Criminology is the study of how various acts are perceived and defined in society. The questions that arises are: What kinds of acts are defined as problems? What kind of problems are these acts defined as? Furthermore, Criminology is the study of the different measures that are taken towards these different kinds of acts. Criminology also discusses societal reactions towards these acts, both informal and formal ones. These forms of reactions include punishment and control, but also measures with an intent to rehabilitate. Some of these reactions may be seen basically as treatment, but even so contain elements of control. A third main field in Criminology deals with the theories that try to describe why people commit these acts that one see as undesirable. The challenge is to try to understand what we see as crime from these three perspectives: Which one are the acts that are perceived as crimes? Why does a society see just these particular acts as serious problems at a given time? How can we understand the forms of punishment and control-measures that a given society finds efficient, acceptable and decent to use? And how is it that some people, and some groups of people, seem more inclined than others to commit these kinds of acts? The study of Criminology is anchored in the Social Sciences, while maintaining strong ties to the Humanities [ Dept of Criminology Oslo University]
The object of hearing evidence is to enable the Court to Form its belief in the truth or otherwise of the alleged occurrence and of the guilt of the accused. This, it has to do by evaluating or correlating the various facts in the evidence on which the proof of guilt is made to rest The occurrence and the commission thereof by the accused are the two essential facts the truth whereof is to be discovered. The discovery of any fact can be had either by direct perception or by inference.
Criminology: Definition and Scope; Criminology and other Social Sciences; Criminology
vs. Criminal Justice. Structure of Criminal Justice System in India; Role of Legislature
and Law making; Coordination among Criminal Justice System. Participation of Victims
and Witnesses in the Criminal Justice Process. Crime Prevention: Neighbourhood
Involvement, Situational Crime Prevention, Crime Prevention through Environmental
Design (CPTED), Electronic Monitoring.
The situation in the prisons visited was varied and complex. Many, such as Tihar Jail in Delhi were over-crowded; yet others, like that open jail in Hyderabad were under-utilized. Often, within a single State, conditions varied from one jail to another in this respect, pointing to the need for a more rational State-wide use of facilities. The Commission saw a few jails which were notably clean and where the diet was reasonable such as the Central Jail in Vellore. Unfortunately, it saw many others which are squalid, such as the newly constructed Central Jail in Patna. In yet others, the diet was inferior, and the management was denounced by the inmates as brutal and corrupt. In some, care was being taken to separate juveniles from others, petty offenders from hardened criminals.
The origin of probation can be traced to English criminal law of the Middle Ages. Harsh punishments were imposed on adults and children alike for offenses that were not always of a serious nature. Sentences such as branding, flogging, mutilation, and execution were common. During the time of King Henry VIII, for instance, no less than 200 crimes were punishable by death, many of which were minor offenses.
This list cannot detail every event that has altered the manner in which bail has changed. Instead, the focus of this timeline provides evidence that governmental actors must maintain high levels of accountability and transparency through reliance on evidence-based practice. Additionally, this list is meant to emphasize the democratic tradition in which various, committed actors work diligently and continually to enhance the ideals of life, liberty, the pursuit of happiness, and due process that are central to democracy.
The Probation Act of 1925, signed by President Calvin Coolidge, provided for a probation system in the federal courts (except in the District of Columbia). It gave the courts the power to suspend the imposition or execution of sentence and place defendants on probation for such period and on such terms and conditions as they deemed best. The Act also authorized courts to appoint one or more persons to serve as probation officers without compensation and one salaried probation officer.
The Romans never condemned a citizen to death, unless for crimes which concerned the safety of the state. These our masters, our first legislators, were careful of the blood of their fellow-citizens; but we are extravagant with the blood of ours.
This custom, with many others, is derived from our canon law, which denies Christian burial to those who are guilty of suicide, concluding thence, that it is not lawful to inherit on earth from one who hath himself no inheritance in heaven. The cannon law assures us, that Judas committed a greater crime in hanging himself, than in betraying Jesus Christ.
There is a growing literature on biological explanations of antisocial and criminal behavior. This paper provides a selective review of three specific biological factors – psychophysiology (with the focus on blunted heart rate and skin conductance), brain mechanisms (with a focus on structural and functional aberrations of the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and striatum), and genetics (with an emphasis on gene-environment and gene-gene interactions). Overall, understanding the role of biology in antisocial and criminal behavior may help increase the explanatory power of current research and theories, as well as inform policy and treatment options.