bounce non-harmful electromagnetic waves off the passenger’s body and producing a black and white three-dimensional image. Other than security applications the technology also finds increasing use in communications and traffic-control systems.

Microprocessor: A microprocessor aka CPU (central processing unit) is the brain of the computer whether a desktop or Laptop.  It is a complete computation engine fabricated on a on a single integrated circuit or chip.MEMS Technology: Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is an emerging technology for making microscopic machines. Using microfabrication technology, MEMS integrates actuators, mechanical elements, sensors and electronics on a common silicon substrate. MEMS is a groundbreaking technology which makes possible the realization of a complete systems-on-a-chip by fusion of silicon-based microelectronics with micromachining technology.

MOSFET: MOSFET or Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect-Transistor technology is today one of the most popular semiconductor techniques. It is considered a key element in integrated circuit technology. The MOSFET devices can be split into various categories such as N-channel, P-channel, Depletion mode and Enhancement mode MOSFET. In most of the modern devices the transition from bipolar transistors to MOSFETs is complete. A typical MOSFET contains an n-(p-) doped silicon substrate along with two, highly p-(n-) doped contacts- drain and a source. The channel region in between is covered by the gate oxide, a thin insulating layer. The gate-oxide remains in touch with the gate electrode.

MC-CDMA: Multi Carrier Code Division Multiple Access or MCC-DMA is a relatively new concept to be used in telecommunication systems. MC-CDMA is a combination of OFDM (orthogonal frequency division multiplexing) and CDMA (code division multiple access) both radio access techniques.

Metadata: Metadata essentially provides a description about other data. For example in a webpage the information about the content is provided by metadata. Web pages include metadata by way of Meta tags. Search engines use this data while adding pages of websites to their search indices.

Nanometrology: Nanometrology essentially refers to the science of measurement at nanoscale level. Nanometrology has a crucial role in manufacturing technology- producing nanomaterials and devices where the requirements are highly demanding. Moving from manufacturing, Nanometrology now encompasses measurement of species or events on a nano-scale also.

 

Optoelectronics: Optoelectronics also known alternately as Photonics is a branch of physics, especially electronics that uses light for processing and transferring data. Optoelectronics is today an integral part of everyday life. Devices like Barcode reader, CD player, TV remote control are few examples of Optoelectronics.

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is a method of broadband multicarrier modulation. In this method, a signal is allowed to split into numerous narrowband channels at varying frequencies. In the UHF and microwave spectrum, OFDM is fine with high-speed digital data transmission, superior performance and wide benefits.

Ontology: In the realm of IT and Computer Science, Ontology refers to the exact description of things as well as their relationships. In the context of web, Ontology is precisely describing the web information and relationships between web information.

Orca: Orca is a free, open source, screen reading and magnification software for visually challenged people.

Parallel Processing: Parallel Processing refers to the technique of using two or more microprocessors in tandem to process a common assignment for obtaining faster results. The computer resources can be a number of computers interconnected via a network or a single computer with multiple processors or both. Data is accessed by processors through shared memory. Projects such as weather modelling and digital special effects requiring complex computations take the help of Parallel Processing.

Polyketide Synthase: Polyketides are valuable therapeutic agents produced as secondary metabolites from bacteria, fungi, plants and few animals. They display a diverse range of biological activities and are pharmacologically very important. Polyketides gets synthesised by sequential reactions, with a family of enzyme called PKSs (Polyketide Synthases) acting as a catalyst.

Pyrolysis: Pyrolysis refers to a process of incineration or heating to decompose organic materials without oxygen. As a result, the hazardous organic materials get transformed to small traces of liquids, gases and solid residues. A Pyrolysis process typically targets contaminant groups such as SVOCs and pesticides.

Proteomic: In Bioinformatics, Proteomic refers to identification of proteins in the body. Proteomic makes it possible to link the genome sequence and the cellular behaviour.

Photoluminescence: The term Photoluminescence describes a highly sensitive spectroscopic method for process control and development of semiconductors. In this method light is first absorbed generating an excited state. Subsequently, upon relaxation light of lower energy is re-emitted to a ground state.

Perovskite: Perovskite is a relatively minor mineral but is much sought after for its rare earth metal content. It has a formula CaTiO3. Perovskite gets its name from Russian mineralogist, Count Lev Aleksevich von Perovski.

Plasma Display Panels: Plasma Display Panels or PDPs are now very popular in consumer electronics products with their use in flat-panel TVs and computer monitors.  Plasma monitors make use of fixed matrix technologies. PDPs display excellent picture quality, wider viewing angle along with a host of other features at the same time being eco-friendly.

Perceptual Psychology: Perceptual psychology is a subset of cognitive psychology that is concerned on processing of sensory information.

Perceptual Robotics: Perceptual Robotics is a science that links neuroscience with robotics.

CAD: Q-CAD is an easy to handle and highly effective software for creating quilting patterns graphically.

Rare Earth Doped Fiber: Rare Earth Doped Fiber is a special type of Optical Fiber, where ions of rare-earth elements like Erbium(Er), Neodymium (Nd) or Holmium (Ho), is incorporated into the Glass Core matrix. This results in high absorption with low loss performances in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions.

Reconfigurable Computing: Reconfigurable computing is a combination of hardware and software. In the Reconfgurable Computing platform Processors like Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), after modification at the hardware level can perform numerous processing tasks.

Remote Sensing: Remote Sensing refers to the science of garnering data/information based on some property (temporal, spectral and spatial) which concerns areas, objects or even a phenomenon.  Interestingly, the recording devices would not be coming into physical contact with the things under surveillance (objects or area or phenomenon)Resilient Packet Ring (RPR): Resilient Packet Ring technology, designed to carry packet traffic efficiently over rings, is a geographically bifurcated “distributed switching” architecture characterised by extensive performance monitoring and network restoration and offering highly flexible deployment choices. The standardized technology specified by IEEE 802.17 standard is designed to bring sub-50ms ring-based resiliency to packet-switched network architecture. RPR effectively addresses the problems and limitations associated with voice and data networks. As a single common network it efficiently handles voice over IP (VoIP), Ethernet and IP, video et al

Radio Frequency: Radio Frequency (RF or rf): Radio Frequency refers to the generation of electromagnetic wave or field when alternating electrical current with specific features is fed to an antenna. RF is used for wireless broadcast and communication over long distances.

 

SaaS (Software-As-A-Service): Software as a Service abbreviated as SaaS is a popular software distribution model, with customers getting delivery of the software over the World Wide Web (WWW). Saas is characterised by simple deployment procedure, reduced expenditure in customer acquisition, flexibility- allowing support for many customers with a single version of the software.

Sequence Alignment: In bioinformatics, a Sequence Alignment is a process to arrange the sequences of DNA, RNA, or protein to identify and highlight similar regions.

Semiconductor: A semiconductor is a material characterised by a behaviour that is in between a conductor and an insulator. This property makes them suitable for a wide ranging application in electronics. Silicon, Germanium and Pentacene are popular Semiconductor materials.

Software Defined Radio: Software-Defined Radio abbreviated as SDR is a wireless mode of communication where a computer defines or generates the transmitter modulation. With SDR, a single wireless device is able to support a wide range of capabilities. SDR has made possible what could earlier be done only by integrating multiple radio components.

SCADA: Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition abbreviated as SCADA is essentially a computer system for collecting data from various sensors at plants and factories, or even in remote locations and then directing the data collected to a central computer which then manages controls and analyzes the real time data.
SCADA systems can be both simple and complex with the emphasis is on collecting and disseminating the exact system information to the appropriate computer within a specified time for fast troubleshooting. SCADA systems are now very popular in industries- telecom, steel plants and power plants as well as in experimental facilities.

Single Channel Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer (OADM): In telecom parlance, a Single Channel Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer (OADM) is used for utilised for adding or dropping single wavelength in Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing optical networks. Single Channel Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer (OADM) is known to provide a stable wavelength, good isolation by integrating thin film filter technology and optical path packaging techniques which are epoxy-free

Smart Antennas:  Smart Antennas are changing the face of modern digital wireless communication systems with increased spectral efficiency, maximum range and clarity. Along with increasing use in mobile communications, they are used in RADAR systems, aerospace, GIS mapping and host of other applications. Smart Antennas can be broadly classified into 3 categories of Single Input, Multiple Output (SIMO), Multiple Input, Single Output (MISO) and Multiple Input, Multiple Output (MIMO).

Steganography: Steganography refers to the technique of hiding information. Modern Steganography intends exchanging secret messages through video, digital images, audio and encoded messages in computer software using passwords or algorithms along with a host of other techniques. Steganographic applications are available on different platforms.

Teraflop: A Teraflop measures computing performance. Teraflop typically defines a computer processor’s speed and refers to the number of floating-point operations (FLOPS) it can perform per second. The speed is generally denoted as 1012 floating-point operations per second or trillion floating-point operations per second. Teraflop computers find use in high-end research facilities and strategic applications.

Taxonomy: Taxonomy derives its meaning from Greek language. Taxis = arrangement or division, Nomos = law.  In the context of web portals, taxonomies are often prepared for providing a description to categories and subcategories of a website’s topics.

Tunnel Magnetoresistance: Tunnel Magnetoresistance abbreviated as TMR refers to the spin polarization (SP) of electrons occurring in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs)

Transceiver: A Transceiver is a device having transmission and reception capability in a single package. A most common illustration of Transceiver is a cellular phone that can both receive and send data. Transceiver has become the foundation for wireless communications devices.

Text to Speech System: Text to Speech System abbreviated as TTS is a technique to convert the words of the computer text into audible speech.  With a TTS engine application, email messages can be listened. TTS systems are especially proving a major boon to those who are visually challenged.

Testbed: A Testbed refers to the execution environment that enables software testing under normal working conditions. A test bed consists of OS, specific software/hardware, configuration of the product to be tested et al.

Terabyte: A Terabyte often shortened to TB with the prefix Tera meaning monster in Greek while byte is derived from bite. Terabyte measures a computer’s storage capacity. A Terabyte equals 1012 bytes.

Ultra Wideband: Ultra-Wideband (UWB) technology is a power-efficient short-range radio technology which is best suited to WPANs (Wireless Personal Area Networks) UWB complements existing long range radio technologies like Wi-Fi and WiMAX and provides high bandwidth solution for multiple digital video and audio streams. A
UWB transmitter sends billions of pulses across a very wide frequency spectrum that is several GHz in bandwidth.  The pulses are then translated into data by the corresponding receiver by listening to the familiar pulse sequence that is sent by the transmitter. UWB is characterised by larger spectrum, low power consumption and pulsed data. This results in improved speed and a considerably reduced interference with other Wireless spectra.

Wavelength: In the electromagnetic spectrum, wavelength is the complete distance of a wave cycle between any two points in the same phase.

Wi Fi: Wireless Fidelity or Wi-Fi refers to certain types of wireless local area network (WLAN) used across the world. Wifi networks can be of two types, the open type where anyone can have access or the closed type requiring passwords.

Wi-MAX: Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access shortened to Wi-MAX is a broadband wireless network technology that utilises fixed antennas for providing 2-way broadband connections to consumers over distances.

WLAN: WLANs or Wireless Local Area Networks is a local area network that offers wireless network communication over relatively shorter distances. With WLAN there is flexibility to the networking by using radio or infrared signals or an extension to the current wired network.

 

XML: XML or Extensible Markup Language is a widely-implemented standard for data exchange. Data records and documents using XML are platform-independent and fully portable.  With XML, exchanging data between incompatible systems is distinctly possible.

 

2G: In the realm of cell phones, 2G refers to the second-generation wireless digital telephone technology. 2G cell-phone networks uses 3 common technologies to transmit information; they are Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA), Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) and Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA).

3G: 3G supersedes 2g as the third generation of mobile communications systems. It enhances services like multimedia, high-speed mobile broadband, internet access with video footage on the mobile handset. With a 3G phone and access to the 3G networks there would be increased bandwidth, and support to diverse applications such as live streaming, video messaging et al.

4G: 4G refers to the fourth generation of wireless mobile technology which will supercede 3G. A fully operational 4G is widely expected to facilitate pervasive computing-creating an environment where simultaneous connections to multiple high-speed networks will be a seamless handover across a geographical area.

6LoWPAN: 6LoWPAN refers to a new innovation in IP (Internet Protocol) technology. IPv6 over Low power Wireless Personal Area Networks or 6LoWPAN makes the Internet of Things to become a reality. 6lowPAN optimizes the mechanisms of wireless embedded networking.

Intelligent Sensors: Intelligent sensors are smart devices having Signal Processing functions which are shared by distributed machine intelligence. Robots which have the ability to perceive and reason are good example of Intelligent Sensors. Intelligent Sensors are now widely used in industrial setups in harsh environments detrimental to human safety.

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CAD: Q-CAD is an easy to handle and highly effective software for creating quilting patterns graphically.

Routers: Routers are physical devices in computer networking that is used to join together multiple wired or wireless networks. The work that a router performs is termed as Routing. To put it in simple terms, Routers are devices that facilitate computers to interconnect or communicate with other computers including other computer hardware. Both wireless and wired Routers are popular.

Single Channel Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer (OADM): In telecom parlance, a Single Channel Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer (OADM) is used for utilised for adding or dropping single wavelength in Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing optical networks. Single Channel Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer (OADM) is known to provide a stable wavelength, good isolation by integrating thin film filter technology and optical path packaging techniques which are epoxy-free

Smart Antennas:  Smart Antennas are changing the face of modern digital wireless communication systems with increased spectral efficiency, maximum range and clarity. Along with increasing use in mobile communications, they are used in RADAR systems, aerospace, GIS mapping and host of other applications. Smart Antennas can be broadly classified into 3 categories of Single Input, Multiple Output (SIMO), Multiple Input, Single Output (MISO) and Multiple Input, Multiple Output (MIMO).


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FOLLOWING FIELDS SHALL BE  ADDED  UNDER THE HEADING OF  INFORMATION AND INTERNET LAW.

Crime [Domestic & International]
Intellectual Property & software licensing
Electronic Commerce & Payment system
International Trade
Electronic Banking and Financial services
Risk Management and Insurance
Data Protection and Freedom of Information


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