Distinction between cruelty u/s 498-A of IPC and that u/s 13(1)(i-a) of HMA 1955

Shobha Rani Versus Madhukar -Reddy12/11/1987-We are, however, not concerned with criminal offence either under the Dowry Prohibition Act or under the Indian Penal Code. We are concerned with a matrimonial conduct which constitutes cruelty as a ground for dissolution of marriage. Such cruelty if not admitted requires to be proved on the preponderance of propabilities as in civil cases and not beyond a reasonable doubt as in criminal cases.

Distinction between administrative and contractual law

tender terms are contractual and it is the privilege of the Government which invites its tenders and courts do not have jurisdiction to judge as to how the tender terms should be framed. By observing that there was an implied term which was not there in the tender, and postponing the time by which the bank guarantee had to be furnished, in essence the High Court directed modification of a vital term of the contract

What is the difference between sec 156 and Sec 202 of Cr.P.C ?

The clear position therefore is that any Judicial Magistrate, before taking cognizance of the offence, can order investigation under Section 156(3) of Cr.P.C. If he does so, he is not to examine the complainant on oath because he was not taking cognizance of any offence therein. For the purpose of enabling the police to start investigation it is open to the Magistrate to direct the police to register an FIR.

Difference between obiter dicta and ratio decidendi

State of Haryana Vs Ranbir alias Rana-An obiter dictum as distinguished from ratio decidendi is an observation of the court on a legal question suggested in a case before it but not arising in such manner as to require a decision. Such an obiter may not have binding precedent but it cannot be denied that it is of considerable weight

Distinction between a person directly employed by Govt and employment by an agency of Govt

The Managing Director, U. P. Warehousing Corporation and others  Versus Vijay Narayan Vajpayee-The Government, directly or through the Corporation, set up by it or owned by it, now owns or manages, a large number of industries and institutions. It is the biggest builder in the country. Mammoth and minor irrigation projects, heavy and light engineering projects, projects of various kinds are undertaken by the Government. The Government is also the biggest trader in the country. The State and the multitudinous agencies and Corporation set up by it are the principal purchasers of the produce and the products of our country and they control a vast and complex machinery of distribution.

Liberal Degree Vs Professional Degree Vs Specialist Degree

Liberal studies degrees are highly flexible degrees which allow you to build your depth of knowledge in one or more areas. Some liberal studies degrees can be taken with professional degrees, enabling you to develop knowledge across disciplines and expertise in a professionally accredited field. 

Due process of Law vs Procedure Established by Law

Indian Constitution did not desire to introduce into our system the elements of uncertainty, vagueness and changeability that have grown round the ‘due process’ doctrine in America. They wanted to make the provision clear, definite and precise and deliberately chose the words ‘procedure established by law’ as in their opinion no doubts would ordinarily arise about the meaning of this expression.