Truly, there is no limit to mitzvot, as the psalmist says, I have seen that all things have their limit, but your commandment is broad beyond measure [ps. 119:96]. on the other hand, if we count only the general, the fundamental ones [ve-ha-iqarim] and the commandments that are binding for all time, the mitzvot do not add up to [’asuyot, lit. “are not made to be”] 613.1
1. To know there is a God.2
2. To have no other gods.
3. To know that He is one.
4. To love Him.
5. To fear Him.
6. To sanctify His Name.
7. Not to profane His Name.
8. To worship Him as He has ordered and not destroy holy objects.
9. To listen to the true prophet.
10. Not to test the prophet.
11. To emulate His ways.
12. To be with those who only worship Him.
13. To love your neighbor as yourself.
14. To love converts.
15. Not to hate your brother in your heart.
16. To reprove your brother when necessary.
17. Not to embarrass others.
18. Not to oppress the weak.
19. Not to slander.
20. Not to take revenge.
21. Not to bear a grudge.
22. Teach Torah to your children.
23. To respect and defer to the elders.
24. Do not turn to the ways of idol worship.
25. Let the fringes on your clothes remind you to have pure conduct.
26. Not to blaspheme or curse a judge.
27. Not to worship idols.
28. Not to bow down to idols.
29. Not to make an idol.
30. Not to make or cast an image.
31. Not to make gods of silver or gold.
32. Not to turn people to idolatry.
33. To destroy a city that has turned to idol worship.
34. Not to rebuild that city.
35. Not to retain any benefit from that city.
36. Not to missionize a person to idol worship.
37. Not to love the missionary.
38. Not to stop hating him.
39. Not to save him.
40. Not to speak in his defense.
41. Not to refrain from incriminating him.
42. Not to prophesize in idolatry.
43. To ignore the false prophet.
44. Not to prophesize falsely in God’s name.
45. Not to fear killing a false prophet.
46. Never swear in the name of an idol.
47. Not to perform as or acknowledge those who purport to channel spirits.
48. Not to perform as or consult fortunetellers.
49. Not to burn your children in a sacrificial fire to Molech.
50. Not to erect a stone pillar in a place of public worship.
51. Not to erect an idol or bow down on a smooth stone for worship.
52. Not to plant a tree as a sacred pole.
53. Destroy idols, their accessories, and the places where they were worshipped.
54. Do not derive benefit from idols or bring abominations home.
55. Do not derive benefit from the gold and silver accessories of idols.
56. Make no covenant with Canaanites or their gods.
57. Show them no favor.
58. Not to let them dwell in your land.
59. Not to imitate their customs and clothing.
60. Not to be superstitious.
61. To not self-induce a trance to foresee events or tolerate soothsayers.
62. Not to engage in astrology.
63. Not to say incantations or cast spells.
64. Not to attempt contacting the dead.
65. Not to consult with mediums.
66. Not to converse with wizards.
67. Not to do sorcery.
68. To not cut your hair at the temples.
69. Do not shave your beard.
70. Men must not wear women’s clothes.
71. Women must not wear men’s clothes.
72. Not to tattoo your skin.
73. Not to tear your skin for idolatry or mourning.
74. Not to shave your head in mourning.
75. Wrongdoers must correct their ways and confess before God.
76. Recite the central prayers twice daily and always study Torah, wherever you are.
77. Serve God with prayer.
78. The priests, who are the sons of Aaron, must bless the nation.
79. To wear phylacteries so the laws will be a pendant on your forehead.
80. To bind phylacteries so that the laws will be a sign on the arm.
81. To put up a Mezuzah so that the laws will be on the doorposts of your house.
82. Each male must write a Torah scroll.
83. The king must write a second Torah scroll.
84. To have fringes on the corners of your garments.
85. Bless God after meals.
86. To circumcise every male on the eighth day.
87. To rest on the seventh day.
88. Not to do prohibited work on the seventh day.
89. The court must not inflict punishment on the Sabbath.
90. Stay near home and within city bounds on the Sabbath.
91. To remember and sanctify the Sabbath by blessing the wine and lighting the conclusionary candle.
92. To perform self-denial and to rest from exertion on Yom Kippur.
93. Not to do prohibited labor.
94. To afflict yourself.
95. Not to eat or drink.
96. To rest on the first day of Passover.
97. To do no work on the first day of Passover.
98. To rest on the seventh day of Passover.
99. To do no work on the seventh day of Passover.
100. To rest on the first day of Pentecost.
101. To do no work on the first day of Pentecost.
102. To rest on the New Year (the first day of the seventh month).
103. To do no work on Rosh Hashana, the New Year.
104. To rest on the first day of Sukkot, the Feast of Booths.
105. The first day of Sukkot, the Feast of Booths, is sacred. Do no work.
106. To rest on the eighth day of the Feast of Booths, Shimini Atzeret.
107. To do no work on the eighth day of the Feast of Booths.
108. Do not eat leaven past noon on the day of Passover.
109. To destroy all leaven on Passover.
110. Not to eat leaven all seven days of Passover.
111. Not to eat anything containing leaven during Passover.
112. No leaven shall be found in your domain during Passover.
113. Not to find any leaven in your house all seven days of Passover.
114. To eat matzoh on the first night of Passover.
115. On that night to explain the meaning of Passover.
116. To hear the Shofar, the ram’s horn trumpet, on the first day of Tishrei, the seventh month (Rosh Hashanah).
117. To dwell in a Sukka (booth) for the seven days of the festival.
118. To take up a Lulav (palm branch) and an Etrog (citron).
119. Families shall pay an annual half-shekel temple tax.
120. The courts must calculate the day on which the new month begins.
121. To afflict and cry out (blow the trumpets) before God in times of catastrophe.
122. A man should contractually marry a woman before living with her.
123. Not to have relations with women who are not acquired thus. (An Israelite man or woman cannot be a prostitute.)
124. Not to withhold food, clothing, and relations from your wife.
125. To have children from her.
126. A divorced wife must receive a written bill of divorce.
127. A man cannot remarry his divorced wife.
128. To marry a childless brother’s widow.
129. To free a childless widow from the obligation to marry her brother-in-law.
130. The widow must not remarry until the ties with her brother-in-law are removed.
131. The court must fine one who seduces a maiden.
132. The rapist must marry the maiden.
133. He must not divorce her.
134. The slanderer must remain married to his wife.
135. He must not divorce her.
136. To take procedures against a suspected adultress.
137. A jealous husband must take his wife to the priests and not put oil on her meal offering.
138. A suspected wife is to be accompanied by a meal offering that contains no frankincense.
139. Not to have relations with your mother.
140. Not to have relations with your father’s wife.
141. Not to have relations with your sister.
142. Not to have relations with your father’s wife’s daughter.
143. Not to have relations with your son’s daughter.
144. Not to have relations with your daughter.
145. Not to have relations with your daughter’s daughter.
146. Not to marry a woman and her daughter.
147. Not to marry a woman and her son’s daughter.
148. Not to marry a woman and her daughter’s daughter.
149. Not to have relations with your father’s sister.
150. Not to have relations with your mother’s sister.
151. Not to have relations with your father’s brother’s wife (same father).
152. Not to have relations with your son’s wife.
153. Not to have relations with your brother’s wife (same father and/or mother).
154. Not to have relations with your wife’s sister.
155. A man must not have relations with a beast.
156. A woman must not have relations with a beast.
157. Not to have homosexual relations.
158. Not to have homosexual relations with your father.
159. Not to have homosexual relations with your father’s brother.
160. Not to have relations with a married woman.
161. Not to have relations with a menstrually unclean woman.
162. Not to marry Gentiles.
163. Not to let Moabite and Ammonite males marry the Jewish people.
164. Don’t abhor or keep third-generation Edomite and Egyptian converts from marrying into the Jewish nation.
165. Not to abhor or refrain from marrying a third-generation Edomite or Egyptian convert.
166. A bastard child cannot become an Israelite.
167. A eunuch or sexually mutilated man may not enter into the community.
168. Not to castrate any male (including animals).
169. The High Priest must not marry a widow.
170. The High Priest must not have relations with a widow.
171. The High Priest must marry a virgin.
172. A priest must not marry a divorcée.
173. A priest may not marry a prostitute.
174. A priest must not marry a defiled woman.
175. Not to have pleasurable physical contact with any forbidden woman.
176. To examine animals that are permitted as food.
177. Be careful to eat only clean birds.
178. To distinguish which sea creatures are fit to eat.
179. To distinguish which winged insects may be eaten.
180. Not to eat unclean animals.
181. Not to eat forbidden birds.
182. Not to eat sea creatures without fins and scales.
183. Not to eat unclean flying insects.
184. Small swarming insects and unclean creatures that crawl on land are forbidden as food.
185. Not to eat maggots.
186. Not to eat snakes, scorpions, and worms found on the ground (after leaving the fruit).
187. Not to eat creatures that live in water, other than fish.
188. Not to eat an animal that died without ritual slaughter.
189. Not to eat an ox that was condemned to be stoned.
190. Not to eat the meat of a mortally wounded animal.
191. Not to eat a limb torn off from a living creature.
192. Not to eat blood.
193. Not to eat the fat of some clean animals.
194. Not to eat the thigh muscle.
195. Not to eat milk and meat cooked together.
196. Not to cook milk and meat together.
197. Not to eat bread from the new grain harvest.
198. Roasted grains must be offered before they are eaten.
199. Not to eat ripe grains from the new grain harvest before they are made as an offering.
200. Not to eat the fruit of a tree for the first three years.
201. At the risk of forfeiture, not to eat diverse seeds planted in a vineyard.
202. No one may eat produce for an offering or untithed food.
203. Not to eat or drink anything offered as a sacrifice to an idol.
204. To ritually slaughter an animal before eating it.
205. Not to slaughter an animal and its offspring on the same day.
206. The blood of a slaughtered wild animal must be covered with dirt.
207. Not to take a nesting bird with her eggs and young.
208. To release the mother bird if you did not take her.
209. Not to swear falsely in God’s Name.
210. Not to take God’s Name in vain.
211. Do not lie or deal falsely, or deny that something of value was left in your possession.
212. To not swear falsely.
213. To swear in God’s Name only to confirm the truth, when deemed necessary by the courts.
214. To keep your promises and vows to God.
215. Not to break oaths or vows.
216. To have vows and oaths annulled according to law.
217. The Nazirite must let his hair grow.
218. The Nazirite must not cut his hair.
219. The Nazirite must not drink wine, wine mixtures, or wine vinegar.
220. The Nazirite must not eat fresh grapes.
221. The Nazirite must not eat raisins or drink anything steeped in grapes.
222. The Nazirite must not eat grape seeds.
223. The Nazirite must not eat grape skins or grapes dried on the vine.
224. A Nazirite may not enter where there is a dead person.
225. A Nazirite must not come in contact with the dead.
226. A Nazirite must shave his head after the completion of his vowed service.
227. To estimate the value of persons for whom offerings are paid.
228. For priests to estimate the value of animal offerings.
229. For priests to estimate the value of consecrated houses.
230. To determine the redemption value of a vowed field.
231. Fulfill the procedures of vowed possessions.
232. Not to sell vowed possessions.
233. Not to redeem any vowed possessions.
234. Not to plant diverse seeds together.
235. Not to plant grains or greens in a vineyard.
236. Not to crossbreed animals.
237. Not to work with different animals together.
238. Not to wear cloth woven of both wool and linen.
239. No, to reap your harvest to the edge of the field, but leave a corner uncut for the poor.
240. Not to reap that corner but to leave fruit and grain for the poor.
241. To leave gleanings.
242. Not to gather the gleanings.
243. Not to pick your vineyard bare.
244. Not to gather the gleanings of a vineyard.
245. To not gather the fallen fruit of the vineyard.
246. Not to pick the unformed clusters of grapes.
247. To leave forgotten sheaves in the field or leave a sheaf for the poor.
248. Not to retrieve them but leave them for the widow, alien, and orphan.
249. To separate the tithe for the poor.
250. To give charity.
251. Not to withhold charity from those in need.
252. To set aside a tithed portion of the offerings for the priesthood).
253. The Levite must be tithed on his tithe.
254. To not delay your agricultural offerings.
255. A layperson may not eat from a sacred donation.
256. A servant of a priest may not eat from a sacred donation.
257. An uncircumcised priest may not eat from a sacred donation.
258. A priest in a state of impurity may not eat from a sacred donation.
259. A priest’s daughter married to a layman may not eat from a sacred donation.
260. Levites are to receive earmarked tithes each planting year.
261. To set aside the Second Tithe.
262. Not to spend its redemption value on anything other than food, drink, or ointment.
263. Not to eat from the Tithe while unclean.
264. A mourner must not eat the Second Tithe on the first day of mourning.
265. Not to eat grains from the Second Tithe outside Jerusalem.
266. Not to consume Second-Tithe wine products outside Jerusalem.
267. Not to consume Second-Tithe oil outside Jerusalem.
268. The fourth-year crops must be totally for holy purposes.
269. To read the confession of tithes every fourth and seventh year.
270. To bring the first fruits into the temple.
271. The priests must not eat the first fruits outside Jerusalem.
272. To read the Torah portion pertaining to their presentation.
273. When baking, set aside some dough for the priesthood.
274. To give the shoulder, two cheeks, and the stomach of a sacrificed animal to the priesthood.
275. To give the first shearing of sheep to the priesthood.
276. A father must redeem the firstborn son and give the money to the priesthood.
277. To redeem each firstborn donkey with a lamb given to the priesthood.
278. To break the neck of the firstborn donkey if the owner doesn’t redeem it.
279. To rest the land during the seventh year and do no work, to allow for the rejuvenation of the earth.
280. Not to work the land during the seventh year.
281. Not to work with trees (to produce fruit) during the seventh year.
282. Not to harvest wild crops in the seventh year.
283. Not to systematically pick fruit in the seventh year.
284. To leave untouched all produce that grew in the seventh year.
285. To relax all loans in the seventh year.
286. Not to pressure the debtor in the seventh year.
287. Not to refrain from lending in the year of remission for fear of monetary loss.
288. The court must count and determine the year of the Jubilee.
289. The court must sanctify the fiftieth year.
290. To sound the ram’s horn on Yom Kippur of the Jubilee year, to free the slaves.
291. Not to work the land during the fiftieth year.
292. Not to reap or harvest in the fiftieth year.
293. Not to pick grapes in the usual way and to eat only directly from the vine in the fiftieth year.
294. Follow the laws of sold and family properties.
295. Not to sell land (in Israel) in perpetuity.
296. To follow the laws pertaining to houses in walled cities.
297. The Levites have no inheritance or allotment but will live in cities.
298. Levites will not partake in the spoils of war.
299. Levites are to be given cities and the surrounding fields.
300. Not to sell the fields of the Levites, which will remain their possession before and after the Jubilee year.
301. To build a Sanctuary.
302. Not to build the altar with stones hewn by metal.
303. Not to climb steps to the altar.
304. To show reverence for the temple.
305. Levites shall guard the temple area.
306. Not to leave the temple unguarded.
307. To blend the anointing oil.
308. Not to duplicate the formula for the anointing oil.
309. Not to anoint anyone who isn’t a priest or a king with it.
310. Not to replicate the incense formula.
311. Not to burn anything on the altar besides incense.
312. The Levites carry the ark on their shoulders.
313. Not to remove the poles from the ark.
314. The Levites must work in the temple.
315. There are specified duties for the Levites.
316. The priest will be dedicated and must be treated as sacred.
317. The priestly work shifts must be equal during holidays.
318. The priests must wear their priestly garments during the service.
319. The priestly garments must not be torn.
320. The breastplate must not be loosened from the ephod.
321. A priest must not enter the temple when drunk.
322. A priest must not enter the temple with unkempt hair.
323. A priest must not enter the temple with torn clothes.
324. A priest must not enter the sanctuary for no reason.
325. A priest must not leave the temple during the service.
326. To send the impure from the temple.
327. Impure persons must not enter the temple.
328. Unclean persons must not enter the Temple Mount area.
329. Unclean priests cannot do temple service.
330. An impure priest, after immersion, must not return to service until after sundown.
331. A priest must wash his hands and feet before ministering.
332. A blemished priest must not enter the temple.
333. A blemished priest must not serve.
334. A temporarily blemished priest must not serve.
335. A non-priest must not serve.
336. Blemished animals are unacceptable as offerings.
337. Not to dedicate a blemished animal for the altar.
338. An animal with a discharge must not be slaughtered.
339. Not to sprinkle the blood of a disabled animal.
340. Not to burn the fat of a defective animal.
341. Not to offer an animal with a temporary blemish.
342. Not to accept defective offerings even from foreigners.
343. Not to inflict wounds or commit damage upon dedicated animals.
344. To redeem disqualified dedicated animals.
345. To offer animals that are at least eight days old.
346. Not to offer animals purchased with the fees of a harlot or an animal exchanged for a dog.
347. Not to burn yeast or honey on the altar.
348. To salt all sacrifices.
349. Not to omit the salt from grain offerings.
350. To follow the burnt offering procedures as written in the Torah.
351. Not to eat the meat of a burnt offering.
352. To carry out the procedure for a sin offering.
353. Not to eat the meat of a sin offering.
354. The priest shall not cut off the head of a bird (sin) offering.
355. To follow the procedures of the guilt offering.
356. The priests must eat the sacrificed meat in the temple.
357. Priests must not eat the meat outside the temple.
358. A non-priest must not eat the sacrificial meat.
359. To follow the procedure of the peace offering.
360. Not to eat the meat of minor sacrifices before sprinkling the blood.
361. To bring meal offerings in the prescribed manner.
362. Not to put oil on the meal offerings of wrongdoers.
363. Not to put frankincense on the meal offerings of wrongdoers.
364. Not to eat the cereal offering of the high priest.
365. Not to bake meal offerings with leaven.
366. The priests must eat the remains of the meal offerings.
367. To bring all freewill offerings to the temple and rejoice.
368. Not to withhold payment which fulfills a vow to God.
369. To offer all sacrifices in the temple.
370. To bring all votive offerings to the temple.
371. Not to slaughter sacrifices outside the courtyard of the temple.
372. Not to offer any sacrifices outside the courtyard of the temple.
373. To offer two lambs every day.
374. To light a fire on the altar every day.
375. Not to extinguish this fire.
376. To remove the ashes from the altar every day.
377. To burn incense every day.
378. To keep the light burning every day (in the candelabra).
379. The High Priest must bring a meal offering every day.
380. To bring two additional lambs as burnt offerings on the Sabbath.
381. To make and present the showbread.
382. To bring additional offerings of the new moon.
383. To bring additional offerings on Passover.
384. To bring a wave offering from the meal of the new wheat.
385. To count the seven weeks from the new wheat offering to Pentecost (Shavuot).
386. To bring an additional offering on Shavuot (Pentecost).
387. To offer two loaves, which must accompany the above sacrifices.
388. To bring additional offerings on Rosh Hashana, the New Year.
389. To bring additional offerings on Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement.
390. To bring additional offerings on Sukkot, the Feast of Booths.
391. To bring additional offerings on Shmini Atzeret, the eighth day of the Feast of Booths.
392. Not to eat any unfit sacrifices.
393. Not to eat sacrifices offered with improper intentions.
394. To eat the Thanksgiving sacrifice on the day it was sacrificed.
395. Not to eat leftover sacrifices.
396. Not to eat from sacrifices that have become impure.
397. An unclean person cannot eat from sacrifices.
398. Sacrificial remains must be burned on the third day.
399. Impure sacrifices must be burnt.
400. To follow the priestly rituals of Yom Kippur.
401. One who uses the sacred property for personal use incurs a special penalty and sacrifice.
402. Not to work with consecrated animals.
403. Not to shear the fleece of consecrated animals.
404. To slaughter the Paschal sacrifice at the specified time.
405. Not to slaughter the Paschal sacrifice while possessing leaven.
406. Not to leave the fat overnight.
407. To slaughter the second Paschal Lamb.
408. The Paschal Lamb is to be eaten with matzoh on the night it was slaughtered.
409. To eat the second Paschal Lamb on the night of the fifteenth of Iyar.
410. To roast the Paschal Lamb and not eat it raw or boiled.
411. No part of the Paschal Lamb may be removed from the house.
412. An apostate must not eat from the Paschal Lamb.
413. A hired servant or traveler must not eat from the Paschal Lamb.
414. An uncircumcised male must not eat from the Paschal Lamb.
415. No bone of the Paschal Lamb shall be broken.
416. Not to break any bones from the second Paschal offering.
417. Not to leave any of the Lamb over until morning.
418. Not to leave the second Paschal meat until morning.
419. Eat the Passover meat entirely on the night it is offered.
420. To be seen at the temple three times a year—Passover, Shavuot, the Festival of Weeks; and Sukkot, the Festival of Booths.
421. To celebrate and bring a peace offering in pilgrimage on these three festivals.
422. To rejoice in these three festivals.
423. Not to appear at the temple for annual festivals without offerings.
424. Not to refrain from rejoicing with and giving gifts to the Levites.
425. Every seven years, on Sukkot, the Feast of Booths, assemble all the people and read the law.
426. To consecrate to God the firstborn of man and beast.
427. The priests must not eat of the unblemished firstborn animals outside Jerusalem.
428. The firstborn of clean animals cannot be redeemed.
429. Separate the tithe from the animals.
430. Do not exchange a good animal for a bad one for the tithe.
431. Every person must bring a sin offering for his transgression.
432. An unintentional sin requires a sin offering when discovered.
433. A guilt offering is required when one deals deceitfully.
434. For certain sins a wealthy person will offer an animal and the poor will offer doves, pigeons, or meals as prescribed.
435. The court must bring an offering when it rules in error or when the community sins.
436. A woman with an irregular discharge must bring an offering after she goes to the ritual bath.
437. A woman who gives birth must bring an offering after she immerses in the ritual bath.
438. A man who is cured of a chronic discharge must bring an offering after immersing in the ritual bath.
439. One who is cured of skin disease must bring an offering after immersing in the ritual bath.
440. Not to substitute another beast for one scheduled for sacrifice.
441. The new animal, along with the substituted one, retains consecration.
442. Not to change consecrated animals (from one type of offering to another).
443. Everyone under a roof with a corpse is unclean.
444. Carry out the procedure of the Red Heifer.
445. A clean person sprinkles water on those who are unclean.
446. The priest’s role is governed by the law when dealing with matters of skin disease.
447. The afflicted must not remove the signs of impurity.
448. The afflicted must not shave signs of impurity in his hair.
449. A skin-diseased person will tear his clothes, grow his hair long, and cry out, “unclean, unclean.”
450. Carry out the procedure for purifying the person with skin disease.
451. The diseased person must shave off all his hair prior to purification.
452. To discover when a leprous infection is on a garment.
453. To discover when a house is infected by a skin disease.
454. To observe the laws of menstrual impurity.
455. To observe the laws of impurity caused by childbirth.
456. To observe the laws of impurity caused by an irregular discharge.
457. To observe the laws of impurity caused by a man’s chronic discharge.
458. To observe the laws of impurity caused by contact with a dead animal.
459. To observe the laws of impurity caused by contact with the eight (named) swarming creatures.
460. Observe the laws of impurity of seminal emission.
461. Observe the laws of impurity concerning liquid and solid foods.
462. Every impure person must immerse himself in a ritual bath to become pure.
463. The court must judge the damages incurred by a goring ox.
464. The court must judge the damages incurred by an animal eating in another’s field.
465. The court must judge the damages incurred by an open pit.
466. The court must judge the damages incurred by the fire.
467. Not to steal money stealthily.
468. The court must implement punitive measures against the thief.
469. Each individual must ensure that his scales and weights are accurate.
470. Not to commit injustice with scales and weights.
471. Not to possess inaccurate weights and scales even if they are not for use.
472. Not to move a boundary marker to steal someone’s property.
473. Not to kidnap.
474. Not to rob openly.
475. Not to withhold wages or fail to repay a debt.
476. Not to covet and scheme to acquire another’s possession.
477. Not to desire another’s possession.
478. Return the robbed object or its value.
479. Not to ignore a lost object.
480. Return the lost object.
481. The court must implement laws against one who assaults another or damages another’s property.
482. Not to murder.
483. Not to accept money to save a convicted murderer.
484. The court must send the accidental murderer to a city of refuge.
485. Not to accept monetary restitution instead of sending the accidental murderer to, or releasing him from, a city of refuge.
486. Not to kill the murderer before he stands trial.
487. To save someone being pursued even by taking the life of the pursuer.
488. Not to pity the pursuer.
489. Not to stand idly by if someone’s life is in danger.
490. Designate refuge cities and prepare routes of access.
491. When a murdered person is found in open country and the murder is unsolved, break the neck of a calf by the river valley.
492. Not to work that river valley or plant there.
493. Not to allow pitfalls and obstacles to remain on your property.
494. Make a guardrail around flat roofs.
495. Not to put a stumbling block before the blind.
496. Help another remove the load from a beast that can no longer carry it.
497. Help others load their beasts.
498. Not to leave fallen beasts distraught with their burdens but help to load or unload.
499. Buy and sell according to Torah law.
500. Not to overcharge or underpay for an article.
501. Not to insult or harm anybody with words.
502. Not to cheat a sincere convert monetarily.
503. Not to insult or harm a sincere convert with words.
504. A Hebrew slave shall be released after six years.
505. Not to sell him as a slave is sold.
506. Not to work the slave oppressively.
507. Not to allow a foreigner to work the slave oppressively.
508. Not to have the kinsman slave do menial slave labor.
509. Give the slave gifts when he goes free.
510. Not to send the freed slave away empty-handed.
511. Redeem Jewish maidservants.
512. Betroth the Jewish maidservant.
513. The master cannot resell a female servant.
514. Canaanite slaves must work forever unless injured in one of their limbs.
515. Not to extradite a slave who fled to (Biblical) Israel.
516. Not to wrong a slave who has come to Israel for refuge.
517. The courts must carry out the laws of a hired worker and hired guard.
518. Pay wages on the day they were earned.
519. Do not delay payment of wages past the agreed time.
520. The hired worker may eat from the unharvested crops where he works.
521. The worker must not eat while on hired time.
522. The worker must not take more than he can eat.
523. Not to muzzle an ox while plowing.
524. The courts must carry out the laws of a borrower.
525. The courts must carry out the laws of the unpaid guard.
526. Lend without interest to the poor.
527. Not to press the poor for repayment.
528. Press the idolater for payment.
529. The creditor must not forcibly take the collateral.
530. Return the collateral to the debtor when it is needed.
531. Not to delay returning the collateral when it is needed.
532. Not to demand collateral from a widow.
533. Not to demand as collateral utensils needed for preparing food.
534. Not to lend with interest within the community.
535. Not to borrow with interest.
536. Not to play any role in an interest loan.
537. Lend to, and borrow from, idolaters at interest.
538. The court must carry out the laws of the plaintiff, admitted or denier.
539. Carry out the laws of the order of inheritance.
540. Appoint judges.
541. Not to appoint judges who are not familiar with judicial procedure.
542. Decide by majority in case of disagreement.
543. The court must not execute through a majority of one, but at least a majority of two is required.
544. A judge who presents a case for acquittal must not present an argument for conviction in capital cases.
545. The court must carry out the death penalty of stoning.
546. The court must carry out the death penalty of burning.
547. The court must carry out the death penalty of the sword.
548. The court must carry out the death penalty of strangulation.
549. The court must hang those stoned for blasphemy or idolatry.
550. Bury the executed on the day they were killed.
551. Not to delay the burial overnight.
552. The court must not let the sorcerer live.
553. The court must flog the wrongdoer.
554. The court must not exceed the prescribed number of lashes.
555. The court must not kill anybody on circumstantial evidence.
556. The court must not punish anybody who was forced to commit a crime.
557. The judge must not pity the murderer or assaulter at the trial.
558. The judge must not have mercy on the poor man at the trial.
559. The judge must not respect the great man at the trial.
560. The judge must not decide unjustly the case of the habitual transgressor.
561. The judge must not pervert justice.
562. The judge must not pervert a case involving a convert or an orphan.
563. Judge righteously.
564. The judge must not fear a violent man in judgment.
565. Judges must not accept bribes.
566. Judges must not accept testimony unless both parties are present.
567. Not to curse judges.
568. Not to curse the head of state.
569. Not to curse a deaf person.
570. Anyone who knows evidence must testify at a trial.
571. Carefully interrogate the witness.
572. A witness must not serve as a judge in capital crimes.
573. Not to accept testimony from a lone witness.
574. Transgressors must not testify.
575. The litigant’s relatives cannot testify.
576. Not to testify falsely.
577. Do to the false witness what he tried to do to the defendant.
578. Act according to the rulings of the high court.
579. Not to deviate from a legal discussion.
580. Not to add to the Torah commandments or their oral explanations.
581. Not to diminish any commandments from the Torah, in whole or in part.
582. Not to curse your father and mother.
583. Not to strike your father and mother.
584. Respect your father and mother.
585. Fear your father and mother.
586. Not to behave like the rebellious son as described in the Torah.
587. Mourn for relatives—even priests.
588. The High Priest must not defile himself for any relatives.
589. The High Priest must not enter under the same roof as a corpse.
590. A priest must not defile himself for anyone other than his relatives.
591. Appoint a king from Israel.
592. Not to appoint a convert.
593. The king must not have too many wives.
594. The king must not have too many horses.
595. The king must not have too much silver and gold.
596. Destroy the seven Canaanite nations.
597. Not to let any of them remain alive.
598. Blot out the memory of Amalek.
599. Remember what Amalek did to the Jewish people.
600. Not to forget their atrocities and ambush on our journey from Egypt in the desert.
601. Not to dwell permanently in Egypt.
602. Offer peace terms to the residents of a city under siege and treat them according to the Torah if they accept surrender terms.
603. Not to offer peace to Ammon and Moab while besieging them.
604. Not to destroy fruit trees even during a siege.
605. Prepare latrines outside the camps.
606. Prepare a shovel for each soldier to dig with.
607. Appoint a priest to speak to the soldiers during war.
608. A newly married man who has built a home or planted a vineyard is exempt from the military to rejoice with his wife.
609. Not to conscript or involve the newly married man in military or communal service.
610. Not to panic and retreat during battle.
611. Carry out the laws of captive women.
612. Not to sell her into slavery.
613. Not to retain her for servitude after having relations with her.
- Abraham Ibn Ezra, Yesod Mora ve-Sod Torah, second Gate, pisqa 3-4, 91-92. What did Ibn Ezra mean by ha-iqarim, which we translated as “fundamental ones”? one of his uses of the term in the Fifth Gate (p. 121) can shed some light on this question. These iqarim are fundamental commandments that underpin our reasons for performing other commandments, such as creation, which we remember by observing the sabbath, and the exodus from Egypt, which we remember by observing passover, matzot, and tsitsit. It is those very general commandments that are included in this count that does not reach 613. see also the suggestions made by the editors (ad loc.). some texts read ‘asirit, “one-tenth,” instead of ’asuyot, “made,” the sense being that these commandments do not equal one-tenth of 613, or approximately sixty-one (121, notes to line 24). Hanina Ben-menahem has suggested (183n27) that the number sixty-one may not be as implausible as it sounds: perhaps this has some relationship to maimonides’ list of sixty obligatory positive commandments (which we will discuss in chapter 3). But surely this cannot be correct, since it is clear that Ibn Ezra was referring to the sum of positive and negative commandments, not just the sixty obligatory positive commandments! ↩︎
- The Babylonian gaon Hefets b. yatsliah was actually the first to propose that belief in God’s existence and His unity represent formal commandments. Hefets’ description of the first commandment was preserved for us by Judah b. Barzilai in his twelfthcentury commentary on Sefer Yetsirah. Judah ben Barzilai, Perush Sefer Yetsirah, 55-56. ↩︎