Biotechnological methods of genetic engineering are relatively new techniques that plant breeders have to make direct modifications of DNA, a living thing’s genetic materials. Scientists make copies to genes for desired traits and introduce the gene copy into an organism such as a food crop. The new gene is usually a single gene whose function is well understood. These new techniques avoid one of the major problems encountered by plant breeders who use cross hybridization – no unwanted or undesirable genes are introduced with the desired gene. In addition, scientists can make copies of genes from any organism – plant, animal, or microbe – that may yield a desired trait and introduce that gene into a food crop. This greatly expands the pool of potentially useful traits available to plant breeders to improve food crops.