Constitution of North Korea 1998

North Korea

Constitution of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea 1998

Table of Contents

Preamble
Chapter I Politics
Chapter II The Economy
Chapter III Culture
Chapter IV National Defence
Chapter V Fundamental Rights and Duties of Citizens
Chapter VI State Organ
Section 1. The Supreme People’s Assembly
Section 2. The National Defence Commission
Section 3. The Presidium of the Supreme People’s Assembly
Section 4. The Cabinet
Section 5. The Local People’s Assembly
Section 6. The Local People’s Committee
Section 7. The Public Prosecutors Office and the Court
Chapter VII Emblem, Flag, Anthem and Capital


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Constitution of the Soviet Union(USSR) 1936

Constitution (Fundamental law) of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

With Ammendments and Additions adopted by the First, Second, Third, Sixth, Seventh and Eighth Sessions of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R

Kremlin, Moscow,⁠December 5, 1936

Chapter I: The Organization of Society

ARTICLE 1. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is a socialist state of workers and peasants.

ARTICLE 2. The Soviets of Working People’s Deputies, which grew and attained strength as a result of the overthrow of the landlords and capitalists and the achievement of the dictatorship of the proletariat, constitute the political foundation of the U.S.S.R.

ARTICLE 3. In the U.S.S.R. all power belongs to the working people of town and country as represented by the Soviets of Working People’s Deputies.

ARTICLE 4. The socialist system of economy and the socialist ownership of the means and instruments of production, firmly established as a result of the abolition of the capitalist system of economy, the abrogation of private ownership of the means and instruments of production and the abolition of the exploitation of man by man, constitute the economic foundation of the U.S.S.R.

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Constitution of Islamic Republic of Pakistan-1973

Table of Contents

Preamble

Part I: Introductory [Articles 1-6]

Part II: Fundamental Rights and Principles of Policy [Articles 7-40]
Chapter 1: Fundamental Rights [Articles 8-28]
Chapter 2: Principles of Policy [Articles 29-40]
Part III: The Federation of Pakistan [Articles 41-100]
Chapter 1: The President [Articles 41-49]
Chapter 2: Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) [Articles 50-89]
Chapter 3: The Federal Government [Articles 90-100]
Part IV: Provinces [Articles 101-140A]

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Constitution of the Republic of Cuba 1940

Constitution of the Republic of Cuba of July 1, 1940

We, the delegates of the people of Cuba, assembled in Constituent Convention, for the purpose of establishing a new fundamental law to consolidate our organization as an independent and sovereign State, capable of assuring freedom and justice, maintaining order and promoting the general welfare, do hereby, invoking the favor of God, set forth the following Constitution:

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THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED ARAB EMIRATES

EDITION: 2010

Preamble

WE, the Rulers of the Emirates of Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Ajman, Um AI Quwain and Fujairah, Reflecting our will and the will of the people of our emirates to form themselves into a Federation provide a better life and more enduring stability, and enjoy a higher international standing for the Emirates and all their people; Desiring to create closer links among themselves in the form of an independent sovereign federal state capable of protecting its existence and the existence of its members and cooperating with the sister Arab states and with all other friendly member states of the United Nations Organization and of the community of nations, in general, on the basis of mutual respect and exchange of interests and benefits;

Desiring also to lay the foundation for federal rule in the coming years on a sound basis that reflects the reality and the capacity of the Emirates at the present time, enables the Federation to achieve its objectives, safeguards the identity of its members in a way consistent with these objectives and, at the same time, prepares the people of the Federation for a dignified and free constitutional life while going ahead towards a full-fledged representative democratic regime in an Islamic and Arab community free of fear and anxiety; and Realizing that it is our dearest desire and strongest determination to achieve all the above-mentioned in order to push ahead our country and our people up to take an appropriate place among the civilized states and nations, Announce to Allah, the Supreme and Almighty, and to all the people our approval of the Constitution undersigned by us .

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Manifesto of the National Socialist Council of Nagaland

Nothing is more inalienable for a nation, big or small, than her sovereignty. No moment, either, is more challenging for a people than the time when their free existence is challenged The Naga National Council has failed. The sovereign existence of Nagaland is more at peril than ever before. It is high time for the revolutionary patriots to declare their national principles, their views and their aims.

Nagaland and the Naga National Council

We live in a world of constant change. But the forces causing the change are not always the same. They develop and perish according to the different given conditions, stages and times.

To us, the forces that defend the righteous cause of sovereign national existence and further the just cause of the people along the inevitable course are alone patriots and revolutionaries. All forces standing in opposition to this are traitors and reactionaries, in that they try to pull the wheels of history back. All the reactionary traitors lean upon one another; all revolutionary patriots stand as one, supporting one another; there is no via media.

The Naga National Council was the only authentic political organisation of the people of Nagaland. It was this council that boldly took up the historic national trust, that is, the safeguarding of the right of the sovereign existence of Nagaland. With all its resoluteness, the Council faced ups and downs and it was never deterred by setbacks here and setbacks there. It has withstood the bitter period of the past three decades or so, turning neither to the right nor to the left––although there had been marked degeneration in its integrity and vigour. Our country could exist and we owe it to the National Council and to the thousands of patriots who have unsparingly laid down their lives and to the unprecedented endurance of the people, thanks to the leadership Naga National Council had given to the people in their past trials and tribulations till the time of its failure to condemn the treacherous Ministry and the Accord of treason of 1975.

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Party Constitution of Communist Party of India (Maoist)

Party Constitution

CHAPTER-1: GENERAL PROGRAMME

The Communist Party of India (Maoist) is the consolidated political vanguard of the Indian proletariat. Marxism-Leninism-Maoism is the ideological basis guiding its thinking in all the spheres of its activities. Immediate aim or programme of the Communist Party is to carry on and complete the new democratic revolution in India as a part of the world proletarian revolution by overthrowing the semi-colonial, semi-feudal system under neo- colonial form of indirect rule, exploitation and control and the three targets of our revolution—imperialism, feudalism and comprador bureaucratic big bourgeoisie. The ultimate aim or maximum programme of the party is the establishment of communist society. This New Democratic Revolution will be carried out and completed through armed agrarian revolutionary war i.e. the Protracted People’s War with area wise seizure of power remaining as its central task. The Protracted People’s War will be carried out by encircling the cities from the countryside and thereby finally capturing them. Hence the countryside as well as the Protracted People’s War will remain as the center of gravity of the party’s work from the very beginning. During the whole process of this revolution the party, army and the united front will play the role of three magic weapons. In their interrelationship the party will play the primary role, where as the army and the united front will be two important weapons in the hands of the party. Since the armed struggle will remain the main form of struggle and army as the main form of organization of this revolution, the armed struggle will play a decisive role, whereas the united front will be built in the course of advancing armed struggle and for armed struggle. Mass organizations and mass struggles are necessary and indispensable but their purpose is to serve the war. The immediate and most urgent task of the party is to establish full-fledged people’s liberation army (PLA) and base areas by developing and transforming the guerilla zones and guerrilla bases.

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The Constitution of The Islamic Republic of Iran

The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran advances the cultural, social, political, and economic institutions of Iranian society based on Islamic principles and norms, which represent an honest aspiration of the Islamic Ummah. This aspiration was exemplified by the nature of the great Islamic Revolution of Iran, and by the course of the Muslim people’s struggle, from its beginning until victory, as reflected in the decisive and forceful calls raised by all segments of the populations.

Now, at the threshold of this great victory, our nation, with all its beings, seeks its fulfillment.

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THE CONSTITUTION OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

Preamble: 

 

We, the multinational people of the Russian Federation,
united by a common fate on our land,
establishing human rights and freedoms, civil peace and accord,
preserving the historically established State unity,
proceeding from universally acknowledged principles of equality and self-determination of peoples,
revering the memory of ancestors who have passed on to us their love for the Fatherland and faith in good and justice,
reviving the sovereign statehood of Russia and asserting the firmness of its democratic basis,
striving to ensure the well-being and prosperity of Russia,
proceeding from the responsibility for our Fatherland before present and future generations,
recognizing ourselves to be a part of the world community,
do hereby adopt THE CONSTITUTION OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION.

SECTION ONE
CHAPTER 1. THE BASIS OF THE CONSTITUTIONAL SYSTEM
Article 1

1. The Russian Federation – Russia is a democratic federative law-governed state with a republican form of government.

2. The names Russian Federation and Russia are equipollent.

Article 2

Man, his rights and freedoms shall be the supreme value. The recognition, observance and protection of human and civil rights and freedoms shall be an obligation of the State.

Article 3

1. The bearer of sovereignty and the sole source of power in the Russian Federation shall be its multinational people.

2. The people shall exercise its power directly, as well as through State government bodies and local self-government bodies.

3. The supreme direct expression of the power of the people shall be referendum and free elections.

4. Nobody may usurp power in the Russian Federation. The seizure of power or usurpation of State authority shall be prosecuted under federal law.

Article 4

1. The sovereignty of the Russian Federation shall extend to the entirety of its territory.

2. The Constitution of the Russian Federation and federal laws shall have supremacy on the entire territory of the Russian Federation.

3. The Russian Federation shall ensure the integrity and inviolability of its territory.

Article 5

1. The Russian Federation shall consist of republics, krays, oblasts, cities of federal significance, an autonomous oblast and autonomous okrugs, which shall have equal rights as constituent entities of the Russian Federation.

2. A republic (state) shall have its own constitution and legislation. A kray, oblast, city of federal significance, autonomous oblast and autonomous okrug shall have its own charter and legislation.

3. The federal structure of the Russian Federation shall be based on its State integrity, the unity of the system of State power, the division of matters of authority and powers between State government bodies of the Russian Federation and State government bodies of constituent entities of the Russian Federation, the equality and self-determination of peoples in the Russian Federation.

4. All constituent entities of the Russian Federation shall be equal with one another in relations with federal State government bodies.

Article 6

1. Citizenship of the Russian Federation shall be acquired and terminated in accordance with federal law, and shall be one and equal, irrespective of the grounds on which it is acquired.

2. Every citizen of the Russian Federation shall enjoy all rights and freedoms on its territory and shall bear equal responsibilities as envisaged in the Constitution of the Russian Federation.

3. A citizen of the Russian Federation may not be deprived of his (her) citizenship or of the right to change it.

Article 7

1. The Russian Federation shall be a social state whose policy is aimed at creating conditions ensuring a worthy life and a free development of Man.

2. In the Russian Federation the labour and health of people shall be protected, a guaranteed minimum wage shall be established, State support shall be provided for the family, maternity, fatherhood and childhood, to the disabled and to elderly citizens, the system of social services shall be developed and State pensions, allowances and other social security guarantees shall be established.

Article 8

1. In the Russian Federation the integrity of economic space, free flow of goods, services and financial resources, support of competition, and the freedom of economic activity shall be guaranteed.

2. In the Russian Federation private, State, municipal and other forms of property shall be recognized and shall be protected on an equal basis.

Article 9

1. Land and other natural resources shall be utilized and protected in the Russian Federation as the basis of the life and activity of the peoples living on the territories concerned.

2. Land and other natural resources may be subject to private, State, municipal and other forms of ownership.

Article 10

State power in the Russian Federation shall be exercised on the basis of its division into legislative, executive and judicial authority. Bodies of legislative, executive and judicial authority shall be independent.

Article 11

1. State power in the Russian Federation shall be exercised by the President of the Russian Federation, the Federal Assembly (the Council of Federation and the State Duma), the Government of the Russian Federation, and the courts of the Russian Federation.

2. State power in constituent entities of the Russian Federation shall be exercised by bodies of State government formed by those constituent entities.

3. The division of authorities and powers among State government bodies of the Russian Federation and State government bodies of constituent entities of the Russian Federation shall be established by this Constitution, the Federation Treaty and other treaties on the division of authorities and powers.

Article 12

Local self-government shall be recognized and guaranteed in the Russian Federation. Local self-government shall be independent within the limits of its competence. Bodies of local self-government shall not form part of the system of State government bodies.

Article 13

1. Ideological diversity shall be recognized in the Russian Federation.

2. No ideology shall be proclaimed as State ideology or as obligatory.

3. Political diversity and the multi-party system shall be recognized in the Russian Federation.

4. Public associations shall be equal before the law.

5. The establishment and activities of public associations whose goals and activities are aimed at the forcible changing of the basis of the constitutional order and at violating the integrity of the Russian Federation, at undermining its security, at creating armed units, and at instigating social, racial, national and religious strife shall be prohibited.

Article 14

1. The Russian Federation shall be a secular state. No religion may be established as the State religion or as obligatory.

2. Religious associations shall be separate from the State and shall be equal before the law.

Article 15

1. The Constitution of the Russian Federation shall have supreme legal force, direct effect and shall be applicable on the entire territory of the Russian Federation. Laws and other legal acts, which are adopted in the Russian Federation, must not contradict the Constitution of the Russian Federation.

2. State government bodies, local self-government bodies, officials, citizens and their associations shall be obliged to observe the Constitution of the Russian Federation and laws.

3. Laws must be officially published. Unpublished laws shall not have force. Any normative legal acts concerning human and civil rights, freedoms and obligations shall not have force unless they have been officially published for the information of the general public.

4. Universally recognized principles and norms of international law as well as international agreements of the Russian Federation should be an integral part of its legal system. If an international agreement of the Russian Federation establishes rules, which differ from those stipulated by law, then the rules of the international agreement shall be applied.

Article 16

1. The provisions of this Chapter of the Constitution shall constitute the fundamental principles of the constitutional order of the Russian Federation and may not be changed except in accordance with the procedure established by this Constitution.

2. No other provisions of this Constitution may conflict with the fundamental principles of the constitutional order of the Russian Federation.

CHAPTER 2. HUMAN AND CIVIL RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS
Article 17

1. In the Russian Federation human and civil rights and freedoms shall be recognized and guaranteed according to the universally recognized principles and norms of international law and this Constitution.

2. Basic human rights and freedoms shall be inalienable and shall be enjoyed by everyone from birth.

3. The exercise of human and civil rights and freedoms must not violate the rights and freedoms of other people.

Article 18

Human and civil rights and freedoms shall have direct force. They shall determine the meaning, content and implementation of laws, the functioning of legislative and executive authority and of local self-government, and shall be guaranteed by law.

Article 19

1. All persons shall be equal before the law and the court.

2. The State guarantees the equality of human and civil rights and freedoms regardless of sex, race, nationality, language, origin, material and official status, place of residence, attitude to religion, convictions, membership of public associations, or of other circumstances. All forms of limitations of human rights on social, racial, national, language or religious grounds shall be prohibited.

3. Men and women shall enjoy equal rights and freedoms and equal opportunities to exercise them.

Article 20

1. Everyone shall have the right to life.

2. Capital punishment until its complete abolition may be established by federal law as an exclusive form of punishment for particularly grave crimes against life, and the accused shall be granted the right to have his case examined by a court with the participation of a jury.

Article 21

1. Human dignity shall be protected by the State. Nothing may serve as a basis for its derogation.

2. Nobody should be subjected to torture, violence, or other severe or humiliating treatment or punishment. Nobody may be subjected to medical, scientific or other experiments without voluntary consent.

Article 22

1. Everyone shall have the right to freedom and personal inviolability.

2. Arrest, detention and keeping in custody shall be permissible only under a court order. A person may not be detained for more than 48 hours without a court order.

Article 23

1. Everyone shall have the right to the inviolability of his (her) private life, personal and family privacy, and protection of his (her) honour and good name.

2. Everyone shall have the right to privacy of correspondence, of telephone conversations and of postal, telegraph and other communications. This right may be limited only on the basis of a court order.

Article 24

1. Collecting, keeping, using and disseminating information about the private life of a person shall not be permitted without his (her) consent.

2. State government bodies and local self-government bodies and their officials shall be obliged to provide everyone with access to documents and materials directly affecting his (her) rights and freedoms, unless otherwise envisaged by law.

Article 25

The home shall be inviolable. Nobody shall have the right to enter a dwelling place against the will of those residing therein, except in those cases provided for by federal laws or on the basis of a court order.

Article 26

1. Everyone shall have the right to determine and declare his (her) nationality. Nobody shall be forced to determine and declare his (her) nationality.

2. Everyone shall have the right to use his (her) native language and to a free choice of the language of communication, upbringing, education and creative work.

Article 27

1. Everyone who is legally present on the territory of the Russian Federation shall have the right to travel freely and freely to choose the place of temporary or permanent residence.

2. Everyone may freely leave the Russian Federation. Citizens of the Russian Federation shall have the right freely to return to the Russian Federation.

Article 28

Everyone shall be guaranteed freedom of conscience and religion, including the right to profess individually or collectively any religion or not to profess any religion, and freely to choose, possess and disseminate religious and other convictions and act in accordance with them.

Article 29

1. Everyone shall be guaranteed freedom of thought and speech.

2. Propaganda or agitation, which arouses social, racial, national or religious hatred and hostility shall be prohibited. Propaganda of social, racial, national, religious or linguistic supremacy shall also be prohibited.

3. Nobody shall be forced to express his thoughts and convictions or to deny them.

4. Everyone shall have the right freely to seek, receive, transmit, produce and disseminate information by any legal means. The list of types of information, which constitute State secrets, shall be determined by federal law.

5. The freedom of the mass media shall be guaranteed. Censorship shall be prohibited.

Article 30

1. Everyone shall have the right of association, in cluding the right to establish trade unions for the protection of his(her) interests. The freedom of activity of public associations shall be guaranteed.

2. Nobody may be compelled to join any association or to stay there.

Article 31

Citizens of the Russian Federation shall have the right to assemble peacefully, without weapons, hold rallies, mass meetings and demonstrations, marches and pickets.

Article 32

1. Citizens of the Russian Federation shall have the right to participate in managing State affairs both directly and through their representatives.

2. Citizens of the Russian Federation shall have the right to elect and be elected to State government bodies and local self-government bodies, as well as to participate in referendums.

3. Citizens who are recognized as incapable by a court, and citizens who are kept in places of imprisonment under a court sentence, shall not have the right to elect and be elected.

4. Citizens of the Russian Federation shall enjoy equal access to State service.

5. Citizens of the Russian Federation shall have the right to participate in administering justice.

Article 33

Citizens of the Russian Federation shall have the right to appeal in person and make individual and collective appeals to State bodies and local self-government bodies.

Article 34

1. Everyone shall have the right to use freely his (her) abilities and property for entrepreneurial and other economic activity not prohibited by law.

2. Economic activity aimed at monopolization and unfair competition shall not be permitted.

Article 35

1. The right of private property shall be protected by law.

2. Everyone shall have the right to have property and to possess, use and dispose of it both individually and jointly with other persons.

3. Nobody may be deprived of property except under a court order. Forced alienation of property for State requirements may take place only subject to prior and fair compensation.

4. The right of inheritance shall be guaranteed.

Article 36

1. Citizens and their associations shall have the right to possess land as private property.

2. Possession, utilisation and disposal of land and other natural resources shall be exercised by the owners freely provided that this is not detrimental to the environment and does not violate the rights and lawful interests of other people.

3. The conditions and procedure for the use of land shall be determined by federal law.

Article 37

1. Labour shall be free. Everyone shall have the right freely to use his (her) labour skills and to choose the type of activity and occupation.

2. Compulsory labour shall be forbidden.

3. Everyone shall have the right to work in conditions, which meet safety and hygiene requirements, and to receive remuneration for labour without any discrimination whatsoever and not below the minimum wage established by federal law, as well as the right of protection against unemployment.

4. The right of individual and collective labour disputes with the use of the methods for their resolution, which are provided for by federal law, including the right to strike, shall be recognized.

5. Everyone shall have the right to rest. For those working under labour contracts the duration of work time, days of rest and public holidays and annual paid leave established by federal law shall be guaranteed.

Article 38

1. Maternity, childhood and family shall be protected by the State.

2. Care for children and their upbringing shall be the equal right and duty of parents.

3. Able-bodied children over 18 years of age must take care of disabled parents.

Article 39

1. Everyone shall be guaranteed social security for old age, in case of illness, disability and loss of the breadwinner, for the bringing up of children and in other cases specified by law.

2. State pensions and social benefits shall be established by law.

3. Voluntary social insurance, the creation of additional forms of social security and charity shall be encouraged.

Article 40

1. Everyone shall have the right to a home. Nobody may be arbitrarily deprived of his (her) home.

2. State government bodies and local self-government bodies shall promote housing construction and create conditions for exercising the right to a home.

3. Low-income citizens and other citizens mentioned in law who are in need of a home may receive it either free of charge or for an affordable payment from State, municipal and other housing funds according to the norms established by law.

Article 41

1. Everyone shall have the right to health protection and medical care. Medical care in State and municipal health institutions shall be rendered to citizens free of charge at the expense of the appropriate budget, insurance premiums and other proceeds.

2. In the Russian Federation federal programmes for the protection and improvement of the health of the public shall be financed, measures shall be taken to develop State, municipal and private healthcare systems, and activities shall be encouraged which contribute to the improvement of human health, the development of physical education and sport, and ecological, sanitary and epidemiological well-being.

3. The concealment by officials of facts and circumstances, which pose a threat to the life and health of people, shall result in liability according to federal law.

Article 42

Everyone shall have the right to a favourable environment, reliable information on the state of the environment and compensation for damage caused to his (her) health and property by violations of environmental laws.

Article 43

1. Everyone shall have the right to education.

2. General access and free pre-school, secondary and secondary vocational education in State and municipal educational institutions and at enterprises shall be guaranteed.

3. Everyone shall have the right to receive on a competitive basis free higher education in State and municipal educational institutions and at enterprises.

4. Basic general education shall be compulsory. Parents or guardians shall ensure that children receive a basic general education.

5. The Russian Federation shall establish federal State educational standards and shall support various forms of education and self-education.

Article 44

1. Everyone shall be guaranteed the freedom of literary, artistic, scientific, technical and other types of creative activity and teaching. Intellectual property shall be protected by law.

2. Everyone shall have the right to participate in cultural life and use cultural establishments, and the right of access to cultural valuables.

3. Everyone shall be obliged to care for the preservation of the cultural and historical heritage, and to protect monuments of history and culture.

Article 45

1. State protection of human and civil rights and freedoms in the Russian Federation shall be guaranteed.

2. Everyone shall have the right to protect his (her) rights and freedoms by all means not prohibited by law.

Article 46

1. Everyone shall be guaranteed protection in court of his (her) rights and freedoms.

2. Decisions and actions (or inaction) of State government bodies, local self-government bodies, public organisations and officials may be appealed against in court.

3. Everyone shall have the right in accordance with international treaties of the Russian Federation to appeal to interstate bodies for the protection of human rights and freedoms if all available internal means of legal protection have been exhausted.

Article 47

1. Nobody may be deprived of the right to have his (her) case heard in the court and by the judge within whose competence the case is placed by law.

2. Any person accused of committing a crime shall have the right to have his (her) case examined by a court with the participation of a jury in the cases envisaged by federal law.

Article 48

1. Everyone shall be guaranteed the right to qualified legal assistance. In the cases envisaged by law, legal assistance shall be provided free of charge.

2. Any person detained, taken into custody or accused of committing a crime shall have the right to use the assistance of a lawyer (counsel for the defence) from the moment of being detained, placed in custody or accused.

Article 49

1. Any person accused of committing a crime shall be considered innocent until his (her) guilt is proven in accordance with the procedure stipulated
by federal law and is confirmed by a court sentence which has entered into legal force.

2. The accused shall not be obliged to prove his (her) innocence.

3. Irremovable doubts about the guilt of a person shall be interpreted in favour of the accused.

Article 50

1. Nobody may be convicted twice for one and the same crime.

2. In administering justice it shall not be permitted to use evidence received through violating federal law.

3. Any person convicted of a crime shall have the right to appeal against the verdict to a higher court in accordance with the procedure established by federal law, as well as to request pardon or mitigation of the punishment.

Article 51

1. Nobody shall be obliged to testify against him self, his (her) spouse or close relatives, the range of whom shall be determined by federal law.

2. Federal law may establish other cases where the obligation to give evidence may be lifted.

Article 52

The rights of victims of crimes and of abuses of office shall be protected by law. The State shall provide the victims with access to justice and compensation for damage sustained.

Article 53

Everyone shall have the right to State compensation for damage caused by unlawful actions (inaction) of State government bodies and their officials.

Article 54

1. A law, which introduces or increases liability, shall not have retroactive force.

2. Nobody may bear liability for an action, which was not regarded as a crime when it was committed. If, after an offense has been committed, the extent of liability for it is lifted or mitigated, the new law shall be applied.

Article 55

1. The enumeration in the Constitution of the Russian Federation of the basic rights and freedoms should not be interpreted as a denial or diminution of other universally recognized human and civil rights and freedoms.

2. In the Russian Federation no laws must be adopted which abolish or diminish human and civil rights and freedoms.

3. Human and civil rights and freedoms may be limited by federal law only to the extent necessary for the protection of the basis of the constitutional order, morality, health, rights and lawful interests of other people, and for ensuring the defence of the country and the security of the State.

Article 56

1. In the conditions of a state of emergency, in order to ensure the safety of citizens and the protection of the constitutional order and in accordance with federal constitutional law, certain restrictions may be imposed on human rights and freedoms with an indication of their limits and the period for which they have effect.

2. A state of emergency on the entire territory of the Russian Federation and in certain areas thereof may be introduced subject to the circumstances and in accordance with the procedure stipulated by federal constitutional law.

3. The rights and freedoms specified in Articles 20, 21, 23 (part 1), 24, 28, 34 (part 1), 40 (part 1), and 46-54 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation might not be restricted.

Article 57

Everyone shall be obliged to pay legally established taxes and levies. Laws, which establish new taxes or deteriorate the position of taxpayers, shall not have retroactive force.

Article 58

Everyone shall have a duty to preserve nature and the environment and to treat natural resources with care.

Article 59

1. Defence of the Fatherland shall be the duty and obligation of a citizen of the Russian Federation.

2. Citizens of the Russian Federation shall perform military service in accordance with federal law.

3. In the event that their convictions or religious beliefs run counter to military service and in other cases established by federal law, citizens of the Russian Federation shall have the right to replace it with alternative civilian service.

Article 60

A citizen of the Russian Federation may exercise all of his (her) rights and duties independently from the age of 18 years.

Article 61

1. A citizen of the Russian Federation may not be deported from the Russian Federation or extradited to another state.

2. The Russian Federation shall guarantee its citizens protection and patronage abroad.

Article 62

1. A citizen of the Russian Federation may have citizenship of a foreign state (dual citizenship) in accordance with federal law or an international treaty of the Russian Federation.

2. The possession of foreign citizenship by a citizen of the Russian Federation shall not diminish his (her) rights and freedoms and shall not release him from obligations stipulated for Russian citizenship, unless otherwise specified by federal law or an international treaty of the Russian Federation.

3. Foreign citizens and stateless persons shall enjoy rights and bear obligations in the Russian Federation on a par with citizens of the Russian Federation, except in those cases envisaged by federal law or by an international treaty of the Russian Federation.

Article 63

1. The Russian Federation shall grant political asylum to foreign citizens and stateless persons in accordance with the universally recognized norms of international law.

2. In the Russian Federation persons who are persecuted for their political convictions or for actions (or inaction) not recognized as a crime in the Russian Federation may not be extradited to other states. The extradition of persons accused of a crime, as well as the surrender of convicts to serve sentence in other states, shall be carried out on the basis of federal law or an international treaty of the Russian Federation.

Article 64

The provisions of this Chapter shall constitute the fundamental principles of the legal status of the individual in the Russian Federation and may not be changed otherwise than in accordance with the procedure which is established by this Constitution.

CHAPTER 3. THE FEDERAL STRUCTURE
Article 65

1. The Russian Federation shall be composed of the following constituent entities of the Russian Federation:
Republic of Adygeya (Adygeya), Republic of Altai, Republic of Bashkortostan, Republic of Buryatia, Republic of Daghestan, Republic of Ingushetia, Kabardino-Balkarian Republic, Republic of Kalmykia, Karachayevo-Cherkessian Republic, Republic of Karelia, Komi Republic, Republic of Marij El, Republic of Mordovia, Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Republic of North Osetia – Alania, Republic of Tatarstan (Tatarstan), Republic of Tuva, Udmurtian Republic, Republic of Khakasia, Chechen Republic, Chuvashi Republic – Chuvashia;
Altai kray, Krasnodar kray, Krasnoyarsk kray, Perm kray, Primorie kray, Stavropol kray, Khabarovsk kray;
Amur oblast, Arkhangelsk oblast, Astrakhan oblast, Belgorod oblast, Bryansk oblast, Vladimir oblast, Volgograd oblast, Vologda oblast, Voronezh oblast, Ivanovo oblast, Irkutsk oblast, Kaliningrad oblast, Kaluga oblast, Kamchatka oblast, Kemerovo oblast, Kirov oblast, Kostroma oblast, Kurgan oblast, Kursk oblast, Leningrad oblast, Lipetsk oblast, Magadan oblast, Moscow oblast, Murmansk oblast, Nizhni Novgorod oblast, Novgorod oblast, Novosibirsk oblast, Omsk oblast, Orenburg oblast, Oryol oblast, Penza oblast, Pskov oblast, Rostov oblast, Ryazan oblast, Samara oblast, Saratov oblast, Sakhalin oblast, Sverdlovsk oblast, Smolensk oblast, Tambov oblast, Tver oblast, Tomsk oblast, Tula oblast, Tyumen oblast, Ulyanovsk oblast, Chelyabinsk oblast, Chita oblast, Yaroslavl oblast;
Moscow, St.Petersburg – cities of federal significance;
the Jewish autonomous oblast;
Aginsk Buryat autonomous okrug, Koryak autonomous okrug, Nenets autonomous okrug, Taimyr (Dolgano-Nenets) autonomous okrug, Ust-Ordyn Buryat autonomous okrug, Khanty-Mansijsk autonomous okrug – Yugra, Chukotka autonomous okrug, Evenk autonomous okrug, Yamalo-Nenets autonomous okrug.

2. Admission into the Russian Federation and creation of a new constituent entity shall take place in accordance with the procedure established by federal constitutional law.

Article 66

1. The status of a republic shall be determined by the Constitution of the Russian Federation and the constitution of the republic.

2. The status of a kray, oblast, city of federal significance, autonomous oblast, autonomous okrug shall be determined by the Constitution of the Russian Federation and the charter of the kray, oblast, city of federal significance, autonomous oblast and autonomous okrug which is adopted by the legislative (representative) body of the corresponding constituent entity of the Russian Federation.

3. On a submission from legislative and executive bodies of an autonomous oblast or autonomous okrug, a federal law concerning an autonomous oblast or autonomous okrug may be adopted.

4. Relations among autonomous okrugs within krays and oblasts may be regulated by federal law or by a treaty between State government bodies of the autonomous okrug and, accordingly, State government bodies of the kray or oblast.

5. The status of a constituent entity of the Russian Federation may be changed by mutual agreement between the Russian Federation and the constituent entity of the Russian Federation in accordance with federal constitutional law.

Article 67

1. The territory of the Russian Federation shall comprise the territories of its constituent entities, inland waters and territorial sea and the air space over them.

2. The Russian Federation shall have sovereign rights and exercise jurisdiction on the continental shelf and in the exclusive economic zone of the Russian Federation in accordance with the procedure specified by federal law and norms of international law.

3. Borders between constituent entities of the Russian Federation may be changed upon their mutual consent.

Article 68

1. The Russian language shall be the State language on the entire territory of the Russian Federation.

2. Republics shall have the right to establish their own State languages. In State government bodies, local self-government bodies and State institutions of republics they shall be used together with the State language of the Russian Federation.

3. The Russian Federation shall guarantee all of its peoples the right to preserve their native language and to create conditions for its study and development.

Article 69

The Russian Federation shall guarantee the rights of indigenous small peoples in accordance with the universally recognized principles and norms of international law and international treaties of the Russian Federation.

Article 70

1. The state flag, emblem and anthem of the Russian Federation, their description and the procedure for the official use thereof shall be established by federal constitutional law.

2. The capital of the Russian Federation shall be the city of Moscow. The status of the capital shall be established by federal law.

Article 71

The Russian Federation shall have jurisdiction over:
a) the adoption and amending of the Constitution of the Russian Federation and federal laws, control over compliance therewith;

b) the federative structure and the territory of the Russian Federation;

c) regulation and protection of human and civil rights and freedoms; citizenship in the Russian Federation, regulation and protection of the rights of national minorities;

d) establishment of the system of federal legislative, executive and judicial bodies, the procedure for their organisation and activities, the formation of federal State government bodies;

e) federal State property and administration thereof;

f) establishment of the basic principles of federal policy and federal programmes in the sphere of State, economic, ecological, social, cultural and national development of the Russian Federation;

g) establishment of the basic legal principles for the unified market; financial, currency, credit and customs regulation; money emission; the basic principles of pricing policy, federal economic services, including federal banks;

h) the federal budget, federal taxes and levies, federal funds of regional development;

i) federal power-engineering systems, nuclear power, fissile materials, federal transport, railways, information and communication, activities in space;

j) foreign policy and international relations of the Russian Federation, international treaties of the Russian Federation, issues of war and peace;

k) foreign economic relations of the Russian Federation;

l) defence and security; military production; determination of the procedure for selling and purchasing weapons, ammunition, military equipment and other military hardware; production of poisonous substances, narcotic substances and the procedure for their use;

m) determination of the status and protection of the State border, territorial sea, air space, the exclusive economic zone and the continental shelf of the Russian Federation;

n) the judicial system, public prosecution, criminal, criminal-procedural and criminal-executive legislation, amnesty and remission, civil, civil-procedural and arbitration-procedural legislation, legal regulation of intellectual property;

o) federal collision law;

p) meteorological service, standards, metric and time systems, geodesy and cartography, names of geographical units, official statistics and accounting;

q) State awards and honorary titles of the Russian Federation;

r) federal State service.

Article 72

1. The following shall be within the joint jurisdiction of the Russian Federation and constituent entities of the Russian Federation:

a) measures to ensure the correspondence of constitutions and laws of republics, the charters, laws and other normative legal acts of krays, oblasts, cities
of federal significance, autonomous oblast and autonomous okrugs to the Constitution of the Russian Federation and federal laws;

b) protection of human and civil rights and freedoms, protection of the rights of national minorities, ensuring lawfulness, law and order, public security; border zone regimes;

c) issues of the possession, utilisation and management of land and of subsurface, water and other natural resources;

d) demarcation of State property;

e) use of natural resources, protection of the environment and provisions for ecological safety; specially protected natural territories, protection of historical and cultural monuments;

f) general issues of upbringing, education, science, culture, physical education and sport;

j) coordination of health care issues; protection of the family, maternity, fatherhood and childhood, social protection, including social security;

h) carrying out measures against catastrophes, natural disasters, epidemics and rectification of their consequences;

i) establishment of common principles of taxation and levies in the Russian Federation;

j) administrative, administrative-procedural, labour, family, housing, land, water and forest legislation; legislation on subsurface resources and on environmental protection;

k) personnel of judicial and law enforcement bodies; lawyers, notaries;

l) protection of the traditional habitat and the traditional way of life of small ethnic communities;

m) establishment of general principles of the organisation of the system of State government and local self-government bodies;

n) coordination of international and foreign economic relations of constituent entities of the Russian Federation, observance of international agreements of the Russian Federation.

2. The provisions of this Article shall be equally valid for republics, krays, oblasts, cities of federal significance, autonomous oblast and autonomous okrugs.

Article 73

Outside the limits of authority of the Russian Federation and the powers of the Russian Federation on issues under the joint jurisdiction of the Russian Federation and constituent entities of the Russian Federation, the constituent entities of the Russian Federation shall enjoy full State power.

Article 74

1. In the territory of the Russian Federation it shall not be permitted to establish custom borders, duties, levies or any other barriers to the free flow of goods, services and financial resources.

2. Restrictions on the movement of goods and services may be introduced in accordance with federal law only to ensure security, to protect the life and health of people and to preserve nature and cultural values.

Article 75

1. The monetary unit in the Russian Federation shall be the rouble. Money emission shall be carried out exclusively by the Central Bank of the Russian Federation. The introduction and emission of other currencies in Russia shall not be permitted.

2. Protecting and ensuring the stability of the rouble shall be the principal function of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation, which it shall fulfil independently of other State governmental bodies.

3. The system of taxes paid to the federal budget and the general principles of taxation and levies in the Russian Federation shall be determined by federal law.

4. State loans shall be issued in accordance with the procedure specified by federal law and shall be floated on a voluntary basis.

Article 76

1. On issues under the jurisdiction of the Russian Federation, federal constitutional laws and federal laws shall be adopted. These shall have direct force on the entire territory of the Russian Federation.

2. On issues under the joint jurisdiction of the Russian Federation and the constituent entities of the Russian Federation, in addition to federal laws, laws and other normative legal acts of constituent entities of the Russian Federation shall be issued which are adopted in accordance with those federal laws.

3. Federal laws may not conflict with federal constitutional laws.

4. Outside the limits of authority of the Russian Federation and of the joint jurisdiction of the Russian Federation and constituent entities of the Russian Federation republics, krays, oblasts, cities of federal significance, autonomous oblast and autonomous okrugs shall exercise their own legal regulation, including the adoption of laws and other normative legal acts.

5. Laws and other normative legal acts of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation shall not conflict with federal laws which are adopted in accordance with parts one and two of this Article. In the event of a conflict between a federal law and any other act issued in the Russian Federation, the federal law shall prevail.

6. In the event of a conflict between a federal law and a normative legal act of a constituent entity of the Russian Federation issued in accordance with part four of this Article, the normative legal act of the constituent entity of the Russian Federation shall prevail.

Article 77

1. The system of State government bodies of republics, krays, oblasts, cities of federal significance, autonomous oblast and autonomous okrugs shall be established by the constituent entities of the Russian Federation independently in accordance with the basic principles of the constitutional order of the Russian Federation and the general principles of the organisation of representative and executive State government bodies which are established by federal law.

2. Within the limits of the jurisdiction and powers of the Russian Federation on issues under the joint jurisdiction of the Russian Federation and the constituent entities of the Russian Federation federal executive government bodies and executive government bodies of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation shall form a unified system of executive authority in the Russian Federation.

Article 78

1. Federal executive government bodies may, in order to exercise their powers, establish their own territorial bodies and appoint appropriate officials.

2. Federal executive government bodies, by agreement with executive government bodies of constituent entities of the Russian Federation, may delegate some of their powers to the latter provided that this does not conflict with the Constitution of the Russian Federation and federal laws.

3. Executive government bodies of constituent entities of the Russian Federation, by agreement with federal executive government bodies, may delegate some of their powers to the latter.

4. The President of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Russian Federation shall provide for the implementation of the powers of federal State power on the entire territory of the Russian Federation in accordance with the Constitution of the Russian Federation.

Article 79

The Russian Federation may participate in interstate associations and transfer some of its powers to those associations in accordance with international treaties provided that this does not entail restrictions on human and civil rights and freedoms and does not conflict with the basic principles of the constitutional order of the Russian Federation.

CHAPTER 4. THE PRESIDENT OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Article 80

1. The President of the Russian Federation shall be the Head of State.

2. The President of the Russian Federation shall be the guarantor of the Constitution of the Russian Federation and of human and civil rights and freedoms. In accordance with the procedure established by the Constitution of the Russian Federation, he (she) shall adopt measures to protect the sovereignty of the Russian Federation, its independence and State integrity, and shall ensure the coordinated functioning and interaction of State government bodies.

3. The President of the Russian Federation shall, in accordance with the Constitution of the Russian Federation and federal laws, determine the basic objectives of the internal and foreign policy of the State.

4. The President of the Russian Federation, as the Head of State, shall represent the Russian Federation within the country and in international relations.

Article 81

1. The President of the Russian Federation shall be elected for six years by citizens of the Russian Federation on the basis of universal, equal, direct suffrage by secret ballot.

2. Any citizen of the Russian Federation not younger than 35 years of age who has resided in the Russian Federation on a permanent basis for not less than 10 years may be elected President of the Russian Federation.

3. One and the same person cannot hold the office of the President of the Russian Federation for more than two terms running.

4. The procedure for elections of the President of the Russian Federation shall be determined by federal law.

Article 82

1. On assuming office the President of the Russian Federation shall take the following oath of loyalty to the people:
“I swear that in exercising the powers of the President of the Russian Federation I shall respect and protect human and civil rights and freedoms, observe and protect the Constitution of the Russian Federation, protect the sovereignty and independence, security and integrity of the State, and faithfully serve the people”.

2. The oath shall be taken in a solemn ceremony in the presence of members of the Council of Federation, deputies of the State Duma and judges of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation.

Article 83

The President of the Russian Federation:

a) shall appoint, with the consent of the State Duma, the Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation;

b) shall have the right to chair meetings of the Government of the Russian Federation;

c) shall adopt decisions on the resignation of the Government of the Russian Federation;

d) shall nominate to the State Duma a candidate for appointment to the post of Chairman of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation; shall raise before the State Duma the issue of relieving the Chairman of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation of his post;

e) in accordance with proposals of the Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation, shall appoint and relieve of their post deputy chairmen of the Government of the Russian Federation and federal ministers;

f) shall present to the Council of Federation candidates for the posts of judges of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation, the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation, the Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation, and a candidate for the post of Prosecutor General of the Russian Federation; shall submit to the Council of Federation proposals to relieve the Prosecutor General of the Russian Federation of his post; and shall appoint judges of other federal courts;

g) shall form and head the Security Council of the Russian Federation, the status of which shall be determined by federal law;

h) shall approve the military doctrine of the Russian Federation;

i) shall form the Administration of the President of the Russian Federation;

j) shall appoint and dismiss plenipotentiary representatives of the President of the Russian Federation;

k) shall appoint and dismiss supreme commanders of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation;

l) shall appoint and recall after consultations with appropriate committees and commissions of the chambers of the Federal Assembly diplomatic representatives of the Russian Federation in foreign States and international organisations.

Article 84

The President of the Russian Federation:

a) shall announce elections to the State Duma in accordance with the Constitution of the Russian Federation and federal law;

b) shall dissolve the State Duma in the cases and in accordance with the procedure provided for by the Constitution of the Russian Federation;

c) shall announce referendums in accordance with the procedure established by federal constitutional law;

d) shall submit draft laws to the State Duma;

e) shall sign and promulgate federal laws;

f) shall address the Federal Assembly with annual messages on the situation in the country and on the basic objectives of the internal and foreign policy of the State.

Article 85

1. The President of the Russian Federation may use conciliatory procedures to resolve disputes between State government bodies of the Russian Federation and State government bodies of constituent entities of the Russian Federation, and disputes between State government bodies of constituent entities of the Russian Federation. In the event that no agreed decision is reached, he (she) shall have the right to refer the dispute to the appropriate court.

2. The President of the Russian Federation shall have the right to suspend acts of executive government bodies of constituent entities of the Russian Federation in the event that these acts conflict with the Constitution of the Russian Federation and federal laws or with international commitments of the Russian Federation, or violate human and civil rights and freedoms until the issue is resolved by an appropriate court.

Article 86

The President of the Russian Federation:

a) shall direct the foreign policy of the Russian Federation;

b) shall hold negotiations and sign international treaties of the Russian Federation;

c) shall sign instruments of ratification;

d) shall receive letters of credence and letters of recall of diplomatic representatives accredited to his (her) office.

Article 87

1. The President of the Russian Federation shall be the Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.

2. In the event of aggression against the Russian Federation or of a direct threat of aggression, the President of the Russian Federation shall introduce martial law on the territory of the Russian Federation or on certain parts thereof and shall immediately inform the Council of Federation and the State Duma of this.

3. The regime of martial law shall be defined by federal constitutional law.

Article 88

The President of the Russian Federation, in the circumstances and in accordance with the procedure envisaged by federal constitutional law, shall introduce a state of emergency on the territory of the Russian Federation or on certain parts thereof and shall immediately inform the Council of Federation and the State Duma of this.

Article 89

The President of the Russian Federation:

a) shall decide on issues of citizenship of the Russian Federation and of granting political asylum;

b) shall bestow State awards of the Russian Federation and confer honorary titles of the Russian Federation and supreme military and supreme specialtitles;

c) shall grant pardon.

Article 90

1. The President of the Russian Federation shall issue edicts and regulations.

2. The edicts and regulations of the President of the Russian Federation shall be binding on the entire territory of the Russian Federation.

3. Edicts and regulations of the President of the Russian Federation must not conflict with the Constitution of the Russian Federation and federal laws.

Article 91

The President of the Russian Federation shall have immunity.

Article 92

1. The President of the Russian Federation shall begin to exercise his (her) powers from the moment of taking the oath and shall cease to do so when his (her) term of office expires and after a newly-elected the President of the Russian Federation has been sworn in.

2. The President of the Russian Federation shall cease to exercise his (her) powers before the end of his (her) term in the event of his (her) resignation, persistent inability for health reasons to carry out the powers invested in him (her), or impeachment. Presidential elections shall be held before the expiration of three months from the date of the early termination of presidential office.

3. In all cases where the President of the Russian Federation is unable to fulfil his (her) duties, they shall be temporarily delegated to the Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation. The Acting President of the Russian Federation shall not have the right to dissolve the State Duma, call a referendum or to submit proposals for amendments to and the revision of the provisions of the Constitution of the Russian Federation.

Article 93

1. The President of the Russian Federation may be impeached by the Council of Federation only on the basis of charges of high treason or of another grave crime brought by the State Duma and confirmed by a resolution of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation on the existence of indications of a crime in the actions of the President of the Russian Federation and by a resolution of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation confirming that the established procedure for bringing charges has been observed.

2. The decision of the State Duma to bring charges and the decision of the Council of Federation to impeach the President must be adopted by two-thirds of votes of the total number of members of each chamber on the initiative of not less than one third of deputies of the State Duma and on the basis of a resolution of a special commission set up by the State Duma.

3. The decision of the Council of Federation to impeach the President of the Russian Federation must be adopted not later than three months after the State Duma brings charges against the President. If a decision of the Council of Federation is not adopted within this time the charges against the President shall be regarded as having been declined.

CHAPTER 5. THE FEDERAL ASSEMBLY
Article 94

The Federal Assembly – parliament of the Russian Federation shall be the representative and legislative body of the Russian Federation.

Article 95

1. The Federal Assembly shall consist of two chambers – the Council of Federation and the State Duma.

2. The Council of Federation shall include two representatives from each constituent entity of the Russian Federation: one from the legislative and one from the executive State government body.

3. The State Duma shall consist of 450 deputies.

Article 96

1. The State Duma shall be elected for a term of five years.

2. The procedure for forming the Council of Federation and the procedure for electing deputies to the State Duma shall be established by federal laws.

Article 97

1. Any citizen of the Russian Federation who has reached 21 years of age and who has the right to participate in elections may be elected deputy of the State Duma.

2. One and the same person may not be simultaneously a member of the Council of Federation and a deputy of the State Duma. A deputy of the State Duma may not be a deputy of other representative State government bodies and local self-government bodies.

3. Deputies of the State Duma shall work on a professional permanent basis. Deputies of the State Duma may not be employed in State service or engage in other paid activities, except for teaching and scientific and other creative work.

Article 98

1. Members of the Council of Federation and deputies of the State Duma shall enjoy immunity during the whole term of their office. They may not be detained, arrested or searched, except in the event of detention at the scene of a crime. They may not be subjected to personal searches, except in instances where this is provided for by federal law in order to ensure the safety of other people.

2. The issue of the removal of immunity shall be resolved by an appropriate chamber of the Federal Assembly upon submission of the Prosecutor General of the Russian Federation.

Article 99

1. The Federal Assembly shall be a permanently functioning body.

2. The State Duma shall convene its first session on the thirtieth day after election. The President of the Russian Federation may convene a session of the State Duma earlier than this date.

3. The first session of the State Duma shall be opened by the oldest deputy.

4. From the moment that the State Duma of a new convocation begins to work the powers of the State Duma of the previous convocation shall expire.

Article 100

1. The Council of Federation and the State Duma shall hold separate sessions.

2. Sessions of the Council of Federation and of the State Duma shall be open. In the cases envisaged by the procedural regulations of a chamber, the latter shall have the right to hold closed-door sessions.

3. The chambers may hold joint sessions to hear messages of the President of the Russian Federation, messages of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation and speeches of leaders of foreign states.

Article 101

1. The Council of Federation shall elect from among its members the Chairman of the Council of Federation and his (her) deputies. The State Duma shall elect from among its members the Chairman of the State Duma and his (her) deputies.

2. The Chairman of the Council of Federation and his (her) deputies and the Chairman of the State Duma and his (her) deputies shall chair sessions and shall be in charge of the internal routine of the chamber.

3. The Council of Federation and the State Duma shall set up committees and commissions and shall hold parliamentary hearings on issues under their authority.

4. Each of the chambers shall adopt its procedural regulations and resolve issues relating to the routine procedures for its activities.

5. To monitor implementation of the federal budget the Council of Federation and the State Duma shall set up the Accounts Chamber, whose composition and work procedures shall be determined by federal law.

Article 102

The following shall be within the jurisdiction of the Council of Federation:

a) approval of border changes between constituent entities of the Russian Federation;

b) approval of edict of the President of the Russian Federation on the introduction of martial law;

c) approval of edict of the President of the Russian Federation on the introduction of a state of emergency;

d) deciding on the possibility of using the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation outside the territory of the Russian Federation;

e) announcement of elections of the President of the Russian Federation;

f) impeachment of the President of the Russian Federation;

g) appointment of judges of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation, of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation, and of the Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation;

h) appointment and dismissal of the Prosecutor General of the Russian Federation;

i) appointment and dismissal of the deputy Chairman and half of the auditors of the Accounts Chamber.

2. The Council of Federation shall adopt decreeson issues referred to its authority by the Constitution of the Russian Federation.

3. Decrees of the Council of Federation shall be adopted by a majority of the total number of members of the Council of Federation unless another procedure for adopting decisions is envisaged by the Constitution of the Russian Federation.

Article 103

The following shall be within the jurisdiction of the State Duma:

a) consent to the appointment of the Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation by the President of the Russian Federation;

b) deciding the issue of confidence in the Government of the Russian Federation;

c) hearing annual reports from the Government of the Russian Federation on the results of its work, including on issues raised by the State Duma;

d) appointment and dismissal of the Chairman of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation;

e) appointment and dismissal of the Chairman and half of the auditors of the Accounts Chamber;

f) appointment and dismissal of the Commissioner for Human Rights, who shall act according to federal constitutional law;

g) announcement of amnesty;

h) bringing charges against the President of the Russian Federation for his (her) impeachment;

2. The State Duma shall adopt decrees on issues referred to its authority by the Constitution of the Russian Federation.

3. Decrees of the State Duma shall be adopted by a majority of the total number of deputies of the State Duma, unless another procedure for adopting decisions is envisaged by the Constitution of the Russian Federation.

Article 104

1. The right of legislative initiative shall belong to the President of the Russian Federation, the Council of Federation, members of the Council of Federation, deputies of the State Duma, the Government of the Russian Federation, and legislative (representative) bodies of constituent entities of the Russian Federation. The right of legislative initiative shall also belong to the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation, the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation and the Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation on issues within their competence.

2. Bills shall be submitted to the State Duma.

3. Bills on the introduction or cancellation of taxes, on exemption from taxes, on the issue of State loans, on changes in the financial obligations of the State, and other bills envisaging expenses to be covered from the federal budget may be submitted only upon a resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation.

Article 105

1. Federal laws shall be adopted by the State Duma.

2. Federal laws shall be adopted by a majority of votes of the total number of deputies of the State Duma, unless otherwise envisaged by the Constitution of the Russian Federation.

3. Federal laws adopted by the State Duma shall be submitted within five days for examination by the Council of Federation.

4. A federal law shall be considered to have been approved by the Council of Federation if over a half of the total number of members of that chamber have voted for it or if the Council of Federation does not examine it within fourteen days. In the event that the Council of Federation rejects a federal law, the chambers may set up a conciliatory commission to settle differences, after which the federal law shall be reconsidered by the State Duma.

5. In the event that the State Duma disagrees with the decision of the Council of Federation a federal law shall be considered to have been adopted if in the second vote not less than two thirds of the total number of deputies of the State Duma has voted in favour of it.

Article 106

Federal laws adopted by the State Duma on the following issues must compulsorily be examined by the Council of Federation:

a) the federal budget;

b) federal taxes and levies;

c) financial, currency, credit and customs regulation, money emission;

d) ratification and denunciation of international treaties of the Russian Federation;

e) the status and protection of the State border of the Russian Federation;

f) war and peace.

Article 107

1. An adopted federal law shall be submitted within five days to the President of the Russian Federation for signing and promulgation.

2. The President of the Russian Federation shall sign the federal law and promulgate it within fourteen days.

3. If the President of the Russian Federation rejects a federal law within fourteen days of receiving it, the State Duma and the Council of Federation shall reconsider that law in accordance with the procedure established by the Constitution of the Russian Federation. If upon reconsideration the law is approved in the previously adopted wording by a majority of not less than two thirds of the total number of members of the Council of Federation and of deputies of the State Duma, it must be signed by the President within seven days and promulgated.

Article 108

1. Federal constitutional laws shall be adopted on issues envisaged by the Constitution of the Russian Federation.

2. A federal constitutional law shall be considered to have been adopted if it is approved by a majority of not less than three quarters of the total number of members of the Council of Federation and not less than two-thirds of the total number of deputies of the State Duma. An adopted federal constitutional law shall be signed by the President of the Russian Federation and promulgated within fourteen days.

Article 109

1. The State Duma may be dissolved by the President of the Russian Federation in the cases envisaged by Articles 111 and 117 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation.

2. In the event that the State Duma is dissolved, the President of the Russian Federation shall announce the date of elections so that a newly-elected State Duma may be convened not later than four months after the dissolution.

3. The State Duma may not be dissolved on the grounds envisaged in Article 117 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation during the year following its election.

4. The State Duma may not be dissolved from the moment that it brings charges against the President of the Russian Federation until the Council of Federation adopts a decision on the issue.

5. The State Duma may not be dissolved while a state of emergency or martial law is in effect on the whole territory of the Russian Federation, or during the last six months of the term of office of the President of the Russian Federation.

CHAPTER 6. THE GOVERNMENT OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Article 110

1. Executive power in the Russian Federation shall be exercised by the Government of the Russian Federation.

2. The Government of the Russian Federation shall consist of the Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation, deputy chairmen of the Government of the Russian Federation and federal ministers.

Article 111

1. The Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation shall be appointed by the President of the Russian Federation with the consent of the State Duma.

2. Nominations for the Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation shall be submitted not later than two weeks after a newly-elected President of the Russian Federation assumes office or after the resignation of the Government of the Russian Federation or within one week after the State Duma has rejected a nomination.

3. The State Duma shall consider the candidate nominated by the President of the Russian Federation for the post of Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation within one week after the submission of the nomination.

4. In the event that the State Duma rejects the candidates for the post of Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation three times, the President of the Russian Federation shall appoint the Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation, dissolve the State Duma and announce new elections.

Article 112

1. The Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation shall, not later than one week after appointment, submit to the President of the Russian Federation proposals on the structure of federal executive government bodies.

2. The Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation shall propose to the President of the Russian Federation candidates for the posts of deputy chairmen of the Government of the Russian Federation and federal ministers.

Article 113

The Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation, in accordance with the Constitution of the Russian Federation, federal laws and edicts of the President of the Russian Federation, shall determine the basic objectives of the activities of the Government of the Russian Federation and shall organize its work.

Article 114

1. The Government of the Russian Federation:

a) shall develop and submit to the State Duma a federal budget and provide for its implementation; shall submit to the State Duma a report on the implementation of the federal budget; and shall submit to the State Duma annual reports on the results of its work, including on issues raised by the State Duma;

b) shall ensure the implementation in the Russian Federation of a uniform financial, credit and monetary policy;

c) shall ensure the implementation in the Russian Federation of a uniform State policy in the sphere of culture, science, education, health, social security and ecology;

d) shall carry out the administration of federal property;

e) shall carry out measures to secure the defense of the country, State security, and implementation of the foreign policy of the Russian Federation;

f) shall implement measures to ensure lawfulness
and civil rights and freedoms, protect property and public order, and combat crime;

g) shall exercise other functions, which are entrusted to it by the Constitution of the Russian Federation, federal laws and edicts of the President of the Russian Federation.

2. The procedure for the activities of the Government of the Russian Federation shall be determined by federal constitutional law.

Article 115

1. On the basis of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, federal laws and normative edicts of the President of the Russian Federation and for the purpose of their implementation, the Government of the Russian Federation shall issue decrees and regulations and ensure their implementation.

2. Decrees and regulations of the Government of the Russian Federation shall be binding in the Russian Federation.

3. In the event that decrees and regulations of the Government of the Russian Federation conflict with the Constitution of the Russian Federation, federal laws and edicts of the President of the Russian Federation, they may be abolished by the President of the Russian Federation.

Article 116

The Government of the Russian Federation shall resign its powers before a newly-elected President of the Russian Federation.

Article 117

1. The Government of the Russian Federation may offer its resignation and the President of the Russian Federation shall either accept or reject it.

2. The President of the Russian Federation may decide on the resignation of the Government of the Russian Federation.

3. The State Duma may express no confidence in the Government of the Russian Federation. A resolution of no confidence in the Government shall be adopted by a majority of votes of the total number of deputies of the State Duma. After the State Duma has expressed no confidence in the Government of the Russian Federation, the President of the Russian Federation shall have the right to announce the resignation of the Government or to reject the decision of the State Duma.
In the event that the State Duma expresses no confidence in the Government of the Russian Federation again within three months, the President of the Russian Federation shall announce the resignation of the Government or dissolve the State Duma.

4. The Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation may raise before the State Duma the issue of confidence in the Government of the Russian Federation. If the State Duma returns a vote of no confidence, the President shall within seven days adopt a decision on the resignation of the Government of the Russian Federation or on the dissolution of the State Duma and the announcement of new elections.

5. In the event of the resignation or cessation of the powers of the Government of the Russian Federation, it shall continue to work on the instructions of the President of the Russian Federation until a new Government of the Russian Federation is formed.

CHAPTER 7. JUDICIAL AUTHORITY
Article 118

1. Justice in the Russian Federation shall be administered only by court.

2. Judicial authority shall be exercised by means of constitutional, civil, administrative and criminal proceedings.

3. The judicial system in the Russian Federation shall be established by the Constitution of the Russian Federation and federal constitutional law. The creation of extraordinary courts shall not be permitted.

Article 119

Judges shall be citizens of the Russian Federation over 25 years of age with a higher education in law who have served in the legal profession for not less than five years. Federal law may establish additional requirements for judges of the courts of the Russian Federation.

Article 120

1. Judges shall be independent and shall be subordinate only to the Constitution of the Russian Federation and federal law.

2. Should a court establish when considering a case that a legal act of a State or other body conflicts with law, it shall take a decision in accordance with the law.

Article 121

1. Judges shall be irremovable.

2. The powers of a judge may be terminated or suspended only on the grounds and in accordance with the procedure established by federal law.

Article 122

1. Judges shall be inviolable.

2. A judge cannot face criminal liability otherwise than in accordance with the procedure established by federal law.

Article 123

1. The examination of cases in all courts shall be open. Cases may be heard in closed sessions in those instances where this is permitted by federal law.

2. The examination of criminal cases by default in courts shall not be permitted except in instances where this is permitted by federal law.

3. Judicial proceedings shall be conducted on the basis of controversy and the equality of the parties concerned.

4. In cases provided for by federal law, judicial proceedings shall be conducted with the participation of a jury.

Article 124

Courts shall be financed only from the federal budget and should ensure the possibility of the complete and independent administration of justice according to the requirements of federal law.

Article 125

1. The Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation shall consist of 19 judges.

2. The Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation, at the request of the President of the Russian Federation, the Council of Federation, the State Duma, one fifth of the members of the Council of Federation or of the deputies of the State Duma, the Government of the Russian Federation, the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation and the Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation, and legislative and executive government bodies of constituent entities of the Russian Federation, shall decide on cases on conformity to the Constitution of the Russian Federation of:

a) federal laws, normative acts of the President of the Russian Federation, the Council of Federation, the State Duma, the Government of the Russian Federation;

b) constitutions of republics, charters, and laws and other normative acts of constituent entities of the Russian Federation adopted on issues under the jurisdiction of State government bodies of the Russian Federation or under the joint jurisdiction of State government bodies of the Russian Federation and State government bodies of constituent entities of the Russian Federation;

c) treaties between State government bodies of the Russian Federation and State government bodies of constituent entities of the Russian Federation, treaties between State government bodies of constituent entities of the Russian Federation;

d) international treaties of the Russian Federation, which are not in force.

3. The Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation shall resolve disputes on authority:

a) between federal State government bodies;

b) between State government bodies of the Russian Federation and State government bodies of constituent entities of the Russian Federation;

c) between higher State government bodies of constituent entities of the Russian Federation.

4. The Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation, on receiving complaints about violations of the constitutional rights and freedoms of citizens and upon request of courts, shall check, in accordance with the procedure established by federal law, the constitutionality of a law which is used or is to be used in a particular case.

5. The Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation, upon request of the President of the Russian Federation, the Council of Federation, the State Duma, the Government of the Russian Federation, and legislative authorities of constituent entities of the Russian Federation, shall provide interpretation of the Constitution of the Russian Federation.

6. Acts or certain provisions thereof, which are recognized as unconstitutional, shall lose force; international treaties of the Russian Federation, which do not correspond to the Constitution of the Russian Federation, shall not be implemented or used.

7. The Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation, upon request of the Council of Federation, shall issue a resolution on the observation of the established procedure for bringing charges of treason or of other grave crimes against the President of the Russian Federation.

Article 126

The Supreme Court of the Russian Federation shall be the highest judicial body for civil, criminal, administrative and other cases under the jurisdiction of common courts; it shall exercise judicial supervision over their activities in the procedural forms envisaged by federal law and shall provide interpretation on issues of court proceedings.

Article 127

The Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation shall be the highest judicial body for settling economic disputes and other cases examined by arbitration courts; it shall exercise judicial supervision over their activities in the procedural forms envisaged by federal law and shall provide interpretation on issues of court proceedings.

Article 128

1. Judges of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation, the Supreme Court of the Russian
Federation and the Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation shall be appointed by the Council of Federation upon nomination by the President of the Russian Federation.

2. Judges of other federal courts shall be appointed by the President of the Russian Federation in accordance with the procedure established by federal law.

3. The powers and the procedure for the formation and activities of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation, the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation, the Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation and other federal courts shall be established by federal constitutional law.

Article 129

1. The office of the Prosecutor General of the Russian Federation shall be a single centralised structure in which public prosecutors are subordinated to higher public prosecutors and to the Prosecutor General of the Russian Federation.

2. The Prosecutor General of the Russian Federation shall be appointed and dismissed by the Council of Federation upon a proposal of the President of the Russian Federation.

3. Public prosecutors of constituent entities of the Russian Federation shall be appointed by the Prosecutor General of the Russian Federation by agreement with the constituent entities.

4. Other public prosecutors shall be appointed by the Prosecutor General of the Russian Federation.

5. The powers, organisation and procedure for the activities of the office of the Prosecutor General of the Russian Federation shall be determined by federal law.

CHAPTER 8. LOCAL SELF-GOVERNMENT
Article 130

1. Local self-government in the Russian Federation shall provide for the independent resolution by the population of issues of local importance, and the possession, use and management of municipal property.

2. Local self-government shall be exercised by citizens by means of referendum, elections and other forms of direct expression of their will, and through elected and other bodies of local self-government.

Article 131

1. Local self-government shall be administered in urban and rural settlements and on other territories with due consideration to historical and other local traditions. The structure of bodies of local self-government shall be determined by the population independently.

2. Changes of borders of the territories in which local self-government is administered shall be permitted with due consideration to the opinion of the inhabitants of the relevant territories.

Article 132

1. Bodies of local self-government shall independently manage municipal property, form, approve and implement the local budget, introduce local taxes and levies, ensure the preservation of public order, and resolve other issues of local importance.

2. Bodies of local self-government may be vested by law with certain State powers and accordingly receive material and financial resources which are necessary for their implementation. The implementation of the vested power shall be controlled by the State.

Article 133

Local self-government in the Russian Federation shall be guaranteed by the right to legal protection and compensation of additional expenses arising as a result of decisions adopted by State government bodies, and by a ban on restrictions of the rights of local self-government which are established by the Constitution of the Russian Federation and federal laws.

CHAPTER 9. CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS AND REVISION OF THE CONSTITUTION
Article 134

Proposals on amendments to and revision of the provisions of the Constitution of the Russian Federation may be submitted by the President of the Russian Federation, the Council of Federation, the State Duma, the Government of the Russian Federation, legislative (representative) bodies of constituent entities of the Russian Federation, and by groups consisting of not less than one fifth of the members of the Council of Federation or of the deputies of the State Duma.

Article 135

1. The provisions of Chapters 1, 2 and 9 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation may not be revised by the Federal Assembly.

2. If a proposal on revising the provisions of Chapters 1, 2 and 9 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation is supported by three fifths of the total number of members of the Council of Federation and deputies of the State Duma, then in accordance with federal constitutional law, a Constitutional Assembly shall be convened.

3. The Constitutional Assembly shall either confirm the invariability of the Constitution of the Russian Federation or draft a new Constitution of the Russian Federation, which shall be adopted by the Constitutional Assembly by two thirds of the total number of its members or shall be referred to a referendum. In the event that a referendum is held, the Constitution of the Russian Federation shall be considered to have been adopted if over one half of voters who participated in the vote voted in favour of it and provided that over a half of the electorate participated in the referendum.

Article 136

Amendments to the provisions of Chapters 3-8 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation shall be adopted in accordance with the procedure established for the adoption of federal constitutional law and shall come into force after they have been approved by legislative authorities of not less than two thirds of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation.

Article 137

1. Amendments to Article 65 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation which determines the composition of the Russian Federation shall be introduced on the basis of a federal constitutional law on the admission to the Russian Federation and the creation within it of new constituent entities of the Russian Federation, or on changes in the constitutional and legal status of a constituent entity of the Russian Federation.

2. In the event of a change in the name of a republic, kray, oblast, city of federal significance, autonomous oblast or autonomous okrug the new name of the constituent entity of the Russian Federation shall be included in Article 65 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation.

SECTION TWO
Concluding and interim provisions

1. The Constitution of the Russian Federation shall come into force from the moment of its official publication according to the results of the national referendum.
The day of the national referendum, December 12, 1993, shall be considered the day of adopting the Constitution of the Russian Federation.
At the same time the Constitution (Fundamental Law) of the Russian Federation – Russia adopted on April 12, 1978 with all amendments and additions shall cease to have effect.
In the event of the non-conformity to the Constitution of the Russian Federation of the provisions of the Federation Treaty – Treaty on the division of authorities and powers between federal State government bodies of the Russian Federation and the State government bodies of constituent sovereign republics of the Russian Federation, the Treaty on the division of authorities and powers between federal State government bodies of the Russian Federation and the State government bodies of krays, oblasts, and the cities of Moscow and St.Petersburg of the Russian Federation, the Treaty on the division of authorities and powers between federal State government bodies of the Russian Federation and State government bodies of autonomous oblast and autonomous okrugs within the Russian Federation, and other treaties between federal State government bodies of the Russian Federation and State government bodies of constituent entities of the Russian Federation and treaties between State government bodies of constituent entities of the Russian Federation, the provisions of the Constitution of the Russian Federation shall apply.

2. Laws and other legal acts which were in force on the territory of the Russian Federation before this Constitution comes into force shall apply to the extent that they do not conflict with the Constitution of the Russian Federation.

3. The President of the Russian Federation, elected in accordance with the Constitution (Fundamental Law) of the Russian Federation – Russia, shall from the day that this Constitution comes into force exercise the powers established by it until the term of office for which he (she) was elected expires.

4. The Council of Ministers – Government of the Russian Federation – from the moment that this Constitution comes into force, shall acquire the rights, obligations and responsibilities of the Government of the Russian Federation, which are established by the Constitution of the Russian Federation and shall hereafter be called the Government of the Russian Federation.

5. The courts of the Russian Federation shall administer justice in accordance with their powers as established by this Constitution.
After the Constitution has come into force, judges of all courts of the Russian Federation shall retain their powers until the term for which they were elected expires. Vacant positions shall be filled in accordance with the procedure established by this Constitution.

6. Until the adoption and implementation of the federal law, which establishes the procedure for the examination of cases by a court of jury, the existing procedure for the court examination of corresponding cases shall apply.
Until criminal-procedural legislation of the Russian Federation has been brought into line with the provisions of this Constitution, the previous procedure for the arrest, detention and keeping in custody of persons suspected of committing a crime shall apply.

7. The Council of Federation of the first convocation and the State Duma of the first convocation shall be elected for a period of two years.

8. The Council of Federation shall meet for its first session on the thirtieth day after the elections. The first session of the Council of Federation shall be opened by the President of the Russian Federation.

9. A deputy of the State Duma of the first convocation may be simultaneously a member of the Government of the Russian Federation. Provisions of this Constitution on the immunity of deputies with respect to responsibility for actions (inaction) connected with the fulfilment of their official duties shall not extend to deputies of the State Duma who are members of the Government of the Russian Federation.

Deputies of the Council of Federation of the first convocation shall exercise their powers on a non-permanent basis.


 

The French Constitution

France is an indivisible, secular, democratic and social republic

Constitution du 4 octobre 1958

Constitution of October 4, 1958 (JORF No. 0238 of October 5, 1958, page 9151)

Edition: March 3, 2017

Contents

PREAMBLE
First article.
Title I – SOVEREIGNTY
Article 2.
Article 3.
Article 4.
Title II – THE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC
Article 5.
Article 6.
Article 7.
Article 8.
Article 9.
Article 10.
Article 11.
Article 12.
Article 13.
Article 14.
Article 15.
Article 16.
Article 17.
Article 18.
Article 19.
Title III – THE GOVERNMENT
Article 20.
Article 21.
Article 22.
Article 23.
Title IV – THE PARLIAMENT
Article 24.
Article 25.
Article 26.
Article 27.
Article 28.
Article 29.
Article 30.
Article 31.
Article 32.
Article 33.
Title V – REPORTS BETWEEN PARLIAMENT AND GOVERNMENT
Article 34.
Article 34-1.
Article 35.
Article 36.
Article 37.
Article 37-1.
Article 38.
Article 39.
Article 40.
Article 41.
Article 42.
Article 43.
Article 44.
Article 45.
Article 46.
Article 47.
Article 47-1.
Article 47-2.
Article 48.
Article 49.
Article 50.
Article 50-1.
Article 51.
Article 51-1.
Article 51-2.
Title VI – TREATIES AND INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS
Article 52.
Article 53.
Article 53-1.
Article 53-2.
Article 54.
Article 55.
Title VII – THE CONSTITUTIONAL COUNCIL
Article 56.
Article 57.
Article 58.
Article 59.
Article 60.
Article 61.
Article 61-1.
Article 62.
Article 63.
Title VIII – JUDICIAL AUTHORITY
Article 64.
Article 65.
Article 66.
Article 66-1.
Title IX – THE HIGH COURT
Article 67.
Article 68.
Title X – CRIMINAL RESPONSIBILITY OF GOVERNMENT MEMBERS
Article 68-1.
Article 68-2.
Article 68-3.
Title XI – THE ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL COUNCIL
Article 69.
Article 70.
Article 71.
Title XI bis – THE DEFENDER OF RIGHTS
Article 71-1.
Title XII – TERRITORIAL COMMUNITIES
Article 72.
Article 72-1.
Article 72-2.
Article 72-3.
Article 72-4.
Article 73.
Article 74.
Article 74-1.
Article 75.
Article 75-1.
Title XIII – TRANSITIONAL PROVISIONS RELATING TO NEW CALEDONIA
Article 76.
Article 77.
Title XIV – FRANCOPHONIE AND ASSOCIATION AGREEMENTS
Article 87.
Article 88.
Title XV – THE EUROPEAN UNION
Article 88-1.
Article 88-2.
Article 88-3.
Article 88-4.
Article 88-5.
Article 88-6.
Article 88-7.
Title XVI – REVISION
Article 89.The French


The Government of the Republic, in accordance with the Constitutional Law of 3 June 1958, has proposed,

The French people adopted,

The President of the Republic promulgates the constitutional law whose content follows:


Le Gouvernement de la République, conformément à la loi constitutionnelle du 3 juin 1958, a proposé,

Le peuple français a adopté,

Le Président de la République promulgue la loi constitutionnelle dont la teneur suit :


PREAMBLE

The French people solemnly proclaim their commitment to human rights and the principles of national sovereignty as defined by the Declaration of 1789 , confirmed and supplemented by the preamble to the 1946 Constitution , as well as the rights of the people. and duties defined in the 2004 Environmental Charter .

By virtue of these principles and of the free determination of the peoples, the Republic offers the Overseas Territories which express the will to adhere to it new institutions based on the common ideal of freedom, equality and equality. fraternity and designed for their democratic evolution.


PRÉAMBULE

Le peuple français proclame solennellement son attachement aux Droits de l’homme et aux principes de la souveraineté nationale tels qu’ils ont été définis par la Déclaration de 1789, confirmée et complétée par le préambule de la Constitution de 1946, ainsi qu’aux droits et devoirs définis dans la Charte de l’environnement de 2004.

En vertu de ces principes et de celui de la libre détermination des peuples, la République offre aux territoires d’Outre-Mer qui manifestent la volonté d’y adhérer des institutions nouvelles fondées sur l’idéal commun de liberté, d’égalité et de fraternité et conçues en vue de leur évolution démocratique.


First article.

France is an indivisible, secular, democratic and social republic. It ensures equality before the law of all citizens without distinction of origin, race or religion. She respects all beliefs. Its organization is decentralized.

The law promotes equal access for women and men to electoral mandates and elective functions, as well as to professional and social responsibilities.


Article premier.

La France est une République indivisible, laïque, démocratique et sociale. Elle assure l’égalité devant la loi de tous les citoyens sans distinction d’origine, de race ou de religion. Elle respecte toutes les croyances. Son organisation est décentralisée.

La loi favorise l’égal accès des femmes et des hommes aux mandats électoraux et fonctions électives, ainsi qu’aux responsabilités professionnelles et sociales.


Title I – SOVEREIGNTY
Article 2.

The language of the Republic is French.

The national emblem is the tricoloured flag, blue, white, red.

The national anthem is the “Marseillaise”.

The motto of the Republic is “Freedom, Equality, Fraternity”.

Its principle is: government of the people, by the people and for the people.

Article 3.
National sovereignty belongs to the people who exercise it through their representatives and by referendum.

No section of the people nor any individual can assume the exercise.

Suffrage may be direct or indirect under the conditions provided by the Constitution. it is always universal, equal and secret.

The electors, under the conditions determined by law, are all major French nationals of both sexes, enjoying their civil and political rights.

Article 4.
Political parties and groups contribute to the expression of suffrage. They form and exercise their activity freely. They must respect the principles of national sovereignty and democracy.

They contribute to the implementation of the principle set out in the second paragraph of Article 1 under the conditions determined by law.

The law guarantees pluralistic expressions of opinion and the equitable participation of political parties and groups in the democratic life of the nation.

 

Title II – THE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC

Article 5.
The President of the Republic ensures the respect of the Constitution. It ensures, by its arbitration, the regular functioning of the public authorities as well as the continuity of the State.

It is the guarantor of national independence, territorial integrity and respect for treaties.

Article 6.
The President of the Republic is elected for five years by direct universal suffrage.

No one may serve more than two consecutive terms.

The methods of application of this article are laid down in an organic law.

Article 7.
The President of the Republic is elected by an absolute majority of the votes cast. If it is not obtained in the first ballot, a second ballot shall be taken on the fourteenth day following. Only the two candidates who, if necessary after the withdrawal of more advantaged candidates, are to have the highest number of votes in the first round.

Voting is open upon convocation of the Government.

The election of the new President shall take place at least twenty days and not more than thirty-five days before the expiry of the powers of the President-in-Office.

In the event of vacancy of the Presidency of the Republic for any reason whatsoever, or of impediment noted by the Constitutional Council seized by the Government and acting by an absolute majority of its members, the functions of the President of the Republic, at the except those provided for in Articles 11 and 12 below, are provisionally exercised by the President of the Senate and, if he is in turn prevented from exercising these functions, by the Government.

In case of vacancy or when the impediment is declared definitive by the Constitutional Council, the ballot for the election of the new president takes place, except in cases of force majeure recognized by the Constitutional Council, twenty days at least and thirty-five days at more after the opening of the vacancy or the declaration of the definitive nature of the impediment.

If, in the seven days preceding the closing date for submitting nominations, one of the persons who, less than thirty days before that date, publicly announced his decision to become a candidate dies or is prevented from doing so, the Constitutional Council may decide to postpone the election.

If, before the first round, one of the candidates dies or is prevented, the Constitutional Council pronounces the postponement of the election.

In the event of the death or incapacity of one of the two most favored candidates in the first round before any withdrawals, the Constitutional Council declares that all the electoral operations must be carried out again; the same applies in the event of the death or incapacity of one of the two candidates remaining in the presence for the second round.

In all cases, the Constitutional Council is seized under the conditions set in the second paragraph of Article 61 below or in those determined for the presentation of a candidate by the organic law provided for in Article 6 above.

The Constitutional Council may extend the time limits provided for in the third and fifth paragraphs without the vote being held more than thirty-five days after the date of the decision of the Constitutional Council. If the application of the provisions of this paragraph has had the effect of postponing the election to a date subsequent to the expiry of the powers of the incumbent President, the latter shall remain in office until the proclamation of his successor.

Articles 49 and 50 and 89 of the Constitution can not be applied during the vacancy of the Presidency of the Republic or during the period between the declaration of the definitive nature of the President’s incapacity of the Republic and the election of his successor.

Article 8.
The President of the Republic appoints the Prime Minister. He terminates his duties on the presentation by him of the resignation of the Government.

On the proposal of the Prime Minister, he appoints the other members of the Government and terminates their functions.

Article 9.
The President of the Republic chairs the Council of Ministers.

Article 10.
The President of the Republic promulgates the laws within fifteen days following the transmission to the Government of the definitively adopted law.

He may, before the expiry of this period, ask the Parliament for a new deliberation of the law or some of its articles. This new deliberation can not be refused.

Article 11.
The President of the Republic, on the proposal of the Government during the duration of the sessions or on the joint proposal of the two Assemblies, published in the Official Gazette , may submit to the referendum any draft law on the organization of the public authorities, on reforms relating to the economic, social or environmental policy of the nation and the public services which contribute to it, or tending to authorize the ratification of a treaty which, without being contrary to the Constitution, would affect the functioning of the institutions.

When the referendum is organized on a proposal from the Government, the latter makes a statement before each assembly, which is followed by a debate.

A referendum on an object mentioned in the first paragraph may be organized on the initiative of one fifth of the members of Parliament, supported by one-tenth of the voters registered on the electoral lists. This initiative takes the form of a legislative proposal and can not be used to repeal a legislative provision that has been in place for less than a year.

The conditions of its presentation and those in which the Constitutional Council controls compliance with the provisions of the preceding paragraph are determined by an organic law.

If the bill has not been examined by both assemblies within a deadline set by the organic law, the President of the Republic submits it to the referendum.

When the bill of law is not adopted by the French people, no new proposal for a referendum on the same subject can be presented before the expiry of a period of two years following the polling date.

When the referendum concludes the adoption of the bill or bill, the President of the Republic promulgates the law within fifteen days after the proclamation of the results of the consultation.

Article 12.
The President of the Republic may, after consultation with the Prime Minister and the presidents of the assemblies, pronounce the dissolution of the National Assembly.

General elections shall be held not less than twenty days and not more than forty days after the dissolution.

The National Assembly meets as of right on the second Thursday following its election. If this meeting is held outside the period provided for the ordinary session, a session shall be open for a period of fifteen days.

There can be no further dissolution in the year following these elections.

Article 13.
The President of the Republic signs orders and decrees deliberated in the Council of Ministers.

He appoints to the civil and military jobs of the State.

The State Councilors, the Grand Chancellor of the Legion of Honor, the ambassadors and envoys extraordinary, the master advisers to the Court of Auditors, the prefects, the representatives of the State in the oversea communities governed by Article 74 and in New Caledonia, the general officers, the rectors of the academies, the directors of the central administrations are appointed in the Council of Ministers.

An organic law determines the other posts to which it is provided in the Council of Ministers as well as the conditions under which the power of appointment of the President of the Republic may be delegated by him to be exercised on his behalf.

An organic law determines the jobs or functions, other than those mentioned in the third paragraph, for which, because of their importance for the guarantee of rights and freedoms or the economic and social life of the Nation, the power of appointment of the President of the Republic is exercised after public notice from the competent standing committee of each assembly. The President of the Republic can not make an appointment when the addition of negative votes in each committee represents at least three-fifths of the votes cast in both committees. The law determines the competent standing committees according to the jobs or functions concerned.

Article 14.
The President of the Republic accredits ambassadors and envoys extraordinary to foreign powers; foreign ambassadors and envoys are accredited to him.

Article 15.
The President of the Republic is the chief of the armies. He chairs the councils and senior committees of national defense.

Article 16.
When the institutions of the Republic, the independence of the Nation, the integrity of its territory or the performance of its international commitments are threatened in a serious and immediate manner and the regular functioning of the constitutional public authorities is interrupted, the President of the Republic takes the measures required by these circumstances, after official consultation of the Prime Minister, the presidents of the assemblies as well as the Constitutional Council.

He informs the Nation by a message.

These measures must be inspired by the desire to provide the constitutional public authorities, as quickly as possible, with the means to accomplish their mission. The Constitutional Council is consulted about them.

Parliament meets as of right.

The National Assembly can not be dissolved during the exercise of exceptional powers.

After thirty days of exercise of exceptional powers, the Constitutional Council may be seized by the President of the National Assembly, the President of the Senate, sixty deputies or sixty senators, for the purpose of examining whether the conditions set out in the first paragraph remain met. . It pronounces as soon as possible by a public notice. It proceeds automatically to this examination and pronounces under the same conditions after 60 days of exercise of the exceptional powers and at any time beyond this period.

Article 17.
The President of the Republic has the right to pardon individually.

Article 18.
The President of the Republic communicates with the two assemblies of the Parliament by messages that he has read and that do not give rise to any debate.

He may address the Parliament convened for this purpose in Congress. His statement may give rise, in his absence, to a debate which is not subject to any vote.

Outside the session, the parliamentary assemblies are convened specifically for this purpose.

Article 19.
The acts of the President of the Republic other than those provided for in articles 8 (1st paragraph), 11, 12, 16, 18, 54, 56 and 61 are countersigned by the Prime Minister and, where appropriate, by the ministers responsible.

Title III – THE GOVERNMENT

Article 20.
The Government determines and conducts the policy of the Nation.

He has the administration and the armed force.

He shall be responsible to Parliament in accordance with the conditions and procedures provided for in Articles 49 and 50.

Article 21.
The Prime Minister directs the action of the Government. He is responsible for national defense. He ensures the execution of the laws. Subject to the provisions of Article 13, he exercises regulatory power and appoints civil and military posts.

He can delegate some of his powers to ministers.

It replaces, if need be, the President of the Republic in the chairmanship of the councils and committees envisaged in article 15.

He may, exceptionally, substitute him for the presidency of a council of ministers by virtue of an express delegation and for a specific agenda.

Article 22.
The acts of the Prime Minister are countersigned, if necessary, by the ministers in charge of their execution.

Article 23.
The functions of a member of the Government are incompatible with the exercise of any parliamentary mandate, any function of national professional representation and any public employment or any professional activity.

An organic law lays down the conditions under which the replacement of the holders of such mandates, functions or jobs is provided.

The replacement of members of Parliament shall take place in accordance with the provisions of Article 25.

Title IV – THE PARLIAMENT

Article 24.
Parliament votes the law. It controls the action of the Government. It evaluates public policies.

It includes the National Assembly and the Senate.

Members of the National Assembly, whose number may not exceed five hundred and seventy-seven, are elected by direct suffrage.

The Senate, whose number of members may not exceed three hundred and forty-eight, is elected by indirect suffrage. It ensures the representation of the territorial collectivities of the Republic.

French people living outside France are represented in the National Assembly and the Senate.

Article 25.
An organic law fixes the duration of the powers of each assembly, the number of its members, their indemnity, the conditions of eligibility, the system of ineligibilities and incompatibilities.

It also lays down the conditions under which the persons appointed to ensure, in the event of vacancy, the replacement of deputies or senators until the general or partial renewal of the assembly to which they belonged or their temporary replacement in case acceptance by them of governmental functions.

An independent commission, whose law determines the composition and rules of organization and operation, decides on a public opinion on the draft texts and draft laws delimiting constituencies for the election of deputies or modifying the distribution of seats deputies or senators.

Article 26.
No Member of Parliament may be prosecuted, investigated, arrested, detained or judged on the occasion of opinions or votes cast by him in the exercise of his functions.

No member of Parliament may be subject to arrest or any other privative or restrictive measure of liberty in criminal or correctional matters except with the authorization of the Bureau of the Assembly of which he is a member. This authorization is not required in the event of a crime or flagrant offense or final conviction.

Detention, privative or restrictive measures of liberty or the prosecution of a Member of Parliament shall be suspended for the duration of the session if the Assembly to which it belongs so requests.

The assembly concerned is automatically reunited for additional sessions to allow, if necessary, the application of the above paragraph.

Article 27.
Any imperative mandate is null.

The voting rights of Members of Parliament are personal.

The organic law may exceptionally authorize the delegation of vote. In this case no one can receive delegation of more than one mandate.

Article 28.
Parliament meets as of right in an ordinary session which begins on the first working day of October and ends on the last working day of June.

The number of sitting days that each assembly may hold during the ordinary session may not exceed one hundred and twenty. The weeks of sitting are fixed by each assembly.

The Prime Minister, after consultation with the president of the assembly concerned, or the majority of the members of each assembly may decide to hold additional days of sitting.

The days and times of the sessions are determined by the rules of each meeting.

Article 29.
The Parliament meets in extraordinary session at the request of the Prime Minister or the majority of the members composing the National Assembly, on a determined agenda.

When the extraordinary session is held at the request of the members of the National Assembly, the closing decree comes as soon as the Parliament has exhausted the agenda for which it was convened and at the latest twelve days from its meeting .

The Prime Minister can only request a new session before the end of the month following the closing decree.

Article 30.
Except in cases where the Parliament meets as of right, the extraordinary sessions are opened and closed by decree of the President of the Republic.

Article 31.
Government members have access to both assemblies. They are heard when they ask for it.

They can be assisted by government commissioners.

Article 32.
The President of the National Assembly is elected for the duration of the legislature. The President of the Senate is elected after each partial renewal.

Article 33.
The sessions of both assemblies are public. The full report of the proceedings is published in the Official Journal .

Each assembly may sit in a secret committee at the request of the Prime Minister or one-tenth of its members.

Title V – REPORTS BETWEEN PARLIAMENT AND GOVERNMENT

Article 34.
The law sets the rules concerning:

civil rights and fundamental guarantees granted to citizens for the exercise of public freedoms; freedom, pluralism and independence of the media; the subjections imposed by the national defense on the citizens in their person and in their property;
nationality, state and capacity of persons, matrimonial regimes, inheritances and liberalities;
the determination of the crimes and offenses and the penalties applicable to them; criminal procedure; the amnesty; the creation of new orders of jurisdiction and the status of magistrates;
the base, the rate and the methods of recovery of taxes of all kinds; the regime of issue of the currency.
The law also sets the rules for:

the electoral system of parliamentary assemblies, local assemblies and representative bodies of French nationals established outside France, as well as the conditions for the exercise of the electoral mandates and elective functions of the members of deliberative assemblies of local authorities;
the creation of categories of public institutions;
basic guarantees granted to civil and military officials of the state;
nationalizations of enterprises and transfers of ownership of companies from the public to the private sector.
The law determines the fundamental principles:

the general organization of National Defense;
the free administration of local authorities, their powers and their resources;
Education ;
the preservation of the environment;
property rights, rights in rem and civil and commercial obligations;
labor law, trade union law and social security.
The finance laws determine the resources and the expenses of the State in the conditions and under the reserves provided for by an organic law.

The social security financing laws determine the general conditions of its financial equilibrium and, taking into account their revenue forecasts, fix its spending objectives, under the conditions and under the reserves provided for by an organic law.

Programming laws determine the objectives of state action.

The multiannual public finance guidelines are defined by programming laws. They are part of the objective of balancing the accounts of general government.

The provisions of this article may be specified and supplemented by an organic law.

Article 34-1.
Meetings may vote resolutions under the conditions set by the organic law.

Proposed resolutions of which the Government considers that their adoption or rejection would be such as to call into question its responsibility or contain injunctions against it are inadmissible and may not be placed on the agenda.

Article 35.
The declaration of war is authorized by Parliament.

The Government informs Parliament of its decision to involve the armed forces abroad, no later than three days after the start of the intervention. It specifies the objectives pursued. This information may give rise to a debate which is not followed by any vote.

When the duration of the intervention exceeds four months, the Government submits its extension to the authorization of Parliament. He may ask the National Assembly to decide in the last resort.

If the Parliament is not in session at the end of the four-month period, it shall take a decision at the opening of the next session.

Article 36.
The state of siege is decreed in the Council of Ministers.

Its extension beyond twelve days can only be authorized by Parliament.

Article 37.
Subjects other than those which fall within the scope of the law are of a regulatory nature.

Legislative texts in these matters may be amended by decrees issued after consulting the Council of State. Those of those texts that would come into force after the coming into force of this Constitution can only be amended by decree if the Constitutional Council has declared that they are of a regulatory nature under the preceding paragraph.

Article 37-1.
The law and the regulations may include, for a limited purpose and duration, provisions of an experimental nature.

Article 38.
The Government may, in the execution of its program, request Parliament to authorize, for a limited period of time, measures which are normally within the scope of the law.

Ordinances are issued by the Council of Ministers after consulting the Council of State. They come into force as soon as they are published but lapse if the ratification bill is not tabled in Parliament before the date set by the enabling law. They can only be ratified expressly.

At the expiry of the period mentioned in the first paragraph of this article, ordinances may only be amended by law in matters which are in the legislative domain.

Article 39.
The initiative of the laws belongs concurrently to the Prime Minister and the members of Parliament.

Bills are deliberated by the Council of Ministers after consulting the Council of State and deposited on the desk of one of the two assemblies. The bills of finance and social security financing law are submitted in the first place to the National Assembly. Without prejudice to the first paragraph of Article 44, bills whose main purpose is the organization of local and regional authorities shall be submitted first to the Senate.

The presentation of bills introduced in the National Assembly or the Senate meets the conditions set by an organic law.

Bills can not be placed on the agenda if the Conference of Presidents of the first meeting seized finds that the rules set by the organic law are ignored. In the event of disagreement between the Conference of Presidents and the Government, the President of the Assembly concerned or the Prime Minister may refer the matter to the Constitutional Council within eight days.

Under the conditions provided for by law, the chairman of a meeting may submit to the Conseil d’État, for consideration before the committee’s consideration, a proposal for a law tabled by one of the members of that meeting, unless the latter opposes it.

Article 40.
Proposals and amendments formulated by Members of Parliament are not admissible when their adoption would result either in a diminution of public resources or the creation or aggravation of a public office.

Article 41.
If it appears during the course of the legislative procedure that a proposal or an amendment is not within the scope of the law or is contrary to a delegation granted under Article 38, the Government or the President of the Assembly seizure may preclude the inadmissibility.

In case of disagreement between the Government and the President of the assembly concerned, the Constitutional Council, at the request of one or the other, shall rule within eight days.

Article 42.
At the meeting, the debate on bills and bills shall refer to the text adopted by the committee seized pursuant to Rule 43 or, failing that, to the text before the assembly.

However, the discussion at the meeting of constitutional revision projects, draft finance bills and draft social security financing bills bears, in first reading before the first assembly seized, the text presented by the Government and, for other readings, on the text transmitted by the other assembly.

The debate at the first reading session of a bill or a bill may only take place before the first meeting seized at the end of six weeks after it has been tabled. It may not intervene before the second meeting seized until the expiry of a period of four weeks from its transmission.

The preceding paragraph does not apply if the expedited procedure has been initiated under the conditions provided for in Article 45. It does not apply either to draft finance bills, to draft security financing laws. social security and crisis projects.

Article 43.
Proposals and bills are sent for consideration to one of the standing committees, which is limited to eight in each assembly.

At the request of the Government or the Assembly which is seized of it, the bills or proposals of law are sent for examination to a commission specially designated for this purpose.

Article 44.
Members of Parliament and the Government have the right of amendment. This right is exercised in session or in committee according to the conditions fixed by the by-laws of the assemblies, within the framework determined by an organic law.

After the opening of the debate, the Government may oppose the examination of any amendment which has not previously been submitted to the Committee.

If the Government so requests, the Assembly shall decide by a single vote on all or part of the text under discussion, retaining only the amendments proposed or accepted by the Government.

Article 45.
Any bill or bill is examined successively in both Houses of Parliament with a view to the adoption of an identical text. Without prejudice to the application of Articles 40 and 41, any amendment shall be admissible at first reading if it presents a link, even indirectly, with the text deposited or transmitted.

When, as a result of a disagreement between the two assemblies, a bill or a bill could not be adopted after two readings by each assembly or, if the Government decided to initiate the accelerated procedure without the Conferences of the presidents jointly opposed, after a single reading by each of them, the Prime Minister or, for a proposal for a law, the presidents of the two assemblies acting jointly, have the faculty to provoke the meeting of a joint commission parity responsible for proposing a text on the provisions still under discussion.

The text prepared by the Joint Committee may be submitted by the Government for approval to both Assemblies. No amendment is admissible unless the Government agrees.

If the Joint Committee fails to adopt a common text or if this text is not adopted under the conditions set out in the preceding paragraph, the Government may, after a further reading by the National Assembly and by the Senate, ask the National Assembly to rule definitively. In this case, the National Assembly may adopt either the text drafted by the joint committee or the last text voted by it, modified if necessary by one or more of the amendments adopted by the Senate.

Article 46.
The laws to which the Constitution confers the character of organic laws are voted and modified under the following conditions.

The draft or proposal may, at first reading, be submitted to the deliberation and vote of the assemblies only at the expiry of the time limits set in the third paragraph of Article 42. However, if the accelerated procedure has been initiated in the conditions set out in Article 45, the draft or the proposal may not be submitted to the deliberation of the first meeting before the expiry of a period of fifteen days after its submission.

The procedure of Article 45 is applicable. However, if there is no agreement between the two assemblies, the text can only be adopted by the National Assembly at last reading by an absolute majority of its members.

The organic laws relating to the Senate must be voted in the same terms by the two assemblies.

Organic laws can be promulgated only after the declaration by the Constitutional Council of their conformity to the Constitution.

Article 47.
The Parliament votes the finance bills in the conditions provided for by an organic law.

If the National Assembly has not taken a decision at first reading within forty days after the tabling of a draft, the Government shall refer the Senate to a decision within a period of fifteen days. It is then carried out under the conditions provided for in Article 45.

If the Parliament has not pronounced within seventy days, the provisions of the draft can be put into effect by ordinance.

If the budget law fixing the resources and expenses of a financial year has not been submitted in time to be promulgated before the beginning of this financial year, the Government urgently requests from Parliament the authorization to collect the taxes and opens the A-base vote by order in council.

The time limits provided for in this Article shall be suspended when Parliament is not in session.

Article 47-1.
The Parliament votes the bills of financing of the social security in the conditions envisaged by an organic law.

If the National Assembly has not taken a decision on first reading within twenty days after the submission of a draft, the Government shall refer the Senate to a decision within fifteen days. It is then carried out under the conditions provided for in Article 45.

If Parliament has not reached a decision within fifty days, the provisions of the draft can be implemented by ordinance.

The time limits provided for in this article shall be suspended when the Parliament is not in session and, for each assembly, in the weeks in which it has decided not to hold a meeting, in accordance with the second paragraph of Article 28.

Article 47-2.
The Court of Auditors assists the Parliament in controlling the action of the Government. It assists the Parliament and the Government in the control of the execution of the financial laws and the application of the laws of financing of the social security as well as in the evaluation of the public policies. Through its public reports, it contributes to the information of citizens.

The accounts of the general government are regular and sincere. They give a true picture of the results of their management, their wealth and their financial situation.

Article 48.
Without prejudice to the application of the last three paragraphs of Article 28, the agenda shall be fixed by each meeting.

Two weeks out of four shall be reserved by priority, and in the order that the Government has fixed, for the examination of the texts and debates for which it requests the inclusion on the agenda.

In addition, the examination of bills of finance, social security financing bills and, subject to the provisions of the following paragraph, texts transmitted by the other assembly for six weeks at least, projects relating to states of crisis and requests for authorization referred to in Article 35 shall, at the request of the Government, be placed on the agenda by priority.

One out of four sitting weeks is reserved by priority and in the order set by each assembly for the control of the Government’s action and the evaluation of public policies.

One sitting day per month is reserved for an agenda decided by each assembly at the initiative of the opposition groups of the assembly concerned as well as that of the minority groups.

At least one sitting per week, including the special sessions provided for in Rule 29, shall be preceded by questions from Members of Parliament and Government replies.

Article 49.
The Prime Minister, after deliberation of the Council of Ministers, engages before the National Assembly the responsibility of the Government on its program or possibly on a declaration of general policy.

The National Assembly questions the responsibility of the Government by voting a motion of censure. Such a motion is admissible only if it is signed by at least one tenth of the members of the National Assembly. The vote can not take place until forty-eight hours after its deposit. Only the votes in favor of the motion of censure, which can only be adopted by a majority of the members of the Assembly, are counted. Except as provided in the following paragraph, a Member may not sign more than three motions of censure during the same ordinary session and more than one during the same extraordinary session.

The Prime Minister may, after deliberation of the Council of Ministers, engage the responsibility of the Government before the National Assembly on the vote of a bill of finance or financing of social security. In this case, the project is deemed to be adopted, unless a motion of censure, tabled within twenty-four hours, is voted under the conditions set out in the preceding paragraph. The Prime Minister may, in addition, use this procedure for another project or a proposal for a law per session.

The Prime Minister has the right to ask the Senate for approval of a general policy statement.

Article 50.
When the National Assembly adopts a motion of censure or when it disapproves of the program or a statement of general policy of the Government, the Prime Minister must submit to the President of the Republic the resignation of the Government.

Article 50-1.
Before any of the assemblies, the Government may, on its own initiative or at the request of a parliamentary group within the meaning of section 51-1, make a declaration on a specific subject giving rise to to debate and may, if it so decides, be votable without liability.

Article 51.
The closure of the ordinary session or the extraordinary sessions is by law delayed to allow, if necessary, the application of article 49. For the same purpose, additional sessions are by right.

Article 51-1.
The rules of each assembly determine the rights of the parliamentary groups formed within it. It recognizes specific rights for opposition groups in the assembly concerned as well as for minority groups.

Article 51-2.
For the exercise of the monitoring and evaluation missions defined in the first paragraph of Article 24, commissions of inquiry may be set up within each assembly to collect, under the conditions provided for by law, elements of information.

The law determines their rules of organization and operation. Their conditions of creation are fixed by the rules of each assembly.

Title VI – TREATIES AND INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS

Article 52.
The President of the Republic negotiates and ratifies the treaties.

He is informed of any negotiations leading to the conclusion of an international agreement not subject to ratification.

Article 53.
Peace treaties, commercial treaties, treaties or agreements relating to the international organization, those that commit the finances of the State, those that modify provisions of a legislative nature, those that relate to the state of the people those containing assignment, exchange or addition of territory may be ratified or approved only by law.

They take effect only after they have been ratified or approved.

No cession, no exchange, no addition of territory is valid without the consent of the populations concerned.

Article 53-1.
The Republic may conclude with the European States which are bound by identical commitments to its own on asylum and the protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms, agreements determining their respective powers for the examination of applications for asylum that are presented to them.

However, even if the request does not fall within their competence under these agreements, the authorities of the Republic always have the right to give asylum to any foreigner persecuted by reason of his action for the freedom or which seeks the protection from France for another reason.

Article 53-2.
The Republic may recognize the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court under the conditions provided for in the treaty signed on 18 July 1998 .

Article 54.
If the Constitutional Council, seized by the President of the Republic, by the Prime Minister, by the president of one or the other assembly or by sixty deputies or sixty senators, declared that an international commitment contains a clause contrary to the Constitution, the authorization to ratify or approve the international commitment in question can only be made after the revision of the Constitution.

Article 55.
Treaties or agreements duly ratified or approved have, from their publication, an authority superior to that of the laws, subject, for each agreement or treaty, to its application by the other party.

Title VII – THE CONSTITUTIONAL COUNCIL

Article 56.
The Constitutional Council comprises nine members, whose term of office lasts nine years and is not renewable. The Constitutional Council is renewed by thirds every three years. Three of the members are appointed by the President of the Republic, three by the President of the National Assembly, three by the President of the Senate. The procedure provided for in the last paragraph of Article 13 is applicable to these appointments. The appointments made by the chairman of each meeting are subject to the sole opinion of the relevant standing committee of the relevant meeting.

In addition to the nine members provided for above, the former Presidents of the Republic are entitled to life for life from the Constitutional Council.

The president is appointed by the President of the Republic. He has a casting vote in case of sharing.

Article 57.
The functions of member of the Constitutional Council are incompatible with those of minister or member of Parliament. The other incompatibilities are fixed by an organic law.

Article 58.
The Constitutional Council ensures the regularity of the election of the President of the Republic.

He examines the claims and proclaims the results of the ballot.

Article 59.
The Constitutional Council decides, in case of dispute, on the regularity of the election of deputies and senators.

Article 60.
The Constitutional Council shall ensure the regularity of the referendum operations provided for in Articles 11 and 89 and Title XV. He proclaims the results.

Article 61.
The organic laws, before their promulgation, the legislative proposals mentioned in article 11 before they are submitted to the referendum, and the regulations of the parliamentary assemblies, before their implementation, must be submitted to the Constitutional Council which decides on their conformity to the Constitution.

For the same purpose, the laws may be referred to the Constitutional Council, before their promulgation, by the President of the Republic, the Prime Minister, the President of the National Assembly, the President of the Senate or sixty deputies or sixty senators.

In the cases provided for in the two preceding paragraphs, the Constitutional Council must decide within one month. However, at the request of the Government, if there is urgency, this period is reduced to eight days.

In these same cases, the seizin of the constitutional council suspends the delay of promulgation.

Article 61-1.
Where, in proceedings pending before a court, it is alleged that a legislative provision infringes the rights and freedoms guaranteed by the Constitution, the Constitutional Council may be seized of this matter by reference from the Council. State or the Court of Cassation which pronounces within a specified period.

An organic law determines the conditions of application of this article.

Article 62.
A provision declared unconstitutional on the basis of Article 61 can not be promulgated or enforced.

A provision declared unconstitutional on the basis of Article 61-1 is repealed from the publication of the decision of the Constitutional Council or a later date fixed by this decision. The Constitutional Council determines the conditions and limits within which the effects that the provision has produced are likely to be challenged.

Decisions of the Constitutional Council are not subject to any appeal. They are binding on public authorities and all administrative and jurisdictional authorities.

Article 63.
An organic law determines the rules of organization and functioning of the Constitutional Council, the procedure that is followed before it and in particular the deadlines open for the seizure of disputes.

Title VIII – JUDICIAL AUTHORITY

Article 64.
The President of the Republic guarantees the independence of the judicial authority.

He is assisted by the Superior Council of the Judiciary.

An organic law bears the status of magistrates.

The judges of the seat are irremovable.

Article 65.
The Superior Council of the Judiciary includes competent training for magistrates at headquarters and competent training for prosecutors.

The competent training for magistrates is chaired by the first president of the Court of Cassation. It includes, in addition, five judges and a prosecutor, a State Councilor appointed by the Council of State, a lawyer and six qualified persons who do not belong to Parliament or the judiciary. nor to the administrative order. The President of the Republic, the President of the National Assembly and the President of the Senate each appoint two qualified persons. The procedure provided for in the last paragraph of Article 13 shall apply to the appointments of qualified persons. Appointments made by the president of each assembly of Parliament are submitted to the sole opinion of the competent standing committee of the assembly concerned.

The competent training for prosecutors is chaired by the public prosecutor at the Court of Cassation. It includes, in addition, five magistrates of the public prosecutor’s office and a magistrate of the seat, as well as the councilor of state, the lawyer and the six qualified persons mentioned in the second paragraph.

The formation of the Superior Council of the Judiciary competent with regard to the magistrates of the seat makes proposals for the appointments of the magistrates sits at the Court of Cassation, for those of first president of court of appeal and for those of president of court of high instance. The other judges of the seat are appointed on his assent.

The formation of the Superior Council of the Judiciary with regard to the prosecutors gives its opinion on the appointments concerning the prosecutors.

The formation of the Superior Council of the Judiciary with jurisdiction over the magistrates of the seat judges as a disciplinary council of the magistrates of the seat. It includes, in addition to the members referred to in the second paragraph, the magistrate of the seat belonging to the competent formation with regard to the magistrates of the public prosecutor’s office.

The formation of the Superior Council of Magistrates with regard to the prosecutors gives its opinion on the disciplinary sanctions which concern them. It then includes, in addition to the members referred to in the third paragraph, the public prosecutor belonging to the competent formation with regard to the magistrates of the head office.

The Superior Council of the Judiciary meets in plenary session to respond to the requests for opinion made by the President of the Republic under Article 64. It gives its opinion, in the same formation, on the questions relating to the ethics of the magistrates as well as on any question relating to the functioning of justice, which is referred to the Minister of Justice. The plenary session shall include three of the five judges of the seat mentioned in the second paragraph, three of the five public prosecutors mentioned in the third paragraph, as well as the State Councilor, the lawyer and the six qualified persons mentioned in the second paragraph. It is presided over by the first president of the Court of Cassation, who can replace the attorney general at this court.

Except in disciplinary matters, the Minister of Justice may participate in the sessions of the formations of the Superior Council of the Judiciary.

The Superior Council of the Judiciary can be seized by a litigant in the conditions fixed by an organic law.

The organic law determines the conditions of application of this article.

Article 66.
No one can be arbitrarily detained.

The judicial authority, guardian of individual liberty, ensures the respect of this principle under the conditions provided for by law.

Article 66-1.
No one can be sentenced to death.

Title IX – THE HIGH COURT

Article 67.
The President of the Republic is not liable for acts done in this capacity, subject to the provisions of Articles 53-2 and 68.

He may not, during his mandate and before any French jurisdiction or administrative authority, be required to testify or be the subject of an action, an act of information, instruction or prosecution. Any limitation period or foreclosure is suspended.

Proceedings and procedures so obstructed may be resumed or brought against him within one month of the termination of his duties.

Article 68.
The President of the Republic may be dismissed only in the event of a breach of his duties manifestly incompatible with the exercise of his mandate. The dismissal is pronounced by the Parliament constituted in High Court.

The proposal for a meeting of the High Court adopted by one of the Assemblies of Parliament is immediately forwarded to the other, which shall decide within fifteen days.

The High Court is presided over by the President of the National Assembly. It decides within a month, by secret ballot, on the dismissal. His decision is of immediate effect.

Decisions taken pursuant to this Article shall be by a two-thirds majority of the members of the relevant meeting or the High Court. Any delegation of vote is forbidden. Only votes in favor of the proposed High Court meeting or dismissal are counted.

An organic law lays down the conditions of application of this article.

Title X – CRIMINAL RESPONSIBILITY OF GOVERNMENT MEMBERS

Article 68-1.
The members of the Government are criminally responsible for the acts done in the exercise of their functions and qualified as crimes or misdemeanors at the time they were committed.

They are judged by the Court of Justice of the Republic.

The Court of Justice of the Republic is bound by the definition of crimes and offenses as well as by the determination of the penalties as they result from the law.

Article 68-2.
The Court of Justice of the Republic comprises fifteen judges: twelve members of parliament, elected from among them and in equal numbers, by the National Assembly and the Senate after each general or partial renewal of these assemblies and three judges sitting at the Court of Justice. cassation, one of which presides over the Court of Justice of the Republic.

Anyone claiming to be aggrieved by a crime or misdemeanor committed by a member of the Government in the performance of his duties may lodge a complaint with a petition commission.

This commission orders either the filing of the proceedings or its transmission to the public prosecutor at the Court of Cassation for the purpose of referral to the Court of Justice of the Republic.

The public prosecutor at the Court of Cassation may also appeal ex officio to the Court of Justice of the Republic with the assent of the petitions commission.

An organic law determines the conditions of application of this article.

Article 68-3.
The provisions of this title shall apply to acts committed before its entry into force.

Title XI – THE ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL COUNCIL

Article 69.
The Economic, Social and Environmental Council, seized by the Government, gives its opinion on draft laws, ordinances or decrees as well as on proposed laws submitted to it.

A member of the Economic, Social and Environmental Council may be appointed by the Council to present to the Parliamentary Assembly the opinion of the Council on the projects or proposals submitted to it.

The Economic, Social and Environmental Council can be petitioned under the conditions set by an organic law. After examining the petition, it informs the Government and Parliament of the action it proposes to take.

Article 70.
The Economic, Social and Environmental Council may be consulted by the Government and the Parliament on any economic, social or environmental problem. The Government can also consult it on the draft programming law defining the multiannual orientations of the public finances. Any economic, social or environmental programming plan or bill is submitted for opinion.

Article 71.
The composition of the Economic, Social and Environmental Council, whose number of members may not exceed two hundred and thirty-three, and its rules of operation are set by an organic law.

Title XI bis – THE DEFENDER OF RIGHTS

Article 71-1.
The Defender of Rights ensures the respect of rights and freedoms by the State administrations, local authorities, public institutions, as well as by any organization entrusted with a public service mission, or in respect of which the organic law gives him skills.

It may be seized, under the conditions provided for by the organic law, by any person who feels aggrieved by the operation of a public service or an organization referred to in the first paragraph. He can seize automatically.

The organic law defines the powers and modalities of intervention of the Defender of Rights. It determines the conditions under which it may be assisted by a college for the exercise of certain of its attributions.

The Defender of Rights is appointed by the President of the Republic for a non-renewable six-year term, following the procedure set out in the last paragraph of article 13. His duties are incompatible with those of a member of the Government and a member of the Parliament. The other incompatibilities are fixed by the organic law.

The Defender of Rights reports to the President of the Republic and Parliament.

Title XII – TERRITORIAL COMMUNITIES

Article 72.
The territorial units of the Republic are the communes, the departments, the regions, the special-status communities and the overseas collectivities governed by Article 74. Any other territorial collectivity is created by law, if any place and place of one or more communities mentioned in this paragraph.

Local and regional authorities are responsible for making the decisions for all the skills that can best be implemented at their level.

Under the conditions provided for by law, these communities freely administer themselves through elected councils and have regulatory power to exercise their powers.

Under the conditions provided for by the organic law, and except where the essential conditions for the exercise of a public freedom or a constitutionally guaranteed right are at issue, local authorities or their groupings may, where, as the case may be, the law or the regulation provides for it, to derogate, on an experimental basis and for a limited purpose and duration, from the legislative or regulatory provisions governing the exercise of their powers.

No territorial authority can exercise guardianship over another. However, where the exercise of a jurisdiction requires the assistance of several local authorities, the law may authorize one of them or one of their groupings to organize the terms of their joint action.

In the territorial communities of the Republic, the representative of the State, representing each of the members of the Government, is responsible for national interests, administrative control and compliance with the laws.

Article 72-1.
The law lays down the conditions under which the electors of each territorial collectivity may, by the exercise of the right of petition, request the inclusion on the agenda of the deliberative assembly of that collectivity of a question within its competence. .

Under the conditions provided for by the organic law, projects of deliberation or act within the jurisdiction of a local authority may, on its own initiative, be submitted, by way of referendum, to the decision of the electors of that collectivity.

When it is envisaged to establish a territorial collectivity with a particular status or to modify its organization, it may be decided by law to consult registered voters in the communities concerned. The modification of the limits of the territorial collectivities can also give rise to the consultation of the voters under the conditions envisaged by the law.

Article 72-2.
Local and regional authorities benefit from resources freely available to them under the conditions set by law.

They can receive all or part of the product of impositions of all kinds. The law may authorize them to fix the base and rate within the limits it determines.

Tax revenues and other own resources of local authorities represent, for each category of community, a decisive part of their total resources. The organic law sets the conditions under which this rule is implemented.

Any transfer of powers between the State and the local authorities is accompanied by the allocation of resources equivalent to those devoted to their exercise. Any creation or extension of powers which has the effect of increasing the expenditure of local authorities is accompanied by resources determined by law.

The law provides for equalization schemes designed to promote equality between local and regional authorities.

Article 72-3.
The Republic recognizes, within the French people, the populations of overseas, in a common ideal of freedom, equality and fraternity.

Guadeloupe, Guyana, Martinique, Reunion, Mayotte, Saint Barthelemy, Saint-Martin, Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon, the Wallis and Futuna Islands and French Polynesia are governed by Article 73 for the departments and territories. regions, and for local authorities created under the last paragraph of Article 73, and Article 74 for other communities.

The status of New Caledonia is governed by Title XIII.

The law determines the legislative regime and the particular organization of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands and Clipperton.

Article 72-4.
No change, for all or part of one of the communities referred to in the second paragraph of section 72-3, from one to the other of the plans provided for in sections 73 and 74, may take place without the consent electors of the community or part of the community concerned have been previously collected under the conditions set out in the following paragraph. This change of regime is decided by an organic law.

The President of the Republic, on the proposal of the Government during the duration of the sessions or on a joint proposal of the two assemblies, published in the Official Journal , may decide to consult the electors of a territorial collectivity located overseas on a question relating to its organization. , its jurisdiction or its legislative scheme. When the consultation concerns a change provided for in the preceding paragraph and is organized on the proposal of the Government, the latter makes a statement before each assembly, which is followed by a debate.

Article 73.
In the overseas departments and regions, laws and regulations are automatically applicable. They can be adapted to the particular characteristics and constraints of these communities.

These adaptations may be decided by these communities in the areas in which their powers are exercised and if they have been authorized, as the case may be, by the law or the by-law.

By way of derogation from the first subparagraph and to take account of their specificities, the authorities governed by this Article may be empowered, as the case may be, by law or by the regulation, to lay down the rules applicable in their territory, in a limited number of matters that may fall within the scope of the law or regulation.

These rules can not relate to nationality, civil rights, guarantees of civil liberties, the state and capacity of persons, the organization of justice, criminal law, criminal procedure, foreign policy, defense, public security and order, money, credit and foreign exchange, and the electoral law. This enumeration may be specified and supplemented by an organic law.

The provision provided for in the two preceding paragraphs is not applicable to the department and the region of Reunion.

The authorizations provided for in the second and third paragraphs are decided, at the request of the community concerned, under the conditions and under the reservations provided for by an organic law. They can not intervene when the essential conditions for the exercise of a public freedom or a constitutionally guaranteed right are involved.

The creation by law of a collectivity substituting for a department and an overseas region or the institution of a deliberative assembly unique for these two communities can not intervene without having been collected, according to the forms provided for in the second paragraph of section 72-4, the consent of the electors registered in the jurisdiction of those communities.

Article 74.
The overseas communities governed by this article have a status that takes into account the interests of each of them within the Republic.

This status is defined by an organic law, adopted after consulting the deliberative assembly, which sets:

the conditions under which the laws and regulations apply;
the skills of this community; subject to those already exercised by it, the transfer of powers of the State may not relate to the matters listed in the fourth paragraph of Article 73, specified and supplemented, where appropriate, by the organic law;
the rules of organization and operation of the institutions of the community and the electoral system of its deliberative assembly;
the conditions under which its institutions are consulted on bills and proposals for legislation and draft ordinances or decrees containing specific provisions for the community, as well as on the ratification or approval of international commitments concluded in matters falling within of its competence.
The organic law can also determine, for those of these self-governing communities, the conditions under which:

the Council of State exercises a specific judicial control over certain categories of acts of the deliberative assembly intervening in respect of the competences it exercises in the field of the law;
the deliberative assembly can modify a law promulgated after the entry into force of the statute of the collectivity, when the Constitutional Council, seized in particular by the authorities of the collectivity, found that the law had intervened in the field of competence of this community;
measures justified by local needs may be taken by the community in favor of its population, in terms of access to employment, right of establishment for the exercise of a professional activity or protection of land assets;
the community can participate, under the control of the State, in the exercise of the competences that it preserves, in the respect of the guarantees granted on the whole national territory for the exercise of the civil liberties.
The other methods of the particular organization of the communities covered by this article are defined and modified by law after consulting their deliberative assembly.

Article 74-1.
In the overseas collectivities referred to in Article 74 and in New Caledonia, the Government may, by ordinance, in matters which remain under the jurisdiction of the State, extend, with the necessary modifications, the provisions of legislative nature in force in mainland France or adapting the provisions of a legislative nature in force to the particular organization of the collectivity concerned, provided that the law has not expressly excluded, for the provisions in question, recourse to this procedure.

Orders are made in the Council of Ministers after consulting the deliberative assemblies concerned and the Council of State. They come into force as soon as they are published. They lapse in the absence of ratification by Parliament within eighteen months of publication.

Article 75.
Citizens of the Republic who do not have ordinary civil status, the only one referred to in Article 34, retain their personal status as long as they have not renounced it.

Article 75-1.
The regional languages ​​belong to the heritage of France.

Title XIII – TRANSITIONAL PROVISIONS RELATING TO NEW CALEDONIA

Article 76.
The populations of New Caledonia are called upon to decide before 31 December 1998 on the provisions of the agreement signed in Noumea on 5 May 1998 and published on 27 May 1998 in the Official Journal of the French Republic.

Candidates are eligible to participate in the ballot if they fulfill the conditions set out in Article 2 of Law No. 88-1028 of 9 November 1988.

The measures necessary for the organization of the vote are taken by decree in Council of State deliberated in the Council of Ministers.

Article 77.
After approval of the agreement during the consultation provided for in article 76, the organic law, taken after the opinion of the deliberative assembly of New Caledonia, determines, to ensure the evolution of New Caledonia in the respect the guidelines defined by this agreement and in the manner necessary for its implementation:

the powers of the State which will be definitively transferred to the institutions of New Caledonia, the staggering and the modalities of these transfers, as well as the distribution of the burdens resulting from them;
the rules of organization and operation of the institutions of New Caledonia and in particular the conditions under which certain categories of acts of the deliberative assembly of New Caledonia may be submitted before publication to the control of the Constitutional Council;
rules relating to citizenship, electoral system, employment and customary civil status;
the conditions and deadlines in which the interested populations of New Caledonia will have to decide on the accession to full sovereignty.
Other measures necessary for the implementation of the agreement referred to in Article 76 shall be defined by law.

For the definition of the electorate elected to elect the members of the deliberative assemblies of New Caledonia and the provinces, the table to which refer the agreement mentioned in article 76 and articles 188 and 189 of the organic law n ° 99 -209 of 19 March 1999 on New Caledonia is the table drawn up on the occasion of the ballot provided for in Article 76 and comprising persons who are not allowed to take part in it.

Title XIV – FRANCOPHONIE AND ASSOCIATION AGREEMENTS

Article 87.
The Republic participates in the development of solidarity and cooperation between states and peoples with French as a common language.

Article 88.
The Republic may enter into agreements with States wishing to associate with it to develop their civilizations.

Title XV – THE EUROPEAN UNION

Article 88-1.
The Republic participates in the European Union consisting of States which have freely chosen to exercise jointly certain of their powers under the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, as they result of the Treaty signed in Lisbon on 13 December 2007.

Article 88-2.
The law lays down the rules on the European arrest warrant in accordance with the acts of the institutions of the European Union.

Article 88-3.
Subject to reciprocity and in the manner provided for by the Treaty on European Union signed on 7 February 1992 , the right to vote and to stand as a candidate in municipal elections may be granted only to Union citizens residing in France. These citizens can not serve as mayor or deputy nor participate in the appointment of senatorial electors and the election of senators. An organic law passed in the same terms by the two assemblies determines the conditions of application of this article.

Article 88-4.
The Government submits to the National Assembly and to the Senate, as soon as they are transmitted to the Council of the European Union, the draft European legislative acts and the other projects or proposals for acts of the European Union.

In accordance with the rules laid down in the Rules of Procedure of each Assembly, European resolutions may be adopted, if necessary outside the sessions, on the projects or proposals referred to in the first paragraph, as well as on any document emanating from an institution of the Union. European.

Within each parliamentary assembly a commission for European affairs is set up.

Article 88-5.
Any bill authorizing the ratification of a treaty relating to the accession of a State to the European Union is submitted to referendum by the President of the Republic.

However, by voting on a motion adopted in identical terms by each assembly by a three-fifths majority, Parliament may authorize the adoption of the bill in accordance with the procedure provided for in the third paragraph of section 89.

[This article is not applicable to accessions following an intergovernmental conference whose convocation was decided by the European Council before 1 July 2004.]

Article 88-6.
The National Assembly or the Senate may issue a reasoned opinion on the conformity of a draft European legislative act with the principle of subsidiarity. The opinion is sent by the President of the Assembly concerned to the Presidents of the European Parliament, the Council and the European Commission. The Government is informed.

Each Assembly may appeal to the Court of Justice of the European Union against a European legislative act for breach of the principle of subsidiarity. This appeal is transmitted to the Court of Justice of the European Union by the Government.

To this end, resolutions may be adopted, if necessary outside the sessions, according to the methods of initiative and discussion fixed by the rules of each assembly. At the request of sixty deputies or sixty senators, the remedy is ex officio.

Article 88-7.
By the vote of a motion adopted in identical terms by the National Assembly and the Senate, the Parliament may object to a modification of the rules for the adoption of European Union acts in the cases envisaged, under the simplified revision of the Treaties or judicial cooperation by the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, as they result from the Treaty signed in Lisbon on 13 December 2007.

Title XVI – REVISION

Article 89.
The initiative for the revision of the Constitution belongs concurrently to the President of the Republic on the proposal of the Prime Minister and members of Parliament.

The draft or the proposal for revision must be examined under the conditions of time set in the third paragraph of Article 42 and voted by both assemblies in identical terms. The review is final after being approved by referendum.

However, the draft revision is not presented to the referendum when the President of the Republic decides to submit it to the Parliament convened in Congress; in this case, the draft revision is approved only if it receives a three-fifths majority of the votes cast. The bureau of the Congress is that of the National Assembly.

No review procedure may be initiated or continued where the integrity of the territory is impaired.

The republican form of the Government can not be revised.