Basic Law of Governance [Constitution of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia]

Basic Law of Governance

The Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques, King Fahd Bin Abdulaziz Al-Saud issued a Royal Decree embodying the Basic Law of Governance. The following is the text of the Decree.

In the name of God, the most compassionate, the most Merciful.

No: A/90
Dated 27th Sha’ban 1412 H (1 March 1992)

With the help of God, we, Fahd Bin Abdulaziz Al-Saud, Monarch of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, having taken into consideration the public interest, and in view of the progress of the State in various fields and out of the desire to achieve the objectives we are pursuing, have decreed the following:

That the promulgation of the Basic Law of Governance is as the attached text.

That all regulations, orders and decrees in force shall remain valid when this Basic Law comes into force, until they are amended to conform with it.

That this decree shall be published in the Official Gazette, and shall come into force on the date of its publication.

Table of Contents:

Chapter One: General Principles
Chapter Two: The Law of Governance
Chapter Three: The Values of Saudi Society
Chapter Four: Economic Principles
Chapter Five: Rights and Duties
Chapter Six: The Authorities of the State
Chapter Seven: Financial Affairs
Chapter Eight: Institutions of Audit
Chapter Nine: General Principles
Related Documents

Chapter One: General Principles

Article 1:
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a sovereign Arab Islamic State. Its religion is Islam. Its Constitution is Almighty God’s Book, The Holy Qur’an, and the Sunna (Traditions) of the Prophet (PBUH). Arabic is the language of the Kingdom. The City of Riyadh is the capital.

Article 2:
The State public holidays are Eid Al Fitr (the Feast of Ramadan) and Eid Al Adha (The Feast of the Sacrifice). Its calendar follows the Hijri year (the lunar year).

Article 3:
The flag of the State is as follows:

Its color is green
Its width equals two thirds of its length The words:

“There is no god but Allah and Mohammed is His Messenger” are inscribed in the center, with a drawn sword underneath. The flag should never be inverted. The Law will specify the rules pertaining to the flag.

Article 4:
The State’s Emblem represents two crossed swords with a palm three in the middle of the upper space between them. The Law will define the State’s Anthem and medals

Chapter Two: The Law of Governance

Article 5:

Monarchy is the system of rule in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Rulers of the country shall be from amongst the sons of the founder King Abdulaziz bin Abdulrahman Al-Faisal Al-Saud, and their descendants.

The most upright among them shall receive allegiance according to Almighty God’s Book and His Messenger’s Sunna (Traditions).

The Crown Prince shall devote himself exclusively to his duties as Crown Prince and shall perform any other duties delegated to him by the King.

Upon the death of the King, the Crown Prince shall assume the Royal powers until a pledge of allegiance (bay’a) is given.

Article 6:
In support of the Book of God and the Sunna of His Messenger (PBUH), citizens shall give the pledge of allegiance (bay’a) to the King, professing loyalty in times of hardship and ease.

Article 7:
Government in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia derives its authority from the Book of God and the Sunna of the Prophet (PBUH), which are the ultimate sources of reference for this Law and the other laws of the State.

Article 8:
Governance in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is based on justice, shura (consultation) and equality according to Islamic Sharia.

Chapter Three: The Values of Saudi Society

Article 9:
The family is the nucleus of Saudi Society. Members of the family shall be raised in the Islamic Creed, which demands allegiance and obedience to God, to His Prophet and to the rulers, respect for and obedience to the laws, and love for and pride in the homeland and its glorious history.

Article 10:
The State shall aspire to promote family bonds and Arab-Islamic values. It shall take care of all individuals and provide the right conditions for the growth of their talents and skills.

Article 11:
Saudi society is based on full adherence to God’s guidance. Members of this society shall cooperate amongst themselves in charity, piety and cohesion.

Article 12:
Consolidation of the national unity is a duty. The State shall forbid all activities that may lead to division, disorder and partition.

Article 13:
The aim of education is to implant the Islamic Creed in the hearts of all youths, to help them acquire knowledge and skills, to qualify them to become useful members of their society, to love their homeland and take pride in its history.

Chapter Four: Economic Principles

Article 14:
All natural resources that God has deposited underground, above ground, in territorial waters or within the land and sea domains under the authority of the State, together with revenues of these resources, shall be the property of the State, as provided by the Law.

The Law shall specify means for exploitation, protection and development of these resources in the best interest of the State, and its security and economy.

Article 15:
No concessions or licenses to exploit any public resources of the country shall be granted unless authorized by provisions of the Law.

Article 16:
Public funds are inviolable. They shall be protected by the State and safeguarded by all citizens and residents.

Article 17:
Ownership, capital and labor are basic components of the economic and social entity of the Kingdom. They are personal rights which perform a social function in accordance with the Islamic Sharia.

Article 18:
The State shall guarantee private ownership and its sanctity. No-one shall be deprived of his private property, unless in service of the public interest. In this case, a fair compensation shall be given to him.

Article 19:
General confiscation of assets is prohibited. No confiscation of an individual’s assets shall be enforced without a judicial ruling.

Article 20:
No taxes or fees shall be imposed, except in need and on a just basis. Imposition, amendment, cancellation or exemption shall take place according to the provisions of the Law.

Article 21:
Zakat shall be collected and spent for legitimate expenses.

Article 22:
Economic and social development shall be carried out according to a fair, wise plan.

Chapter Five: Rights and Duties

Article 23:
The State shall protect the Islamic Creed, apply the Sharia, encourage good and discourage evil, and undertake its duty regarding the Propagation of Islam (Da’wa).

Article 24:
The State shall develop and maintain the Two Holy Mosques. It shall provide care and security to pilgrims to help them perform their Hajj and Umra and visit to the Prophet’s Mosque in ease and comfort.

Article 25:
The State shall nourish the aspirations of Arab and Muslim nations in solidarity and harmony and strengthen relations with friendly states.

Article 26:
The State shall protect human rights in accordance with the Sharia.

Article 27:
The State shall guarantee the rights of the citizens and their families in cases of emergency, illness, disability and old age. The State shall support the Social Insurance Law and encourage organizations and individuals to participate in philanthropic activities.

Article 28:
The State shall facilitate job opportunities for every able person, and enact laws to protect the worker and the employer.

Article 29:
The State shall patronize sciences, letters and culture. It shall encourage scientific research, protect the Islamic and Arab heritage, and contribute towards Arab, Islamic and human civilization.

Article 30:
The State shall provide public education and commit itself to the eradication of illiteracy.

Article 31:
The State shall look after public health and provide health care for every citizen.

Article 32:
The State shall work towards the preservation, protection and improvement of the environment, as well as prevent pollution.

Article 33:
The State shall form armed forces and equip them to defend the Islamic Creed, the Two Holy Mosques, the society and the homeland.

Article 34:
It shall be the duty of every citizen to defend the Islamic Creed, the society and homeland. The Law shall specify rules for military service.

Article 35:
The Law shall specify rules pertaining to Saudi Arabian nationality.

Article 36:
The State shall provide security for all citizens and residents on its territories. No-one may be confined, arrested or imprisoned without reference to the Law.

Article 37:
Dwellings are inviolate. Access is prohibited without their owners’ permission. No search may be made except in cases specified by the Law.

Article 38:
No-one shall be punished for another’s crimes. No conviction or penalty shall be inflicted without reference to the Sharia or the provisions of the Law. Punishment shall not be imposed ex post facto.

Article 39:
Mass media and all other vehicles of expression shall employ civil and polite language, contribute towards the education of the nation and strengthen unity. It is prohibited to commit acts leading to disorder and division, affecting the security of the state and its public relations, or undermining human dignity and rights. Details shall be specified in the Law.

Article 40:
The privacy of telegraphic and postal communications, and telephone and other means of communication, shall be inviolate. There shall be no confiscation, delay, surveillance or eavesdropping, except in cases provided by the Law.

Article 41:
Residents in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia shall abide by its laws, observe the values of the Saudi community and respect Saudi traditions and feelings.

Article 42:
The State shall grant the right of political asylum provided it is in the public interest. International agreements and laws shall define rules and procedures for the extradition of common criminals.

Article 43:
Councils held by the King and the Crown Prince shall be open for all citizens and anyone else who may have a complaint or a grievance. A citizen shall be entitled to address public authorities and discuss any matters of concern to him.

Chapter Six: The Authorities of the State

Article 44:
The Authorities of the State consist of:

The Judicial Authority
The Executive Authority
The Regulatory Authority
These Authorities will cooperate in the performance of their functions, according to this Law or other laws. The King is the ultimate arbiter for these Authorities.

Article 45:
The Holy Qur’an and the Sunna (Traditions) of God’s Messenger shall be the source for fatwas (religious advisory rulings). The Law shall specify hierarchical organization for the composition of the Council of the Senior Ulema, the Research Administration, and the Office of the Mufti, together with their functions.

Article 46:
The Judiciary is an independent authority. The decisions of judges shall not be subject to any authority other than the authority of the Islamic Sharia.

Article 47:
All people, either citizens or residents in the Kingdom, are entitled to file suit on an equal basis. The Law shall specify procedures for this purpose.

Article 48:
The Courts shall apply rules of the Islamic Sharia in cases that are brought before them, according to the Holy Qur’an and the Sunna, and according to laws which are decreed by the ruler in agreement with the Holy Qur’an and the Sunna.

Article 49:
Courts are empowered to arbitrate in all disputes and crimes, taking into account the provisions of Article 53 of this Law.

Article 50:
The King or whomsoever he may deputize shall concern himself with the implementation of judicial rulings.

Article 51:
The Law shall specify the composition of the Supreme Judiciary Council and its functions, as well as the hierarchy for the courts and their functions.

Article 52:
Judges shall be appointed and relieved by Royal Decree, based on a proposal of the Supreme Judiciary Council, in accordance with provisions of the Law.

Article 53:
The Law shall specify the hierarchy of the Board of Grievances and its functions.

Article 54:
The Law shall specify the relationship between the Commission of Inquiry and the Attorney-General and their organization and functions.

Article 55:
The King shall rule the nation according to the Sharia. He shall also supervise the implementation of the Sharia, the general policy of the State, and the defense and protection of the country.

Article 56:
The King is the Prime Minister. Members of the Council of Ministers shall assist him in the performance of his mission according to the provisions of this Law and other laws. The Council of Ministers Law shall specify the powers of the Council in respect of internal and external affairs, organization of governmental departments and their coordination. In additions, the Law shall specify the qualifications and the powers of the ministers, ministerial accountability procedures and all matters pertaining to the ministers. The Law of the Council of Ministers and the areas of their authority may be amended according to this Law.

Article 57:

The King shall appoint and relieve deputies of the Prime Minister and member minister of the Council by Royal Decree.
Deputies of the Prime Minister and member ministers of the Council shall be jointly responsible to the King for the implementation of the Sharia, laws and the general policy of the State.
The King is entitled to dissolve and reconstitute the Council of Ministers.

Article 58:
The King shall appoint those who are at the rank of ministers and deputy ministers, and those who are at the highest grade and relieve them by a Royal Decree as provided by the Law. Ministers and heads of independent departments shall be answerable to the King in respect of the ministries and agencies they head.

Article 59:
The Law shall specify the rules of the Civil Service, including salaries, awards, compensations, privileges, and pensions.

Article 60:
The King is the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces. He shall appoint and dismiss officers form service, as provided by terms of the Law.

Article 61:
The King shall announce any state of emergency or general mobilization and shall declare war. The Law shall specify rules for this purpose.

Article 62:
If an imminent danger is threatening the safety of the Kingdom, the integrity of its territories or the security and interests of its people, or is impeding the functions of official organizations, the King may take urgent measures to deal with such a danger. When he considers that these measures should continue, necessary arrangements shall be made in accordance with the Law.

Article 63:
The King shall receive kings and heads of state, appoint his representatives to other states, and receive credentials of other states’ representatives accredited to him.

Article 64:
The King shall award medals according to provisions of the Law.

Article 65:
The King may delegate some powers of authority to the Crown Prince by Royal Decree.

Article 66:
Should the King happen to travel abroad, he shall issue a Royal Decree to deputize the Crown Prince to manage the affairs of state and look after the interests of the people, as set out in the Royal Decree.

Article 67:
The Regulatory Authority shall be concerned with the making of laws and regulations which will safeguard all interests, and remove evil from the State’s affairs, according to Sharia. Its powers shall be exercised according to provisions of this Law and the Law of the Council of Ministers and the Law of the Shura Council.

Article 68:
The Shura Council shall be established. Its Law shall specify the details of it formation, powers and selection of members. The King may dissolve and reconstitute Majlis Ash-Shura.

Article 69:
The King may summon Majlis Ash-Shura and the Council of Ministers for a joint session. He may summon others whom he deems necessary to attend the meeting and discuss whatever affairs he considers fit.

Article 70:
Laws, international agreements, treaties and concessions shall be approved and amended by Royal Decrees.

Article 71:
Laws shall be published in the Official Gazette, and implemented effective from the date of publication, unless another date is specified.

Chapter Seven: Financial Affairs

Article 72:

The Law shall include provisions for the State’s revenues and their depositing with the General Treasury of the State
Revenues shall be recorded and spent according to procedures stipulated by provisions of the Law.

Article 73:
No commitment to pay a sum of money from the General Treasury shall be made without adherence to budget rules. If provisions of the budget cannot cover the demand, then a provision shall be made through a Royal Decree.

Article 74:
Assets of the State may not be sold, rented or disposed of unless so authorized by the Law.

Article 75:
Laws shall specify provisions for currency, banks, standards, measures and weights.

Article 76:
The Law shall set the fiscal year for the State. The budget shall be announced according to a Royal Decree. It shall specify assessed amounts of revenue and expenditure one month ahead of the coming fiscal year. If the budget cannot be issued due to compelling reasons before the beginning of the new fiscal year, the budget of the previous year shall remain in force until the new budget can be issued.

Article 77:
The competent department shall prepare the closing account of the State for the past year and forward it to the Prime Minister.

Article 78:
Budgets and closing accounts of departments which have corporate rights, shall be subject to the same procedures which are applicable to the State’s budget and closing accounts

Chapter Eight: Institutions of Audit

Article 79:
All revenues and expenditures of the State, as well as movable and fixed assets, shall be subsequently audited to ensure proper use and management. An annual report to this effect shall be forwarded to the Prime Minister. The Law shall specify details of the competent auditing institution, together with its affiliations and areas of authority.

Article 80:
Governmental institutions shall also be audited to ensure proper administrative performance and implementation of laws. Financial and administrative violations shall be investigated. An annual report shall be forwarded to the Prime Minister. The Law shall specify details of the competent institution in charge, together with its affiliations and areas of authority.

Chapter Nine: General Principles

Article 81:
With regard to treaties and agreements, the application of this Law shall not violate commitments of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia towards other states, international organizations and bodies.

Article 82:
No provision of this Law whatsoever may be suspended except on a temporary basis, such as in wartime or during the declaration of a state of emergency. Such a suspension shall be in accordance with the terms of the Law and may not violate Article 7.

Article 83:
No amendment to this Law shall be made, except in the same manner as it was promulgated.


King Fahd’s Speech on the issuance of the Basic Law of Governance

The Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques (may God protect him), on the occasion of the issuance of the Basic Law of Governance, the Law of Majlis Ash-Shura and the Law for the Provinces, gave the following speech to his fellow citizens of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia:

In the name of God, the Most Merciful, the Most Compassionate.

Praise be to God, Lord of the Universe, and may peace and blessings be upon the most noble of the prophets, Our Prophet Mohammed, and upon all his family and companions!

Fellow citizens,

If God intends good to come to a people, He will guide them to what is most appropriate. God has favored us greatly, beyond measure, and the greatest favor of all is Islam. If we fully adhere to this religion, we shall never go astray. Rather we shall be guided in happiness because Almighty God has told us this, as has His Messenger the Prophet (PBUH). Historical facts and reality stand as witness in this regard.

Muslims have been happy with the Sharia of Islam ever since it came to rule their affairs and daily lives. In modern history, the first Saudi State was founded on the basis of Islam more than two and a half centuries ago, when two pious reformers, Imam Mohammed Bin Saud and Sheikh Mohammed Bin Abdul-Wahhab (may God have mercy on their souls!) committed themselves to it.

This State was set upon a clear course of politics and government. It was committed to propagating Islam and to fostering a sense of community. This is the course of Islam, the Creed and the Sharia. Ever since the establishment of this righteous state, the people of the country have enjoyed happiness, security and unity of opinion. They have been living in harmony and fraternal cooperation, after a prolonged period of fear and division.

The Creed and the Sharia being the basic principles on which this State has risen, the application of these principles has manifested itself in full adherence to the correct Islamic course in the Creed, its doctrine, in the Propagation of Islam (Da’wa), in the enjoining of good and the forbidding of evil, in its judicature and in the relationship between the ruler and the ruled. As such, the Saudi State has become a distinguished model of politics and government in modern political history. The adoption of this course has continued in all subsequent stages as successive rulers have continued to adhere to the Islamic Sharia. And it is that bounty of God, which he grants to whom He wishes.

This continuous following of the course of Islam is based on three facts:

The fact that the basis of this course of Islam is fixed and is not subject to change or alteration. God the Almighty said, We have, without doubt, sent down the Message: and we will assuredly guard it (from corruption)” (XV, 9).

The fact that the following of the course of Islam should be constant. God the Almighty said: “ Then We put thee on the (right) way of Religion; so, follow thou that (way) and follow not the desires of those who know not” . (XL,18)

The fact that the rulers of this country remain loyal to Islam in different circumstances and conditions. Loyalty to Islam, the Creed and the Sharia, continued during the era of King Abdulaziz (May God have mercy on him!). He founded the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and unified it on the same course, despite difficult historical circumstances and the problems he faced during the process of unifying the country.
In accordance with this course, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was founded on the following bases:

The unity of faith which makes the people devote worship to God alone with no partners and live in dignity and in honor.

The Islamic Sharia which protects life, preserves rights and regulates the relationship between the ruler and the ruled, regularizes dealings among members of the community and safeguards public security.

The undertaking of the Propagation of Islam (Da’wa) and its dissemination, since the Propagation of Islam in one of the most important functions of an Islamic state.

The founding of an environment, free of evil deeds and deviations to help people act honestly and righteously — this task is achieved by encouraging good and discouraging evil.

The achievement of the unity of faith which is the basis for political social and geographical integrity.

The adoption of the means and ways leading to progress, in order to achieve an advance which eases people’s lives and protects their livelihood in the light of the guidance and standards of Islam.

The practice of consultation (shura) just as Islam has commanded and praised whoever undertakes it, since Islam has ranked practicing consultation (shura) among the qualities of the believers.

The Two Holy Mosques shall remain inviolate for visitors and worshipers, as the two were intended to be by God, safe from all that hinders worship in the best way and the performance of the minor and major pilgrimages (Umra and Hajj). The Kingdom shall undertake this duty in fulfillment of our duty towards God and in service of the community of Islam.

The defense of the faith, the Holy Shrines, the homeland, the citizens and the State.
These are the grand bases on which the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has been established.

During the reign of King Abdulaziz, political systems bases on this course emerged, due to the developments of modern life. In the year 1373 H, in view of the evolution of the State and the expansion of its responsibilities, King Abdulaziz (may God have mercy on him!) issued a decree for the formation of a council of ministers. This council is still in operation in accordance with the law issued then and with amendments that followed. This course is still followed to this day, by the grace and guidance of God. Therefore, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has never known the so-called “constitutional vacuum.” The literal meaning of “constitutional vacuum” is that the State has no guiding principles or binding frame of reference in the fields of legislation and regulation. The Kingdom has never witnessed such a phenomenon in its entire history because it has been ruled according to the guiding principles, the binding rules and the clear fundamentals to which judges, ulema and all others employed by the State refer.

All the organs of the State currently function according to laws which stem from the Islamic Sharia, and they are regulated by it. Thus it is not from vacuum that we are today enacting the following laws in new forms: the Basic Law of Government, the Law of Majlis Ash -Shura and the Law for the Provinces. These three laws codify existing practices and embody what is already in operation. These statutes are subject to reconsideration and amendment in accordance with what the Kingdom’s circumstances and interests require. The three laws were formed on he basis of the Islamic Sharia, reflecting our genuine traditions, righteous values and cherished customs.

The source of the Basic Law (of Governance) as well as its foundation is the Islamic Sharia. This law has been guided by the Islamic Sharia in defining the nature, the objectives and the responsibilities of the State, as it has in defining the relationship between the ruler and the ruled on the basis of brotherhood, consultation, friendship and cooperation.

The relationship between citizens and state officials is founded on solid and deep-rooted traditions, compassion, mutual respect and loyalty stemming from the sincere and firm convictions in the hearts of this country’s people generation. There is no difference between the ruler and the ruled. They are equal before the law of God, and they are all equal in their love of this homeland and in their eagerness to maintain its safety, unity, pride and progress. Whoever is in charge has obligations as well as rights. The relationship between the ruler and the ruled is first and foremost governed by the Sharia of God as it has come (to us) in His Holy Book and in the traditions (Sunna) of His Messenger (PBUH). The Basic Law of Governance has been inspired by these sources. It has sought to apply them fully in the relationship between the ruler and the ruled, in compliance with all that has been revealed through our true religion in this respect.

As for Majlis Ash-Shura law, it is based on Islam both in name and content, in response to God’s words:

“Those who respond to their Lord, and establish regular prayer, who (conduct) their affairs by mutual consultation; who spend out of what we bestow on them for sustenance” (XL, 38).

“It is part of the mercy of God that thou dost deal gently with them. Wert thou severe or harsh-hearted, they would have broken away from about thee: so pass over (their faults) and ask for (God’s) forgiveness for them; and consult them in affairs (of moment). Then, when thou hast taken a decision, put they trust in God. For God loves those who put their trust (in Him)” (III, 159)

We have already mentioned on several occasions that the country witnessed the establishment of Majlis Ash-Shura long ago. Throughout this period, shura (consultation) activities continued in many and various ways. The rules of the Kingdom maintained consultations in times of need with ulema (religious scholars) and advisors.

The new Law of the Majlis Ash-Shura provides for the modernization and development of an existing system through the consolidation of the Majlis’s framework. It also provides vehicles for more efficiency, better organization and vitality in order to achieve the desired objectives. The capable members of this Majlis will be carefully chosen so as to contribute to the development of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and its progress, taking into consideration the public interest of the homeland and its citizens. While Majlis Ash-Shura undertakes, God willing, general consultation at the level of the State, we ought not to ignore the consultations currently practiced within the State’s organs through the specialized councils and committees. These structures ought to remain active so that their work will complement that of Majlis Ash-Shura.

The country has recently witnessed tremendous developments in various fields. These developments have called for a renewal of the general administrative system in the country. To meet this need and interest, the Law of the Provinces has come to allow for more organized action through appropriate administrative measures, and to upgrade the level of administration in the provinces of the Kingdom.

These laws have been drawn up after a meticulous and patient study carried out by a select group of learned men of sound knowledge and experience. Full consideration was given to the Kingdom’s distinguished position in the Islamic world, and to its traditions and customs, as well as its social and cultural conditions. Therefore these laws have sprung from our realities, taking into account our traditions and customs, while adhering to our true religion. We are confident that these laws will, with the help of God, assist the State in realizing every Saudi citizen’s hopes for the welfare and progress of this homeland and his Arab and Islamic nation. The Saudi citizen is the base for the advancement and development of this homeland, and we shall not spare any effort to ensure his happiness and well-being.

The world, which is following the development and progress of this country, greatly admires its domestic policy, which safeguards the citizen’s security and well-being. It also admires this country’s foreign policy, which seeks to establish relations with other countries and contribute to world peace.

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is the sanctuary of the Muslim Shrines and a site for the Hajj (the major pilgrimage), the Umra (the minor pilgrimage) and the Visit (to the Prophet’s Mosque). It has a special place in the hearts of all Muslims. God has honored this State with the Custody of the Two Holy Mosques, to facilitate the performance of the pilgrimages and the visit to the Mosque of the Prophet (PBUH). We have done our utmost to expand the Two Holy Mosques and develop the other holy sites. The State offers full assistance to all guests bound for the Holy Places. We thank God and ask Him to continue granting us more grace to go on serving these places and all Moslems wherever they may be.

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has adhered constantly to the Islamic course in government, in judicature, in the Propagation of Islam (Da’wa), in education, in enjoining good and forbidding evil, as well as in the performance of God’s rites. The rulers and state officials have adhered to that course. The people, too, have adhered to it in their daily lives.

Islam is a way of life. There can be no neglecting what has been included in God’s Book (The Holy Qur’an), what has been authenticated of the Prophet’s traditions, or what Muslims have unanimously agreed on. Our constitution in the Kingdom is the Holy Book of God, which is infallible, and the Traditions (Sunna) of His Messenger, who does not speak irresponsibly. Whatever we disagree on we refer back to them. They both are arbiters on all laws issued by the State.

Rulers and ulema (religious scholars) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia have cooperated, and still are cooperating and helping each other. Similarly, the people have been, and still are, supportive of, cooperative with and obedient to their leadership according to the legal pledge of allegiance (bay’a) rendered by the ruled to the rulers.

The ruler fulfills his obligations with regard to the implementation of the Sharia, the establishment of justice among the people and the defense of legitimate individual rights. The society, therefore, enjoys security, stability and prosperity.

In the past and present, the Kingdom, has been and is committed to the Sharia and to implementing it vigorously and firmly in all its domestic and foreign affairs. With the help of God, it will remain keenly committed to the Sharia.

With the help of Almighty God, we hold firm to Islam and advise each other, generation after generation, ruler after ruler. As promised by God, there can be no harm done to us by those who oppose us. We do not close the door on any aspect of modernization, so long as it does not conflict with our Islamic heritage and identity.

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is an Arab Islamic State. All matters that concern Arabs and Muslims will be its concerns. The State promotes their solidarity and their unity of opinion and contributes, with all its capabilities, to their welfare. Past events and circumstances have indeed witnessed the truth of its stances and the fulfillment of its commitments towards the Arab Nation and the Islamic Nation as well as towards other international obligations.

With the help of God, we will continue upon our Islamic course, cooperating with those who want good for Islam and Moslems, and determined to consolidate and disseminate the religion of God and to ensure progress for this country and happiness for its people. We ask Almighty God to bestow on our people and on the Arab Nation and the Islamic Nation goodness, righteousness, progress, prosperity and welfare. Praise be to God, by whose grace all righteous deeds are done!

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