Codex iuris canonici (1917)
LIBER PRIMUS. NORMAE GENERALES.
Can. l. Licet in Codice iuris canonici Ecclesiae quoque Orientalis disciplina saepe referatur, ipse tamen unam respicit Latinam Ecclesiam, neque Orientalem obligat, nisi de iis agatur, quae ex ipsa rei natura etiam Orientalem afficiunt.
Can. 2. Codex, plerumque, nihil decernit de ritibus et caeremoniis quas liturgici libri, ab Ecclesia Latina probati, servandas praecipiunt in celebratione sacrosancti Missae sacrificii, in administratione Sacramentorum et Sacramentalium aliisque sacris peragendis. Quare omnes liturgicae leges vim suam retinent nisi earum aliqua in Codice expresse corrigatur.
Can. 3. Codicis canones initas ab Apostolica Sede cum variis Nationibus conventiones nullatenus abrogant aut iis aliquid obrogant; eae idcirco perinde ac in praesens vigere pergent, contrariis huius Codicis praescriptis minime obstantibus.
Can. 4. Iura aliis quaesita, itemque privilegia atque indulta quae, ab Apostolica Sede ad haec usque tempora personis sive physicis sive moralibus concessa, in usu adhuc sunt nec revocata, integra manent, nisi huius Codicis canonibus expresse revocentur.
Can. 5. Vigentes in praesens contra horum statuta canonum consuetudines sive universales sive particulares, si quidem ipsis canonibus expresse reprobentur, tanquam iuris corruptelae corrigantur, licet sint immemorabiles, neve sinantur in posterum reviviscere; aliae, quae quidem centenariae sint et immemorabiles, tolerari poterunt, si Ordinarii pro locorum ac personarum adiunctis existiment eas prudenter submoveri non posse; ceterae suppressae habeantur nisi expresse Codex aliud caveat.
Can. 6. Codex vigentem huc usque disciplinam plerumque retinet, licet opportunas immutationes afferat. Itaque:
1.deg. Leges quaelibet, sive universales sive particulares, praescriptis huius Codicis oppositae, abrogantur nisi de particularibus legibus aliud expresse caveatur;
2.deg. Canones qui ius vetus ex integro referunt, ex veteris iuris auctoritate, atque ideo ex receptis apud probatos auctores interpretationibus, sunt aestimandi;
3.deg. Canones qui ex parte tantum cum veteri iure congruunt, qua congruunt, ex iure antiquo aestimandi sunt; qua discrepant, sunt ex sua ipsorum sententia diiudicandi;
4.deg. In dubio num aliquod canonum praescriptum cum veteri iure discrepet, a veteri iure non est recedendum;
5.deg. Quod ad poenas attinet, quarum in Codice nulla fit mentio, spirituales sint vel temporales, medicinales vel, ut vocant, vindicativae, latae vel ferendae sententiae, eae tanquam abrogatae habeantur;
6.deg. Si qua ex ceteris disciplinaribus legibus, quae usque adhuc viguerunt, nec explicite nec implicite in Codice contineatur, ea vim omnem amisisse dicenda est, nisi in probatis liturgicis libris reperiatur, aut lex sit iuris divini sive positivi sive naturalis.
Can. 7. Nomine Sedis Apostolicae vel Sanctae Sedis in hoc Codice veniunt non solum Romanus Pontifex, sed etiam, nisi ex rei natura vel sermonis contextu aliud appareat, Congregationes, Tribunalia, Officia, per quae idem Romanus Pontifex negotia Ecclesiae universae expedire solet.
FIRST BOOK. GENERAL STANDARDS Can. l. Although in the Code of Canon Law the discipline of the Eastern Church is often referred to as well, yet it regards the Latin Church as one, and does not bind the Eastern Church, unless it deals with those which by the very nature of the matter also affect the Eastern Church. Can. 2. The code, in general, does not decide anything about the rites and ceremonies which the liturgical books, approved by the Latin Church, prescribe to be observed in the celebration of the sacrosanct Mass of sacrifice, in the administration of the Sacraments and Sacramentals, and in performing other sacred acts. Therefore all liturgical laws retain their force unless some of them are expressly corrected in the Code. Can. 3. The canons of the Code do not in any way abrogate the agreements entered into by the Apostolic See with various nations or do anything to them; they will therefore continue to be in force as at present, notwithstanding the contrary provisions of this Code. Can. 4. The rights claimed by others, as well as the privileges and pardons which, granted by the Apostolic See up to this time to persons, whether physical or moral, are still in use and have not been revoked, remain intact, unless they are expressly revoked by the canons of this Code. Can. 5. Customs, whether universal or particular, which are in force at the present time against the statutes of these canons, whether universal or particular, if indeed they are expressly reproved by the canons themselves, are to be corrected as corrupt laws, even though they are unmemorable, nor are they allowed to revive in posterity; others, which are indeed hundreds of years old and unmemorable, may be tolerated, if the Ordinaries consider that, on account of the circumstances of places and persons, they cannot be prudently subverted; the others are to be considered suppressed unless the Codex expressly provides otherwise. Can. 6. The Code generally retains the discipline in force up to this point, although it may bring about appropriate changes. Therefore: 1.deg. Any laws, whether universal or particular, contrary to the provisions of this Code, are abrogated unless otherwise expressly provided for in regard to particular laws; 2.deg. The canons which relate the old law in its entirety, are to be evaluated from the authority of the old law, and therefore from the interpretations received from approved authors; 3.deg. The canons which agree only in part with the old law, with which they agree, are to be judged from the ancient law; in which they differ, they are judging from their own opinion; 4.deg. In doubt as to whether any prescriptive canon conflicts with the old law, one must not depart from the old law; 5.deg. As regards punishments, of which no mention is made in the Code, whether they be spiritual or temporal, medicinal or, as they call it, vindictive, sentencing or sentencing, they are to be regarded as abrogated; 6.deg. If any of the other disciplinary laws, which have been in force until now, is contained neither explicitly nor implicitly in the Code, it must be said to have lost all force, unless it is found in approved liturgical books, or the law is of divine law, whether positive or natural. Can. 7. By the name of the Apostolic See or the Holy See in this Code come not only the Roman Pontiff, but also, unless otherwise appears from the nature of the matter or the context of the discourse, the Congregations, Tribunals, Offices, through which the same Roman Pontiff is accustomed to facilitate the affairs of the whole Church.
TITULUS I. De legibus ecclesiasticis.
De legibus ecclesiasticis.
Can. 8. par. 1. Leges instituuntur, cum promulgantur.
par. 2. Lex non praesumitur personalis, sed territorialis, nisi aliud constet.
Can. 9. Leges ab Apostolica Sede latae promulgantur per editionem in Actorum Apostolicae Sedis commentario officiali, nisi in casibus particularibus alius promulgandi modus fuerit praescriptus; et vim suam exserunt tantum expletis tribus mensibus a die qui Actorum numero appositus est, nisi ex natura rei illico ligent aut in ipsa lege brevior vel longior vacatio specialiter et expresse fuerit statuta.
Can.10. Leges respiciunt futura, non praeterita, nisi nominatim in eis de praeteritis caveatur.
Can. 11. Irritantes aut inhabilitantes eae tantum leges habendae sunt, quibus aut actum esse nullum aut inhabilem esse personam expresse vel aequivalenter statuitur.
Can. 12. Legibus mere ecclesiasticis non tenentur qui baptismum non receperunt, nec baptizati qui sufficienti rationis usu non gaudent, nec qui, licet rationis usum assecuti, septimum aetatis annum nondum expleverunt, nisi aliud iure expresse caveatur.
Can. l3. par. l. Legibus generalibus tenentur ubique terrarum omnes pro quibus latae sunt.
par. 2. Legibus conditis pro peculiari territorio ii subiiciuntur pro quibus latae sunt quique ibidem domicilium vel quasi-domicilium habent et simul actu commorantur, firmo praescripto can. 14.
Can.l4. par. 1. Peregrini:
l.deg. Non adstringuntur legibus particularibus sui territorii quandiu ab eo absunt, nisi aut earum transgressio in proprio territorio noceat, aut leges sint personales;
2.deg. Neque legibus territorii in quo versantur, iis exceptis quae ordini publico consulunt, vel actuum sollemnia determinant;
3.deg. At legibus generalibus tennentur etiamsi hae suo in territorio non vigeant, minime vero si in loco in quo versantur non obligent.
par. 2. Vagi obligantur legibus tam generalibus quam particularibus quae vigent in loco in quo versantur.
Can. 15. Leges, etiam irritantes et inhabilitantes, in dubio iuris non urgent; in dubio autem facti potest Ordinarius in eis dispensare, dummodo agatur de legibus in quibus Romanus Pontifex dispensare solet.
Can. 16. par. l. Nulla ignorantia legum irritantium aut inhabilitantium ab eisdem excusat, nisi aliud expresse dicatur.
par. 2. Ignorantia vel error circa legem aut poenam aut circa factum proprium aut circa factum alienum notorium generatim non praesumitur; circa factum alienum non notorium praesumitur, donec contrarium probetur.
Can. 17. par. l. Leges authentice interpretatur legislator eiusve successor et is cui potestas interpretandi fuerit ab eisdem commissa.
par. 2. Interpretatio authentica, per modum legis exhibita, eandem vim habet ac lex ipsa; et si verba legis in se certa declaret tantum, promulgatione non eget et valet retrorsum; si legem coarctet vel extendat aut dubiam explicet, non retrotrahitur et debet promulgari.
par. 3. Data autem per modum sententiae iudicialis aut rescripti in re peculiari, vim legis non habet et ligat tantum personas atque afficit res pro quibus data est.
Can. 18. Leges ecclesiasticae intelligendae sunt secundum propriam verborum significationem in textu et contextu consideratam; quae si dubia et obscura manserit, ad locos Codicis parallelos, si qui sint, ad legis finem ac circumstantias et ad mentem legislatoris est recurrendum.
Can. 19. Leges quae poenam statuunt, aut liberum iurium exercitium coarctant, aut exceptionem a lege continent, strictae subsunt interpretationi.
Can. 20. Si certa de re desit expressum praescriptum legis sive generalis sive particularis, norma sumenda est, nisi agatur de poenis applicandis, a legibus latis in similibus; a generalibus iuris principiis cum aequitate canonica servatis; a stylo et praxi Curiae Romanae; a communi constantique sententia doctorum.
Can. 21. Leges latae ad praecavendum periculum generale, urgent, etiamsi in casu peculiari periculum non adsit.
Can. 22. Lex posterior, a competenti auctoritate lata, obrogat priori, si id expresse edicat, aut sit illi directe contraria, aut totam de integro ordinet legis prioris materiam; sed firmo praeseripto can. 6, n. 1, lex generalis nullatenus derogat locorum specialium et personarum singularium statutis, nisi aliud in ipsa expresse caveatur.
Can. 23. In dubio revocatio legis praeexsistentis non praesumitur, sed leges posteriores ad priores trahendae sunt et his, quantum fieri possit conciliandae.
Can. 24. Praecepta, singulis data, eos quibus dantur, ubique urgent, sed iudicialiter urgeri nequeunt et cessant resoluto iure praecipientis nisi per legitimum documentum aut coram duobus testibus imposita fuerint.
TITLE I On ecclesiastical laws. Can. 8. par. 1. Laws are instituted when they are promulgated. 2. The law is not presumed to be personal, but territorial, unless otherwise stated. Can. 9. Laws passed by the Apostolic See are promulgated by publication in the official commentary of the Acts of the Apostolic See, unless in particular cases another method of promulgation has been prescribed; and they expire only after the expiration of three months from the day which is set forth in the number of Acts, unless, from the nature of the matter, they immediately read, or a shorter or longer vacation has been specially and expressly established in the law itself. Canon 10 Laws look to the future, not to the past, unless they expressly warn against the past. Can. 11. Only those laws are to be regarded as irritating or incapacitating, by which it is expressly or equivalently established that either the act is null or that the person is incapacitated. Can. 12. Those who have not received baptism are not bound by purely ecclesiastical laws, nor those baptized who do not enjoy the sufficient use of reason, nor those who, although having obtained the use of reason, have not yet completed the seventh year of age, unless otherwise expressly provided by law. Can. l3. match l. General laws are binding everywhere in the world for whom they are enacted. match 2. Those who are subject to the laws established for the particular territory for which they were enacted and who have a domicile or quasi-domicile there and actually reside together, according to the firm provision of can. 14. Can. 14 match 1. Pilgrims: l. deg. They are not bound by the particular laws of their territory as long as they are away from it, unless either their transgression in their own territory is harmful, or the laws are personal; 2.deg. Nor by the laws of the territory in which they are engaged, except those which consult public order, or determine the solemnity of acts; 3.deg. But they are bound by general laws even if these are not in force in their own territory, and certainly not if they are not binding in the place in which they are engaged. match 2. Wanderers are bound by the laws, both general and particular, which are in force in the place in which they are engaged. Can. 15. Laws, even vexatious and disabling, do not press upon a question of law; but in case of doubt the Ordinary may administer in them, provided that it is a matter of laws in which the Roman Pontiff is accustomed to administer. Can. 16. par. l. No ignorance of the irritating or disabling laws excuses from them, unless otherwise expressly stated. match 2. Ignorance or error about the law or punishment, or about one’s own deed or about another’s notorious deed, is not generally presumed; it is presumed that a foreign deed is not known, until the contrary is proved. Can. 17. par. l. Laws are authentically interpreted by the legislator or his successor and by the one to whom the power of interpretation has been entrusted by them. match 2. An authentic interpretation, presented in the form of a law, has the same force as the law itself; and if he only declares the words of the law certain in themselves, he does not need promulgation and is valid retroactively; if it restricts or extends the law or explains the doubt, it is not retracted and must be promulgated. match 3. However, given by way of a judicial decision or rescript in a particular case, it does not have the force of law and only binds the persons and affects the things for which it was given. Can. 18. Ecclesiastical laws are to be understood according to the proper meaning of the words considered in the text and context; if it remains doubtful and obscure, recourse must be had to the parallel passages of the Code, if there be any, to the purpose and circumstances of the law, and to the mind of the legislator. Can. 19. Laws which establish punishment, or restrict the free exercise of rights, or contain an exception from the law, are subject to strict interpretation. Can. 20. If there is no express provision of the law, whether general or particular, on a certain matter, the norm is to be taken, unless it is a matter of applying penalties, from laws passed in similar cases; observed by the general principles of law with canonical equity; from the style and practice of the Roman Court; by the common and constant opinion of the doctors. Can. 21. Laws passed for the prevention of general danger, are urgent, even if there is no danger in a particular case. Can. 22. A later law, passed by a competent authority, overrides the former, if it expressly promulgates it, or is directly contrary to it, or orders the entire matter of the former law from its entirety; but firmly presupposed can. 6, no. 1, the general law in no way derogates from the statutes of special places and singular persons, unless otherwise expressly provided for in it. Can. 23. In case of doubt, the revocation of a pre-existing law is not presumed, but the later laws must be drawn to the earlier ones and reconciled with them as far as possible. Can. 24. Precepts, given to individuals, bind those to whom they are given everywhere, but they cannot be judicially enforced, and they cease to be resolved by the right of the person giving the order, unless they have been imposed by a legitimate document or in the presence of two witnesses.
TITULUS II. De consuetudine.
TITULUS III. De temporis supputatione.
TITULUS IV. De rescriptis.
TITULUS V. De privilegiis.
TITULUS VI. De dispensationibus.