After Romulus had distinguished the persons of higher rank from those of inferior condition, then he passed laws and apportioned the duties for each to do: the patricians to be priests and magistrates and judges; the plebeians to be farmers, cattle breeders, and artisans of gainful trades. ... He entrusted and gave the plebeians to the patricians by permitting each plebeian ... to choose for his patron the patrician whom he wished ... and by calling this protection patronage.
Is not the knowledge of the Gods which we have set forth with so much zeal one of the noblest sorts of knowledge—to know that they are, and know how great is their power, as far as in man lies? We do indeed excuse the mass of the citizens, who only follow the voice of the laws, but we refuse to admit as guardians any who do not labour to obtain every possible evidence that there is respecting the Gods; our city is forbidden and not allowed to choose as a guardian of the law, or to place in the select order of virtue, him who is not an inspired man, and has not laboured at these things.
1. 'O sinless One, the whole sacred law(sruti and smriti), are applicable to the four Varnas, has been declared by you; communicate to us (now), according to the truth, the ultimate retribution for (their) deeds.' 2. To the great sages…
A woman who has a right to claim maintenance for an unlimited period of time shall be given as much food and clothing as is necessary for her, or more than is necessary in proportion to the income of her maintainer
The magistrate, before whom the declaration is made, which it is proper for anyone to make as per with this law, shall provide that each person's name, the things which he has declared, and the day on which he has declared them shall be entered in the public records and that all these entries shall be accurately copied on a tablet on the bulletin board in the Forum. Whenever and wherever grain is distributed to the people he shall keep this list displayed daily, for the greater part of each day, where it can be easily read from the ground level.
In 1670, when the K'ang Hsi emperor was sixteen years old, he issued a list of sixteen principles that briefly illustrate how he expected his subjects to conduct themselves in order to ensure their goodness, happiness and prosperity. These so_called "Sacred Edicts" were to be read aloud twice a month in every village and town of the empire. Both the literati and the common people were expected to attend these lectures. The practice of "expounding the Sacred Edicts" was still in use after 1900, yet it was observed that only those that had to attend would be present.
The magistrate shall bring them immediately before the Senate and shall appoint whatever advocate they request to speak on their behalf to the Senate. He shall not act as advocate against his will if by law he is given the right to decline this compulsory public service.
The enactment of the Twelve Tables was preceded by a period of discontent and even active agitation, and the relations of the two parties were still in a sort of ferment, and incapable of satisfactory adjustment except by some constitutional reform of more than ordinary comprehensiveness... The first secession of the plebs seems to have been occasioned principally by financial distress.
It remains for us to speak of actions. And if we inquire how many kinds of actions there are, the better opinion seems to be that there are but two, real and personal; for those who say that there are four, and include such as arise from solemn agreements, do not perceive that some kinds of actions are subdivided into others.
By the Law of the Twelve Tables, the estates of persons dying intestate belong to their proper heirs.
Roman law is the law that was valid in the city of Rome in ancient time and later in the Roman Empire. After the end of Roman rule in Europe, in modification, it applied and not completely abandoned.
THE INSTITUTES OF JUSTINIAN PROOEMIVM In the name of Our Lord, Jesus Christ. The Emperor Caesar Flavius Justinian, conqueror of the Alamanni, the Goths, the Franks, the Germans, the Antes, the Alani, the Vandals, the Africans, pious, prosperous, renowned, victorious,…
The Code of Manu ( Manu Samhita) Code of Hammurabi The Athenian Constitution By Aristotle Roman Law The Law of Justinian (Institution, Codex, and Digest) Manu Samhita [Sanskrit- Devanagari Script] Read more: Ancient Laws
The Code of Hammurabi was based on a set of previously recorded and observed Sumerian laws, of which the Code of Dungi may have been one. However, Dungi's code is mentioned only sparsely in ancient history texts, and many do not even find it important enough to mention at all. Also, there seems to be some disparity of dates. While once source gives the dates of Dungi's Code as about three centuries before Hammurabi's, this same date is also attributed to the Ur-Nammu Code of Law, i.e. approx. 2050-2100 B.C E , which many sources state is the earliest known written code of law in the world, and is the one most often credited as being the source of the Code of Hammurabi.