constitution

Government of India Act, 1935 

1935
India

Preamble – 
Part I – INTRODUCTORY    
Section1 – Short Title    
Section2 – Government of India by Crown    
Section3 – The Governor General of India and His Majestys Representative as regards relations with Indian States    
Section4 – The Commander-in-Chief in India    

 

Part II Chapter I

Section5 – Proclamation of Federation of India    
Section6 – Accession of Indian States    

Chapter II

Section7 – Functions of Governor-General    
Section8 – Extent of Executive Authority of the Federation    
Section9 – Council of Ministers    
Section10 – Other Provisions as to ministers    
Section11 – Provisions as to Defence, Ecclesiastical Affairs, External Affairs and the Tribal Areas    
Section12 – Special Responsibilities of Governor-General    
Section13 – Provisions as to Instrument of Instructions    
Section14 – Superintendence Secretary of State    
Section15 – Financial Adviser to Governor-General    
Section16 – Advocate General for Federation    
Section17 – Conduct of Business of Federal Government    

 

Chapter III

Section18 – Constitution of the Federal Legislature    
Section19 – Session of the Legislature, Prorogation and dissolution    
Section20 – Right of Governor-General to address, and send messages to Chambers    
Section21 – Rights of ministers, counselors and Advocate-General as Respects Chambers    
Section22 – Officers of Chambers    
Section23 – Voting in Chambers, Power of Chambers to Act Notwithstanding Vacancies, and Quorum    
Section24 – Oath of Members    
Section25 – Vacation of Seats    
Section26 – Disqualifications for Membership    
Section27 – Penalty for Sitting and Voting when not Qualified, or when Disqualified    
Section28 – Privileges &c.; of Members    
Section29 – Salaries and Allowances of Members    
Section30 – Provisions as to Introduction and Passing of Bills    
Section31 – Joint Sitting Both Chambers in Certain Cases    
Section32 – Assent to Bills and Power of Crown to disallow Acts    
Section33 – Annual Financial Statement    
Section34 – Procedure in Legislature with respect to estimates    
Section35 – Authentication of Schedule of Authorised Expenditure    
Section36 – Supplementary Statements of Expenditure    
Section37 – Special Provisions as to Financial Bills    
Section38 – Rules of Procedure    
Section39 – English to be used in the Federal Legislature    
Section40 – Restrictions on Discussion in the Legislature    
Section41 – Courts not to Inquire into Proceedings of the Legislature    

 

Chapter IV

Section42 – Power of Governor-General to Promulgate Ordinances during recess of Legislature    
Section43 – Power of Governor-General to Promulgate Ordinances at any Time with Respect to Certain Subjects    
Section44 – Power of Governor-General in Certain Circumstances to Enact Acts    

 

Chapter V

Section45 – Power of Governor-General to issue Proclamations    
PartIII – GOVERNORS’ PROVINCES    

Chapter I

Section46 – Governors Provinces    
Section47 – Provisions as to Berar    

Chapter II

Section48 – Appointment of Governor    
Section49 – Executive Authority of Province    
Section50 – Council of Ministers    
Section51 – Other Provisions as to ministers    
Section52 – Special Responsibilities of Governor    
Section53 – Provisions as to Instrument of Instructions    
Section54 – Superintendence of Governor-General    
Section55 – Advocate-General for Province    
Section56 – Provisions as to Police Rules    
Section57 – Provisions as to crimes of violence intended to overhow Government    
Section58 – Sources of certain information not to be disclosed    
Section59 – Conduct of business of Provincial Government    

 

Chapter III

Section60 – Constitution of Provincial Legislature    
Section61 – Composition of Chambers of Provincial Legilature    
Section62 – Sessions of the Legislature, Prorogation and dissolution    
Section63 – Right of Governor to address and send messages to Chambers    
Section64 – Rights of ministers and advocate-General as respects Chambers    
Section65 – Officers of Chambers    
Section66 – Voting in Chambers, Power of Chambers to act notwithstanding vacancies and quorum    
Section67 – Oath of Members    
Section68 – Vacation of Seates    
Section69 – Disqualifications of Membership    
Section70 – Penalty for sitting and voting when not qualified, or when disqualified    
Section71 – Privileges, etc., of members    
Section72 – Salaries and allowances of members    
Section73 – Introduction of Bills, etc.    
Section74 – Passing of Bills in Provinces having Legislative Councils    
Section75 – Assent to Bills    
Section76 – Bills reserved for consideration    
Section77 – Power of Crown to disallow Acts    
Section78 – Annual financial statement    
Section79 – Procedure in Legislature with respect to estimates    
Section80 – Authentication of schedule of authorized expenditure    
Section81 – Supplementary statements of expenditure    
Section82 – Special provisions as to financial Bills    
Section83 – Provisions with respect to certain educational grants    
Section84 – Rules of procedure    
Section85 – English to be used in Provincial Legislature    
Section86 – Restrictions on discussion in the Legislature    
Section87 – Courts to inquire into proceedings of the Legislature    

 

Chapter IV

Section88 – Power of Governor to promulgate ordinances during recess of Legislature    
Section89 – Power of Governor to promulgate ordinances at any time with respect to certain subjects    
Section90 – Power of Governor in certain circumstances to enact Acts    

 

Chapter V

Section91 – Excluded areas and partially excluded areas    
Section92 – Administration of excluded areas and partially excluded areas    

Chapter VI

Section93 – Power of Governor to issue Proclamations    
PartIV – THE CHIEF COMMISSIONERS PROVINCES    
Section94 – Chief Commissioners’ Provinces    
Section95 – British Baluchistan    
Section96 – The Andaman and Nicobar Islands    
Section97 – Coorg    
Section98 – Provisions as to Police Rules & C., and as to Crimes of Violence Intended to Overthrow the Government    
PartV – LEGISLATIVE POWERS    

Chapter I

Section99 – Extent of Federal and Provincial Laws    
Section100 – Subject-matter of Federal and Provincial Laws    
Section101 – Extent of Power to Legislate for States    
Section102 – Power of Federal Legislature to Legislate if an Emergency is Proclaimed    
Section103 – Power of Federal Legislature to Legislate for two or More Provinces by Consent    
Section104 – Residual Powers of Legislation    
Section105 – Application of Naval Discipline Act to Indian Naval Forces    
Section106 – Provisions as to Legislation for Giving Effect to International Agreements    
Section107 – Inconsistency Between Federal Laws and Provincial or State Laws    

Chapter II

Section108 – Sanction of Governor-General or Governor Required for Certain Legislative Proposals    
Section109 – Requirements as to Sanctions and Recommendations to be Regarded as Matters of Procedure Only    
Section110 – Savings    

Chapter III

Section111 – British Subjects Domiciled in the United Kingdom    
Section112 – Taxation    
Section113 – Companies Incorporated in the United Kingdom    
Section114 – Companies Incorporated in India    
Section115 – Subsidies for the Encouragement of Trade or Industry    
Section116 – Subsidies for the Encouragement of Trade or Industry    
Section117 – Supplemental    
Section118 – Power to Secure Reciprocal Treatment by Convention    
Section119 – Professional and Technical Qualifications in General    
Section120 – Medical Qualifications    
Section121 – Officers of Indian Medical Service, etc.    
PartVI – ADMINISTRATIVE RELATIONS BETWEEN FEDERATION, PROVINCES, AND STATES    
Section122 – Obligation of Units and Federation    
Section123 – Governor-General may require Governors to Discharge Certain Functions as His Agents    
Section124 – Power of Federation to Confer Powers, etc., on Provinces and States in Certain Cases    
Section125 – Administration of Federal Acts in Indian States    
Section126 – Control of Federation over Province in Certain Cases    
Section126A – Where a proclamation of Emergency is in operation wherebythe Governor-General has declared that the security of India is threatenedby war    
Section127 – Acquisition of land for Federal Purposes    
Section128 – Duty of Ruler of a State as Respects Federal subjects    
Section129 – Broadcasting    
Section130 – Complaints as to Interference with Water-Supplies    
Section131 – Decision of Complaints    
Section132 – Interference with Water-Supplies of Chief Commissioner’s Province    
Section133 – Jurisdiction of Courts Excluded    
Section134 – Ruler of State may Exclude Application Of Provisions as to Water-Supply    
Section135 – Provisions with Respect to an Inter-Provincial Council    
PartVII – FINANCE, PROPERTY, CONTRACTS AND SUITS    

Chapter I

Section136 – Meaning of “Revenues of Federation” and “Revenues of Province”    
Section137 – Certain Succession Duties, Stamp Duties, Terminal Taxes and Taxes on Fares and Freights    
Section138 – Taxes on Income    
Section139 – Corporation Tax    
Section140 – Salt duties, Excise Duties and Export Duties    
Section141 – Prior sanction of Governor-General Required to Bills Affecting Taxation in Which Provinces are Interested    
Section142 – Grants from Federation to Certain Provinces    
Section142A – Taxes on Professions, Trades, Callings and Employments    
Section143 – Savings    
Section144 – Calculation of “Net proceeds,” etc.    
Section145 – Expenses of the Crown in Connection With Indian States    
Section146 – Payments From or by Indian States    
Section147 – Remission of States’ Contributions    
Section148 – Certain Payments to Federated States, etc., to Be Charged on Federal Revenues    
Section149 – Value of Privileges and Immunities to be Set Off Against Share of Taxes, etc., Assigned to Federated States    
Section150 – Expenditure Defrayable out of Indian Revenues    
Section151 – Provisions as to the Custody of Public Moneys    
Section152 – Exercise by Governor-General of Certain Powers with Respect to Reserve Bank    
Section153 – Previous Sanction of Governor-General to Legislation with Respect to Reserve Bank, Currency and Coinage    
Section154 – Exemption of Certain Public Property from Taxation    
Section154A – Exemption from Taxes on Electricity    
Section155 – Exemption of Provincial Governments and Rulers of Federated States in respect of Federal taxation    
Section156 – Adjustment in Respect of Certain Expenses and Pensions    
Section157 – Duty of Federation and Provinces to Suply Secretary of State with Funds    
Section158 – Provisions as to Relation of Burma Monetary System With India    
Section159 – Relief in Respect of Tax on Income Taxable Both in India and Burma    
Section160 – Provisions as to Customs Duties on India Burma trade    

Chapter II

Section161 – Cessation of Borrowing by Secretary of State in Council    
Section162 – Borrowing by Federal Government    
Section163 – Borrowing by Provincial Governments    
Section164 – Loans by Federal Government to Federated States    
Section165 – Application of Colonial Stock Acts to Stocks issued by Federation    
Section166 – Auditor-General of India    
Section167 – Provincial Auditor-General    
Section168 – Power of Auditor-General of India to Give Directions as to Accounts    
Section169 – Audit Reports    
Section170 – Auditor of Indian Home Accounts    
Section171 – Audit of Accounts Relating to the Discharge of the Functions of the Crown In Relation to Indian States    

Chapter III

Section172 – Vesting of Lands and Buildings    
Section173 – Provisions as to otheR property    
Section174 – Property Accruing by Escheat or Lapse, or As Bona Vacantia    
Section175 – Power to Acquire Property and to Make Contracts, etc.    
Section176 – Suits and Proceedings    
Section177 – Existing Contracts of Secretary of State in Council    
Section178 – Special Provisions as to Existing Loans, Guarantees and Other Financial Obligations    
Section179 – Legal Proceedings as to Certain Matters    
Section180 – Contracts in Connection With Functions of Crown in its Relations With Indian States    

Part VIII

Section181 – Executive Authority in Respect of Railways to Be Exercised By Federal Railway Authority    
Section182 – Composition, etc., of Railway Authority    
Section183 – Directions and Principles to be Observed by Railway Authority    
Section184 – Conduct of Bbusiness Between Railway Authority and Federal Government    
Section185 – Acquisition and Sale of Land, Contracts and Working Agreements    
Section186 – Finance of the Railway Authority    
Section187 – Provisions as to Certain Obligations of the Railway Authority    
Section188 – Investment of Funds of Railway Authority    
Section189 – Special Provisions as to Certain Existing Funds    
Section190 – Audit and Annual Reports    
Section191 – Railway Rates Committee    
Section192 – Bills and Amendments for Regulating Rates and Fares to Require Recommendation of Governor-General    
Section193 – Obligation of Railway Authority and Federated States to Afford Mutual Traffic Facilities and to Avoid Unfair Discrimination, etc.    
Section194 – Appeal by State to Railway Tribunal from Certain Directions of Railway Authority    
Section195 – Construction and Re-construction of Railways    
Section196 – Railway Tribunal    
Section197 – Rights of Railway Companies in Respect of Arbitration Under Contracts    
Section198 – Railways in Indian States which have not Federated    
Section199 – Official Directors of Indian Railway Companies    
Part IX – The Judicature. Chapter I    
Section200 – Establishment and Constitution of Federal Court    
Section201 – Salaries, etc., of Judges    
Section202 – Temporary Appointment of Acting Chief Justice    
Section203 – Seat of Federal Court    
Section204 – Original jurisdiction of Federal Court    
Section205 – Appellate jurisdiction of Federal Court in appeals from high Courts in British India    
Section206 – Power of Federal Legislature to enlarge appellate jurisdiction    
Section207 – Appellate jurisdiction of Federal Court in appeals from High Courts in Federated States    
Section208 – Appeals to His Majesty in Council    
Section209 – Form of judgment on appeal    
Section210 – Enforcement of decrees and orders of Federal Court and orders as to discovery, etc.    
Section211 – Letters of request to Federated States    
Section212 – Law declared by Federal Court and Privy Council to be binding on courts    
Section213 – Power of Governor-General to consult Federal Courts    
Section214 – Rules of court, etc.    
Section215 – Ancillary powers of Federal Court    
Section216 – Expenses of Federal Court    
Section217 – Construction of references to High Courts in States    
Section218 – Savings    
Chapter II – THE HIGH COURTS IN BRITISH INDIA    
Section219 – Meaning of “High Court”    
Section220 – Constitution of High Courts    
Section221 – Salaries, etc., of Judges    
Section222 – Temporary and additional judges    
Section223 – Jurisdiction of existing High Courts    
Section224 – Administrative junctions of High Courts    
Section225 – Transfer of certain cases to High Court for trial    
Section226 – Jurisdiction in revenue matters    
Section227 – Proceedings of High Courts to be in English    
Section228 – Expenses of High Courts    
Section229 – Power of his Majesty to constitute or reconstitute High Court by letters patent    
Section230 – Extra provincial jurisdiction of High Courts    
Section231 – Saving and definitions    
PartX – THE SERVICES OF THE CROWN IN INDIA    

Chapter I

Section232 – Pay, etc., of Commander in-Chief    
Section233 – Control of his Majesty as to Defence appointments    
Section234 – Eligibility for commissions in Indian forces    
Section235 – Control of Secretary of State with respect to conditions of service    
Section236 – Saving of rights of appeal    
Section237 – Pay, etc., of members of forces to be charged on Federal revenues    
Section238 – Provisions as to certain civilian personnel    
Section239 – King’s India cadetships    

Chapter II

Section240 – Tenure of office of persons employed in civil capacities in India    
Section241 – Recruitment and conditions of service    
Section242 – Application of preceding section to railway, customs, postal and telegraph services and officials of courts    
Section243 – Special provisions as to police    
Section244 – Services recruited by Secretary of State    
Section245 – Special provision as to irrigation    
Section246 – Reserved posts    
Section247 – Conditions of service, pensions, etc., of persons recruited by Secretary of State    
Section248 – Rights in respect of complaints, appeals, etc.    
Section249 – Compensation    
Section250 – Application of four last preceding sections to persons appointed by Secretary of State in Council, and certain other persons    
Section251 – Staff of High Commissioner and Auditor of Indian Home Accounts    
Section252 – Conditions of service of existing staff of High Commissioner and Auditor of India Home Accounts    
Section253 – Judges of the Federal Court and High Courts    
Section254 – District judges, etc.    
Section255 – Subordinate civil judicial service    
Section256 – Subordinate criminal magistracy    
Section257 – Officers of political department    
Section258 – Provision for protection of existing officers of certain Services    
Section259 – Provisions as to certain persons serving in or before 1924    
Section260 – General provisions as to persons retiring before commencement of Part III    
Section261 – Secretary of State to act with concurrence of his advisers    
Section262 – Eligibility for office of persons who are not British subjects    
Section263 – Joint services and posts    

Chapter III

Section264 – Public Service Commissions    
Section265 – Composition and staff of Commissions    
Section266 – Functions of Public Service Commissions    
Section267 – Power to extend functions of Public Service Commission    
Section268 – Expenses of Public Service Commissions    

Chapter IV

Section269 – Provisions as to Chaplains    

Chapter V

Section270 – Indemnity for past acts    
Section271 – Protection of Public servants against prosecution and suits    
Section272 – Provisions as to payment of certain pensions from taxation in India    
Section273 – Provisions as to family Pension funds    
Section274 – Saving for certain Funds Acts    
Section275 – Persons not to be disqualified by sex for holding certain offices    
Section276 – Transitional Provisions    
Section277 – Interpretation,    
PartXI – THE SECRETARY OF STATE, HIS ADVISERS AND HIS DEPARTMENT    
Section278 – Advisers to Secretary to State    
Section279 – Existing accounts of Secretary of State in Council with Bank of England    
Section280 – Organisation and expenses of India Office    
Section281 – Transfer for existing personnel    
Section282 – Contributions from revenues of Federation    
Section283 – Liability for Pensions in respect of service before commencement of Part III    
Section284 – Provisions as to certain Indian Office Provident funds    
Section284A – Confirmation of appointments to India office staff and staff of Auditor of Indian Home Accounts    
PartXII – MISCELLANEOUS AND GENERAL    
Section285 – Saving for rights and obligations of the Crown in its relations with Indian States    
Section286 – Use of His Majestys forces in connection with discharge of the functions of the Crown in its relations with Indian States    
Section287 – Arrangement for Governors and Provincial staff o assist in discharging functions of Political Department    
Section288 – Aden    
Section289 – New Provinces and alterations of boundaries of Provinces    
Section290 – Creation of new Provinces and alterations of boundaries of Provinces    
Section291 – Power of His Majesty to make provision with respect to franchises and elections    
Section292 – Existing law of India to continue in force    
Section293 – Adaptation of existing Indian laws, etc.    
Section294 – Foreign Jurisdiction    
Section295 – Provisions as to death sentences    
Section296 – Courts of Appeal in revenue matters    
Section297 – Prohibition of certain restrictions on internal trade    
Section298 – Persons not to be subjected to disability by reason of race, religion etc.    
Section299 – Compulsory acquistion of land    
Section300 – Protection for certain rights, privileges, and pensions    
Section301 – Repeal of S. 18 of 21 Geo. 3. c. 70, and S. 12 of 37. Geo. 3. c. 142    
Section302 – High Commissioner for India    
Section303 – Provisions as to Sheriff of Calcutta    
Section304 – Persons acting as Governor-General or Governor    
Section305 – Seceretarial staff of Governor-General and Governor    
Section305A – Provisions as to be pensions of home civil servants appointed to offices in India    
Section306 – Protection of Governor-General, Governor or Secretary of State    
Section307 – Removal of certain disqualifications on the occasion of the first elections to Legislature    
Section308 – Procedure as respects proposals for amendment of certain provisions of Act and Orders in Council    
Section309 – Orders in Council    
Section310 – Power of His Majesty in Council to remove difficulties    
Section311 – Interpretation, etc.    
PartXIII – TRANSITIONAL PROVISIONS    
Section312 – Operation of Part XIII    
Section313 – Executive Government    
Section314 – Control of the Secretary of State    
Section315 – Sterling loans    
Section316 – Legislature    
Section317 – Continuance of certain provisions of Government of India Act    
Section318 – Provisions as to Federal Court and certain other Federal authorities    
Section319 – Rights and liabilities of Governor-General in Council and Governor-General to continue after establishment of Federation    

 

Part XIV

Section320 – Commencement    
Section321 – Repeals    
ScheduleI – FIRST SCHEDULE    
ScheduleII – SECOND SCHEDULE    
ScheduleIII – THIRD SCHEDULE    
ScheduleIV – FOURTH SCHEDULE    
ScheduleV – FIFTH SCHEDULE    
ScheduleVI – SIXTH SCHEDULE    
ScheduleVII – SEVENTH SCHEDULE    
ScheduleVIII – EIGHTH SCHEDULE    
ScheduleIX – NINTH SCHEDULE    
ScheduleX – TENTH SCHEDULE
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