Criminology: Definition and Scope; Criminology and other Social Sciences; Criminology
vs. Criminal Justice. Structure of Criminal Justice System in India; Role of Legislature
and Law making; Coordination among Criminal Justice System. Participation of Victims
and Witnesses in the Criminal Justice Process. Crime Prevention: Neighbourhood
Involvement, Situational Crime Prevention, Crime Prevention through Environmental
Design (CPTED), Electronic Monitoring.
1- In Ramamurthy vs. State of Karnataka the Supreme Court of India has given direction for. (A) Juvenile justice reforms (B) Prison reforms (C) Judicial reforms (D) Police reforms Answer: (D)
The origin of probation can be traced to English criminal law of the Middle Ages. Harsh punishments were imposed on adults and children alike for offenses that were not always of a serious nature. Sentences such as branding, flogging, mutilation, and execution were common. During the time of King Henry VIII, for instance, no less than 200 crimes were punishable by death, many of which were minor offenses.
This list cannot detail every event that has altered the manner in which bail has changed. Instead, the focus of this timeline provides evidence that governmental actors must maintain high levels of accountability and transparency through reliance on evidence-based practice. Additionally, this list is meant to emphasize the democratic tradition in which various, committed actors work diligently and continually to enhance the ideals of life, liberty, the pursuit of happiness, and due process that are central to democracy.
The Probation Act of 1925, signed by President Calvin Coolidge, provided for a probation system in the federal courts (except in the District of Columbia). It gave the courts the power to suspend the imposition or execution of sentence and place defendants on probation for such period and on such terms and conditions as they deemed best. The Act also authorized courts to appoint one or more persons to serve as probation officers without compensation and one salaried probation officer.
The Romans never condemned a citizen to death, unless for crimes which concerned the safety of the state. These our masters, our first legislators, were careful of the blood of their fellow-citizens; but we are extravagant with the blood of ours.
This custom, with many others, is derived from our canon law, which denies Christian burial to those who are guilty of suicide, concluding thence, that it is not lawful to inherit on earth from one who hath himself no inheritance in heaven. The cannon law assures us, that Judas committed a greater crime in hanging himself, than in betraying Jesus Christ.
There is a growing literature on biological explanations of antisocial and criminal behavior. This paper provides a selective review of three specific biological factors – psychophysiology (with the focus on blunted heart rate and skin conductance), brain mechanisms (with a focus on structural and functional aberrations of the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and striatum), and genetics (with an emphasis on gene-environment and gene-gene interactions). Overall, understanding the role of biology in antisocial and criminal behavior may help increase the explanatory power of current research and theories, as well as inform policy and treatment options.
Criminology consists of three principal divisions, as follows; [a) the sociology of law, which is an attempt at scientific analysis of the conditions under which criminal laws develop and which is seldom included in general books on criminology; (b) criminal aetiology, which is an attempt at scientific analysis of the causes of crime; and
c) penology, which is concerned with the control of crime. The term “penology” is unsatisfactory because this division includes many methods of control which are not penal in character.
Criminology is the body of knowledge regarding crime as a social phenomenon. It includes within its scope the proce.sses of making laws, of breaking laws, and of reacting toward the breaking of laws. These processes are three aspects of a somewhat unified sequence of interactions.
LLB Criminology Topic 1 : Theoretical and Historical Perspectives of Criminology (i) Perspective of Crime and Criminal – Sin, Wrong and Crime – Changing concept of crime in varying social formations – […]
Prisons Act, 1894—Section 28—Prison—Conditions—Direction for its reform given by Supreme Court.
Age and Criminal Behavior Abuse and Criminal Behavior Biochemical Theories of Criminal Behavior Body-Type Theories of Criminal Behavior Classical Criminology Containment Theory Corporate Behavior and Crimes Critical Criminology Cultural Criminology Differential Association […]
Babylonian Legal Traditions Crime and Justice in Colonial America Ecclesiastical Law and Justice English Legal Traditions Hindu Legal Traditions Islamic Legal Traditions Roman Legal Traditions Crime and Justice in Medieval Europe Natural […]
It is not only the common interest of mankind that crimes should not be committed, but that crimes of every kind should be less frequent, in proportion to the evil they produce to society. Therefore, the means made use of by the legislature to prevent crimes, should be more powerful, in proportion as they are destructive of the public safety and happiness, and as the inducements to commit them are stronger. Therefore there ought to be a fixed proportion between crimes and punishments.
Unit-I Crime as a Legal, Social and PsychologicalConstruct; Deviance and Crime; Traditional Crimes: Crimes against Property and Person(Children, Women, Lesbian, Gay, Bi-sexual, Transgender, Queer (LGBTQ), Marginalized, Men). Victimless Crimes: Alcoholism, Drug Addiction, […]
Ved Prakash vs. State of Haryana, 1981 (1) SCC 447 The Apex Court observed that the social background and the personal factors of the crime-doer are very relevant although in practice Criminal Courts have hardly […]