Tag: Evidence Law

Understand Hearsay

A “statement” is: 1. An oral or written assertion; or 2. Nonverbal conduct of a person if it is intended by the person as an assertion. A “declarant” is a person who makes a […]

Ownership and easement right are inconsistent and cannot coexist in the same person.

As existence of both a dominant tenement and servient tenement is essential to the creation and existence of an easement it is difficult to conceive of a position where a person can claim easement by prescription when he owns both the tenements. It may be permissible in the plaint to advance an inconsistent plea of ownership and easement alternatively, but it is necessary that the plaintiff should press one of them only either at the stage of evidence or a subsequent stage. When the dominant and servient tenement are in the ownership and possession of the same person acts done by him on the servient tenement are clearly referable to his possession of that tenement and hence there cannot be any easement by prescription,

Evidence in Yajnavalkya Smriti [Sanskrit]

[५. साक्षिप्रकरणम्] तपस्विनो दानशीलाः कुलीनाः सत्यवादिनः । धर्मप्रधाना ऋजवः पुत्रवन्तो धनान्विताः ॥ २.६८ ॥ त्र्यवराः साक्षिणो ज्ञेयाः श्रौतस्मार्तक्रियापराः । यथाजाति यथावर्णं सर्वे सर्वेषु वा स्मृताः ॥ २.६९ ॥ स्त्रीबालवृद्धकितव- मत्तोन्मत्ताभिशस्तकाः । रङ्गावतारिपाखण्डि- […]

Law of Evidence in the UK

SUBJECT: EVIDENCE Documentary Evidence Act 1882 Criminal Evidence Act 1898 Evidence Act 1851 Civil Evidence Act 1968 The Electronic Presentment of Instruments (Evidence of Payment and Compensation for Loss) Regulations 2018 Police […]

The scope and ambit of Sec. 319 of the Code of Criminal Procedure

Power under Section 319 of the Code can be exercised by the Court suo motu or on an application by someone including accused already before it, if it is satisfied that any person other than accused has committed an offence and he is to be tried together with the accused. The power is discretionary and such discretion must be exercised judicially having regard to the facts and circumstances of the case. Undisputedly, it is an extraordinary power which is conferred on the Court and should be used very sparingly and only if compelling reasons exist for taking action against a person against whom action had not been taken earlier. The word “EVIDENCE” in Section 319 contemplates EVIDENCE of witnesses given in Court. Under sub-section (4)(1)(b) of the aforesaid provision, it is specifically made clear that it will be presumed that newly added person had been an accused person when the Court took cognizance of the offence upon which the inquiry or trial was commenced. That would show that by virtue of sub-section (4)(1)(b) a legal fiction is created that cognizance would be presumed to have been taken so far as newly added accused is concerned. (See Lok Ram v. Nihal Singh and Anr. (AIR 2006 SC 1892)).

What is the main function of the Rule of Evidence?

Substantial evidence consists of evidence of circumstances none of which speak directly to the facts in issue but from which those facts may be inferred. In cases where evidence is of substantial nature circumstances from which conclusion of a fact is to be drawn should in first instance be fully established and all the facts so established should be consistent only with the hypothesis of the guilt of wrong doer.

What is Conclusive proof ?

If the definition of conclusive proof given in Section 4 of the Evidence Act is applicable to any fact, then both the consequence mentioned above would occur, which means that what is declared to be conclusive proof shall not only be sufficient evidence of the concerned fact, the parties would not have any right to adduce evidence to disprove that fact.

The Definition of Court in Indian Evidence Act

The least that is required of a Court is the capacity to deliver a “definitive judgment” and unless this power vests in a tribunal in any particular case, the mere fact that the procedure adopted by it is of a legal character and it has the power to administer an oath will not impart to it the status of a Court”, and came to the conclusion that the commission appointed under the Commissions of Inquiry Act, 1952 is not a Court within the meaning of the Contempt of ‘Courts Act, 1952.

Glossary Indian Evidence Act