Delivered on the scaffold at Whitehall, London, England
Recorded by Juxon
DATE: January 30, 1649.
[About ten in the morning, the King was brought from Saint Jameses Court, he did walk on foot through the Park, with a Regiment of Foot, one half before him, and the other behind him, their Colours flying, and their Drums beating, his private guard of Partisan with some of his Gentlemen did go immediately bare headed before him, and some part of them behind him; but those who were next of all unto him behinde, were Dr. Juxon and Colonel Thomlinson, to the last of whom the care and charge of his Person was committed, these two being barehead did talk with him all along the Park, and as you go up the stairs into the Gallery, and so into the Cabanet chamber, where he used to lye, in which place, he continued at his Devo∣tion and refused to dine, because he that morning had taken the Sacrament, onely about one hour before he came forth he drank a Glasse of Claret wine, and did eat a crust of bread about twelve of the clock at Noon. From thence he was accompanied by Doctor Juxon, Col. Thomlinson, and other Officers former∣ly appointed to be his Guard, and with the private Guard of Partizans, with musquetiers on either side, through the banquetting house, at the farther end, on the outside whereof the Scaffold was erected, near unto the Gate of White Hall. The Scaffold was hung round with black, and the floore was covered with black, & the ax and the Block laid on the middle of the Scaffold. There were severall Companies of Foot, and Troops of Horse placed on the one side of the Scaffold, and the other, and multitudes of people that thronged to see so rare a spe∣ctacle were very great. The King was no sooner come upon the Scaffold, but he looked very earnestly on the Block, and asked Col. Hacker, if there were no higher, and then spake thus, di∣recting his speech chiefly to Colonel Thomlinson.]
I shall be very little heard of anybody here, I shall therefore speak a word unto you here.
Indeed I could hold my peace very well, if I did not think that holding my peace would make some men think that I did submit to the guilt as well as to the punishment. But I think it is my duty to God first and to my country for to clear myself both as an honest man and a good King, and a good Christian.
I shall begin first with my innocence.
In truth I think it not very needful for me to insist long upon this, for all the world knows that I never did begin a War with the two Houses of Parliament. And I call God to witness, to whom I must shortly make an account, that I never did intend for to encroach upon their privileges. They began upon me, it is the Militia they began upon, they confessed that the Militia was mine, but they thought it fit for to have it from me. And, to be short, if anybody will look to the dates of Commissions, of their commissions and mine, and likewise to the Declarations, will see clearly that they began these unhappy troubles, not I. So that as the guilt of these enormous crimes that are laid against me I hope in God that God will clear me of it.
I will not, I am in charity, God forbid that I should lay it upon the two Houses of Parliament. There is no necessity of either. I hope that they are free of this guilt, for I do believe that ill instruments between them and me has been the chief cause of all this bloodshed; so that by way of speaking, as I find myself clear of this, I hope and pray God that they may too; yet for all this, God forbid that I should be so ill a Christian as not to say that Gods Judgments are just upon me.
Many times He does pay justice by an unjust sentence, that is ordinary. I will only say this, that an unjust sentence that I suffered to take effect, is punished now by an unjust sentence upon me. That is, so far as I have said, to show you that I am an innocent man.
Now to show you that I am a good Christian; I hope there is [pointing to D. Juxon] a good man that will bear me witness that I have forgiven all the world, and even those in particular that have been the chief causers of my death. Who they are, God knows, I do not desire to know, God forgive them. But this is not all, my charity must go further.
I wish that they may repent, for indeed they have committed a great sin in that particular. I pray God, with St. Stephen, that this be not laid to their charge. Nay, not only so, but that they may take the right way to the peace of the kingdom, for my charity commands me not only to forgive particular men, but my charity commands me to endeavor to the last gasp the peace of the kingdom.
So, Sirs, I do wish with all my soul, and I do hope there is some here [turning to some gentlemen that wrote] that will carry it further, that they may endeavor the peace of the kingdom.
Now, sirs, I must show you both how you are out of the way and will put you in a way.
First, you are out of the way, for certainly all the way you have ever had yet, as I could find by anything, is by way of conquest. Certainly this is an ill way, for Conquest, sirs, in my opinion, is never just, except that there be a good just cause, either for matter of wrong or just title. And then if you go beyond it, the first quarrel that you have to it, that makes it unjust at the end that was just at the first. But if it be only matter of conquest, there is a great robbery, as a pirate said to Alexander the Great, that he was the great robber, he was just a petty robber. And so, sirs, I do think the way that you are in, is much out of the way.
Now, sirs, to put you in the way, believe it, you will never do right, nor God will never prosper you, until you give God his due, the King his due (that is, my successors) and the people their due. I am as much for them as any of you.
You must give God his due by regulating rightly His church according to the Scripture, which is now out of order. For to set you in a way particularly, now I cannot, but only this. A national synod freely called, freely debating among themselves, must settle this, when that every opinion is freely and clearly heard.
For the King, indeed I will not, [then turning to a gentlemen that touched the ax] Hurt not the Ax, that may hurt me.
For the King the Laws of the land will clearly instruct you for that; therefore, because it concerns my own particular, I only give you a touch of it.
For the people, and truly I desire their liberty and freedom as much as anybody whomsoever. But I must tell you that their liberty and freedom consists in having of government. Those Laws by which their life and their goods may be most their own. It is not for having share in government, sirs. That is nothing pertaining to them. A subject and a sovereign are clean different things, and therefore until they do that, I mean, that you do put the people in that liberty as I say, certainly they will never enjoy themselves.
Sirs, it was for this that now I am come here. If I would have given way to an arbitrary way, for to have all laws changed according to the power of the sword, I needed not to have come here. And therefore I tell you, and I pray God it be not laid to your charge, that I am the martyr of the people.
In truth, sirs, I shall not hold you much longer, for I will only say thus to you. That in truth I could have desired some little time longer, because I would have put then that I have said in a little more order, and a little better digested than I have done. And, therefore, I hope that you will excuse me.
I have delivered my conscience. I pray God, that you do take those courses that are best for the good of the kingdom and your own salvation.
William Juxon, Archbishop of Canterbury:
Will Your Majesty, though it may be very well known Your Majesties affections to religion, yet it may be expected, that You should, say somewhat for the world’s satisfaction.
I thank you very heartily, my Lord, for that. I had almost forgotten it.
In truth, sirs, my conscience in religion, I think, is very well known to all the world. And therefore, I declare before you all that I die a Christian, according to the profession of the Church of England, as I found it left me by my father.
And this honest man [pointing to Juxon] I think will witness it.
[Then turning to the Officers]
Sirs, excuse me for this same. I have a good Cause, and I have a gracious God. I will say no more.
[Then turning to Colonel Hacker]
Take care that they do not put me to pain. And sir, this, and it please you…
[But then a gentleman coming near the Ax, the King said]
Take heed of the ax, pray, take heed of the ax.
[Then to the Executioner]
I shall say but very short prayers, and when I thrust out my hands.
[Then the King called to Juxon for His nightcap and put it on. Then to the Executioner]
Does my hair trouble you?
[The Executioner desired Him to put it all under His cap, which the King did accordingly, by the help of the Executioner and the Bishop. Then the King turning to Juxon:]
I have a good cause, and a gracious God on my side.
There is but one Stage more, which is turbulent and troublesome, yet it is a short one. You may consider it will soon carry you a very great way. It will carry you from earth to heaven. And there you shall find a great deal of cordial, joy, and comfort.
I go from a corruptible to an incorruptible Crown, where no disturbance can be, no disturbance in the world.
You are exchanged from a temporal to an eternal crown. A good exchange.
[The King then asked the Executioner]
Is my hair well?
Then the king took off his cloak and his George, giving his George to Juxon, saying:
Then the King put off his doublet and, being in his waistcoat, put his cloak on again. Then looking upon the block, the king said to the Executioner:
You must set it fast.
It is fast, sir.
It might have been a little higher.
It can be no higher, sir.
When I put out my hands this way, then.
After having said a few words as he stood to himself with hands and eyes lift up, immediately stooping down, the king laid his neck on the block. Then the Executioner again putting his hair under his cap, the king said:
Stay for the sign.
Yes, I will, and it please Your Majesty.
NOTE: After a very little pause, the king stretched forth his hands, the Executioner at one blow, severed his head from his body.