Penal Law Offenses under the New York Penal Code

"Culpable mental state" means "intentionally" or "knowingly" or "recklessly" or with "criminal negligence," "Conduct" means an act or omission and its accompanying mental state. "Act" means a bodily movement. Conduct merely affording a person an opportunity to commit an offense does not constitute entrapment. "Voluntary act" means a bodily movement performed consciously as a result of effort or determination, and includes the possession of property if the actor was aware of his physical possession or control thereof for a sufficient period to have been able to terminate it. "Omission" means a failure to perform an act as to which a duty of performance is imposed by law. "To act" means either to perform an act or to omit to perform an act.

The Police Court-Edward Abbott Parry

Crime is not only a matter of heredity and education, it is also a question of geography. This geographical distribution of crime is an intensely interesting subject. You will find that Cardigan, for instance, is the whitest county in England and Wales for crimes of all kind, whether against property, morals, or of a violent character.

Reading list for the Students of Criminology- Dept of Criminology Oslo University

Criminology is the study of how various acts are perceived and defined in society. The questions that arises are: What kinds of acts are defined as problems? What kind of problems are these acts defined as? Furthermore, Criminology is the study of the different measures that are taken towards these different kinds of acts. Criminology also discusses societal reactions towards these acts, both informal and formal ones. These forms of reactions include punishment and control, but also measures with an intent to rehabilitate. Some of these reactions may be seen basically as treatment, but even so contain elements of control. A third main field in Criminology deals with the theories that try to describe why people commit these acts that one see as undesirable. The challenge is to try to understand what we see as crime from these three perspectives: Which one are the acts that are perceived as crimes? Why does a society see just these particular acts as serious problems at a given time? How can we understand the forms of punishment and control-measures that a given society finds efficient, acceptable and decent to use? And how is it that some people, and some groups of people, seem more inclined than others to commit these kinds of acts? The study of Criminology is anchored in the Social Sciences, while maintaining strong ties to the Humanities [ Dept of Criminology Oslo University]

Sri Lankan Code of Criminal Procedure (Amendment)Act, No. 14 of 2021

It shall be the duty of every Magistrate to visit every police station situated within the judicial division in respect of which he is appointed, at least once in every month to ensure that the suspects under the police custody at such police stations are protected to the extent provided for in the Convention Against Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment Act, No. 22 of 1994.

U.S. National Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking-03/12/2021

Globally, an estimated 25 million people are subjected to human trafficking and forced labor, which is responsible for an estimated $150 billion annually in illicit profits. It erodes the safety and health of our communities and transportation networks, the security of our borders, the strength of our economy, and the rule of law. The Administration is committed to keeping the fight to end human trafficking at the forefront of our national security agenda by releasing the new National Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking.

Shri Jimmy Sympli Vs. State of Meghalaya

the petitioner has not filed any application under Section 451 CrPC for release of vehicle on Zimma. The revision petition is disposed of by permitting the petitioner to approach the trial Magistrate for release of vehicle under Section 451 CrPC, who shall pass appropriate order thereon keeping in view the legal proposition noticed hereinbefore in accordance with law.

Five Judges bench of Calcutta High Court ordered for CBI and SIT for investigating post poll violence in West Bengal – Read Order

All the cases where, as per the report of the Committee, the allegations are about murder of a person and crime against women regarding rape/attempt to rape, shall be referred to CBI for investigation. The Committee, NHRC, any other Commission or Authority and the State shall immediately hand over entire record of the cases entrusted to the CBI for investigation. It is made clear that it shall be the Court monitored investigation. Any obstruction in the course of investigation by anyone shall be viewed seriously. 

दंड प्रक्रिया संहिता-1973

“अपराध” से कोई ऐसा कार्य या लोप अभिप्रेत है जो तत्समय प्रवृत्त किसी विधि द्वारा दण्डनीय बना दिया गया है और इसके अंतर्गत कोई ऐसा कार्य भी है जिसके बारे में पशु अतिचार अधिनियम, 1871 की धारा 20 के अधीन परिवाद किया जा सकता है: