Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar
United Arab Emirates
Riyadh Agreement (with Endorsement Agreement, Riyadh, 24 November 2013). Riyadh,
23 November 2013 and 24 November 2013
Entry into force: 24 November 2013 by signature
Authentic text: Arabic
Registration with the Secretariat of the United Nations: Saudi Arabia, 9 October 2018
Note: See also annex A, No. 55378.
First Riyadh Agreement, 23 November 2013
first riyadh agreement
On Saturday, 19/1/1435 (Hijri Calendar, November 2013), the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques, King Abdullah Bin Abdel Aziz Al-Saud, the King of Saudi Arabia, and his brother His Highness Sheikh Sabbah Al-Ahmad Al-Jabber Al-Sabbah, the Prince of Kuwait, and his brother His Highness Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad bin Khalifa Al-Thani, the Prince of Qatar, met in Riyadh.
They held extensive deliberations in which they conducted a full revision of what taints the relations between the [Gulf Cooperation] Council States, the challenges facing its security and stability, and means to abolish whatever muddies the relations.
Due to the importance of laying the foundation for a new phase of collective work between the Council’s States, in order to guarantee it operating within a unified political framework based on the principles included in the main system of the Cooperation Council, the following has been agreed upon:
(here there are three signatures)
- No interference in the internal affairs of the Council’s States, whether directly or indirectly. Not to give harbour or naturalize any citizen of the Council States that has an activity which opposes his country’s regimes, except with the approval of his country; no support to deviant groups that oppose their States; and no support for antagonistic media.
- No support to the Muslim Brotherhood or any of the organizations, groups or individuals that threaten the security and stability of the Council States through direct security work or through political influence.
- Not to present any support to any faction in Yemen that could pose a threat to countries neighbouring Yemen.
In the name of god, the merciful, the compassionate
A review was conducted of the Agreement dated 1/19/1435 ah, corresponding to 11/23/2013 ad, and signed by the Custodian of the Two Holy Shrines, King Abdullah bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, His Highness Sheikh Sabah Al-Ahmed Al-Jaber Al-Sabah, Emir of the State of Kuwait, and His Highness Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani, Emir of the State of Qatar, which includes the means for eliminating anything that affects the security and stability of the Council States.
We hereby support the conclusions reached in the Agreement.
Success is from Allah.
(Signed) Sheikh Mohamed bin Zayed.
(Signed) H.M. King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa.
Mechanism Implementing the Riyadh Agreement, 2014
Having the Foreign Ministers of the Gulf Cooperation Council countries [GCC countries] considered the Agreement signed in Riyadh on 19/1/1435 ah, corresponding to 23 November 2013 ad by the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques, King Abdullah bin Abdul Aziz, King of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, his brother His Highness Sheikh Sabah Al-Ahmed Al-Jabir Al-Sabah, Emir of Kuwait and his brother, His Highness Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad bin Khalifa Al-Thani, Emir of Qatar. Having the Agreement been considered and signed by His Majesty King Hamad bin Isa Al-Khalifa, King of Bahrain, His Majesty Sultan Qaboos bin Saeed, the Sultan of Oman and His Highness Sheikh Mohammed bin Zayed bin Sultan Al-Nahyan, the Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi and Deputy Supreme Commander of the UAE Armed Forces.
Given the importance of the signed Agreement that never before had any similar
agreement been signed, out of the leaders’ realization to the importance of its content, and for the urgency of the matter that calls for taking the necessary executive
procedures to enforce its content. An agreement has been reached to set a mechanism that shall guarantee implementation of the same according to the following:
Firstly: The concerned party to monitor the implementation of the Agreement:
Foreign ministers of the GCC countries
Foreign ministers of the GCC countries shall hold private meeting[s] on the margins of annual periodic meetings of the ministerial council wherein violations and complaints reported by any member country of the Council against any member country of the Council shall be reviewed by the foreign ministers to consider, and raise them to leaders. With the emphasis that the first task the Council shall conduct, according to the mentioned mechanism, is to make sure of the implementation of all content, mentioned above, within [the] Riyadh Agreement, consider its content a basis to the security and stability of the GCC countries and its unity, either with regard to those issues of internal affairs, external political aspects or internal security; and ensuring that no country neglects or omits the group orientation of the GCC, and shall co- ordinate with all members or the GCC; and emphasizing that no support is being made to any currents that pose threats to any member country of the Council.
Secondly: Decision-making body:
Leaders of the GCC countries
The leaders shall take the appropriate action towards what the Ministers of Foreign Affairs raise to them regarding any country that has not complied with the signed agreement by the GCC countries.
Thirdly: Compliance procedures
1. This Agreement shall be implemented by the following procedures:With regard
to GCC countries internal affairs:
— Commit that any media channels owned or supported by any GCC country should not discuss any disrespectful subjects to any GCC country, directly or indirectly. The GCC countries shall set a list by these media channels, and the list shall be periodically updated.
— All member countries shall commit that they will not grant citizens of other GCC countries citizenship who have been proven to practice opposition activity against their governments. Every country shall inform the other countries of the names of the opposition figures residing in such country in order to prevent their violative activities and take the appropriate actions against them.
— Take the necessary actions that would guarantee no interference in any GCC country[’s] internal affairs, including, but not limited to:
(a) Governmental organizations, community organizations, individuals and activists shall not support opposition figures with money or via media.
(b) Not to shelter, accept, support, encourage, or make its country an incubator to the activities of GCC citizens or other figures who are proven oppositionists to any country of [the] GCC.
(c) Ban the existence of any external organizations, groups or parties, who target GCC countries and their peoples; nor provide foothold for their hostile activities against the GCC countries.
(d) Not to fund or support external organizations, groups or parties, that have hostile positions and incitements against the GCC countries.
2. With regard to the foreign policy:
Commit to the group orientation of the GCC countries, co- ordinate with other GCC countries and not support any entities or currents that pose threats to the GCC countries, including:
(a) Not to support [the] Muslim Brotherhood with money or via media in the GCC countries or outside.
(b) Approve the exit of Muslim Brotherhood figures, who are not citizens, within
a time-limit to be agreed upon. The GCC countries shall co- ordinate with each
other on the lists of those figures.
(c) Not to support external gatherings or groups in Yemen, Syria or any destabilized area, which pose a threat to the security and stability of GCC countries.
(d) Not to support or shelter whoever performs opposition activities against any GCC country, being current officials, former officials or others; and shall not give them any foothold inside their countries or allow them, to act against any of the GCC countries.
(e) Close any academies, establishments or centres that train and qualify individuals from GCC citizens to work against their governments.
3. With regard to the internal security of the GCC countries:
In the event of any pending security files that need further clarification and are
directly connected to the security matters of the competent security agencies in any
GCC country, immediate meetings shall be held among security specialists with their
counterparts to discuss the details of these subjects and find out their objectives.
If any country of the GCC fails to comply with this mechanism, the other GCC
countries shall have the right to take any appropriate action to protect their security and stability.
Allah is the grantor of success
(Signed) His Highness Sheikh
Abdullah bin Zayed Al-Nahyan,
(Signed) His Excellency Sheikh
Khalid bin Ahmed Al Khalifa,
Foreign Minister of the United
Foreign Minister of the Kingdom
(Signed) His Royal Highness
Prince Saud Al Faisal,
(Signed) His Excellency Yusuf
bin Alawi bin Abdullah,
Foreign Minister of Kingdom
of the Saudi Arabia.
Minister Responsible for Foreign
Affairs of the Sultanate of Oman.
(Signed) His Excellency
Dr. Khalid bin
Mohammad Al Attiyah,
(Signed) His Excellency Sheikh
Sabah Al-Khalid Al-Hamad Al-Sabah,
of the State of Qatar.
Deputy Prime Minister
and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the State of Kuwait.
The Supplementary Riyadh Agreement, 16 November 2014
in the name of allah, the most beneficent, the most merciful
- Based on a generous invitation by the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques King Abdullah bin Abdel-Aziz Al-Saud, the King of Saudi Arabia, the following have met in Riyadh today, Sunday, 23/1/1436 (Hijri Calendar), 16 November 2014 (Gregorian Calendar): His Highness Sheikh Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabbah, the Prince of Kuwait, His Majesty King Hamad Bin Eissa Al-Khalifa, King of Bahrain; His Highness Sheikh Tamim Bin Hamd Bin Khalifa Al-Thani, Prince of Qatar; His Highness Sheikh Mohamed Bin Rashed Al-Maktom, the Vice- President and Prime Minister of the United Arab Emirates and the Governor of Dubai; and His Highness Sheikh Mohamed Bin Zayed Al-Nahyan, the Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi, and the Deputy Commander of the Armed Forces of the United Arab Emirates. This was to cement the spirit of sincere co- operation
and to emphasize the joint fate and the aspirations of the citizens of the Gulf Cooperation Council for a strong bond and solid rapprochement.
2. After discussing the commitments stemming from the Riyadh Agreement signed 19/1/1435 (Hijri) — 23 November 2013 and its executive mechanism:
reviewing the reports of the committee following the execution mechanism and the results of the joint follow-up [operation] room; and reviewing the conclusions of the report of the follow-up room signed on 10/1/1436 (Hijri) — 3 November 2014 (Gregorian) by the intelligence chiefs of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, the Kingdom of Bahrain and the State of Qatar.
The following has been reached:
(a) Stressing that non-committing to any of the articles of the Riyadh Agreement and its executive mechanism amounts to a violation of the entirety of them.
(b) What the intelligence chiefs have reached in the aforementioned report is considered a step forward to implement [the] Riyadh Agreement and its executive mechanism, with the necessity of the full commitment to implementing everything stated in them within the period of one month from the date of the Agreement.
(c) Not to give refuge, employ, or support whether directly or indirectly, whether domestically or abroad, to any person or a media apparatus that harbours inclinations harmful to any Gulf Cooperation Council State. Every State is committed to taking all the regulatory, legal and judicial measures against anyone who [commits] any encroachment against Gulf Cooperation Council States, including putting him on trial and announcing it in the media.
(d) All countries are committed to the Gulf Cooperation Council discourse to support the Arab Republic of Egypt, and contributing to its security, stability and its financial support; and ceasing all media activity directed against the Arab Republic of Egypt in all media platforms, whether directly or indirectly, including all the offenses broadcasted on Al-Jazeera, Al-Jazeera Mubashir Masr, and to work to stop all offenses in Egyptian media.
- Accordingly, it has been decided that the Riyadh Agreement, and its executive mechanism, and the components of this supplementary agreement, requires the full commitment to its implementation. The leaders have tasked the intelligence chiefs to follow up on the implementation of the results of this supplementary agreement and to report regularly to the leaders, in order to take the measures they deem necessary to protect the security and stability of their countries.
It has been agreed that implementing the aforementioned commitments contributes towards the unity of the Council States and their interests and the future of their peoples, and signals a new page that will be a strong base to advance the path of joint work and [to] moving towards a strong Gulf entity.
Note that the UAE has two signatures on page one for His Highness Sheikh Mohamed Bin Rashed Al-Maktom, the Vice- President and Prime Minister of the UAE and the Ruler of Dubai; and another one by His Highness Mohamed Bin Zayed Al-Nahyan, the Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi, and the Deputy Commander of the Armed Forces of the UAE.
Categories: International Law