Balfour Declaration [1917]

Foreign Office November 2nd, 1917 Dear Lord Rothschild, I have much pleasure in conveying to you. on behalf of His Majesty's Government, the following declaration of sympathy with Jewish Zionist aspirations which has been submitted to, and approved by, the Cabinet His Majesty's Government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home … Continue reading Balfour Declaration [1917]

The Capital A Critique of Political Economy [1867]

Preface to the First German Edition The work, the first volume of which I now submit to the public, forms the continuation of my Zur Kritik der Politischen Oekonomie (A Contribution to the Criticism of Political Economy) published in 1859. The long pause between the first part and the continuation is due to an illness of many … Continue reading The Capital A Critique of Political Economy [1867]

On The Jewish Question [1844]

I Bruno Bauer, The Jewish Question, Braunschweig, 1843 The German Jews desire emancipation. What kind of emancipation do they desire? Civic, political emancipation. Bruno Bauer replies to them: No one in Germany is politically emancipated. We ourselves are not free. How are we to free you? You Jews are egoists if you demand a special emancipation for yourselves as … Continue reading On The Jewish Question [1844]

Manifesto of the Communist Party

Contents Preamble I: Bourgeois and Proletarians II: Proletarians and Communists III: Socialist and Communist Literature IV: Position of the Communists in Relation to the Various Existing Opposition Parties A spectre is haunting Europe — the spectre of communism. All the powers of old Europe have entered into a holy alliance to exorcise this spectre: Pope … Continue reading Manifesto of the Communist Party

Draft of a Communist Confession of Faith[1847]

Works of Frederick Engels 1847  Question 1: Are you a Communist? Answer: Yes. Question 2: What is the aim of the Communists? Answer: To organise society in such a way that every member of it can develop and use all his capabilities and powers in complete freedom and without thereby infringing the basic conditions of … Continue reading Draft of a Communist Confession of Faith[1847]

Frederick Engels’ Speech at the Grave of Karl Marx [1883]

Highgate Cemetery, London. March 17, 1883 On the 14th of March, at a quarter to three in the afternoon, the greatest living thinker ceased to think. He had been left alone for scarcely two minutes, and when we came back we found him in his armchair, peacefully gone to sleep -- but for ever. An … Continue reading Frederick Engels’ Speech at the Grave of Karl Marx [1883]

The Monroe Doctrine [ USA 1823]

Keywords:  Policy of the United States from President James Monroe's seventh annual message to Congress, December 2, 1823: At the proposal of the Russian Imperial Government, made through the minister of the Emperor residing here, a full power and instructions have been transmitted to the Minister of the United States at St. Petersburgh to arrange, by amicable … Continue reading The Monroe Doctrine [ USA 1823]

To those who keep slaves, and approve the practice[USA 1794]

Keywords : Slavery Richard Allen, 1794 The judicious part of mankind will think it unreasonable that a superior good conduct is looked for from our race, by those who stigmatize us as men, whose baseness is incurable, and may therefore be held in a state of servitude, that a merciful man would not doom a … Continue reading To those who keep slaves, and approve the practice[USA 1794]

Petition from the Pennsylvania Society for the Abolition of Slavery[USA 1790]

Signed by Benjamin Franklin, President of the Pennsylvania Society, February 3, 1790 To the Senate & House of Representatives of the United States, The Memorial of the Pennsylvania Society for promoting the Abolition of Slavery, the relief of free Negroes unlawfully held in bondage, & the Improvement of the Condition of the African Races. Respectfully Sheweth, … Continue reading Petition from the Pennsylvania Society for the Abolition of Slavery[USA 1790]

Washington’s Farewell Address[USA 1796]

President George Washington's Farewell Address — 1796 Friends and Fellow Citizens: The period for a new election of a citizen to administer the executive government of the United States being not far distant, and the time actually arrived when your thoughts must be employed in designating the person who is to be clothed with that … Continue reading Washington’s Farewell Address[USA 1796]

Lincoln’s First Inaugural Address[USA 1861]

March 4, 1861 Fellow citizens of the United States: In compliance with a custom as old as the government itself, I appear before you to address you briefly, and to take, in your presence, the oath prescribed by the Constitution of the United States, to be taken by the President "before he enters on the … Continue reading Lincoln’s First Inaugural Address[USA 1861]

The Pledge of Allegiance [1892]

The Pledge of Allegiance was written in August 1892 by the socialist minister Francis Bellamy (1855-1931). It was originally published in The Youth's Companion on September 8, 1892. Bellamy had hoped that the pledge would be used by citizens in any country. In its original form it read: "I pledge allegiance to my Flag and the Republic … Continue reading The Pledge of Allegiance [1892]

The American’s Creed [1918]

  by William Tyler Page I believe in the United States of America as a government of the people, by the people, for the people; whose just powers are derived from the consent of the governed, a democracy in a republic, a sovereign Nation of many sovereign States; a perfect union, one and inseparable; established … Continue reading The American’s Creed [1918]

The Letter of Columbus to Luis De Sant Angel Announcing His Discovery[1493]

As I know you will be rejoiced at the glorious success that our Lord has given me in my voyage, I write this to tell you how in thirty-three days I sailed to the Indies with the fleet that the illustrious King and Queen, our Sovereigns, gave me, where I discovered a great many islands, … Continue reading The Letter of Columbus to Luis De Sant Angel Announcing His Discovery[1493]

Martin Luther King’s “I Have A Dream Speech”[1963]

August 28, 1963 I am happy to join with you today in what will go down in history as the greatest demonstration for freedom in the history of our nation. Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclaimation. This momentous decree came as a great … Continue reading Martin Luther King’s “I Have A Dream Speech”[1963]


Preamble John, by the grace of God, king of England, lord of Ireland, duke of Normandy and Aquitaine, and count of Anjou, to the archbishop, bishops, abbots, earls, barons, justiciaries, foresters, sheriffs, stewards, servants, and to all his bailiffs and liege subjects, greetings. Know that, having regard to God and for the salvation of our … Continue reading THE MAGNA CARTA[UK]


To all to whom these Presents shall come, we the undersigned Delegates of the States affixed to our Names send greeting. Articles of Confederation and perpetual Union between the states of New Hampshire, Massachusetts-bay Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia. I … Continue reading THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION [ 1777]

The Declaration of Independence [ of America 1776]

of the Thirteen Colonies In CONGRESS, July 4, 1776 The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America, When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and … Continue reading The Declaration of Independence [ of America 1776]


May 14, 1948 Published in the Official Gazette, No. 1 of the 5th, Iyar, 5708 (14th May, 1948). On May 14, 1948, on the day in which the British Mandate over a Palestine expired, the Jewish People's Council gathered at the Tel Aviv Museum, and approved the following proclamation, declaring the establishment of the State of … Continue reading THE DECLARATION OF THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE STATE OF ISRAEL

Constitution of the United States of America[USA][1787]

LAW LIBRARY Preamble We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. … Continue reading Constitution of the United States of America[USA][1787]