Constitution of The Republic of India

[भारतीय संविधान]

Introduction

The Constitution is a living and organic document. It cannot remain static and must grow with the nation. The Constitutional provisions have to be construed broadly and liberally having regard to the changed circumstances and the needs of time and polity. In Kehar Singh & Anr. Vs. Union of India & Anr.20, speaking for the Constitution Bench, R.S. Pathak, C.J. held that in keeping with modern Constitutional practice, the Constitution of India is a constitutive document, fundamental to the governance of the country, whereby the people of India have provided a Constitutional polity consisting of certain primary organs, institutions and functionaries with the intention of working out, maintaining and operating a Constitutional order. On the aspect of interpretation of a Constitution, the following observations of Justice (1989) 1 SCC 204 Dickson of the Supreme Court of Canada in Lawson A.W. Hunter & Ors. Vs. Southam Inc.21 are quite apposite:

“The task of expounding a constitution is crucially different from that of construing a statute. A statute defines present rights and obligations. It is easily enacted and as easily repealed. A constitution, by contrast, is drafted with an eye to the future. Its function is to provide a continuing framework for the legitimate exercise of governmental power and, when joined by a Bill or a Charter of rights, for the unremitting protection of individual rights and liberties. Once enacted, its provisions cannot easily be repealed or amended. It must, therefore, be capable of growth and development over time to meet new social, political and historical realities often unimagined by its framers. The judiciary is the guardian of the constitution and must, in interpreting its provisions, bear these considerations in mind.”

In M. Nagaraj & Ors. Vs. Union of India & Ors.22, speaking for the Constitution Bench, S.H. Kapadia, J. observed as under:

“The Constitution is not an ephemeral legal document embodying a set of legal rules for the passing hour. It sets out principles for an expanding future and is intended to endure for ages to come and consequently to be adapted to the various crisis of human affairs. Therefore, a purposive rather than a strict literal approach to the interpretation should be adopted. A Constitutional provision must be construed not in a narrow and constricted sense but in a wide and liberal manner so as to anticipate and take account of changing conditions and purposes so that a constitutional provision does not get fossilised but remains flexible enough to meet the newly emerging problems and challenges.”
[Emphasis supplied] (1984) 2 S.C.R.145 (Can SC) (2006) 8 SCC 212

Recently, in I.R. Coelho (supra), noticing the principles relevant for the interpretation of Constitutional provisions, Y.K. Sabharwal, C.J., speaking for the Bench of nine Judges of this Court, observed as follows:

“The principle of constitutionalism is now a legal principle which requires control over the exercise of Governmental power to ensure that it does not destroy the democratic principles upon which it is based. These democratic principles include the protection of fundamental rights. The principle of constitutionalism advocates a check and balance model of the separation of powers; it requires a diffusion of powers, necessitating different independent centres of decision making. The principle of constitutionalism underpins the principle of legality which requires the Courts to interpret legislation on the assumption that Parliament would not wish to legislate contrary to fundamental rights. The Legislature can restrict fundamental rights but it is impossible for laws protecting fundamental rights to be impliedly repealed by future statutes.”
Observing further that the protection of fundamental constitutional rights through the common law is the main feature of common law constitutionalism, the Court went on to say:

“Under the controlled Constitution, the principles of checks and balances have an important role to play. Even in England where Parliament is sovereign, Lord Steyn has observed that in certain circumstances, Courts may be forced to modify the principle of parliamentary sovereignty, for example, in cases where judicial review is sought to be abolished. By this the judiciary is protecting a limited form of constitutionalism, ensuring that their institutional role in the Government is maintained.”

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