Judiciary Act of 1789

One of the first acts of the new Congress was to establish a federal court system in the Judiciary Act of 1789. The Constitution provided that the judicial branch should be composed of one Supreme Court and such inferior courts as Congress from time to time established. But unlike the legislative provisions, in which the framers clearly spelled out the powers of the Congress, Article III of the Constitution is rather vague on just what the judicial powers should be.

Judiciary of Brazil

Constitution Brazil of 1988 Preambles We, the representatives of the Brazilian People, convened in the National Constituent Assembly to institute a democratic state for the purpose of ensuring the exercise of social and individual rights, liberty, security, well-being, development, equality…

The Judiciary of Austria

Jurisdiction Under 1945 Constitution Austria is a democratic republic. Its law emanates from the people. Austria is a federal state.  It is up to the Constitutional Court to monitor compliance with the constitution. Due to its task as a “constitutional…

The Judiciary of Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe is a sovereign republic and is known as "the Republic of Zimbabwe." Constitution is the supreme law of Zimbabwe and if any other law is inconsistent with this Constitution that other law is, to the extent of the inconsistency, void.

Judicial Power under Constitution of the Russian Federation-1993

Judicial power and prosecutor's office Section 118 1- Justice in the Russian Federation is administered only by the court. 2- The judiciary is exercised through constitutional, civil, arbitration, administrative and criminal proceedings. 3- The judicial system of the Russian Federation…

Courts and Administration of Justice – Constitution of South Africa

  Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996   165. Judicial Authority 166. Judicial System 167. Constitutional Court 168. Supreme Court Appeal 169. High Court of South Africa 170. Other Courts 171. Court Procedures 172. Powers of Courts in Constitutional Matters 173. Inherent Power 174. Appointment of Judicial Officers…

Judges Law of the People’s Republic of China-2019

This law is formulated on the basis of the constitution so as to comprehensively advance the establishment of a high-caliber judicial cadre, to strengthen the management and oversight of judges, to protect judges' lawful rights and interests, to ensure that the people's courts lawfully, independently, and justly exercise the adjudication power; to ensure judges' performance of their duties in accordance with law; and to ensure judicial fairness.

Law of the Judiciary- Saudi Arabia

The hearings of the case and the hearing at which the judgment is rendered shall be attended by the number of the judges that is legally required. If the required number of judges is not available, other judges shall be assigned to obtain the required quorum for proceeding with the case. Judgment shall be rendered unanimously or by a majority vote. A dissenting judge shall explain his dissent and the reasons therefore in the case record. The majority shall explain its opinion by addressing the dissenter's opinion in the case record.

Basic Principles on the Independence of the Judiciary: UN Congress Milan 1985

In accordance with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, members of the judiciary are like other citizens entitled to freedom of expression, belief, association and assembly; provided, however, that in exercising such rights, judges shall always conduct themselves in such a manner as to preserve the dignity of their office and the impartiality and independence of the judiciary.


CONSTITUTION OF BANGLADESH PART VI     THE JUDICIARY CHAPTER I THE SUPREME COURT Establishment of Supreme Court 94. (1) There shall be a Supreme Court for Bangladesh (to be known as the Supreme Court of Bangladesh) comprising the Appellate Division and…