The Indian Institutes of Information Technology (Public-Private Partnership) Act 2017

“public-private partnership ” means such partnership under a scheme of the Central Government which provides for establishment of Institute involving collaboration between the Central Government, the State Government and industry partners;

The Indian Institutes of Information Technology (Public-Private Partnership) Act 2017

(Act No. 23 of 2017)

Dated: 9th August, 2017

An Act to declare certain Indian Institutes of Information Technology established under public-private partnership as institutions of national importance, with a view to develop new knowledge in information technology and to provide manpower of global standards for the information technology industry and to provide for certain other matters connected with such institutions or incidental thereto.

Be it enacted by Parliament in the Sixty-eighth Year of the Republic of India as follows:-

CHAPTER I

Preliminary

1. Short title and commencement. – (1) This Act may be called the Indian Institutes of Information Technology (Public-private Partnership) Act, 2017.
(2) It shall come into force on such date as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint.

2. Declaration of certain institutions as institutions of national importance. – Whereas the objects of the Institutes mentioned in the Schedule are such as to make them institutions of national importance, it is hereby declared that each such Institute is an institution of national importance.

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The Registration Of Births And Deaths Act 1969

The Registration Of Births And Deaths Act 1969

(18 of 1969)

31 st May , 1969

An Act to provide for the regulation of registration of births and deaths and for matters connected therewith.

Be it enacted by Parliament in the Twentieth Year of the Republic of India as follows:

CHAPTER I

Preliminary

1. Short title, extent and commencement .(1) This Act may be called The Registration of Births and Deaths Act , 1969.

(2) It extends to the whole of India.

(3) It shall come into force in a State on such date as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint:

Provided that different/dates may be appointed for different parts of a State.

2. Definitions and interpretation .(1) In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires,
(a) birth means live-birth or still-birth;

(b) death means the permanent disappearance of all evidence of life at any time after live-birth has taken place;

(c) foetal death means absence of all evidence of life prior to the complete expulsion or extraction from its mother of a product of conception irrespective of the duration of pregnancy;

(d) live-birth means the complete expulsion or extraction from its mother of a product of conception, irrespective of the duration of pregnancy, which, after such expulsion or extraction, breathes or shows any other evidence of life, and each product of such birth is considered live-born;

(e) prescribed means prescribed by rules made under this Act;

(f) State Government, in relation to a Union territory, means the Administrator thereof;

(g) still-birth means foetal death where a product of conception has attained at least the prescribed period of gestation.

(2) Any reference in this Act to any law which is not in force in any area shall , in relation to that area, be construed as a reference to the corresponding law, if any, in force in that area.

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The Protection Of Civil Rights Act 1955

Civil rights means any right accruing to a person by reason of the abolition of untouchability by article 17 of the Constitution;

(22 of 1955)

An Act to prescribe punishment for the preaching and practice of untouchability, for the enforcement of any disability arising therefrom and for matters connected therewith.

Be it enacted by Parliament in the Sixth Year of the Republic of India as follows:

1. Short title, extent and commencement- (1) This Act may be called The Protection of Civil Rights Act , 1955.
(2) It extends to the whole of India.
(3) It shall come into force on such date as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint.
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SECURITIES CONTRACTS (REGULATION) ACT 1956

SECURITIES CONTRACTS (REGULATION) ACT, 1956

[As amended by the Finance Act, 2017]

[42 OF 1956]

SECTIONS

PRELIMINARY

1. Short title, extent and commencement

2. Definitions

RECOGNISED STOCK EXCHANGES

3. Application for recognition of stock exchanges

4. Grant of recognition to stock exchanges.

4A. Corporatisation and demutualisation of stock exchanges

4B. Procedure for corporatisation and demutualisation

5. Withdrawal of recognition

6. Power of Central Government to call for periodical returns or direct inquiries to be made

7. Annual reports to be furnished to Central Government by stock exchanges

7A. Power of recognised stock exchange to make rules restricting voting rights, etc

8. Power of Central Government to direct rules to be made or to make rules
8A. Clearing corporation

9. Power of recognised stock exchanges to make bye-laws

10. Power of Securities and Exchange Board of India to make or amend bye-laws of recognised stock exchanges

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The Foreign Exchange Management Act 1999

The Foreign Exchange Management Act 1999

42 of 1999

An Act to consolidate and amend the law relating to foreign exchange with the objective of facilitating external trade and payments and for promoting the orderly development and maintenance of foreign exchange market in India.

Be it enacted by Parliament in the Fiftieth Year of the Republic of India as follows:

CHAPTER I

Preliminary

1. Short title, extent, application and commencement . (1) This Act may be called The Foreign Exchange Management Act , 1999.

(2) It extends to the whole of India.

(3) It shall also apply to all branches, offices and agencies outside India owned or controlled by a person resident in India and also to any contravention thereunder committed outside India by any person to whom this Act applies.

(4) It shall come into force on such date as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint:

Provided that different dates may be appointed for different provisions of this Act and any reference in any such provision to the commencement of this Act shall be construed as a reference to the coming into force of that provision.

2. Definitions. In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires,

(a) Adjudicating Authority means an officer authorised under sub-section (1) of section 16;

(b) Appellate Tribunal means the Appellate Tribunal for Foreign Exchange established under section 18;

(c) authorised person means an authorised dealer, money changer, off-shore banking unit or any other person for the time being authorised under sub-section (1) of section 10 to deal in foreign exchange or foreign securities;

(d) Bench means a Bench of the Appellate Tribunal;

(e) capital account transaction means a transaction which alters the assets or liabilities, including contingent liabilities, outside India of persons resident in India or assets or liabilities in India of persons resident outside India, and includes transactions referred to in sub-section (3) of section 6;

(f) Chairperson means the Chairperson of the Appellate Tribunal;

(g) chartered accountant shall have the meaning assigned to it in clause (b) of sub-section (1) of section 2 of the Chartered Accountants Act, 1949 (38 of 1949);

(h) currency includes all currency notes, postal notes, postal orders, money orders, cheques, drafts, travellers cheques, letters of credit, bills of exchange and promissory notes, credit cards or such other similar instruments, as may be notified by the Reserve Bank;

(i) currency notes means and includes cash in the form of coins and bank notes;

(j) current account transaction means a transaction other than a capital account transaction and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing such transaction includes,

(i) payments due in connection with foreign trade, other current business, services, and short-term banking and credit facilities in the ordinary course of business,

(ii) payments due as interest on loans and as net income from investments,

(iii) remittances for living expenses of parents, spouse and children residing abroad, and

(iv) expenses in connection with foreign travel, education and medical care of parents, spouse and children;

(k) Director of Enforcement means the Director of Enforcement appointed under sub-section (1) of section 36;

(l) export, with its grammatical variations and cognate expressions, means,

(i) the taking out of India to a place outside India any goods,

(ii) provision of services from India to any person outside India;

(m) foreign currency means any currency other than Indian currency;

(n) foreign exchange means foreign currency and includes,

(i) deposits, credits and balances payable in any foreign currency,

(ii) drafts, travellers cheques, letters of credit or bills of exchange, expressed or drawn in Indian currency but payable in any foreign currency,

(iii) drafts, travellers cheques, letters of credit or bills of exchange drawn by banks, institutions or persons outside India, but payable in Indian currency;

(o) foreign security means any security, in the form of shares, stocks, bonds, debentures or any other instrument denominated or expressed in foreign currency and includes securities expressed in foreign currency, but where redemption or any form of return such as interest or dividends is payable in Indian currency;

(p) import, with its grammatical variations and cognate expressions, means bringing into India any goods or services;

(q) Indian currency means currency which is expressed or drawn in Indian rupees but does not include special bank notes and special one rupee notes issued under section 28-A of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 (2 of 1934);

(r) legal practitioner shall have the meaning assigned to it in clause (i) of sub-section (1) of section 2 of the Advocates Act, 1961 (25 of 1961);

(s) Member means a Member of the Appellate Tribunal and includes the Chairperson thereof;

(t) notify means to notify in the Official Gazette and the expression notification shall be construed accordingly;

(u) person includes

(i) an individual,

(ii) a Hindu undivided family,

(iii) a company,

(iv) a firm,

(v) an association of persons or a body of individuals, whether incorporated or not,

(vi) every artificial juridical person, not falling within any of the preceding sub-clauses, and

(vii) any agency, office or branch owned or controlled by such person;

(v) person resident in India means

(i) a person residing in India for more than one hundred and eighty-two days during the course of the preceding financial year but does not include

(A) a person who has gone out of India or who stays outside India, in either case

(a) for or on taking up employment outside India, or

(b) for carrying on outside India a business or vocation outside India, or

(c) for any other purpose, in such circumstances as would indicate his intention to stay outside India for an uncertain period;

(B) a person who has come to or stays in India, in either case, otherwise than

(a) for or on taking up employment in India, or

(b) for carrying on in India a business or vocation in India, or

(c) for any other purpose, in such circumstances as would indicate his intention to stay in India for an uncertain period;

(ii) any person or body corporate registered or incorporated in India,

(iii) an office, branch or agency in India owned or controlled by a person resident outside India,

(iv) an office, branch or agency outside India owned or controlled by a person resident in India;

(w) person resident outside India means a person who is not resident in India;

(x) prescribed means prescribed by rules made under this Act;

(y) repatriate to India means bringing into India the realised foreign exchange and

(i) the selling of such foreign exchange to an authorised person in India in exchange for rupees; or

(ii) the holding of realised amount in an account with an authorised person in India to the extent notified by the Reserve Bank, and includes use of the realised amount for discharge of a debt or liability denominated in foreign exchange and the expression repatriation shall be construed accordingly;

(z) Reserve Bank means the Reserve Bank of India constituted under sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 (2 of 1934);

(za) security means shares, stocks, bonds and debentures, Government securities as defined in the Public Debt Act, 1944 (18 of 1944), savings certificates to which the Government Savings Certificates Act, 1959 (46 of 1959) applies, deposit receipts in respect of deposits of securities and units of the Unit Trust of India established under sub-section (1) of section 3 of the [Unit Trust of India Act, 1963 (52 of 1963)] or of any mutual fund and includes certificates of title to securities, but does not include bills of exchange or promissory notes other than Government promissory notes or any other instruments which may be notified by the Reserve Bank as security for the purposes of this Act;

(zb) service means service of any description which is made available to potential users and includes the provision of facilities in connection with banking, financing, insurance, medical assistance, legal assistance, chit fund, real estate, transport, processing, supply of electrical or other energy, boarding or lodging or both, entertainment, amusement or the purveying of news or other information, but does not include the rendering of any service free of charge or under a contract of personal service;

(zc) Special Director (Appeals) means an officer appointed under section 18;

(zd) specify means to specify by regulations made under this Act and the expression specified shall be construed accordingly;

(ze) transfer includes sale, purchase, exchange, mortgage, pledge, gift, loan or any other form of transfer of right, title, possession or lien.

CHAPTER II

Regulation And Management Of Foreign Exchange

3. Dealing in foreign exchange, etc .Save as otherwise provided in this Act, rules or regulations made thereunder, or with the general or special permission of the Reserve Bank, no person shall
(a) deal in or transfer any foreign exchange or foreign security to any person not being an authorised person;

(b) make any payment to or for the credit of any person resident outside India in any manner;

(c) receive otherwise through an authorised person, any payment by order or on behalf of any person resident outside India in any manner;

Explanation. For the purpose of this clause, where any person in, or resident in, India receives any payment by order or on behalf of any person resident outside India through any other person (including an authorised person) without a corresponding inward remittance from any place outside India, then, such person shall be deemed to have received such payment otherwise than through an authorised person;
(d) enter into any financial transaction in India as consideration for or in association with acquisition or creation or transfer of a right to acquire, any asset outside India by any person.

Explanation .For the purpose of this clause, financial transaction means making any payment to, or for the credit of any person, or receiving any payment for, by order or on behalf of any person, or drawing, issuing or negotiating any bill of exchange or promissory note, or transferring any security or acknowledging any debt.

4. Holding of foreign exchange, etc .Save as otherwise provided in this Act, no person resident in India shall acquire, hold, own, possess or transfer any foreign exchange, foreign security or any immovable property situated outside India.

5. Current account transactions .Any person may sell or draw foreign exchange to or from an authorised person if such sale or drawal is a current account transaction:
Provided that the Central Government may, in public interest and in consultation with the Reserve Bank, impose such reasonable restrictions for current account transactions as may be prescribed.

6. Capital account transactions .(1) Subject to the provisions of sub-section (2), any person may sell or draw foreign exchange to or from an authorised person for a capital account transaction.
(2) The Reserve Bank may, in consultation with the Central Government, specify
(a) any class or classes of capital account transactions which are permissible;

(b) the limit up to which foreign exchange shall be admissible for such transactions:

Provided that the Reserve Bank shall not impose any restriction on the drawal of foreign exchange for payments due on account of amortization of loans or for depreciation of direct investments in the ordinary course of business.
(3) Without prejudice to the generality of the provisions of sub-section (2), the Reserve Bank may, by regulations, prohibit, restrict or regulate the following
(a) transfer or issue of any foreign security by a person resident in India;

(b) transfer or issue of any security by a person resident outside India;

(c) transfer or issue of any security or foreign security by any branch, office or agency in India of a person resident outside India;

(d) any borrowing or lending in foreign exchange in whatever form or by whatever name called;

(e) any borrowing or lending in rupees in whatever form or by whatever name called between a person resident in India and a person resident outside India;

(f) deposits between persons resident in India and persons resident outside India;

(g) export, import or holding of currency or currency notes;

(h) transfer of immovable property outside India, other than a lease not exceeding five years, by a person resident in India;

(i) acquisition or transfer of immovable property in India, other than a lease not exceeding five years, by a person resident outside India;

(j) giving of a guarantee or surety in respect of any debt, obligation or other liability incurred

(i) by a person resident in India and owed to a person resident outside India; or

(ii) by a person resident outside India.

(4) A person resident in India may hold, own, transfer or invest in foreign currency, foreign security or any immovable property situated outside India if such currency, security or property was acquired, held or owned by such person when he was resident outside India or inherited from a person who was resident outside India.
(5) A person resident outside India may hold, own, transfer or invest in Indian currency, security or any immovable property situated in India if such currency, security or property was acquired, held or owned by such person when he was resident in India or inherited from a person who was resident in India.
(6) Without prejudice to the provisions of this section, the Reserve Bank may, by regulation, prohibit, restrict, or regulate establishment in India of a branch, office or other place of business by a person resident outside India, for carrying on any activity relating to such branch, office or other place of business.

7. Export of goods and services .(1) Every exporter of goods shall
(a) furnish to the Reserve Bank or to such other authority a declaration in such form and in such manner as may be specified, containing true and correct material particulars, including the amount representing the full export value or, if the full export value of the goods is not ascertainable at the time of export, the value which the exporter, having regard to the prevailing market conditions, expects to receive on the sale of the goods in a market outside India;

(b) furnish to the Reserve Bank such other information as may be required by the Reserve Bank for the purpose of ensuring the realisation of the export proceeds by such exporter.

(2) The Reserve Bank may, for the purpose of ensuring that the full export value of the goods or such reduced value of the goods as the Reserve Bank determines, having regard to the prevailing market conditions, is received without any delay, direct any exporter to comply with such requirements as it deems fit.
(3) Every exporter of services shall furnish to the Reserve Bank or to such other authorities a declaration in such form and in such manner as may be specified, containing the true and correct material particulars in relation to payment for such services.

8. Realisation and repatriation of foreign exchange .Save as otherwise provided in this Act, where any amount of foreign exchange is due or has accrued to any person resident in India, such person shall take all reasonable steps to realise and repatriate to India such foreign exchange within such period and in such manner as may be specified by the Reserve Bank.

9. Exemption from realisation and repatriation in certain cases .The provisions of sections 4 and 8 shall not apply to the following, namely:
(a) possession of foreign currency or foreign coins by any person up to such limit as the Reserve Bank may specify;

(b) foreign currency account held or operated by such person or class of persons and the limit up to which the Reserve Bank may specify;

(c) foreign exchange acquired or received before the 8th day of July, 1947 or any income arising or accruing thereon which is held outside India by any person in pursuance of a general or special permission granted by the Reserve Bank;

(d) foreign exchange held by a person resident in India up to such limit as the Reserve Bank may specify, if such foreign exchange was acquired by way of gift or inheritance from a person referred to in clause (c), including any income arising therefrom;

(e) foreign exchange acquired from employment, business, trade, vocation, services, honorarium, gifts, inheritance or any other legitimate means up to such limit as the Reserve Bank may specify; and

(f) such other receipts in foreign exchange as the Reserve Bank may specify.

CHAPTER III

Authorised Person

10. Authorised person .(1) The Reserve Bank may, on an application made to it in this behalf, authorise any person to be known as authorised person to deal in foreign exchange or in foreign securities, as an authorised dealer, money changer or off-shore banking unit or in any other manner as it deems fit.
(2) An authorisation under this section shall be in writing and shall be subject to the conditions laid down therein.
(3) An authorisation granted under sub-section (1) may be revoked by the Reserve Bank at any time if the Reserve Bank is satisfied that
(a) it is in public interest so to do; or

(b) the authorised person has failed to comply with the condition subject to which the authorisation was granted or has contravened any of the provisions of the Act or any rule, regulation, notification, direction or order made thereunder:

Provided that no such authorisation shall be revoked on any ground referred to in clause (b) unless the authorised person has been given a reasonable opportunity of making a representation in the matter.
(4) An authorised person shall, in all his dealings in foreign exchange or foreign security, comply with such general or special directions or orders as the Reserve Bank may, from time to time, think fit to give, and, except with the previous permission of the Reserve Bank, an authorised person shall not engage in any transaction involving any foreign exchange or foreign security which is not in conformity with the terms of his authorisation under this section.
(5) An authorised person shall, before undertaking any transaction in foreign exchange on behalf of any person, require that person to make such declaration and to give such information as will reasonably satisfy him that the transaction will not involve, and is not designed for the purpose of any contravention or evasion of the provisions of this Act or of any rule, regulation, notification, direction or order made thereunder, and where the said person refuses to comply with any such requirement or makes only unsatisfactory compliance therewith, the authorised person shall refuse in writing to undertake the transaction and shall, if he has reason to believe that any such contravention or evasion as aforesaid is contemplated by the person, report the matter to the Reserve Bank.
(6) Any person, other than an authorised person, who has acquired or purchased foreign exchange for any purpose mentioned in the declaration made by him to authorised person under sub-section (5) does not use it for such purpose or does not surrender it to authorised person within the specified period or uses the foreign exchange so acquired or purchased for any other purpose for which purchase or acquisition of foreign exchange is not permissible under the provisions of the Act or the rules or regulations or direction or order made thereunder shall be deemed to have committed contravention of the provisions of the Act for the purpose of this section.

11. Reserve Banks powers to issue directions to authorised person .(1) The Reserve Bank may, for the purpose of securing compliance with the provisions of this Act and of any rules, regulations, notifications or directions made thereunder, give to the authorised persons any direction in regard to making of payment or the doing or desist from doing any act relating to foreign exchange or foreign security.
(2) The Reserve Bank may, for the purpose of ensuring the compliance with the provisions of this Act or of any rule, regulation, notification, direction or order made thereunder, direct any authorised person to furnish such information, in such manner, as it deems fit.
(3) Where any authorised person contravenes any direction given by the Reserve Bank under this Act or fails to file any return as directed by the Reserve Bank, the Reserve Bank may, after giving reasonable opportunity of being heard, impose on the authorised person a penalty which may extend to ten thousand rupees and in the case of continuing contravention with an additional penalty which may extend to two thousand rupees for every day during which such contravention continues.

12. Power of Reserve Bank to inspect authorised person .(1) The Reserve Bank may, at any time, cause an inspection to be made, by any officer of the Reserve Bank specially authorised in writing by the Reserve Bank in this behalf, of the business of any authorised person as may appear to it to be necessary or expedient for the purpose of
(a) verifying the correctness of any statement, information or particulars furnished to the Reserve Bank;

(b) obtaining any information or particulars which such authorised person has failed to furnish on being called upon to do so;

(c) securing compliance with the provisions of this Act or of any rules, regulations, directions or orders made thereunder.

(2) It shall be the duty of every authorised person, and where such person is a company or a firm, every director, partner or other officer of such company or firm, as the case may be, to produce to any officer making an inspection under sub-section (1), such books, accounts and other documents in his custody or power and to furnish any statement or information relating to the affairs of such person, company or firm as the said officer may require within such time and in such manner as the said officer may direct.

CHAPTER IV

Contravention And Penalties

13. Penalties .(1) If any person contravenes any provision of this Act, or contravenes any rule, regulation, notification, direction or order issued in exercise of the powers under this Act, or contravenes any condition subject to which an authorisation is issued by the Reserve Bank, he shall, upon adjudication, be liable to a penalty up to thrice the sum involved in such contravention where such amount is quantifiable, or up to two lakh rupees where the amount is not quantifiable, and where such contravention is a continuing one, further penalty which may extend to five thousand rupees for every day after the first day during which the contravention continues.
(2) Any Adjudicating Authority adjudging any contravention under sub-section (1), may, if he thinks fit in addition to any penalty which he may impose for such contravention direct that any currency, security or any other money or property in respect of which the contravention has taken place shall be confiscated to the Central Government and further direct that the foreign exchange holdings, if any, of the persons committing the contraventions or any part thereof, shall be brought back into India or shall be retained outside India in accordance with the directions made in this behalf.

Explanation. For the purposes of this sub-section, property in respect of which contravention has taken place, shall include
(a) deposits in a bank, where the said property is converted into such deposits;

(b) Indian currency, where the said property is converted into that currency; and

(c) any other property which has resulted out of the conversion of that property.

14. Enforcement of the orders of Adjudicating Authority .(1) Subject to the provisions of sub-section (2) of section 19, if any person fails to make full payment of the penalty imposed on him under section 13 within a period of ninety days from the date on which the notice for payment of such penalty is served on him, he shall be liable to civil imprisonment under this section.
(2) No order for the arrest and detention in civil prison of a defaulter shall be made unless the Adjudicating Authority has issued and served a notice upon the defaulter calling upon him to appear before him on the date specified in the notice and to show cause why he should not be committed to the civil prison, and unless the Adjudicating Authority, for reasons in writing, is satisfied
(a) that the defaulter, with the object or effect of obstructing the recovery of penalty, has after the issue of notice by the Adjudicating Authority, dishonestly transferred, concealed, or removed any part of his property, or

(b) that the defaulter has, or has had since the issuing of notice by the Adjudicating Authority, the means to pay the arrears or some substantial part thereof and refuses or neglects or has refused or neglected to pay the same.

(3) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), a warrant for the arrest of the defaulter may be issued by the Adjudicating Authority if the Adjudicating Authority is satisfied, by affidavit or otherwise, that with the object or effect of delaying the execution of the certificate the defaulter is likely to abscond or leave the local limits of the jurisdiction of the Adjudicating Authority.
(4) Where appearance is not made pursuant to a notice issued and served under sub-section (1), the Adjudicating Authority may issue a warrant for the arrest of the defaulter.
(5) A warrant of arrest issued by the Adjudicating Authority under sub-section (3) or sub-section (4) may also be executed by any other Adjudicating Authority within whose jurisdiction the defaulter may for the time being be found.
(6) Every person arrested in pursuance of a warrant of arrest under this section shall be brought before the Adjudicating Authority issuing the warrant as soon as practicable and in any event within twenty-four hours of his arrest (exclusive of the time required for the journey):

Provided that if the defaulter pays the amount entered in the warrant of arrest as due and the costs of the arrest to the officer arresting him, such officer shall at once release him.

Explanation. For the purposes of this sub-section, where the defaulter is a Hindu undivided family, the karta thereof shall be deemed to be the defaulter.

(7) When a defaulter appears before the Adjudicating Authority pursuant to a notice to show cause or is brought before the Adjudicating Authority under this section, the Adjudicating Authority shall give the defaulter an opportunity showing cause why he should not be committed to the civil prison.
(8) Pending the conclusion of the inquiry, the Adjudicating Authority may, in his discretion, order the defaulter to be detained in the custody of such officer as the Adjudicating Authority may think fit or release him on his furnishing the security to the satisfaction of the Adjudicating Authority for his appearance as and when required.
(9) Upon the conclusion of the inquiry, the Adjudicating Authority may make an order for the detention of the defaulter in the civil prison and shall in that event cause him to be arrested if he is not already under arrest:

Provided that in order to give a defaulter an opportunity of satisfying the arrears, the Adjudicating Authority may, before making the order of detention, leave the defaulter in the custody of the officer arresting him or of any other officer for a specified period not exceeding fifteen days, or release him on his furnishing security to the satisfaction of the Adjudicating Authority for his appearance at the expiration of the specified period if the arrears are not satisfied.

(10) When the Adjudicating Authority does not make an order of detention under sub-section (9), he shall, if the defaulter is under arrest, direct his release.
(11) Every person detained in the civil prison in execution of the certificate may be so detained,
(a) where the certificate is for a demand of an amount exceeding rupees one crore, up to three years, and

(b) in any other case, up to six months:

Provided that he shall be released from such detention on the amount mentioned in the warrant for his detention being paid to the officer-in-charge of the civil prison.
(12) A defaulter released from detention under this section shall not, merely by reason of his release, be discharged from his liability for the arrears, but he shall not be liable to be arrested under the certificate in execution of which he was detained in the civil prison.
(13) A detention order may be executed at any place in India in the manner provided for the execution of warrant of arrest under the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974).

15. Power to compound contravention. (1) Any contravention under section 13 may, on an application made by the person committing such contravention, be compounded within one hundred and eighty days from the date of receipt of application by the Director of Enforcement or such other officers of the Directorate of Enforcement and officers of the Reserve Bank as may be authorised in this behalf by the Central Government in such manner as may be prescribed.
(2) Where a contravention has been compounded under sub-section (1), no proceeding or further proceeding, as the case may be, shall be initiated or continued, as the case may be, against the person committing such contravention under that section, in respect of the contravention so compounded.

CHAPTER V

Adjudication And Appeal

16. Appointment of Adjudicating Authority. (1) For the purpose of adjudication under section 13, the Central Government may, by an order published in the Official Gazette, appoint as many officers of the Central Government as it may think fit, as the Adjudicating Authorities for holding an inquiry in the manner prescribed after giving the person alleged to have committed contravention under section 13, against whom a complaint has been made under sub-section (3) (hereinafter in this section referred to as the said person) a reasonable opportunity of being heard for the purpose of imposing any penalty:

Provided that where the Adjudicating Authority is of opinion that the said person is likely to abscond or is likely to evade in any manner, the payment of penalty, if levied, it may direct the said person to furnish a bond or guarantee for such amount and subject to such conditions as it may deem fit.

(2) The Central Government shall, while appointing the Adjudicating Authorities under sub-section (1), also specify in the order published in the Official Gazette, their respective jurisdictions.
(3) No Adjudicating Authority shall hold an enquiry under sub-section (1) except upon a complaint in writing made by any officer authorised by a general or special order by the Central Government.
(4) The said person may appear either in person or take the assistance of a legal practitioner or a chartered accountant of his choice for presenting his case before the Adjudicating Authority.
(5) Every Adjudicating Authority shall have the same powers of a Civil Court which are conferred on the Appellate Tribunal under sub-section (2) of section 28 and
(a) all proceedings before it shall be deemed to be judicial proceedings within the meaning of sections 193 and 228 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860);

(b) shall be deemed to be a Civil Court for the purposes of sections 345 and 346 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974).

(6) Every Adjudicating Authority shall deal with the complaint under sub-section (2) as expeditiously as possible and endeavour shall be made to dispose of the complaint finally within one year from the date of receipt of the complaint:

Provided that where the complaint cannot be disposed of within the said period, the Adjudicating Authority shall record periodically the reasons in writing for not disposing of the complaint within the said period.

17. Appeal to Special Director (Appeals). (1) The Central Government shall, by notification, appoint one or more Special Directors (Appeals) to hear appeals against the orders of the Adjudicating Authorities under this section and shall also specify in the said notification the matter and places in relation to which the Special Director (Appeals) may exercise jurisdiction.
(2) Any person aggrieved by an order made by the Adjudicating Authority, being an Assistant Director of Enforcement or a Deputy Director of Enforcement, may prefer an appeal to the Special Director (Appeals).
(3) Every appeal under sub-section (1) shall be filed within forty-five days from the date on which the copy of the order made by the Adjudicating Authority is received by the aggrieved person and it shall be in such form, verified in such manner and be accompanied by such fee as may be prescribed:
Provided that the Special Director (Appeals) may entertain an appeal after the expiry of the said period of forty-five days, if he is satisfied that there was sufficient cause for not filing it within that period.
(4) On receipt of an appeal under sub-section (1), the Special Director (Appeals) may after giving the parties to the appeal an opportunity of being heard, pass such order thereon as he thinks fit, confirming, modifying or setting aside the order appealed against.
(5) The Special Director (Appeals) shall send a copy of every order made by him to the parties to appeal and to the concerned Adjudicating Authority.
(6) The Special Director (Appeals) shall have the same powers of a Civil Court which are conferred on the Appellate Tribunal under sub-section (2) of section 28 and
(a) all proceedings before him shall be deemed to be judicial proceedings within the meaning of sections 193 and 228 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860);

(b) shall be deemed to be a Civil Court for the purposes of sections 345 and 346 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974).

18. Establishment of Appellate Tribunal. The Central Government shall, by notification, establish an Appellate Tribunal to be known as the Appellate Tribunal for Foreign Exchange to hear appeals against the orders of the Adjudicating Authorities and the Special Director (Appeals) under this Act.

19. Appeal to Appellate Tribunal. (1) Save as provided in sub-section (2), the Central Government or any person aggrieved by an order made by an Adjudicating Authority, other than those referred to in sub-section (1) of section 17, or the Special Director (Appeals), may prefer an appeal to the Appellate Tribunal:
Provided that any person appealing against the order of the Adjudicating Authority or the Special Director (Appeals) levying any penalty, shall while filing the appeal, deposit the amount of such penalty with such authority as may be notified by the Central Government:
Provided further that where in any particular case, the Appellate Tribunal is of the opinion that the deposit of such penalty would cause undue hardship to such person, the Appellate Tribunal may dispense with such deposit subject to such conditions as it may deem fit to impose so as to safeguard the realisation of penalty.
(2) Every appeal under sub-section (1) shall be filed within a period of forty-five days from the date on which a copy of the order made by the Adjudicating Authority or the Special Director (Appeals) is received by the aggrieved person or by the Central Government and it shall be in such form, verified in such manner and be accompanied by such fee as may be prescribed:
Provided that the Appellate Tribunal may entertain an appeal after the expiry of the said period of forty-five days if it is satisfied that there was sufficient cause for not filing it within that period.
(3) On receipt of an appeal under sub-section (1), the Appellate Tribunal may, after giving the parties to the appeal an opportunity of being heard, pass such orders thereon as it thinks fit, confirming, modifying or setting aside the order appealed against.
(4) The Appellate Tribunal shall send a copy of every order made by it to the parties to the appeal and to the concerned Adjudicating Authority or the Special Director (Appeals), as the case may be.
(5) The appeal filed before the Appellate Tribunal under sub-section (1) shall be dealt with by it as expeditiously as possible and endeavour shall be made by it to dispose of the appeal finally within one hundred and eighty days from the date of receipt of the appeal:
Provided that where any appeal could not be disposed of within the said period of one hundred and eighty days, the Appellate Tribunal shall record its reasons in writing for not disposing of the appeal within the said period.
(6) The Appellate Tribunal may, for the purpose of examining the legality, propriety or correctness of any order made by the Adjudicating Authority under section 16 in relation to any proceeding, on its own motion or otherwise, call for the records of such proceedings and make such order in the case as it thinks fit.

20. Composition of Appellate Tribunal .(1) The Appellate Tribunal shall consist of a Chairperson and such number of Members as the Central Government may deem fit.
(2) Subject to the provisions of this Act,
(a) the jurisdiction of the Appellate Tribunal may be exercised by Benches thereof;

(b) a Bench may be constituted by the Chairperson with one or more Members as the Chairperson may deem fit;

(c) the Benches of the Appellate Tribunal shall ordinarily sit at New Delhi and at such other places as the Central Government may, in consultation with the Chairperson, notify;

(d) the Central Government shall notify the areas in relation to which each Bench of the Appellate Tribunal may exercise jurisdiction.

(3) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (2), the Chairperson may transfer a Member from one Bench to another Bench.
(4) If at any stage of the hearing of any case or matter it appears to the Chairperson or a Member that the case of matter is of such a nature that it ought to be heard by a Bench consisting of two Members, the case or matter may be transferred by the Chairperson or, as the case may be, referred to him for transfer, to such Bench as the Chairperson may deem fit.

21. Qualifications for appointment of Chairperson, Member and Special Director (Appeals) .(1) A person shall not be qualified for appointment as the Chairperson or a Member unless he
(a) in the case of Chairperson, is or has been, or is qualified to be, a Judge of a High Court; and

(b) in the case of a Member, is or has been, or is qualified to be, a District Judge.

(2) A person shall not be qualified for appointment as a Special Director (Appeals) unless he
(a) has been a member of the Indian Legal Service and has held a post in Grade I of that Service; or

(b) has been a member of the Indian Revenue Service and has held a post equivalent to a Joint Secretary to the Government of India.

22. Term of office .The Chairperson and every other Member shall hold office as such for a term of five years from the date on which he enters upon his office:
Provided that no Chairperson or other Member shall hold office as such after he has attained,
(a) in the case of the Chairperson, the age of sixty-five years;

(b) in the case of any other Member, the age of sixty-two years.

23. Terms and conditions of service .The salary and allowances payable to and the other terms and conditions of service of the Chairperson, other Members and the Special Director (Appeals) shall be such as may be prescribed:
Provided that neither the salary and allowances nor the other terms and conditions of service of the Chairperson or a Member shall be varied to his disadvantage after appointment.

24. Vacancies .If, for reason other than temporary absence, any vacancy occurs in the office of the Chairperson or a Member, the Central Government shall appoint another person in accordance with the provisions of this Act to fill the vacancy and the proceedings may be continued before the Appellate Tribunal from the stage at which the vacancy is filled.

25. Resignation and removal .(1) The Chairperson or a Member may, by notice in writing under his hand addressed to the Central Government, resign his office:
Provided that the Chairperson or a Member shall, unless he is permitted by the Central Government to relinquish his office sooner, continue to hold office until the expiry of three months from the date of receipt of such notice or until a person duly appointed as his successor enters upon his office or until the expiry of term of office, whichever is the earliest.
(2) The Chairperson or a Member shall not be removed from his office except by an order by the Central Government on the ground of proved misbehaviour or incapacity after an inquiry made by such person as the President may appoint for this purpose in which the Chairperson or a Member concerned has been informed of the charges against him and given a reasonable opportunity of being heard in respect of such charges.

26. Member to act as Chairperson in certain circumstances .(1) In the event of the occurrence of any vacancy in the office of the Chairperson by reason of his death, resignation or otherwise, the senior-most Member shall act as the Chairperson until the date on which a new Chairperson, appointed in accordance with the provisions of this Act to fill such vacancy, enters upon his office.
(2) When the Chairperson is unable to discharge his functions owing to absence, illness or any other cause, the senior-most Member shall discharge the functions of the Chairperson until the date on which the Chairperson resumes his duties.

27. Staff of Appellate Tribunal and Special Director (Appeals) .(1) The Central Government shall provide the Appellate Tribunal and the Special Director (Appeals) with such officers and employees as it may deem fit.
(2) The officers and employees of the Appellate Tribunal and office of the Special Director (Appeals) shall discharge their functions under the general superintendence of the Chairperson and the Special Director (Appeals), as the case may be.
(3) The salaries and allowances and other conditions of service of the officers and employees of the Appellate Tribunal and office of the Special Director (Appeals) shall be such as may be prescribed.

28. Procedure and powers of Appellate Tribunal and Special Director (Appeals). (1) The Appellate Tribunal and the Special Director (Appeals) shall not be bound by the procedure laid down by the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908), but shall be guided by the principles of natural justice and, subject to the other provisions of this Act, the Appellate Tribunal and the Special Director (Appeals) shall have powers to regulate its own procedure.
(2) The Appellate Tribunal and the Special Director (Appeals) shall have, for the purposes of discharging its functions under this Act, the same powers as are vested in a Civil Court under the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908) while trying a suit, in respect of the following matters, namely:
(a) summoning and enforcing the attendance of any person and examining him on oath;

(b) requiring the discovery and production of documents;

(c) receiving evidence on affidavits;

(d) subject to the provisions of sections 123 and 124 of the Indian Evidence Act, 1872 (1 of 1872), requisitioning any public record or document or copy of such record or document from any office;

(e) issuing commissions for the examination of witnesses or documents;

(f) reviewing its decisions;

(g) dismissing a representation of default or deciding it ex parte;

(h) setting aside any order of dismissal of any representation for default or any order passed by it ex parte; and

(i) any other matter which may be prescribed by the Central Government.

(3) An order made by the Appellate Tribunal or the Special Director (Appeals) under this Act shall be executable by the Appellate Tribunal or the Special Director (Appeals) as a decree of Civil Court and, for this purpose, the Appellate Tribunal and the Special Director (Appeals) shall have all the powers of a Civil Court.
(4) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (3), the Appellate Tribunal or the Special Director (Appeals) may transmit any order made by it to a Civil Court having local jurisdiction and such Civil Court shall execute the order as if it were a decree made by that Court.
(5) All proceedings before the Appellate Tribunal and the Special Director (Appeals) shall be deemed to be judicial proceedings within the meaning of sections 193 and 228 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860) and the Appellate Tribunal shall be deemed to be a Civil Court for the purposes of sections 345 and 346 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974).

29. Distribution of business amongst Benches. Where Benches are constituted, the Chairperson may, from time to time, by notification, make provisions as to the distribution of the business of the Appellate Tribunal amongst the Benches and also provide for the matters which may be dealt with by each Bench.

30. Power of Chairperson to transfer cases. On the application of any of the parties and after notice to the parties, and after hearing such of them as he may desire to be heard, or on his own motion without such notice, the Chairperson may transfer any case pending before one Bench, for disposal, to any other Bench.

31. Decision to be by majority. If the Members of a Bench consisting of two Members differ in opinion on any point, they shall state the point or points on which they differ, and make a reference to the Chairperson who shall either hear the point or points himself or refer the case for hearing on such point or points by one or more of the other Members of the Appellate Tribunal and such point or points shall be decided according to the opinion of the majority of the Members of the Appellate Tribunal who have heard the case, including those who first heard it.

32. Right of appellant to take assistance of legal practitioner or chartered accountant and of Government, to appoint presenting officers. (1) A person preferring an appeal to the Appellate Tribunal or the Special Director (Appeals) under this Act may either appear in person or take the assistance of a legal practitioner or a chartered accountant of his choice to present his case before the Appellate Tribunal or the Special Director (Appeals), as the case may be.

(2) The Central Government may authorise one or more legal practitioners or chartered accountants or any of its officers to act as presenting officers and every person so authorised may present the case with respect to any appeal before the Appellate Tribunal or the Special Director (Appeals), as the case may be.

33. Members, etc., to be public servants .The Chairperson, Members and other officers and employees of the Appellate Tribunal, the Special Director (Appeals) and the Adjudicating Authority shall be deemed to be public servants within the meaning of section 21 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860).

34. Civil Court not to have jurisdiction. No Civil Court shall have jurisdiction to entertain any suit or proceeding in respect of any matter which an Adjudicating Authority or the Appellate Tribunal or the Special Director (Appeals) is empowered by or under this Act to determine and no injunction shall be granted by any Court or other authority in respect of any action taken or to be taken in pursuance of any power conferred by or under this Act.

35. Appeal to High Court. Any person aggrieved by any decision or order of the Appellate Tribunal may file an appeal to the High Court within sixty days from the date of communication of the decision or order of the Appellate Tribunal to him on any question of law arising out of such order:
Provided that the High Court may, if it is satisfied that the appellant was prevented by sufficient cause from filing the appeal within the said period, allow it to be filed within a further period not exceeding sixty days.

Explanation. In this section High Court means
(a) the High Court within the jurisdiction of which the aggrieved party ordinarily resides or carries on business or personally works for gain; and

(b) where the Central Government is the aggrieved party, the High Court within the jurisdiction of which the respondent, or in a case where there are more than one respondent, any of the respondents, ordinarily resides or carries on business or personally works for gain.

CHAPTER VI

Directorate Of Enforcement

36. Directorate of Enforcement. (1) The Central Government shall establish a Directorate of Enforcement with a Director and such other officers or class of officers as it thinks fit, who shall be called officers of Enforcement, for the purposes of this Act.

(2) Without prejudice to the provisions of sub-section (1), the Central Government may authorise the Director of Enforcement or an Additional Director of Enforcement or a Special Director of Enforcement or a Deputy Director of Enforcement to appoint Officers of Enforcement below the rank of an Assistant Director of Enforcement.

(3) Subject to such conditions and limitations as the Central Government may impose, an Officer of Enforcement may exercise the powers and discharge the duties conferred or imposed on him under this Act.

37. Power of search, seizure, etc. (1) The Director of Enforcement and other officers of Enforcement, not below the rank of an Assistant Director, shall take up for investigation the contravention referred to in section 13.
(2) Without prejudice to the provisions of sub-section (1), the Central Government may also, by notification, authorise any officer or class of officers in the Central Government, State Government or the Reserve Bank, not below the rank of an Under Secretary to the Government of India to investigate any contravention referred to in section 13.
(3) The officers referred to in sub-section (1) shall exercise the like powers which are conferred on income-tax authorities under the Income-tax Act, 1961 (43 of 1961) and shall exercise such powers, subject to such limitations laid down under that Act.

38. Empowering other officers .(1) The Central Government may, by order and subject to such conditions and limitations as it thinks fit to impose, authorise any officer of customs or any central excise officer or any police officer or any other officer of the Central Government or a State Government to exercise such of the powers and discharge such of the duties of the Director of Enforcement or any other officer of Enforcement under this Act as may be stated in the order.
(2) The officers referred to in sub-section (1) shall exercise the like powers which are conferred on the income-tax authorities under the Income-tax Act, 1961 (43 of 1961), subject to such conditions and limitations as the Central Government may impose.

CHAPTER VII

Miscellaneous

39. Presumption as to documents in certain cases. Where any document
(i) is produced or furnished by any person or has been seized from the custody or control of any person, in either case, under this Act or under any other law; or

(ii) has been received from any place outside India (duly authenticated by such authority or person and in such manner as may be prescribed) in the course of investigation of any contravention under this Act alleged to have been committed by any person, and such document is tendered in any proceeding under this Act in evidence against him, or against him and any other person who is proceeded against jointly with him, the Court or the Adjudicating Authority, as the case may be, shall

(a) presume, unless the contrary is proved, that the signature and every other part of such document which purports to be in the handwriting of any particular person or which the Court may reasonably assume to have been signed by, or to be in the handwriting of, any particular person, is in that persons handwriting, and in the case of a document executed or attested, that it was executed or attested by the person by whom it purports to have been so executed or attested;

(b) admit the document in evidence notwithstanding that it is not duly stamped, if such document is otherwise admissible in evidence;

(c) in a case falling under clause (i), also presume, unless the contrary is proved, the truth of the contents of such document.

40. Suspension of operation of this Act. (1) If the Central Government is satisfied that circumstances have arisen rendering it necessary that any permission granted or restriction imposed by this Act should cease to be granted or imposed, or if it considers necessary or expedient so to do in public interest, the Central Government may, by notification, suspend or relax to such extent either indefinitely or for such period as may be notified, the operation of all or any of the provisions of this Act.
(2) Where the operation of any provision of this Act has under sub-section (1) been suspended or relaxed indefinitely, such suspension or relaxation may, at any time while this Act remains in force, be removed by the Central Government by notification.
(3) Every notification issued under this section shall be laid, as soon as may be after it is issued, before each House of Parliament, while it is in session, for a total period of thirty days which may be comprised in one session or in two or more successive sessions, and if, before the expiry of the session immediately following the session or the successive sessions aforesaid, both Houses agree in making any modification in the notification or both Houses agree that the notification should not be issued, the notification shall thereafter have effect only in such modified form or be of no effect, as the case may be; so, however, that any such modification or annulment shall be without prejudice to the validity of anything previously done under that notification.

41. Power of Central Government to give directions. For the purposes of this Act, the Central Government may, from time to time, give to the Reserve Bank such general or special directions as it thinks fit, and the Reserve Bank shall, in the discharge of its functions under this Act, comply with any such directions.

42. Contravention by companies .(1) Where a person committing a contravention of any of the provisions of this Act or of any rule, direction or order made thereunder is a company, every person who, at the time the contravention was committed, was in charge of, and was responsible to, the company for the conduct of the business of the company as well as the company, shall be deemed to be guilty of the contravention and shall be liable to be proceeded against and punished accordingly:
Provided that nothing contained in this sub-section shall render any such person liable to punishment if he proves that the contravention took place without his knowledge or that he exercised all due diligence to prevent such contravention.
(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), where a contravention of any of the provisions of this Act or of any rule, direction or order made thereunder has been committed by a company and it is proved that the contravention has taken place with the consent or connivance of, or is attributable to any neglect on the part of, any director, manager, secretary or other officer of the company, such director, manager, secretary or other officer shall also be deemed to be guilty of the contravention and shall be liable to be proceeded against and punished accordingly.
Explanation .For the purposes of this section
(i) company means any body corporate and includes a firm or other association of individuals; and

(ii) director, in relation to a firm, means a partner in the firm.

43. Death or insolvency in certain cases. Any right, obligation, liability, proceeding or appeal arising in relation to the provisions of section 13 shall not abate by reason of death or insolvency of the person liable under that section and upon such death or insolvency such rights and obligations shall devolve on the legal representative of such person or the official receiver or the official assignee, as the case may be:
Provided that a legal representative of the deceased shall be liable only to the extent of the inheritance or estate of the deceased.

44. Bar of legal proceedings. No suit, prosecution or other legal proceeding shall lie against the Central Government or the Reserve Bank or any officer of that Government or of the Reserve Bank or any other person exercising any power or discharging any functions or performing any duties under this Act, for anything in good faith done or intended to be done under this Act or any rule, regulation, notification, direction or order made thereunder.

45. Removal of difficulties .(1) If any difficulty arises in giving effect to the provisions of this Act, the Central Government may, by order, do anything not inconsistent with the provisions of this Act for the purpose of removing the difficulty:
Provided that no such order shall be made under this section after the expiry of two years from the commencement of this Act.
(2) Every order made under this section shall be laid, as soon as may be after it is made, before each House of Parliament.
46. Power to make rules .(1) The Central Government may, by notification, make rules to carry out the provisions of this Act.
(2) Without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power, such rules may provide for,
(a) the imposition of reasonable restrictions on current account transactions under section 5;

(b) the manner in which the contravention may be compounded under sub-section (1) of section 15;

(c) the manner of holding an inquiry by the Adjudicating Authority under sub-section (1) of section 16;

(d) the form of appeal and fee for filing such appeal under sections 17 and 19;

(e) the salary and allowances payable to and the other terms and conditions of service of the Chairperson and other Members of the Appellate Tribunal and the Special Director (Appeals) under section 23;

(f) the salaries and allowances and other conditions of service of the officers and employees of the Appellate Tribunal and the office of the Special Director (Appeals) under sub-section (3) of section 27;

(g) the additional matters in respect of which the Appellate Tribunal and the Special Director (Appeals) may exercise the powers of a Civil Court under clause (i) of sub-section (2) of section 28;

(h) the authority or person and the manner in which any document may be authenticated under clause (ii) of section 39; and

(i) any other matter which is required to be, or may be, prescribed.

47. Power to make regulations .(1) The Reserve Bank may, by notification, make regulations to carry out the provisions of this Act and the rules made thereunder.
(2) Without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power, such regulations may provide for,
(a) the permissible classes of capital account transactions, the limits of admissibility of foreign exchange for such transactions, and the prohibition, restriction or regulation of certain capital account transactions under section 6;

(b) the manner and the form in which the declaration is to be furnished under clause (a) of sub-section (1) of section 7;

(c) the period within which and the manner of repatriation of foreign exchange under section 8;

(d) the limit up to which any person may possess foreign currency or foreign coins under clause (a) of section 9;

(e) the class of persons and the limit up to which foreign currency account may be held or operated under clause (b) of section 9;

(f) the limit up to which foreign exchange acquired may be exempted under clause (d) of section 9;

(g) the limit up to which foreign exchange acquired may be retained under clause (e) of section 9;

() any other matter which is required to be, or may be, specified.

48. Rules and regulations to be laid before Parliament .Every rule and regulation made under this Act shall be laid, as soon as may be after it is made, before each House of Parliament, while it is in session, for a total period of thirty days which may be comprised in one session or in two or more successive sessions, and if, before the expiry of the session immediately following the session or the successive sessions aforesaid, both Houses agree in making any modification in the rule or regulation, or both Houses agree that the rule or regulation should not be made, the rule or regulation shall thereafter have effect only in such modified form or be of no effect, as the case may be; so, however, that any such modification or annulment shall be without prejudice to the validity of anything previously done under that rule or regulation.

49. Repeal and saving .(1) The Foreign Exchange Regulation Act, 1973 (46 of 1973) is hereby repealed and the Appellate Board constituted under sub-section (1) of section 52 of the said Act (hereinafter referred to as the repealed Act) shall stand dissolved.
(2) On the dissolution of the said Appellate Board, the person appointed as Chairman of the Appellate Board and every other person appointed as Member and holding office as such immediately before such date shall vacate their respective offices and no such Chairman or other person shall be entitled to claim any compensation for the premature termination of the term of his office or of any contract of service.
(3) Notwithstanding anything contained in any other law for the time being in force, no Court shall take cognizance of an offence under the repealed Act and no adjudicating officer shall take notice of any contravention under section 51 of the repealed Act after the expiry of a period of two years from the date of the commencement of this Act.

(4) Subject to the provisions of sub-section (3) all offences committed under the repealed Act shall continue to be governed by the provisions of the repealed Act as if that Act had not been repealed.

(5) Notwithstanding such repeal,

(a) anything done or any action taken or purported to have been done or taken including any rule, notification, inspection, order or notice made or issued or any appointment, confirmation or declaration made or any licence, permission, authorisation or exemption granted or any document or instrument executed or any direction given under the Act hereby repealed shall, insofar as it is not inconsistent with the provisions of this Act, be deemed to have been done or taken under the corresponding provisions of this Act;

(b) any appeal preferred to the Appellate Board under sub-section (2) of section 52 of the repealed Act but not disposed of before the commencement of this Act shall stand transferred to and shall be disposed of by the Appellate Tribunal constituted under this Act;

(c) every appeal from any decision or order of the Appellate Board under sub-section (3) or sub-section (4) of section 52 of the repealed Act shall, if not filed before the commencement of this Act, be filed before the High Court within a period of sixty days of such commencement:

Provided that the High Court may entertain such appeal after the expiry of the said period of sixty days if it is satisfied that the appellant was prevented by sufficient cause from filing the appeal within the said period.

(6) Save as otherwise provided in sub-section (3), the mention of particular matters in sub-sections (2), (4) and (5) shall not be held to prejudice or affect the general application of section 6 of the General Clauses Act, 1897 (10 of 1897), with regard to the effect of repeal.


The Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991

The Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991

(6 of 1991)

Date: 22/01/191

An Act to provide for public liability insurance for the purpose of providing immediate relief to the persons affected by accident occurring while handling any hazardous substance and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.

Be it enacted by Parliament in the Forty-first Year of the Republic of India as follows:

1. Short title and commencement. (1) This Act may be called The Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991.

(2) It shall come into force on such date as the Central Government may, by notification, appoint.

2. Definitions . In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires,

(a) accident means an accident involving a fortuitous or sudden or unintended occurrence while handling any hazardous substance resulting in continuous or intermittent or repeated exposure to death of, or injury to, any person or damage to any property but does not include an accident by reason only of war or radio-activity;

(b) Collector means the Collector having jurisdiction over the area in which the accident occurs;

(c) handling, in relation to any hazardous substance, means the manufacture, processing, treatment, package, storage, transportation by vehicle, use, collection, destruction, conversion, offering for sale, transfer or the like of such hazardous substance;

(d) hazardous substance means any substance or preparation which is defined as hazardous substance under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 (29 of 1986), and exceeding such quantity as may be specified, by notification, by the Central Government;

(e) insurance means insurance against liability under sub-section (1) of section 3;

(f) notification means a notification published in the Official Gazette;

(g) owner means a person who owns, or has control over handling any hazardous substance at the time of accident and includes,

(i) in the case of a firm, any of its partners;

(ii) in the case of an association, any of its members; and

(iii) in the case of a company, any of its directors, managers, secretaries or other officers who is directly in charge of, and is responsible to, the company for the conduct of the business of the company;

(h) prescribed means prescribed by rules made under this Act;

(ha) Relief Fund means the Environmental Relief Fund established under section 7-A;

(i) rules means rules made under this Act;

(j) vehicle means any mode of surface transport other than railways.

3. Liability to give relief in certain cases on principle of no fault .(1) Where death or injury to any person (other than a workman) or damage to any property has resulted from an accident, the owner shall be liable to give such relief as is specified in the Schedule for such death, injury or damage.

(2) In any claim for relief under sub-section (1) (hereinafter referred to in this Act as claim for relief), the claimant shall not be required to plead and establish that the death, injury or damage in respect of which the claim has been made was due to any wrongful act, neglect or default of any person.

Explanation. For the purposes of this section,
(i) workman has the meaning assigned to it in the Workmens Compensation Act, 1923 (8 of 1923);

(ii) injury includes permanent total or permanent partial disability or sickness resulting out of an accident.

4. Duty of owner to take out insurance policies .(1) Every owner shall take out, before he starts handling any hazardous substance, one or more insurance policies providing for contracts of insurance whereby he is insured against liability to give relief under sub-section (1) of section 3:

Provided that any owner handling any hazardous substance immediately before the commencement of this Act shall take out such insurance policy or policies as soon as may be and in any case within a period of one year from such commencement.

(2) Every owner shall get the insurance policy, referred to in sub-section (1), renewed from time to time before the expiry of the period of validity thereof so that the insurance policies may remain in force throughout the period during which such handling is continued.

(2-A) No insurance policy taken out or renewed by an owner shall be for an amount less than the amount of the paid-up capital of the undertaking handling any hazardous substance and owned or controlled by that owner, and more than the amount, not exceeding fifty crore rupees, as may be prescribed.

Explanation. For the purposes of this sub-section, paid-up capital means, in the case of an owner not being a company, the market value of all assets and stocks of the undertaking on the date of contract of insurance.

(2-B) The liability of the insurer under one insurance policy shall not exceed the amount specified in the terms of the contract of insurance in that insurance policy.

(2-C) Every owner shall also, together with the amount of premium, pay to the insurer, for being credited to the Relief Fund established under section 7-A, such further amount, not exceeding the sum equivalent to the amount of premium, as may be prescribed.

(2-D) The insurer shall remit to the authority specified in sub-section (3) of section 7-A the amount received from the owner under sub-section (2-C) for being credited to the Relief Fund in such manner and within such period as may be prescribed and where the insurer fails to so remit that amount, it shall be recoverable from the insurer as arrears of land revenue or of public demand.

(3) The Central Government may, by notification, exempt, from the operation of sub-section (1), any owner, namely:
(a) the Central Government;

(b) any State Government;

(c) any corporation owned or controlled by the Central Government or a State Government; or

(d) any local authority:

Provided that no such order shall be made in relation to such owner unless a fund has been established and is maintained by that owner in accordance with the rules made in this behalf for meeting any liability under sub-section (1) of section 3.

5. Verification and publication of accident by Collector .Whenever it comes to the notice of the Collector that an accident has occurred at any place within his jurisdiction, he shall verify the occurrence of such accident and cause publicity to be given in such manner as he deems fit for inviting applications under sub-section (1) of section 6.

6. Application for claim for relief .(1) An application for claim for relief may be made
(a) by the person who has sustained the injury;

(b) by the owner of the property to which the damage has been caused;

(c) where death has resulted from the accident, by all or any of the legal representatives of the deceased; or

(d) by any agent duly authorised by such person or owner of such property or all or any of the legal representatives of the deceased, as the case may be:

Provided that where all the legal representatives of the deceased have not joined in any such application for relief, the application shall be made on behalf of or for the benefit of all the legal representatives of the deceased and the legal representatives who have not so joined shall be impleaded as respondents to the application.

(2) Every application under sub-section (1) shall be made to the Collector and shall be in such form, contain such particulars and shall be accompanied by such documents as may be prescribed.

(3) No application for relief shall be entertained unless it is made within five years of the occurrence of the accident.

7. Award of relief .(1) On receipt of an application under sub-section (1) of section 6, the Collector shall, after giving notice of the application to the owner and after giving the parties an opportunity of being heard, hold an inquiry into the claim or, each of the claims, and may make an award determining the amount of relief which appears to him to be just and specifying the person or persons to whom such amount of relief shall be paid.

(2) The Collector shall arrange to deliver copies of the award to the parties concerned expeditiously and in any case within a period of fifteen days from the date of the award.

(3) When an award is made under this section,
(a) the insurer, who is required to pay any amount in terms of such award and to the extent specified in sub-section (2-B) of section 4, shall, within a period of thirty days of the date of announcement of the award, deposit that amount in such manner as the Collector may direct;

(b) the Collector shall arrange to pay from the Relief Fund, in terms of such award and in accordance with the scheme made under section 7-A, to the person or persons referred to in sub-section (1) such amount as may be specified in that scheme;

(c) the owner shall, within such period, deposit such amount in such manner as the Collector may direct.

(4) In holding any inquiry under sub-section (1), the Collector may, subject to any rules made in this behalf, follow such summary procedure as he thinks fit.

(5) The Collector shall have all the powers of a Civil Court for the purpose of taking evidence on oath and of enforcing the attendance of witnesses and of compelling the discovery and production of documents and material objects and for such other purposes as may be prescribed; and the Collector shall be deemed to be a Civil Court for all the purposes of section 195 and Chapter XXVI of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974).

(6) Where the insurer or the owner against whom the award is made under sub-section (1) fails to deposit the amount of such award within the period specified under sub-section (3), such amount shall be recoverable from the owner, or as the case may be, the insurer as arrears of land revenue or of public demand.

(7) A claim for relief in respect of death of, or injury to, any person or damage to any property shall be disposed of as expeditiously as possible and every endeavour shall be made to dispose of such claim within three months of the receipt of the application for relief under sub-section (1) of section 6.
(8) Where an owner is likely to remove or dispose of his property with the object of evading payment by him of any amount of the award, the Collector may, in accordance with the provisions of rules 1 to 4 of Order XXXIX of the First Schedule to the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908), grant a temporary injunction to restrain such act.

7-A. Establishment of Environmental Relief Fund .(1) The Central Government may, by notification, establish a fund to be known as the Environmental Relief Fund.

(2) The Relief Fund shall be utilised for paying, in accordance with the provisions of this Act and the scheme made under sub-section (3), relief under the award made by the Collector under section 7.

(3) The Central Government may, by notification, make a scheme specifying the authority in which the Relief Fund shall vest, the manner in which the Relief Fund shall be administered, the form and the manner in which money shall be drawn from the Relief Fund and for all other matters connected with or incidental to the administration of the Relief Fund and the payment of relief therefrom.

8. Provisions as to other right to claim compensation for death, etc .(1) The right to claim relief under sub-section (1) of section 3 in respect of death of, or injury to, any person or damage to any property shall be in addition to any other right to claim compensation in respect thereof under any other law for the time being in force.

(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), where in respect of death of, or injury to, any person or damage to any property, the owner, liable to give claim for relief, is also liable to pay compensation under any other law, the amount of such compensation shall be reduced by the amount of relief paid under this Act.

9. Power to call for information .Any person authorised by the Central Government may, for the purposes of ascertaining whether any requirements of this Act or of any rule or of any direction given under this Act have been complied with, require any owner to submit to that person such information as that person may reasonably think necessary.

10. Power of entry and inspection .Any person, authorised by the Central Government in this behalf, shall have a right to enter, at all reasonable times with such assistance as he considers necessary, any place, premises or vehicle, where hazardous substance is handled for the purpose of determining whether any provisions of this Act or of any rule or of any direction given under this Act is being or has been complied with and such owner is bound to render all assistance to such person.

11. Power of search and seizure .(1) If a person, authorised by the Central Government in this behalf, has reason to believe that handling of any hazardous substance is taking place in any place, premises or vehicle, in contravention of sub-section (1) of section 4, he may enter into and search such place, premises or vehicle for such handling of hazardous substances.

(2) Where, as a result of any search under sub-section (1) any handling of hazardous substance has been found in relation to which contravention of sub-section (1) of section 4 has taken place, he may seize such hazardous substance and other things which, in his opinion, will be useful for, or relevant to, any proceeding under this Act:

Provided that where it is not practicable to seize any such substance or thing, he may serve on the owner an order that the owner shall not remove, part with, or otherwise deal with, the hazardous substance and such other things except with the previous permission of that person.

(3) He may, if he has reason to believe that it is expedient so to do to prevent an accident dispose of the hazardous substance seized under sub-section (2) immediately in such manner as he may deem fit.

(4) All expenses incurred by him in the disposal of hazardous substances under sub-section (3) shall be recoverable from the owner as arrears of land revenue or of public demand.

12. Power to give directions .Notwithstanding anything contained in any other law but subject to the provisions of this Act, the Central Government may, in exercise of its powers and performance of its functions under this Act, issue such directions in writing as it may deem fit for the purposes of this Act to any owner or any person, officer, authority or agency and such owner, person, officer, authority or agency shall be bound to comply with such directions.

Explanation. For the removal of doubts, it is hereby declared that the power to issue directions under this section includes the power to direct
(a) prohibition or regulation of the handling of any hazardous substance; or

(b) stoppage or regulation of the supply of electricity, water or any other service.

13. Power to make application to Courts for restraining owner from handling hazardous substances .(1) If the Central Government or any person authorised by that Government in this behalf has reason to believe that any owner has been handling any hazardous substance in contravention of any of the provisions of this Act, that Government or, as the case may be, that person may make an application to a Court, not inferior to that of a Metropolitan Magistrate or a Judicial Magistrate of first class for restraining such owner from such handling.

(2) On receipt of the application under sub-section (1), the Court may make such order as it deems fit.

(3) Where under sub-section (2), the Court makes an order restraining any owner from handling hazardous substance, it may, in that order

(a) direct such owner to desist from such handling;

(b) authorise the Central Government or, as the case may be, the person referred to in sub-section (1), if the direction under clause (a) is not complied with by the owner to whom such direction is issued, to implement the direction in such manner as may be specified by the Court.

(4) All expenses incurred by the Central Government, or as the case may be, the person in implementing the directions of Court under clause (b) of sub-section (3), shall be recoverable from the owner as arrears of land revenue or of public demand.

14. Penalty for contravention of sub-section (1) or sub-section (2) or sub-section (2-A) or sub-section (2-C) of section 4 or failure to comply with directions under section 12 .(1) Whoever contravenes any of the provisions of sub-section (1) or sub-section (2) or sub-section (2-A) or sub-section (2-C) of section 4 or fails to comply with any direction issued under section 12, he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than one year and six months but which may extend to six years, or with fine which shall not be less than one lakh rupees, or with both.

(2) Whoever, having already been convicted of an offence under sub-section (1), is convicted for the second offence or any offence subsequent to the second offence, he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than two years but which may extend to seven years and with fine which shall not be less than one lakh rupees.

(3) Nothing contained in section 360 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974), or in the Probation of Offenders Act, 1958 (20 of 1958), shall apply to a person convicted of an offence under this Act unless such person is under eighteen years of age.

15. Penalty for failure to comply with direction under section 9 or order under section 11 or obstructing any person in discharge of his functions under section 10 or 11 .If any owner fails to comply with direction issued under section 9 or fails to comply with order issued under sub-section (2) of section 11, or obstructs any person in discharge of his functions under section 10 or sub-section (1) or sub-section (3) of section 11, he shall be punishable with imprisonment which may extend to three months, or with fine which may extend to ten thousand rupees, or with both.

16. Offences by companies .(1) Where any offence under this Act has been committed by a company, every person who, at the time the offence was committed, was directly in charge of, and was responsible to, the company for the conduct of the business of the company, as well as the company, shall be deemed to be guilty of the offence and shall be liable to be proceeded against and punished accordingly:
Provided that nothing contained in this sub-section shall render any such person liable to any punishment provided in this Act, if he proves that the offence was committed without his knowledge or that he exercised all due diligence to prevent the commission of such offence.
(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), where an offence under this Act has been committed by a company and it is proved that the offence has been committed with the consent or connivance of, or is attributable to any neglect on the part of, any director, manager, secretary or other officer of the company, such director, manager, secretary or other officer shall also be deemed to be guilty of that offence and shall be liable to be proceeded against and punished accordingly.

Explanation. For the purposes of this section,

(a) company means any body corporate and includes a firm or other association of individuals;

(b) director, in relation to a firm, means a partner in the firm.

17. Offences by Government Departments .Where an offence under this Act has been committed by any Department of Government, the Head of the Department shall be deemed to be guilty of the offence and shall be liable to be proceeded against and punished accordingly:

Provided that nothing contained in this section shall render such Head of the Department liable to any punishment if he proves that the offence was committed without his knowledge or that he exercised all due diligence to prevent the commission of such offence.

18. Cognizance of offences .No Court shall take cognizance of any offence under this Act except on a complaint made by
(a) the Central Government or any authority or officer authorised in this behalf by that Government; or

(b) any person who has given notice of not less than sixty days in the manner prescribed, of the alleged offence and of his intention to make a complaint, to the Central Government or the authority or officer authorised as aforesaid.

19. Power to delegate .The Central Government may, by notification, delegate, subject to such conditions and limitations as may be specified in the notification, such of its powers and functions under this Act (except the power under section 23) as it may deem necessary or expedient to any person (including any officer, authority or other agency).

20. Protection of action taken in good faith .No suit, prosecution or other legal proceeding shall lie against the Government or the person, officer, authority or other agency in respect of anything which is done or intended to be done in good faith in pursuance of this Act or the rules made or orders or directions issued thereunder.

21. Advisory Committee .(1) The Central Government may, from time to time, constitute an Advisory Committee on the matters relating to the insurance policy under this Act.

(2) The Advisory Committee shall consist of
(a) three officers representing the Central Government;

(b) two persons representing the insurers;

(c) two persons representing the owners; and

(d) two persons from amongst the experts of insurance or hazardous substances,

to be appointed by the Central Government.
(3) The Chairman of the Advisory Committee shall be one of the members representing the Central Government, nominated in this behalf by that Government.

22. Effect of other laws .The provisions of this Act and any rules made thereunder shall have effect notwithstanding anything inconsistent therewith contained in any other law.

23. Power to make rules .(1) The Central Government may, by notification, make rules for carrying out the purposes of this Act.

(2) In particular, and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power, such rules may provide for all or any of the following matters, namely:
(a) the maximum amount for which an insurance policy may be taken out by an owner under sub-section (2-A) of section 4;

(aa) the amount required to be paid by every owner for being credited to the Relief Fund under sub-section (2-C) of section 4;

(ab) the manner in which and the period within which the amount received from the owner is required to be remitted by the insurer under sub-section (2-D) of section 4;

(ac) establishment and maintenance of fund under sub-section (3) of section 4;

(b) the form of application and the particulars to be given therein and the documents to accompany such application under sub-section (2) of section 6;

(c) the procedure for holding an inquiry under sub-section (4) of section 7;

(d) the purposes for which the Collector shall have powers of a Civil Court under sub-section (5) of section 7;

(e) the manner in which notice of the offence and of the intention to make a complaint to the Central Government shall be given under clause (b) of section 18;

(f) any other matter which is required to be, or may be prescribed.

(3) Every rule or scheme made under this Act shall be laid, as soon as may be after it is made, before each House of Parliament, while it is in session for a total period of thirty days which may be comprised in one session or in two or more successive sessions, and if, before the expiry of the session immediately following the session or the successive sessions aforesaid, both Houses agree in making any modification in the rule or scheme or both Houses agree that the rule or scheme should not be made, the rule or scheme shall thereafter have effect only in such modified form or be of no effect, as the case may be; so, however, that any such modification or annulment shall be without prejudice to the validity of anything previously done under that rule or scheme.


The Schedule

See section 3(1)…

(i) Reimbursement of medical expenses incurred up to a maximum of Rs. 12,500 in each case.

(ii) For fatal accidents the relief will be Rs. 25,000 per person in addition to reimbursement of medical expenses, if any, incurred on the victim up to a maximum of Rs. 12,500.

(iii) For permanent total or permanent partial disability or other injury or sickness, the relief will be (a) reimbursement of medical expenses incurred, if any, up to a maximum of Rs. 12,500 in each case and (b) cash relief on the basis of percentage of disablement as certified by an authorised physician. The relief for total permanent disability will be Rs. 25,000.

(iv) For loss of wages due to temporary partial disability which reduces the earning capacity of the victim, there will be a fixed monthly relief not exceeding Rs. 1,000 per month upto a maximum of 3 months: provided the victim has been hospitalised for a period exceeding 3 days and is above 16 years of age.

(v) Up to Rs. 6,000, depending on the actual damage, for any damage to private property.


 

The Water (Prevention And Control of Pollution) Act 1974

The Water (Prevention And Control of Pollution) Act, 1974

(6 of 1974)

23rd March 1974

An Act to provide for the prevention and control of water pollution and the maintaining or restoring of wholesomeness of water, for the establishment, with a view to carrying out the purposes aforesaid, of Boards for the prevention and control of water pollution, for conferring on and assigning to such Boards powers and functions relating thereto and for matters connected therewith.

Whereas it is expedient to provide for the prevention and control of water pollution and the maintaining or restoring of wholesomeness of water, for the establishment, with a view to carrying out the purposes aforesaid, of Boards for the prevention and control of water pollution and for conferring on and assigning to such Boards powers and functions relating thereto;

And whereas Parliament has no power to make laws for the States with respect to any of the matters aforesaid except as provided in articles 249 and 250 of the Constitution;

And whereas in pursuance of clause (1) of article 252 of the Constitution resolutions have been passed by all the Houses of the Legislatures of the States of Assam, Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Tripura and West Bengal to the effect that the matters aforesaid should be regulated in those States by Parliament by law;

Be it enacted by Parliament in the Twenty-fifth Year of the Republic of India as follows:

CHAPTER I

Preliminary

1. Short title, application and commencement .(1) This Act may be called The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act , 1974.

(2) It applies in the first instance to the whole of the States of Assam, Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Tripura and West Bengal and the Union territories; and it shall apply to such other State which adopts this Act by resolution passed in that behalf under clause (1) of article 252 of the Constitution.

(3) It shall come into force, at once in the States of Assam, Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Tripura and West Bengal and in the Union territories, and in any other State which adopts this Act under clause (1) of article 252 of the Constitution on the date of such adoption and any reference in this Act to the commencement of this Act shall, in relation to any State or Union territory, mean the date on which this Act comes into force in such State or Union territory.

2. Definitions .In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires,
(a) Board means the Central Board or a State Board;

(b) Central Board means the Central Pollution Control Board constituted under section 3;

(c) member means a member of a Board and includes the Chairman thereof;

(d) occupier, in relation to any factory or premises, means the person who has control over the affairs of the factory or the premises, and includes, in relation to any substance, the person in possession of the substance;

(dd) outlet, includes any conduit pipe or channel, open or closed, carrying sewage or trade effluent or any other holding arrangement which causes, or is likely to cause, pollution;

(e) pollution means such contamination of water or such alteration of the physical, chemical or biological properties of water or such discharge of any sewage or trade effluent or of any other liquid, gaseous or solid substance into water (whether directly or indirectly) as may, or is likely to, create a nuisance or render such water harmful or injurious to public health or safety, or to domestic, commercial, industrial, agricultural or other legitimate uses, or to the life and health of animals or plants or of acquatic organisms;

(f) prescribed means prescribed by rules made under this Act by the Central Government or, as the case may be, the State Government;

(g) sewage effluent means effluent from any sewerage system or sewage disposal works and includes sullage from open drains;

(gg) sewer means any conduit pipe or channel, open or closed, carrying sewage or trade effluent;

(h) State Board means a State Pollution Control Board constituted under section 4;

(i) State Government in relation to a Union territory means the Administrator thereof appointed under article 239 of the Constitution;

(j) stream includes

(i) river;

(ii) water course (whether flowing or for the time being dry);

(iii) inland water (whether natural or artificial);

(iv) sub-terranean waters;

(v) sea or tidal waters to such extent or, as the case may be, to such point as the State Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify in this behalf;

(k) trade effluent includes any liquid, gaseous or solid substance which is discharged from any premises used for carrying on any [industry, operation or process or treatment and disposal system], other than domestic sewage.

CHAPTER II

The Central And State Boards For Prevention And Control Of Water Pollution

3. Constitution of Central Board .(1) The Central Government shall, with effect from such date (being a date not later than six months of the commencement of this Act in the States of Assam, Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Tripura and West Bengal and in the Union territories) as it may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint, constitute a Central Board to be called the [Central Pollution Control Board] to exercise the powers conferred on and perform the functions assigned to that Board under this Act.

(2) The Central Board shall consist of the following members, namely:
(a) a full-time Chairman, being a person having special knowledge or practical experience in respect of [matters relating to environmental protection] or a person having knowledge and experience in administering institutions dealing with the matters aforesaid, to be nominated by the Central Government;

(b) such number of officials, not exceeding five, to be nominated by the Central Government to represent that Government;

(c) such number of persons, not exceeding five, to be nominated by the Central Government, from amongst the members of the State Boards, of whom not exceeding two shall be from those referred to in clause (c) of sub-section (2) of section 4;

(d) such number of non-officials, not exceeding three, to be nominated by the Central Government, to represent the interests of agriculture, fishery or industry or trade or any other interest which, in the opinion of the Central Government, ought to be represented;

(e) two persons to represent the companies or corporations owned, controlled or managed by the Central Government, to be nominated by that Government;

(f) a full-time member-secretary, possessing qualifications, knowledge and experience of scientific, engineering or management aspects of pollution control, to be appointed by the Central Government.

(3) The Central Board shall be a body corporate with the name aforesaid having perpetual succession and a common seal with power, subject to the provisions of this Act, to acquire, hold and dispose of property and to contract, and may, by the aforesaid name, sue or be sued.

4. Constitution of State Boards .(1) The State Government shall, with effect from such date as it may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint, constitute a [State Pollution Control Board], under such name as may be specified in the notification, to exercise the powers conferred on and perform the functions assigned to that Board under this Act.
(2) A State Board shall consist of the following members, namely:
(a) a  Chairman, being a person having special knowledge or practical experience in respect of [matters relating to environmental protection] or a person having knowledge and experience in administering institutions dealing with the matters aforesaid, to be nominated by the State Government:

Provided that the Chairman may be either whole-time or part-time as the State Government may think fit;

(b) such number of officials, not exceeding five, to be nominated by the State Government to represent that Government;

(c) [such number of persons, not exceeding five,] to be nominated by the State Government from amongst the members of the local authorities functioning within the State;

(d) [such number of non-officials, not exceeding three,] to be nominated by the State Government to represent the interests of agriculture, fishery or industry or trade or any other interests which, in the opinion of the State Government, ought to be represented;

(e) two persons to represent the companies or corporations owned, controlled or managed by the State Government, to be nominated by that Government;

[(f) a full-time member-secretary, possessing qualifications, knowledge and experience of scientific, engineering or management aspects of pollution control, to be appointed by the State Government.]

(3) Every State Board shall be a body corporate with the name specified by the State Government in the notification under sub-section (1), having perpetual succession and a common seal with power, subject to the provisions of this Act, to acquire hold and dispose of property and to contract, and may, by the said name, sue or be sued.

(4) Notwithstanding anything contained in this section, no State Board shall be constituted for a Union territory and in relation to a Union territory, the Central Board shall exercise the powers and perform the functions of a State Board for that Union territory:

Provided that in relation to any Union territory the Central Board may delegate all or any of its powers and functions under this sub-section to such person or body of persons as the Central Government may specify.

5. Terms and conditions of service of members .(1) Save as otherwise provided by or under this Act, a member of a Board, other than a member-secretary, shall hold office for a term of three years from the date of his nomination:
Provided that a member shall, notwithstanding the expiration of his term, continue to hold office until his successor enters upon his office.

(2) The term of office of a member of a Board nominated under clause (b) or clause (e) of sub-section (2) of section 3 or clause (b) or clause (e) of sub-section (2) of section 4 shall come to an end as soon as he ceases to hold the office under the Central Government or the State Government or, as the case may be, the company or corporation owned, controlled or managed by the Central Government or the State Government, by virtue of which he was nominated.

(3) The Central Government or, as the case may be, the State Government, may, if it thinks fit, remove any member of a Board before the expiry of his term of office, after giving him a reasonable opportunity of showing cause against the same.

(4) A member of a Board, other than the member-secretary, may at any time resign his office by writing under his hand addressed
(a) in the case of the Chairman, to the Central Government or, as the case may be, the State Government; and

(b) in any other case, to the Chairman of the Board, nd the seat of the Chairman or such other member shall thereupon become vacant.

(5) A member of a Board, other than the member-secretary, shall be deemed to have vacated his seat if he is absent without reason, sufficient in the opinion of the Board, from three consecutive meetings of the Board, [or where he is nominated under clause (c) or clause (e) of sub-section (2) of section 3 or under clause (c) or clause (e) of sub-section (2) of section 4, if he ceases to be a member of the State Board or of the local authority or, as the case may be, of the company or corporation owned, controlled or managed by the Central Government or the State Government and such vacation of seat shall, in either case, take effect from such date as the Central Government or, as the case may be, the State Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify.

(6) A casual vacancy in a Board shall be filled by a fresh nomination and the person nominated to fill the vacancy shall hold office only for the remainder of the term for which the member in whose place he was nominated.

(7) A member of a Board [shall be eligible for renomination.

(8) The other terms and conditions of service of a member of a Board, other than the Chairman and member-secretary, shall be such as may be prescribed.

(9) The other terms and conditions of service of the Chairman shall be such as may be prescribed.

6. Disqualifications . (1) No person shall be a member of a Board, who
(a) is, or at any time has been adjudged insolvent or has suspended payment of his debts or has compounded with his creditors, or

(b) is of unsound mind and stands so declared by a competent Court, or

(c) is, or has been, convicted of an offence which, in the opinion of the Central Government or, as the case may be, of the State Government, involves moral turpitude, or

(d) is, or at any time has been, convicted of an offence under this Act, or

(e) has directly or indirectly by himself or by any partner, any share or interest in any firm or company carrying on the business of manufacture, sale or hire of machinery, plant, equipment, apparatus or fittings for the treatment of a sewage or trade effluents, or

(f) is a director or a secretary, manager or other salaried officer or employee of any company or firm having any contract with the Board, or with the Government constituting the Board, or with a local authority in the State, or with a company or corporation owned, controlled or managed by the Government, for the carrying out of sewerage schemes or for the installation of plants for the treatment of sewage or trade effluents, or

(g) has so abused, in the opinion of the Central Government or as the case may be, of the State Government, his position as a member, as to render his continuance on the Board detrimental to the interest of the general public.

(2) No order of removal shall be made by the Central Government or the State Government, as the case may be, under this section unless the member concerned has been given a reasonable opportunity of showing cause against the same.
(3) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-sections (1) and (7) of section 5, a member who has been removed under this section shall not be eligible for renomination as a member.

7. Vacation of seats by members .If a member of a Board becomes subject to any of the disqualifications specified in section 6, his seat shall become vacant.

8. Meetings of Board .A Board shall meet at least once in every three months and shall observe such rules of procedure in regard to the transaction of business at its meetings as may be prescribed:

Provided that if, in the opinion of the Chairman, any business of an urgent nature is to be transacted, he may convene a meeting of the Board at such time as he thinks fit for the aforesaid purpose.

9. Constitution of committees .(1) A Board may constitute as many committees consisting wholly of members or wholly of other persons or partly of members and partly of other persons, and for such purpose or purposes as it may think fit.
(2) A committee constituted under this section shall meet at such time and at such place, and shall observe such rules of procedure in regard to the transaction of business at its meetings, as may be prescribed.
(3) The members of a committee (other than the members of the Board) shall be paid such fees and allowances, for attending its meetings and for attending to any other work of the Board as may be prescribed.

10. Temporary association of persons with Board for particular purposes .(1) a Board may associate with itself in such manner, and for such purposes, as may be prescribed any person whose assistance or advice it may desire to obtain in performing any of its functions under this Act.
(2) A person associated with the Board under sub-section (1) for any purpose shall have a right to take part in the discussions of the Board relevant to that purpose, but shall not have a right to vote at a meeting of the Board, and shall not be a member for any other purpose.
(3) A person associated with the Board under sub-section (1) for any purpose shall be paid such fees and allowances, for attending its meetings and for attending to any other work of the Board, as may be prescribed.

11. Vacancy in Board not to invalidate acts or proceedings .No act or proceeding of a Board or any committee thereof shall be called in question on the ground merely of the existence of any vacancy in, or any defect in the constitution of, the Board or such committee, as the case may be.

11-A. Delegation of powers to Chairman. The Chairman of a Board shall exercise such powers and perform such duties as may be prescribed or as may, from time to time, be delegated to him by the Board.

12. Member-secretary and officers and other employees of Board .(1) The terms and conditions of service of the member-secretary shall be such as may be prescribed.

(2) The member-secretary shall exercise such powers and perform such duties as may be prescribed or as may, from time to time, be delegated to him by the Board or its Chairman.

(3) Subject to such rules as may be made by the Central Government or, as the case may be, the State Government in this behalf, a Board may appoint such officers and employees as it considers necessary for the efficient performance of its functions [* * *].

(3-A) The method of recruitment and the terms and conditions of service (including the scales of pay) of the officers (other than the member-secretary) and other employees of the Central Board or a State Board shall be such as may be determined by regulations made by the Central Board or, as the case may be, by the State Board:

Provided that no regulation made under this sub-section shall take effect unless,
(a) in the case of a regulation made by the Central Board, it is approved by the Central Government; and

(b) in the case of a regulation made by a State Board, it is approved by the State Government.

(3-B) The Board may, by general or special order, and subject to such conditions and limitations, if any, as may be specified in the order, delegate to any officer of the Board such of its powers and functions under this Act as it may deem necessary.

(4) Subject to such conditions as may be prescribed, a Board may from time to time appoint any qualified person to be a consulting engineer to the Board and pay him such salaries and allowances and subject him to such other terms and conditions of service as it thinks fit.

CHAPTER III

Joint Boards

13. Constitution of Joint Boards .(1) Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act, an agreement may be entered into

(a) by two or more Governments of contiguous States, or

(b) by the Central Government (in respect of one or more Union territories) and one or more Governments of States contiguous to such Union territory or Union territories, o be in force for such period and to be subject to renewal for such further period, if any, as may be specified in the agreement to provide for the constitution of a Joint Board,

(i) in a case referred to in clause (a), for all the participating States, and

(ii) in a case referred to in clause (b), for the participating Union territory or Union territories and the State or States.

(2) An agreement under this section may
(a) provide, in a case referred to in clause (a) of sub-section (1), for the apportionment between the participating States and in a case referred to in clause (b) of that sub-section, for the apportionments between the Central Government and the participating State Government or State Governments, of the expenditure in connection with the Joint Board;

(b) determine, in a case referred to in clause (a) of sub-section (1), which of the participating State Governments and in a case referred to in clause (b) of that sub-section, whether the Central Government or the participating State Government (if there are more than one participating State, also which of the participating State Governments) shall exercise and perform the several powers and functions of the State Government under this Act and the references in this Act to the State Government shall be construed accordingly;

(c) provide for consultation, in a case referred to in clause (a) of sub-section (1), between the participating State Governments and in a case referred to in clause (b) of that sub-section, between the Central Government and the participating State Government or State Governments either generally or with reference to particular matters arising under this Act;

(d) make such incidental and ancillary provisions, not inconsistent with this Act, as may be deemed necessary or expedient for giving effect to the agreement.

(3) An agreement under this section shall be published, in a case referred to in clause (a) of sub-section (1), in the Official Gazette of the participating States and in a case referred to in clause (b) of that sub-section, in the Official Gazette of the participating Union territory or Union territories and the participating State or States.

14. Composition of Joint Boards .(1) A Joint Board constituted in pursuance of an agreement entered into under clause (a) of sub-section (1) of section 13 shall consist of the following members, namely:

(a) a full-time Chairman, being a person having special knowledge or practical experience in respect of [matters relating to environmental protection] or a person having knowledge and experience in administering institutions dealing with the matters aforesaid, to be nominated by the Central Government;

(b) two officials from each of the participating States to be nominated by the concerned participating State Government to represent that Government;

(c) one person to be nominated by each of the participating State Governments from amongst the members of the local authorities functioning within the State concerned;

(d) one non-official to be nominated by each of the participating State Governments to represent the interests of agriculture, fishery or industry or trade in the State concerned or any other interest which, in the opinion of the participating State Government, is to be represented;

(e) two persons to be nominated by the Central Government to represent the companies or corporations owned, controlled or managed by the participating State Governments;

(f) a full-time member-secretary, possessing qualifications, knowledge and experience of scientific, engineering or management aspects of pollution control, to be appointed by the Central Government.

(2) A Joint Board constituted in pursuance of an agreement entered into under clause (b) of sub-section (1) of section 13 shall consist of the following members, namely:

(a) a full-time Chairman, being a person having special knowledge or practical experience in respect of [matters relating to environmental protection] or a person having knowledge and experience in administering institutions dealing with the matters aforesaid, to be nominated by the Central Government;

(b) two officials to be nominated by the Central Government from the participating Union territory or each of the participating Union territories, as the case may be, and two officials to be nominated, from the participating State or each of the participating States, as the case may be, by the concerned participating State Government;

(c) one person to be nominated by the Central Government from amongst the members of the local authorities functioning within the participating Union territory or each of the participating Union territories, as the case may be, and one person to be nominated, from amongst the members of the local authorities functioning within the participating State or each of the participating States, as the case may be, by the concerned participating State Government;

(d) one non-official to be nominated by the Central Government and one person to be nominated by the participating State Government or State Governments to represent the interests of agriculture, fishery or industry or trade in the Union territory or in each of the Union territories or the State or in each of the States, as the case may be, or any other interest which in the opinion of the Central Government or, as the case may be, of the State Government is to be represented;

(e) two persons to be nominated by the Central Government to represent the companies or corporations owned, controlled or managed by the Central Government and situate in the participating Union territory or territories and two persons to be nominated by the Central Government to represent the companies or corporations owned, controlled or managed by the participating State Governments;

(f) a full-time member-secretary, possessing qualifications, knowledge and experience of scientific, engineering or management aspects of pollution control, to be appointed by the Central Government.

(3) When a Joint Board is constituted in pursuance of an agreement under clause (b) of sub-section (1) of section 13, the provisions of sub-section (4) of section 4 shall cease to apply in relation to the Union territory for which the Joint Board is constituted.

(4) Subject to the provisions of sub-section (3), the provisions of sub-section (3) of section 4 and sections 5 to 12 (inclusive) shall apply in relation to the Joint Board and its member-secretary as they apply in relation to a State Board and its member-secretary.

(5) Any reference in this Act to the State Board shall, unless the context otherwise requires, be construed as including a Joint Board.

15. Special provision relating to giving of directions .Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act where any Joint Board is constituted under section 13,

(a) the Government of the State for which the Joint Board is constituted shall be competent to give any direction under this Act only in cases where such direction relates to a matter within the exclusive territorial jurisdiction of the State;

(b) the Central Government alone shall be competent to give any direction under this Act where such direction relates to a matter within the territorial jurisdiction of two or more States or pertaining to a Union territory.

CHAPTER IV

Powers And Functions Of Boards

16. Functions of Central Board .(1) Subject to the provisions of this Act, the main function of the Central Board shall be to promote cleanliness of streams and wells in different areas of the States.

(2) In particular and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing function, the Central Board may perform all or any of the following functions, namely:
(a) advise the Central Government on any matter concerning the prevention and control of water pollution;

(b) co-ordinate the activities of the State Boards and resolve disputes among them;

(c) provide technical assistance and guidance to the State Boards, carry out and sponsor investigations and research relating to problems of water pollution and prevention, control or abatement of water pollution;

(d) plan and organise the training of persons engaged or to be engaged in programmes for the prevention, control or abatement of water pollution on such terms and conditions as the Central Board may specify;

(e) organise through mass media a comprehensive programme regarding the prevention and control of water pollution;

(ee) perform such of the functions of any State Board as may be specified in an order made under sub-section (2) of section 18;

(f) collect, compile and publish technical and statistical data relating to water pollution and the measures devised for its effective prevention and control and prepare manuals, codes or guides relating to treatment and disposal of sewage and trade effluents and disseminate information connected therewith;

(g) lay down, modify or annul, in consultation with the State Government concerned, the standards for a stream or well:

Provided that different standards may be laid down for the same stream or well or for different streams or wells, having regard to the quality of water, flow characteristics of the stream or well and the nature of the use of the water in such stream or well or streams or wells;

(h) plan and cause to be executed a nation-wide programme for the prevention, control or abatement of water pollution;

(i) perform such other functions as may be prescribed.

(3) The Board may establish or recognise a laboratory or laboratories to enable the Board to perform its functions under this section efficiently, including the analysis of samples of water from any stream or well or of samples of any sewage or trade effluents.

17. Functions of State Board .(1) Subject to the provisions of this Act, the functions of a State Board shall be

(a) to plan a comprehensive programme for the prevention, control or abatement of pollution of streams and wells in the State and to secure the execution thereof;

(b) to advise the State Government on any matter concerning the prevention, control or abatement of water pollution;

(c) to collect and disseminate information relating to water pollution and the prevention, control or abatement thereof;

(d) to encourage, conduct and participate in investigations and research relating to problems of water pollution and prevention, control or abatement of water pollution;

(e) to collaborate with the Central Board in organising the training of persons engaged or to be engaged in programmes relating to prevention, control or abatement of water pollution and to organise mass education programmes relating thereto;

(f) to inspect sewage or trade effluents, works and plants for the treatment of sewage and trade effluents and to review plans, specifications or other data relating to plants set up for the treatment of water, works for the purification thereof and the system for the disposal of sewage or trade effluents or in connection with the grant of any consent as required by this Act;

(g) to lay down, modify or annul effluent standards for the sewage and trade effluents and for the quality of receiving waters (not being water in an inter-State stream) resulting from the discharge of effluents and to classify waters of the State;

(h) to evolve economical and reliable methods of treatment of sewage and trade effluents, having regard to the peculiar conditions of soils, climate and water resources of different regions and more especially the prevailing flow characteristics of water in streams and wells which render it impossible to attain even the minimum degree of dilution;

(i) to evolve methods of utilisation of sewage and suitable trade effluents in agriculture;

(j) to evolve efficient methods of disposal of sewage and trade effluents on land, as are necessary on account of the predominant conditions of scant stream flows that do not provide for major part of the year the minimum degree of dilution;

(k) to lay down standards of treatment of sewage and trade effluents to be discharged into any particular stream taking into account the minimum fair weather dilution available in that stream and the tolerance limits of pollution permissible in the water of the stream, after the discharge of such effluents;

(l) to make, vary or revoke any order

(i) for the prevention, control or abatement of discharges of waste into streams or wells;

(ii) requiring any person concerned to construct new systems for the disposal of sewage and trade effluents or to modify, alter or extend any such existing system or to adopt such remedial measures as are necessary to prevent, control or abate water pollution;

(m) to lay down effluent standards to be complied with by persons while causing discharge of sewage or sullage or both and to lay down, modify or annul effluent standards for the sewage and trade effluents;

(n) to advise the State Government with respect to the location of any industry the carrying on of which is likely to pollute a stream or well;

(o) to perform such other functions as may be prescribed or as may, from time to time, be entrusted to it by the Central Board or the State Government.

(2) The Board may establish or recognise a laboratory or laboratories to enable the Board to perform its functions under this section efficiently, including the analysis of samples of water from any stream or well or of samples of any sewage or trade effluents.

18. Powers to give directions .(1) In the performance of its functions under this Act
(a) the Central Board shall be bound by such directions in writing as the Central Government may give to it; and

(b) every State Board shall be bound by such directions in writing as the Central Board or the State Government may give to it:

Provided that where a direction given by the State Government is inconsistent with the direction given by the Central Board, the matter shall be referred to the Central Government for its decision.

(2) Where the Central Government is of the opinion that any State Board has defaulted in complying with any directions given by the Central Board under sub-section (1) and as a result of such default a grave emergency has arisen and it is necessary or expedient so to do in the public interest, it may, by order, direct the Central Board to perform any of the functions of the State Board in relation to such area, for such period and for such purposes, as may be specified in the order.

(3) Where the Central Board performs any of the functions of the State Board in pursuance of a direction under sub-section (2), the expenses, if any, incurred by the Central Board with respect to the performance of such functions may, if the State Board is empowered to recover such expenses, be recovered by the Central Board with interest (at such reasonable rate as the Central Government may, by order, fix) from the date when a demand for such expenses is made until it is paid from the person or persons concerned as arrears of land revenue or of public demand.

(4) For the removal of doubts, it is hereby declared that any directions to perform the functions of any State Board given under sub-section (2) in respect of any area would not preclude the State Board from performing such functions in any other area in the State or any of its other functions in that area.

CHAPTER V

Prevention And Control Of Water Pollution

19. Power of State Government to restrict the application of the Act to certain areas .(1) Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act, if the State Government, after consultation with, or on the recommendation of, the State Board, is of opinion that the provisions of this Act need not apply to the entire State, it may, by notification in the Official Gazette, restrict the application of this Act to such area or areas as may be declared therein as water pollution, prevention and control area or areas and thereupon the provisions of this Act shall apply only to such area or areas.

(2) Each water pollution, prevention and control area may be declared either by reference to a map or by reference to the line of any watershed or the boundary of any district or partly by one method and partly by another.

(3) The State Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette,
(a) alter any water pollution, prevention and control area whether by way of extension or reduction; or

(b) define a new water pollution, prevention and control area in which may be merged one or more water pollution, prevention and control areas, or any part or parts thereof.

20. Power to obtain information .(1) For the purpose of enabling a State Board to perform the functions conferred on it by or under this Act, the State Board or any officer empowered by it in that behalf, may make surveys of any area and gauge and keep records of the flow or volume and other characteristics of any stream or well in such area, and may take steps for the measurement and recording of the rainfall in such area or any part thereof and for the installation and maintenance for those purposes of gauges or other apparatus and works connected therewith, and carry out stream surveys and may take such other steps as may be necessary in order to obtain any information required for the purposes aforesaid.

(2) A State Board may give directions requiring any person who in its opinion is abstracting water from any such stream or well in the area in quantities which are substantial in relation to the flow or volume of that stream or well or is discharging sewage or trade effluent into any such stream or well, to give such information as to the abstraction or the discharge at such times and in such form as may be specified in the directions.

(3) Without prejudice to the provisions of sub-section (2), a State Board may, with a view to preventing or controlling pollution of water, give directions requiring any person in charge of any establishment where any [industry, operation or process, or treatment and disposal system] is carried on, to furnish to it information regarding the construction, installation or operation of such establishment or of any disposal system or of any extension or addition thereto in such establishment and such other particulars as may be prescribed.

21. Power to take samples of effluents and procedure to be followed in connection therewith .(1) A State Board or any officer empowered by it in this behalf shall have power to take for the purpose of analysis samples of water from any stream or well or samples of any sewage or trade effluent which is passing from any plant or vessel or from or over any place into any such stream or well.

(2) The result of any analysis of a sample of any sewage or trade effluent taken under sub-section (1) shall not be admissible in evidence in any legal proceeding unless the provisions of sub-sections (3), (4) and (5) are complied with.

(3) Subject to the provisions of sub-sections (4) and (5), when a sample (composite or otherwise as may be warranted by the process used) of any sewage or trade effluent is taken for analysis under sub-section (1), the person taking the sample shall

(a) serve on the person in charge of, or having control over, the plant or vessel or in occupation of the place (which person is hereinafter referred to as the occupier) or any agent of such occupier, a notice, then and there in such form as may be prescribed of his intention to have it so analysed;

(b) in the presence of the occupier or his agent, divide the sample into two parts;

(c) cause each part to be placed in a container which shall be marked and sealed and shall also be signed both by the person taking the sample and the occupier or his agent;

(d) send one container forthwith,

(i) in a case where such sample is taken from any area situated in a Union territory, to the laboratory established or recognised by the Central Board under section 16; and

(ii) in any other case, to the laboratory established or recognised by the State Board under section 17;

(e) on the request of the occupier or his agent, send the second container,

(i) in a case where such sample is taken from any area situated in a Union territory, to the laboratory established or specified under sub-section (1) of section 51; and

(ii) in any other case, to the laboratory established or specified under sub-section (1) of section 52.

(4) When a sample of any sewage or trade effluent is taken for analysis under sub-section (1) and the person taking the sample serves on the occupier or his agent, a notice under clause (a) of sub-section (3) and the occupier or his agent wilfully absents himself, then,
(a) the sample so taken shall be placed in a container which shall be marked and sealed and shall also be signed by the person taking the sample and the same shall be sent forthwith by such person for analysis to the laboratory referred to in sub-clause (i) or sub-clause (ii), as the case may be, of clause (e) of sub-section (3) and such person shall inform the Government analyst appointed under sub-section (1) or sub-section (2), as the case may be, of section 53, in writing about the wilful absence of the occupier or his agent; and

(b) the cost incurred in getting such sample analysed shall be payable by the occupier or his agent and in case of default of such payment, the same shall be recoverable from the occupier or his agent, as the case may be, as an arrear of land revenue or of public demand:

Provided that no such recovery shall be made unless the occupier or, as the case may be, his agent has been given a reasonable opportunity of being heard in the matter.

(5) When a sample of any sewage or trade effluent is taken for analysis under sub-section (1) and the person taking the sample serves on the occupier or his agent a notice under clause (a) of sub-section (3) and the occupier or his agent who is present at the time of taking the sample does not make a request for dividing the sample into two parts as provided in clause (b) of sub-section (3), then, the sample so taken shall be placed in a container which shall be marked and sealed and shall also be signed by the person taking the sample and the same shall be sent forthwith by such person for analysis to the laboratory referred to in sub-clause (i) or sub-clause (ii), as the case may be, of clause (d) of sub-section (3).

22. Reports of the result of analysis on samples taken under section 21 .(1) Where a sample of any sewage or trade effluent has been sent for analysis to the laboratory established or recognised by the Central Board or, as the case may be, the State Board, the concerned Board analyst appointed under sub-section (3) of section 53 shall analyse the sample and submit a report in the prescribed form of the result of such analysis in triplicate to the Central Board or the State Board, as the case may be.
(2) On receipt of the report under sub-section (1), one copy of the report shall be sent by the Central Board or the State Board, as the case may be, to the occupier or his agent referred to in section 21, another copy shall be preserved for production before the Court in case any legal proceedings are taken against him and the other copy shall be kept by the concerned Board.
(3) Where a sample has been sent for analysis under clause (e) of sub-section (3) or sub-section (4) of section 21 to any laboratory mentioned therein, the Government analyst referred to in that sub-section shall analyse the sample and submit a report in the prescribed form of the result of the analysis in triplicate to the Central Board or, as the case may be, the State Board which shall comply with the provisions of sub-section (2).
(4) If there is any inconsistency or discrepancy between, or variation in the results of, the analysis carried out by the laboratory established or recognised by the Central Board or the State Board, as the case may be, and that of the laboratory established or specified under section 51 or section 52, as the case may be, the report of the latter shall prevail.
(5) Any cost incurred in getting any sample analysed at the request of the occupier or his agent shall be payable by such occupier or his agent and in case of default the same shall be recoverable from him as arrears of land revenue or of public demand.

23. Power of entry and inspection .(1) Subject to the provisions of this section, any person empowered by a State Board in this behalf shall have a right at any time to enter, with such assistance as he considers necessary, any place
(a) for the purpose of performing any of the functions of the Board entrusted to him;

(b) for the purpose of determining whether and if so in what manner, any such functions are to be performed or whether any provisions of this Act or the rules made thereunder or any notice, order, direction or authorisation served, made, given, or granted under this Act is being or has been complied with;

(c) for the purpose of examining any plant, record, register, document or any other material object or for conducting a search of any place in which he has reason to believe that an offence under this Act or the rules made thereunder has been or is being or is about to be committed and for seizing any such plant, record, register, document or other material object, if he has reason to believe that it may furnish evidence of the commission of an offence punishable under this Act or the rules made thereunder:

Provided that the right to enter under this sub-section for the inspection of a well shall be exercised only at reasonable hours in a case where such well is situated in any premises used for residential purposes and the water thereof is used exclusively for domestic purposes.

(2) The provisions of [the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974)], or, in relation to the State of Jammu and Kashmir, the provisions of any corresponding law in force in that State, shall, so far as may be, apply to any search or seizure under this section as they apply to any search or seizure made under the authority of a warrant issued under section 94 of the said Code, or, as the case may be, under the corresponding provisions of the said law.

Explanation. For the purposes of this section, place includes vessel.

24. Prohibition on use of stream or well for disposal of polluting matter, etc .(1) Subject to the provisions of this section,
(a) no person shall knowingly cause or permit any poisonous, noxious or polluting matter determined in accordance with such standards as may be laid down by the State Board to enter (whether directly or indirectly) into any [stream or well or sewer or on land]; or

(b) no person shall knowingly cause or permit to enter into any stream any other matter which may tend, either directly or in combination with similar matters, to impede the proper flow of the water of the stream in a manner leading or likely to lead to a substantial aggravation of pollution due to other causes or of its consequences.

(2) A person shall not be guilty of an offence under sub-section (1), by reason only of having done or caused to be done any of the following acts, namely:
(a) constructing, improving or maintaining in or across or on the bank or bed of any stream any building, bridge, weir dam, sluice, dock, pier, drain or sewer or other permanent works which he has a right to construct, improve or maintain;

(b) depositing any materials on the bank or in the bed of any stream for the purpose of reclaiming land or for supporting, repairing or protecting the bank or bed of such stream provided such materials are not capable of polluting such stream;

(c) putting into any stream any sand or gravel or other natural deposit which has flowed from or been deposited by the current of such stream;

(d) causing or permitting, with the consent of the State Board, the deposit accumulated in a well, pond or reservoir to enter into any stream.

(3) The State Government may, after consultation with, or on the recommendation of, the State Board, exempt, by notification in the Official Gazette, any person from the operation of sub-section (1) subject to such conditions, if any, as may be specified in the notification and any condition so specified may by a like notification be altered, varied or amended.

25. Restrictions on new outlets and new discharges .[(1) Subject to the provisions of this section, no person shall, without the previous consent of the State Board,
(a) establish or take any steps to establish any industry, operation or process, or any treatment and disposal system or any extension or addition thereto, which is likely to discharge sewage or trade effluent into a stream or well or sewer or on land (such discharge being hereafter in this section referred to as discharge of sewage); or

(b) bring into use any new or altered outlet for the discharge of sewage; or

(c) begin to make any new discharge of sewage:

Provided that a person in the process of taking any steps to establish any industry, operation or process immediately before the commencement of the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Amendment Act, 1988, for which no consent was necessary prior to such commencement, may continue to do so for a period of three months from such commencement or, if he has made an application for such consent, within the said period of three months, till the disposal of such application.

(2) An application for consent of the State Board under sub-section (1) shall be made in such form, contain such particulars and shall be accompanied by such fees as may be prescribed.

(3) The State Board may make such inquiry as it may deem fit in respect of the application for consent referred to in sub-section (1) and in making any such inquiry shall follow such procedure as may be prescribed.

(4) The State Board may

(a) grant its consent referred to in sub-section (1), subject to such conditions as it may impose, being

(i) in cases referred to in clauses (a) and (b) of sub-section (1) of section 25, conditions as to the point of discharge of sewage or as to the use of that outlet or any other outlet for discharge of sewage;

(ii) in the case of a new discharge, conditions as to the nature and composition, temperature, volume or rate of discharge of the effluent from the land or premises from which the discharge or new discharge is to be made; and

(iii) that the consent will be valid only for such period as may be specified in the order, nd any such conditions imposed shall be binding on any person establishing or taking any steps to establish any industry, operation or process, or treatment and disposal system or extension or addition thereto, or using the new or altered outlet, or discharging the effluent from the land or premises aforesaid; or

(b) refuse such consent for reasons to be recorded in writing.

(5) Where, without the consent of the State Board, any industry, operation or process, or any treatment and disposal system or any extension or addition thereto, is established, or any steps for such establishment have been taken or a new or altered outlet is brought into use for the discharge of sewage or a new discharge of sewage is made, the State Board may serve on the person who has established or taken steps to establish any industry, operation or process, or any treatment and disposal system or any extension or addition thereto, or using the outlet, or making the discharge, as the case may be, a notice imposing any such conditions as it might have imposed on an application for its consent in respect of such establishment, such outlet or discharge.
(6) Every State Board shall maintain a register containing particulars of the conditions imposed under this section and so much of the register as relates to any outlet, or to any effluent, from any land or premises shall be open to inspection at all reasonable hours by any person interested in, or affected by such outlet, land or premises, as the case may be, or by any person authorised by him in this behalf and the conditions so contained in such register shall be conclusive proof that the consent was granted subject to such conditions.]
(7) The consent referred to in sub-section (1) shall, unless given or refused earlier, be deemed to have been given unconditionally on the expiry of a period of four months of the making of an application in this behalf complete in all respects to the State Board.
(8) For the purposes of this section and sections 27 and 30,
(a) the expression new or altered outlet means any outlet which is wholly or partly constructed on or after the commencement of this Act or which (whether so constructed or not) is substantially altered after such commencement;

(b) the expression new discharge means a discharge which is not, as respects the nature and composition, temperature, volume, and rate of discharge of the effluent substantially a continuation of a discharge made within the preceding twelve months (whether by the same or a different outlet), so, however, that a discharge which is in other respects a continuation of previous discharge made as aforesaid shall not be deemed to be a new discharge by reason of any reduction of the temperature or volume or rate of discharge of the effluent as compared with the previous discharge.

26. Provision regarding existing discharge of sewage or trade effluent .Where immediately before the commencement of this Act any person was discharging any sewage or trade effluent into a [stream or well or sewer or on land], the provisions of section 25 shall, so far as may be, apply in relation to such person as they apply in relation to the person referred to in that section subject to the modification that the application for consent to be made under sub-section (2) of that section [shall be made on or before such date as may be specified by the State Government by notification in this behalf in the Official Gazette.]

27. Refusal or withdrawal of consent by State Board .[(1) A State Board shall not grant its consent under sub-section (4) of section 25 for the establishment of any industry, operation or process, or treatment and disposal system or extension or addition thereto, or to the bringing into use of a new or altered outlet unless the industry, operation or process, or treatment and disposal system or extension or addition thereto, or the outlet is so established at to comply with any conditions imposed by the Board to enable it to exercise its right to take samples of the effluent.
(2) A State Board may from time to time review
(a) any condition imposed under section 25 or section 26 and may serve on the person to whom a consent under section 25 or section 26 is granted a notice making any reasonable variation of or revoking any such condition;

(b) the refusal of any consent referred to in sub-section (1) of section 25 or section 26 or the grant of such consent without any condition, and may make such orders as it deems fit.

(3) Any condition imposed under section 25 or section 26 shall be subject to any variation made under sub-section (2) and shall continue in force until revoked under that sub-section.

28. Appeals .(1) Any person aggrieved by an order made by the State Board under section 25, section 26 or section 27 may, within thirty days from the date on which the order is communicated to him, prefer an appeal to such authority (hereinafter referred to as the appellate authority) as the State Government may think fit to constitute:
Provided that the appellate authority may entertain the appeal after the expiry of the said period of thirty days if such authority is satisfied that the appellant was prevented by sufficient cause from filing the appeal in time.
(2) An appellate authority shall consist of a single person or three persons as the State Government may think fit, to be appointed by that Government.
(3) The form and manner in which an appeal may be preferred under sub-section (1), the fees payable for such appeal and the procedure to be followed by the appellate authority shall be such as may be prescribed.
(4) On receipt of an appeal preferred under sub-section (1), the appellate authority shall, after giving the appellant and the State Board an opportunity of being heard, dispose of the appeal as expeditiously as possible.
(5) If the appellate authority determines that any condition imposed, or the variation of any condition, as the case may be, was unreasonable, then,
(a) where the appeal is in respect of the unreasonableness of any condition imposed, such authority may direct either that the condition shall be treated as annulled or that there shall be substituted for it such condition as appears to it to be reasonable;

(b) where the appeal is in respect of the unreasonableness of any variation of a condition, such authority may direct either that the condition shall be treated as continuing in force unvaried or that it shall be varied in such manner as appears to it to be reasonable.

29. Revision .(1) The State Government may at any time either of its own motion or on an application made to it in this behalf, call for the records of any case where an order has been made by the State Board under section 25, section 26 or section 27 for the purpose of satisfying itself as to the legality or propriety of any such order and may pass such order in relation thereto as it may think fit:
Provided that the State Government shall not pass any order under this sub-section without affording the State Board and the person who may be affected by such order a reasonable opportunity of being heard in the matter.
(2) The State Government shall not revise any order made under section 25, section 26, or section 27 where an appeal against that order lies to the appellate authority, but has not been preferred or where an appeal has been preferred such appeal is pending before the appellate authority.

30. Power of State Board to carry out certain works .[(1) Where under this Act, any conditions have been imposed on any person while granting consent under section 25 or section 26 and such conditions require such person to execute any work in connection therewith and such work has not been executed within such time as may be specified in this behalf, the State Board may serve on the person concerned a notice requiring him within such time (not being less than thirty days) as may be specified in the notice to execute the work specified therein.
(2) If the person concerned fails to execute the work as required in the notice referred to in sub-section (1), then, after the expiration of the time specified in the said notice, the State Board may itself execute or cause to be executed such work.
(3) All expenses incurred by the State Board for the execution of the aforesaid work, together with interest, at such rate as the State Government may, by order, fix, from the date when a demand for the expenses is made until it is paid, may be recovered by that Board from the person concerned, as arrears of land revenue, or of public demand.

31. Furnishing of information to State Board and other agencies in certain cases .(1) If at any place where any industry, operation or process, or any treatment and disposal system or any extension or addition thereto is being carried on, due to accident or other unforeseen act or event, any poisonous, noxious or polluting matter is being discharged, or is likely to be discharged into a stream or well or sewer or on land and, as a result of such discharge, the water in any stream or well is being polluted, or is likely to be polluted, then the person incharge of such place shall forthwith intimate the occurrence of such accident, act or event to the State Board and such other authorities or agencies as may be prescribed.
(2) Where any local authority operates any sewerage system or sewage works, the provisions of sub-section (1) shall apply to such local authority as they apply in relation to the person incharge of the place where any industry or trade is being carried on.

32. Emergency measures in case of pollution of stream or well .(1) Where it appears to the State Board that any poisonous, noxious or polluting matter is present in [any stream or well or on land by reason of the discharge of such matter in such stream or well or on such land] or has entered into that stream or well due to any accident or other unforeseen act or event, and if the Board is of opinion that it is necessary or expedient to take immediate action, it may for reasons to be recorded in writing, carry out such operations, as it may consider necessary for all or any of the following purposes, that is to say,
(a) removing that matter from the [stream or well or on land] and disposing it of in such manner as the Board considers appropriate;

(b) remedying or mitigating any pollution caused by its presence in the stream or well;

(c) issuing orders immediately restraining or prohibiting the person concerned from discharging any poisonous, noxious or polluting matter [into the stream or well or on land], or from making insanitary use of the stream or well.

(2) The power conferred by sub-section (1) does not include the power to construct any works other than works of a temporary character which are removed on or before the completion of the operations.

33. Power of Board to make application to Courts for restraining apprehended pollution of water in streams or wells .[(1) Where it is apprehended by a Board that the water in any stream or well is likely to be polluted by reason of the disposal or likely disposal of any matter in such stream or well or in any sewer or on any land, or otherwise, the Board may make an application to a Court, not inferior to that of a Metropolitan Magistrate or a Judicial Magistrate of the first class, for restraining the person who is likely to cause such pollution from so causing.]
(2) On receipt of an application under sub-section (1) the Court may make such order as it deems fit.
(3) Where under sub-section (2) the Court makes an order restraining any person from polluting the water in any stream or well, it may in that order
(i) direct the person who is likely to cause or has caused the pollution of the water in the stream or well, to desist from taking such action as is likely to cause pollution or, as the case may be, to remove from such stream or well, such matter, and

(ii) authorise the Board, if the direction under clause (i) (being a direction for the removal of any matter from such stream or well) is not complied with by the person to whom such direction is issued, to undertake the removal and disposal of the matter in such manner as may be specified by the Court.

(4) All expenses incurred by the Board in removing any matter in pursuance of the authorisation under clause (ii) of sub-section (3) or in the disposal of any such matter may be defrayed out of any money obtained by the Board from such disposal and any balance outstanding shall be recoverable from the person concerned as arrears of land revenue or of public demand.

33-A. Power to give directions .Notwithstanding anything contained in any other law, but subject to the provisions of this Act, and to any directions that the Central Government may give in this behalf, a Board may, in the exercise of its powers and performance of its functions under this Act, issue any directions in writing to any person, officer or authority, and such person, officer or authority shall be bound to comply with such directions.
Explanation. For the avoidance of doubts, it is hereby declared that the power to issue directions under this section includes the power to direct
(a) the closure, prohibition or regulation of any industry, operation or process; or

(b) the stoppage or regulation of supply of electricity, water or any other service.

CHAPTER VI

Funds, Accounts And Audit

34. Contributions by Central Government .The Central Government may, after due appropriation made by Parliament by law in this behalf, make in each financial year such contributions to the Central Board as it may think necessary to enable the Board to perform its functions under this Act.

35. Contributions by State Government .The State Government may, after due appropriation made by the Legislature of the State by law in this behalf, make in each financial year such contributions to the State Board as it may think necessary to enable that Board to perform its functions under this Act.

36. Fund of Central Board .(1) The Central Board shall have its own fund, and all sums which may, from time to time, be paid to it by the Central Government and all other receipts (by way of gifts, grants, donations, benefactions, fees or otherwise) of that Board shall be carried to the fund of the Board and all payments by the Board shall be made therefrom.

(2) The Central Board may expend such sums as it thinks fit for performing its functions under this Act [and, where any law for the time being in force relating to the prevention, control or abatement of air pollution provides for the performance of any function under such law by the Central Board, also for performing its functions under such law and such sums shall be treated as expenditure payable out of the fund of that Board.

37. Fund of State Board .(1) The State Board shall have its own fund, and the sums which may, from time to time, be paid to it by the State Government and all other receipts (by way of gifts, grants, donations, benefactions [, fees] or otherwise) of that Board shall be carried to the fund of the Board and all payments by the Board shall be made therefrom.
(2) The State Board may expend such sums as it thinks fit for performing its functions under this Act [and, where any law for the time being in force relating to the prevention, control or abatement of air pollution provides for the performance of any function under such law by the State Board, also for performing its functions under such law], and such sums shall be treated as expenditure payable out of the fund of that Board.

37-A. Borrowing powers of Board .A Board may, with the consent of, or in accordance with, the terms of any general or special authority given to it by the Central Government or, as the case may be, the State Government, borrow money from any source by way of loans or issue of bonds, debentures or such other instruments, as it may deem fit, for the performance of all or any of its functions under this Act.

38. Budget .The Central Board or, as the case may be, the State Board shall, during each financial year, prepare, in such form and at such time as may be prescribed, a budget in respect of the financial year next ensuing showing the estimated receipt and expenditure, and copies thereof shall be forwarded to the Central Government or, as the case may be, the State Government.

39. Annual report .(1) The Central Board shall, during each financial year, prepare, in such form as may be prescribed, an annual report giving full account of its activities under this Act during the previous financial year and copies thereof shall be forwarded to the Central Government within four months from the last date of the previous financial year and that Government shall cause every such report to be laid before both Houses of Parliament within nine months from the last date of the previous financial year.
(2) Every State Board shall, during each financial year, prepare, in such form as may be prescribed, an annual report giving full account of its activities under this Act during the previous financial year and copies thereof shall be forwarded to the State Government within four months from the last date of the previous financial year and that Government shall cause every such report to be laid before the State Legislature within a period of nine months from the last date of the previous financial year.

40. Accounts and audit .(1) Every Board shall maintain proper accounts and other relevant records and prepare an annual statement of accounts in such form as may be prescribed by the Central Government or, as the case may be, the State Government.
(2) The accounts of the Board shall be audited by an auditor duly qualified to act as an auditor of companies under section 226 of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956).
(3) The said auditor shall be appointed by the Central Government or, as the case may be, the State Government on the advice of the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India.
(4) Every auditor appointed to audit the accounts of the Board under this Act shall have the right to demand the production of books, accounts, connected vouchers and other documents and papers and to inspect any of the offices of the Board.
(5) Every such auditor shall send a copy of his report together with an audited copy of the accounts to the Central Government or, as the case may be, the State Government.
(6) The Central Government shall, as soon as may be after the receipt of the audit report under sub-section (5), cause the same to be laid before both Houses of Parliament.
(7) The State Government shall, as soon as may be after the receipt of the audit report under sub-section (5), cause the same to be laid before the State Legislature.

CHAPTER VII

Penalties And Procedure

41. Failure to comply with directions under sub-section (2) or sub-section (3) of section 20, or orders issued under clause (c) of sub-section (1) of section 32 or directions issued under sub-section (2) of section 33 or section 33-A .(1) Whoever fails to comply with any direction given under sub-section (2) or sub-section (3) of section 20 within such time as may be specified in the direction shall, on conviction, be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to three months or with fine which may extend to ten thousand rupees or with both and in case the failure continues, with an additional fine which may extend to five thousand rupees for every day during which such failure continues after the conviction for the first such failure.
(2) Whoever fails to comply with any order issued under clause (c) of sub-section (1) of section 32 or any direction issued by a Court under sub-section (2) of section 33 or any direction issued under section 33-A shall, in respect of each such failure and on conviction, be punishable with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than one year and six months but which may extend to six years and with fine, and in case the failure continues, with an additional fine which may extend to five thousand rupees for every day during which such failure continues after the conviction for the first such failure.
(3) If the failure referred to in sub-section (2) continues beyond a period of one year after the date of conviction, the offender shall, on conviction, be punishable with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than two years but which may extend to seven years and with fine.

42. Penalty for certain acts .(1) Whoever
(a) destroys, pulls down, removes, injures or defaces any pillar, post or stake fixed in the ground or any notice or other matter put up, inscribed or placed, by or under the authority of the Board, or

(b) obstructs any person acting under the orders or directions of the Board from exercising his powers and performing his functions under this Act, or

(c) damages any works or property belonging to the Board, or

(d) fails to furnish to any officer or other employee of the Board any information required by him for the purpose of this Act, or

(e) fails to intimate the occurrence of any accident or other unforeseen act or event under section 31 to the Board and other authorities or agencies as required by that section, or

(f) in giving any information which he is required to give under this Act, knowingly or wilfully makes a statement which is false in any material particular, or

(g) for the purpose of obtaining any consent under section 25 or section 26, knowingly or wilfully makes a statement which is false in any material particular, hall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to three months or with fine which may extend to [ten thousand rupees] or with both.

(2) Where for the grant of a consent in pursuance of the provisions of section 25 or section 26 the use of meter or gauge or other measure or monitoring device is required and such device is used for the purposes of those provisions, any person who knowingly or wilfully alters or interferes with that device so as to prevent it from monitoring or measuring correctly shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to three months or with fine which may extend to [ten thousand rupees] or with both.

43. Penalty for contravention of provisions of section 24.Whoever contravenes the provisions of section 24 shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than [one year and six months] but which may extend to six years and with fine.

44. Penalty for contravention of section 25 or section 26 .Whoever contravenes the provisions of section 25 or section 26 shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than [one year and six months] but which may extend to six years and with fine.

45. Enhanced penalty after previous conviction .If any person who has been convicted of any offence under section 24 or section 25 or section 26 is again found guilty of an offence involving a contravention of the same provision, he shall, on the second and on every subsequent conviction, be punishable with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than [two years] but which may extend to seven years and with fine:
Provided that for the purpose of this section no cognizance shall be taken of any conviction made more than two years before the commission of the offence which is being punished.

45-A. Penalty for contravention of certain provisions of the Act .Whoever contravenes any of the provisions of this Act or fails to comply with any order or direction given under this Act, for which no penalty has been elsewhere provided in this Act, shall be punishable with imprisonment which may extend to three months or with fine which may extend to ten thousand rupees or with both, and in the case of a continuing contravention or failure, with an additional fine which may extend to five thousand rupees for every day during which such contravention or failure continues after conviction for the first such contravention or failure.]

46. Publication of names of offenders .If any person convicted of an offence under this Act commits a like offence afterwards it shall be lawful for the Court before which the second or subsequent conviction takes place to cause the offenders name and place of residence, the offence and the penalty imposed to be published at the offenders expense in such newspapers or in such other manner as the Court may direct and the expenses of such publication shall be deemed to be part of the cost attending the conviction and shall be recoverable in the same manner as a fine.

47. Offences by companies .(1) Where an offence under this Act has been committed by a company, every person who at the time the offence was committed was in charge of, and was responsible to the company for the conduct of, the business of the company, as well as the company, shall be deemed to be guilty of the offence and shall be liable to be proceeded against and punished accordingly:
Provided that nothing contained in this sub-section shall render any such person liable to any punishment provided in this Act if he proves that the offence was committed without his knowledge or that he exercised all due diligence to prevent the commission of such offence.
(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), where an offence under this Act has been committed by a company and it is proved that the offence has been committed with the consent or connivance of, or is attributable to any neglect on the part of, any director, manager, secretary or other officer of the company, such director, manager, secretary or other officer shall also be deemed to be guilty of that offence and shall be liable to be proceeded against and punished accordingly.
Explanation. For the purposes of this section,
(a) company means any body corporate, and includes a firm or other association of individuals; and

(b) director in relation to a firm means a partner in the firm.

48. Offences by Government Departments .Where an offence under this Act has been committed by any Department of Government, the Head of the Department shall be deemed to be guilty of the offence and shall be liable to be proceeded against and punished accordingly:
Provided that nothing contained in this section shall render such Head of the Department liable to any punishment if he proves that the offence was committed without his knowledge or that he exercised all due diligence to prevent the commission of such offence.

49. Cognizance of offences .(1) No Court shall take cognizance of any offence under this Act except on a complaint made by
(a) a Board or any officer authorised in this behalf by it; or

(b) any person who has given notice of not less than sixty days, in the manner prescribed, of the alleged offence and of his intention to make a complaint, to the Board or officer authorised as aforesaid, nd no Court inferior to that of a Metropolitan Magistrate or a Judicial Magistrate of the first class shall try any offence punishable under this Act.

(2) Where a complaint has been made under clause (b) of sub-section (1), the Board shall, on demand by such person, make available the relevant reports in its possession to that person:
Provided that the Board may refuse to make any such report available to such person if the same is, in its opinion, against the public interest.

(3) Notwithstanding anything contained in section 29 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974)], it shall be lawful for any Judicial Magistrate of the first class or for any Metropolitan Magistrate to pass a sentence of imprisonment for a term exceeding two years or of fine exceeding two thousand rupees on any person convicted of an offence punishable under this Act.

50. Members, officers and servants of Board to be public servants. All members, officers and servants of a Board when acting or purporting to act in pursuance of any of the provisions of this Act and the rules made thereunder shall be deemed to be public servants within the meaning of section 21 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860).

CHAPTER VIII

Miscellaneous

51. Central Water Laboratory.(1) The Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette,
(a) establish a Central Water Laboratory; or

(b) specify any laboratory or institute as a Central Water Laboratory, to carry out the functions entrusted to the Central Water Laboratory under this Act.

(2) The Central Government may, after consultation with the Central Board, make rules prescribing
(a) the functions of the Central Water Laboratory;

(b) the procedure for the submission to the said laboratory of samples of water or of sewage or trade effluent for analysis or tests, the form of the laboratorys report thereunder and the fees payable in respect of such report;

(c) such other matters as may be necessary or expedient to enable that laboratory to carry out its functions.

52. State Water Laboratory.(1) The State Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette,
(a) establish a State Water Laboratory; or

(b) specify any laboratory or institute as a State Water Laboratory, to carry out the functions entrusted to the State Water Laboratory under this Act.

(2) The State Government may, after consultation with the State Board, make rules prescribing
(a) the functions of the State Water Laboratory;

(b) the procedure for the submission to the said laboratory of samples of water or of sewage or trade effluent for analysis or tests, the form of the laboratorys report thereon and the fees payable in respect of such report;

(c) such other matters as may be necessary or expedient to enable that laboratory to carry out its functions.

53. Analysts.(1) The Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint such persons as it thinks fit and having the prescribed qualifications to be Government analysts for the purpose of analysis of samples of water or of sewage or trade effluent sent for analysis to any laboratory established or specified under sub-section (1) of section 51.
(2) The State Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint such persons as it thinks fit and having the prescribed qualifications to be Government analysts for the purpose of analysis of samples of water or of sewage or trade effluent sent for analysis to any laboratory established or specified under sub-section (1) of section 52.
(3) Without prejudice to the provisions of sub-section (3) of section 12, the Central Board or, as the case may be, the State Board may, by notification in the Official Gazette, and with the approval of the Central Government or the State Government, as the case may be, appoint such persons as it thinks fit and having the prescribed qualifications to be Board analysts for the purpose of analysis of samples of water or of sewage or trade effluent sent for analysis to any laboratory established or recognised under section 16, or, as the case may be, under section 17.

54. Reports of analysts .Any document purporting to be a report signed by a Government analyst or, as the case may be, a Board analyst may be used as evidence of the facts stated therein in any proceeding under this Act.

55. Local authorities to assist .All local authorities shall render such help and assistance and furnish such information to the Board as it may require for the discharge of its functions, and shall make available to the Board for inspection and examination such records, maps, plans and other documents as may be necessary for the discharge of its functions.

56. Compulsory acquisition of land for the State Board .Any land required by a State Board for the efficient performance of its functions under this Act shall be deemed to be needed for a public purpose and such land shall be acquired for the State Board under the provisions of the Land Acquisition Act, 1894 (1 of 1894), or under any other corresponding law for the time being in force.

57. Returns and reports .The Central Board shall furnish to the Central Government, and a State Board shall furnish to the State Government and to the Central Board such reports, returns, statistics, accounts and other information with respect to its fund or activities as that Government, or, as the case may be, the Central Board may, from time to time, require.

58. Bar of jurisdiction .No Civil Court shall have jurisdiction to entertain any suit or proceeding in respect of any matter which an appellate authority constituted under this Act is empowered by or under this Act to determine, and no injunction shall be granted by any Court or other authority in respect of any action taken or to be taken in pursuance of any power conferred by or under this Act.

59. Protection of action taken in good faith.No suit or other legal proceedings shall lie against the Government or any officer of Government or any member or officer of a Board in respect of anything which is in good faith done or intended to be done in pursuance of this Act or the rules made thereunder.

60. Overriding effect.The provisions of this Act shall have effect notwithstanding anything inconsistent therewith contained in any enactment other than this Act.

61. Power of Central Government to supersede the Central Board and Joint Boards .(1) If at any time the Central Government is of opinion
(a) that the Central Board or any Joint Board has persistently made default in the performance of the functions imposed on it by or under this Act; or

(b) that circumstances exist which render it necessary in the public interest so to do, he Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, supersede the Central Board or such Joint Board, as the case may be, for such period, not exceeding one year, as may be specified in the notification:

Provided that before issuing a notification under this sub-section for the reasons mentioned in clause (a), the Central Government shall give a reasonable opportunity to the Central Board or such Joint Board, as the case may be, to show cause why it should not be superseded and shall consider the explanations and objections, if any, of the Central Board or such Joint Board, as the case may be.
(2) Upon the publication of a notification under sub-section (1) superseding the Central Board or any Joint Board,
(a) all the members shall, as from the date of supersession vacate their offices as such;

(b) all the powers, functions and duties which may, by or under this Act, be exercised, performed or discharged by the Central Board or such Joint Board shall, until the Central Board or the Joint Board, as the case may be, is reconstituted under sub-section (3) be exercised, performed or discharged by such person or persons as the Central Government may direct;

(c) all property owned or controlled by the Central Board or such Joint Board shall, until the Central Board or the Joint Board, as the case may be, is reconstituted under sub-section (3) vest in the Central Government.

(3) On the expiration of the period of supersession specified in the notification issued under sub-section (1), the Central Government may
(a) extend the period of supersession for such further term, not exceeding six months, as it may consider necessary; or

(b) reconstitute the Central Board or the Joint Board, as the case may be, by fresh nomination or appointment, as the case may be, and in such case any person who vacated his office under clause (a) of sub-section (2) shall not be deemed disqualified for nomination or appointment:

Provided that the Central Government may at any time before the expiration of the period of supersession, whether originally specified under sub-section (1) or as extended under this sub-section, take action under clause (b) of this sub-section.

62. Power of State Government to supersede State Board .(1) If at any time the State Government is of opinion
(a) that the State Board has persistently made default in the performance of the functions imposed on it by or under this Act; or

(b) that circumstances exist which render it necessary in the public interest so to do, he State Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, supersede the State Board for such period, not exceeding one year, as may be specified in the notification:

Provided that before issuing a notification under this sub-section for the reasons mentioned in clause (a), the State Government shall give a reasonable opportunity to the State Board to show cause why it should not be superseded and shall consider the explanations and objections, if any, of the State Board.
(2) Upon the publication of a notification under sub-section (1) superseding the State Board, the provisions of sub-sections (2) and (3) of section 61 shall apply in relation to the supersession of the State Board as they apply in relation to the supersession of the Central Board or a Joint Board by the Central Government.

63. Power of Central Government to make rules .(1) The Central Government may, simultaneously with the constitution of the Central Board, make rules in respect of the matters specified in sub-section (2):
Provided that when the Central Board has been constituted, no such rule shall be made, varied, amended or repealed without consulting the Board.
(2) In particular, and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power, such rules may provide for all or any of the following matters, namely:
(a) the terms and conditions of service of the members (other than the Chairman and member-secretary) of the Central Board under sub-section (8) of section 5;

(b) the intervals and the time and place at which meetings of the Central Board or of any committee thereof constituted under this Act, shall be held and the procedure to be followed at such meetings, including the quorum necessary for the transaction of business under section 8, and under sub-section (2) of section 9;

(c) the fees and allowances to be paid to such members of a committee of the Central Board as are not members of the Board under sub-section (3) of section 9;

(d) the manner in which and the purposes for which persons may be associated with the Central Board under sub-section (1) of section 10 and the fees and allowances payable to such persons;

(e) the terms and conditions of service of the Chairman and the member-secretary of the Central Board under sub-section (9) of section 5 and under sub-section (1) of section 12;

(f) conditions subject to which a person may be appointed as a consulting engineer to the Central Board under sub-section (4) of section 12;

(g) the powers and duties to be exercised and performed by the Chairman and the member-secretary of the Central Board;

* * *

(j) the form of the report of the Central Board analyst under sub-section (1) of section 22;

(k) the form of the report of the Government analyst under sub-section (3) of section 22;

[(l) the form in which and the time within which the budget of the Central Board may be prepared and forwarded to the Central Government under section 38;

(ll) the form in which the annual report of the Central Board may be prepared under section 39;]

(m) the form in which the accounts of the Central Board may be maintained under section 40;

[(mm) the manner in which notice of intention to make a complaint shall be given to the Central Board or officer authorised by it under section 49;]

(n) any other matter relating to the Central Board, including the powers and functions of that Board in relation to Union territories;

(o) any other matter which has to be, or may be, prescribed.

(3) Every rule made by the Central Government under this Act shall be laid, as soon as may be after it is made, before each House of Parliament while it is in session for a total period of thirty days which may be comprised in one session or in two or more successive sessions, and if, [before the expiry of the session immediately following the session or the successive sessions aforesaid], both Houses agree in making any modification in the rule or both Houses agree that the rule should not be made, the rule shall thereafter have effect only in such modified form or be of no effect, as the case may be; so, however, that any such modification or annulment shall be without prejudice to the validity of anything previously done under that rule.

64. Power of State Government to make rules .(1) The State Government may, simultaneously with the constitution of the State Board, make rules to carry out the purposes of this Act, in respect of matters not falling within the purview of section 63:
Provided that when the State Board has been constituted, no such rule shall be made, varied, amended or repealed without consulting that Board.
(2) In particular, and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power, such rules may provide for all or any of the following matters, namely:
(a) the terms and conditions of service of the members (other than the Chairman and the member-secretary) of the State Board under sub-section (8) of section 5;

(b) the time and place of meetings of the State Board or of any committee of that Board constituted under this Act and the procedure to be followed at such meeting, including the quorum necessary for the transaction of business under section 8 and under sub-section (2) of section 9;

(c) the fees and allowances to be paid to such members of a committee of the State Board as are not members of the Board under sub-section (3) of section 9;

(d) the manner in which and the purposes for which persons may be associated with the State Board under sub-section (1) of section 10 and the fees and allowances payable to such persons;

(e) the terms and conditions of service of the Chairman and the member-secretary of the State Board under sub-section (9) of section 5 and under sub-section (1) of section 12;

(f) the conditions subject to which a person may be appointed as a consulting engineer to the State Board under sub-section (4) of section 12;

(g) the powers and duties to be exercised and discharged by the Chairman and the member-secretary of the State Board;

(h) the form of the notice referred to in section 21;

(i) the form of the report of the State Board analyst under sub-section (1) of section 22;

(j) the form of the report of the Government analyst under sub-section (3) of section 22;

(k) the form of application for the consent of the State Board under sub-section (2) of section 25, and the particulars it may contain;

(l) the manner in which inquiry under sub-section (3) of section 25 may be made in respect of an application for obtaining consent of the State Board and the matters to be taken into account in granting or refusing such consent;

(m) the form and manner in which appeals may be filed, the fees payable in respect of such appeals and the procedure to be followed by the appellate authority in disposing of the appeals under sub-section (3) of section 28;

[(n) the form in which and the time within which the budget of the State Board may be prepared and forwarded to the State Government under section 38;

(nn) the form in which the annual report of the State Board may be prepared under section 39;]

(o) the form in which the accounts of the State Board may be maintained under sub-section (1) of section 40;

(oo) the manner in which notice of intention to make a complaint shall be given to the State Board or officer authorised by it under section 49;

(p) any other matter which has to be, or may be, prescribed.


 

The Special Protection Group Act 1988

An Act to provide for the constitution and regulation of an armed force of the Union for providing proximate security to the Prime Minister of India and the former Prime Ministers of India and members of his immediate family and for matters connected therewith.

Central Act

The Special Protection Group Act, 1988

(34 of 1988)

Be it enacted by Parliament in the Thirty-ninth Year of the Republic of India as follows:

Received the assent of the President on 2.6.1988 and published in the Gazette of India, Ext., Pt.II, Section 1, dated 2.6.1988.

Enforced on 1.8.1988

1. Short title and commencement- (1) This Act may be called The Special Protection Group Act, 1988.

(2) It shall come into force on such date as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint.

2. Definitions-In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires,

(a) active duty in relation to a member of the Group means any duty as such member during the period when he is posted to physically protect the Prime Minister of India and the members of [his immediate family or a former Prime Minister and the members of his immediate family,] wherever he or they may be;

(b) Director means the Director of the Group appointed under sub-section (1) of section 5;

(c) Group means the Special Protection Group constituted under section 4;

(d) member of the Group means a person who has been appointed to the Group by the prescribed authority whether before or after the commencement of this Act;

(e) members of immediate family means wife, husband, children and parents;

(f) prescribed means prescribed by rules made under this Act;

(g) Proximate security means protection provided from close quarters, during journey by road, rail, aircraft, watercraft or on foot or any other means of transport and shall include the places of functions, engagements, residence or halt and shall comprise ring round teams, isolation cordons, the sterile zone around, and the rostrum and access control to the person or members of his immediate family;

(h) all words and expressions used and not defined in this Act but defined in the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860), shall have the meanings respectively assigned to them in that Code.

3. Members subject to this Act -Every member of the Group shall be subject to this Act, wherever he may be.

4. Constitution of the Group- (1) There shall be an armed force of the Union called the Special Protection Group for providing proximate security to

(i) the Prime Minister and the members of his immediate family; and

(ii) any former Prime Minister or to the members of his immediate family

(a) for a period of one year from the date on which the former Prime Minister ceased to hold office and beyond one year based on the level of threat as decided by the Central Government, so, however, that not more than twelve months shall elapse between two consecutive assessments made in regard to the need for proximate security:

Provided that while deciding the level of threat, the Central Government shall take into account, among other things, the following factors, namely:

(A) that the threat emanates from any militant or terrorist organisation or any other source; and

(B) that the threat is of a grave and continuing nature:

(b) on their visits abroad, based on entitlement to proximate security and the level of threat as assessed by the Central Government.

(1-A) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1),

(a) any former Prime Minister or any member of the immediate family of the Prime Minister or of a former Prime Minister may decline proximate security;

(b) where the proximate security is withdrawn from a former Prime Minister, whether before or after the commencement of the Special Protection Group (Amendment) Act, 1999 (35 of 1999), such proximate security shall also stand withdrawn from the immediate family members of such former Prime Minister:

Provided that where the level of threat faced by any member of the immediate family of a former Prime Minister warrants proximate security or any other security, such security shall be provided to that member.

(2) Subject to the provisions of this Act, the Group shall be constituted in such manner as may be prescribed and the terms and conditions of service of the members of the Group shall be such as may be prescribed.

(3) Notwithstanding anything contained in this section, any person or any member of any other armed force of the Union may be appointed to the Group by the Central Government by a general or special order and for such period as may be specified in such order and the person so appointed shall, during the period of his appointment, be deemed to be a member of the Group and the provisions of this Act shall, so far as may be, apply to such person or member.

5. Control, direction, etc – (1) The general superintendence, direction and control of the Group shall vest in, and be exercised by, the Central Government and subject thereto and to the provisions of this Act and the rules, the command and supervision of the Group shall vest in an officer to be appointed by the Central Government as the Director of the Group.

(2) The Director shall, in the discharge of his duties under this Act, be assisted by such number of Inspectors General, Deputy Inspectors General, Assistant Inspectors General and other officers as may be appointed by the Central Government.

6. Liability for service in and outside India .Every member of the Group shall be liable to service in any part of India as well as outside India.

7. Members of the Group always on active duty – Every member of the Group, not on leave or under suspension, shall, for all purposes of this Act, be always on active duty and may at any time be employed or deployed in any manner which is consistent with the duties and responsibilities of the Group under this Act.

8. Resignation and withdrawal from the post – No member of the Group shall be at liberty,
(a) to resign his appointment during the term of his engagement; or

(b) to withdraw himself from all or any of the duties of his appointment,

except with the previous permission in writing of the prescribed authority.

9. Tenure of service -Every member of the Group shall hold office during the pleasure of the President.

10. Restrictions respecting right to form associations, freedom of speech, etc-(1) No member of the Group shall, without the previous sanction in writing of the Central Government or of the prescribed authority,
(a) be a member of, or be associated in any way with, any trade union, labour union, political association or with any class of trade unions, labour unions or political associations; or

(b) be a member of, or be associated in any way with, any society, institution, association or organisation that is not of a purely social, recreational or religious nature; or

(c) communicate with the press or publish or cause to be published any book, letter or other document except where such communication or publication is in the bona fide discharge of his duties or is of a purely literary, artistic or scientific character or is of a prescribed nature.

Explanation. If any question arises as to whether any society, institution, association or organisation is of a purely social, recreational or religious nature under clause (b) or whether any book, letter or document is a communication or publication in the bona fide discharge of his duties or is of a purely literary, artistic or scientific character or is of a prescribed nature under clause (c), the decision of the Central Government thereon shall be final.

(2) No member of the Group shall participate in, or address, any meeting or take part in any demonstration organised by any body of persons for any political purposes or for such other purposes as may be prescribed.

11. Termination of service -The prescribed authority may, by order in writing, terminate the appointment of any member of the Group in the public interest and such termination shall be deemed to be discharge simpliciter and shall not amount to dismissal or removal.

12. Appeal – (1) Any member of the Group aggrieved by an order under section 11 may, within thirty days from the date of such order, prefer an appeal to a Board to be constituted by the Central Government.
(2) The Board shall consist of such persons as may be prescribed.
(3) The decision of the Board shall be final and shall not be called in question in any Court or tribunal.
(4) The Board shall have power to regulate its own procedure.

13. Powers and duties conferrable on members of the Group .The Central Government may, by general or special order published in the Official Gazette, direct that, subject to such conditions and limitations as may be specified in that order, any member of the Group may exercise or discharge such powers or duties as may be specified in the said order for giving effect to the provisions of this Act.

14. Assistance to Group – It shall be the duty of every Ministry and Department of the Central Government or the State Government or the Union Territory Administration, every Indian Mission, every local or other authority or every civil or military authority to act in aid of the Director or any member of the Group whenever called upon to do so in furtherance of the duties and responsibilities assigned to such Director or member.

15. Protection of action taken under this Act-No suit, prosecution or other legal proceeding shall lie against the Group or any member thereof on whom powers have been conferred or duties have been imposed under this Act, or any order issued or any rule made thereunder for anything which is in good faith done or purported to be done or omitted to be done in pursuance of this Act or any order issued or any rule made thereunder or any order issued under any such rule.

16. Power to make rules – (1) The Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, make rules for carrying out the provisions of this Act.
(2) In particular and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power, such rules may provide for all or any of the following matters, namely:
(a) the manner in which the Group shall be constituted and the terms and conditions of service of its members under sub-section (2) of section 4;

(b) the authorities to be prescribed under section 8, sub-section (1) of section 10 and section 11;

(c) the nature of the communication or publication under clause (c) of sub-section (1) of section 10;

(d) the purposes, other than political purposes, for which a person subject to this Act shall not participate in, or address, any meeting or take part in any demonstration under sub-section (2) of section 10;

(e) the persons who shall be members of the Board under sub-section (2) of section 12;

(f) any other matter which has to be, or may be, prescribed.

17. Laying of orders and rules- Every order issued under section 13 and every rule made under section 16 shall be laid, as soon as may be after it is issued or made, before each House of Parliament while it is in session for a total period of thirty days which may be comprised in one session or in two or more successive sessions, and if, before the expiry of the session immediately following the session or the successive sessions aforesaid, both Houses agree in making any modification in the order or the rule or both Houses agree that the order or rule should not be made, the order or rule shall thereafter have effect only in such modified form or be of no effect, as the case may be; so, however, that any such modification or annulment shall be without prejudice to the validity of anything previously done under that order or rule.

18. Provision as to existing Special Protection Group – (1) The Special Protection Group in existence at the commencement of this Act shall be deemed to the Group constituted under this Act.
(2) The member of the Special Protection Group in existence at the commencement of this Act shall be deemed to have been appointed as such under this Act.
(3) Anything done or any action taken before the commencement of this Act in relation to the constitution of the Special Protection Group referred to in sub-section (1) and in relation to any person appointed, shall be as valid and as effective in law as if such thing or action was done or taken under this Act.


 

The Limitation Act 1963

The Limitation Act, 1963

(36 of 1963)

[5th October, 1963]

An Act to consolidate and amend the law for the limitation of suits and other proceedings and for purposes connected therewith.

Be it enacted by Parliament in the Fourteenth Year of the Republic of India as follows: –

PART I

Preliminary

1. Short title, extent and commencement -(1) This Act may be called The Limitation Act , 1963.
(2) It extends to the whole of India except the State of Jammu and Kashmir.
(3) It shall come into force on such date as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint.

2. Definitions -In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires,
(a) applicant includes

(i) a petitioner;

(ii) any person from or through whom an applicant derives his right to apply;

(iii) any person whose estate is represented by the applicant as executor, administrator or other representative;

(b) application includes a petition;

(c) bill of exchange includes a hundi and a cheque;

(d) bond includes any instrument whereby a person obliges himself to pay money to another, on condition that the obligation shall be void if a specified act is performed, or is not performed, as the case may be;

(e) defendant includes

(i) any person from or through whom a defendant derives his liability to be sued;

(ii) any person whose estate is represented by the defendant as exe-cutor, administrator or other representative;

(f) easement includes a right not arising from contract, by which one person is entitled to remove and appropriate for his own profit any part of the soil belonging to another or anything growing in, or attached to, or subsisting upon, the land of another;

(g) foreign country means any country other than India;

(h) good faithnothing shall be deemed to be done in good faith which is not done with due care and attention;

(i) plaintiff includes

(i) any person from or through whom a plaintiff derives his right to sue;

(ii) any person whose estate is represented by the plaintiff as executor, administrator or other representative;

(j) period of limitation means the period of limitation prescribed for any suit, appeal or application by the Schedule, and prescribed period means the period of limitation computed in accordance with the provisions of this Act;

(k) promissory note means any instrument whereby the maker engages absolutely to pay a specified sum of money to another at a time therein limited, or on demand, or at sight;

(l) suit does not include an appeal or an application;

(m) tort means a civil wrong which is not exclusively the breach of a contract or the breach of a trust;

(n) trustee does not include a benamidar, a mortgagee remaining in possession after the mortgage has been satisfied or a person in wrongful possession without title.

PART II

Limitation Of Suits, Appeals And Applications

3. Bar of limitation -(1) Subject to the provisions contained in sections 4 to 24 (inclusive), every suit instituted, appeal preferred, and application made after the prescribed period shall be dismissed, although limitation has not been set up as a defence.

(2) For the purposes of this Act,
(a) A suit is instituted,

(i) in an ordinary case, when the plaint is presented to the proper officer;

(ii) in the case of a pauper, when his application for leave to sue as a pauper is made; and

(iii) in the case of a claim against a company which is being wound up by the Court, when the claimant first sends in his claim to the official liquidator;

(b) any claim by way of a set off, or a counter claim, shall be treated as a separate suit and shall be deemed to have been instituted

(i) in the case of a set off, on the same date as the suit in which the set off is pleaded;

(ii) in the case of a counter claim, on the date on which the counter claim is made in Court;

(c) an application by notice of motion in a High Court is made when the application is presented to the proper officer of that Court.

4. Expiry of prescribed period when Court is closed -Where the prescribed period for any suit, appeal or application expires on a day when the Court is closed, the suit, appeal or application may be instituted, preferred or made on the date when the Court re-opens.
Explanation. A Court shall be deemed to be closed on any day within the meaning of this section if during any part of its normal working hours it remains closed on that day.

5. Extension of prescribed period in certain cases -Any appeal or any application, other than an application under any of the provisions of Order XXi of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908), may be admitted after the prescribed period, if the appellant or the applicant satisfies the Court that he had sufficient cause for not preferring the appeal or making the application within such period.

Explanation. The fact that the appellant or the applicant was misled by any order, practice or judgment of the High Court in ascertaining or computing the prescribed period may be sufficient cause within the meaning of this section.

6. Legal disability – (1) Where a person entitled to institute a suit or make an application for the execution of a decree is, at the time from which the prescribed period is to be reckoned, a minor or insane, or an idiot, he may institute the suit or make the application within the same period after the disability has ceased, as would otherwise have been allowed from the time specified therefor in the third column of the Schedule.
(2) Where such person is, at the time from which the prescribed period is to be reckoned, affected by two such disabilities, or where, before his disability has ceased, he is affected by another disability, he may institute the suit or make the application within the same period after both disabilities have ceased, as would otherwise have been allowed from the time so specified.
(3) Where the disability continues up to the death of that person, his legal representative may institute the suit or make the application within the same period after the death, as would otherwise have been allowed from the time so specified.
(4) Where the legal representative referred to in sub-section (3) is, at the date of the death of the person whom he represents, affected by any such disability, the rules contained in sub-sections (1) and (2) shall apply.
(5) Where a person under disability dies after the disability ceases but within the period allowed to him under this section, his legal representative may institute the suit or make the application within the same period after the death, as would otherwise have been available to that person had he not died.
Explanation. For the purposes of this section, minor includes a child in the womb.

7. Disability of one of several persons -Where one of several persons jointly entitled to institute a suit or make an application for the execution of a decree is under any such disability, and a discharge can be given without the concurrence of such person, time will run against them all;but, where no such discharge can be given, time will not run as against any of them until one of them becomes capable of giving such discharge without the concurrence of the others or until the disability has ceased.

Explanation I. This section applies to a discharge from every kind of liability, including a liability in respect of any immovable property.

Explanation II For the purposes of this section, the manager of a Hindu undivided family governed by the Mitakshara law shall be deemed to be capable of giving a discharge without the concurrence of the other members of the family only if he is in management of the joint family property.

8. Special exceptions .Nothing in section 6 or in section 7 applies to suits to enforce rights of pre-emption, or shall be deemed to extend, for more than three years from the cessation of the disability or the death of the person affected thereby, the period of limitation for any suit or application.

9. Continuous running of time -Where once time has begun to run, no subsequent disability or inability to institute a suit or make an application stops it:
Provided that, where letters of administration to the estate of a creditor have been granted to his debtor, the running of the period of limitation for a suit to recover the debt shall be suspended while the administration continues.

10. Suits against trustees and their representatives -Notwithstanding anything contained in the foregoing provisions of this Act, no suit against a person in whom property has become vested in trust for any specific purpose, or against his legal representatives or assigns (not being assigns for valuable consideration), for the purpose of following in his or their hands such property, or the proceeds thereof, or for an account of such property or proceeds, shall be barred by any length of time.

Explanation. For the purposes of this section any property comprised in a Hindu, Muslim or Buddhist religious or charitable endowment shall be deemed to be property vested in trust for a specific purpose and the manager of the property shall be deemed to be the trustee thereof.

11. Suits on contracts entered into outside the territories to which the Act extends – (1) Suits instituted in the territories to which this Act extends on contracts entered into in the State of Jammu and Kashmir or in a foreign country shall be subject to the rules of limitation contained in this Act.

(2) No rule of limitation in force in the State of Jammu and Kashmir or in a foreign country shall be a defence to a suit instituted in the said territories on a contract entered into in that State or in a foreign country unless
(a) the rule has extinguished the contract; and

(b) the parties were domiciled in that State or in the foreign country during the period prescribed by such rule.

PART III

Computation Of Period Of Limitation

12. Exclusion of time in legal proceedings -(1) In computing the period of limitation for any suit, appeal or application, the day from which such period is to be reckoned, shall be excluded.
(2) In computing the period of limitation for an appeal or an application for leave to appeal or for revision or for review of a judgment, the day on which the judgment complained of was pronounced and the time requisite for obtaining a copy of the decree, sentence or order appealed from or sought to be revised or reviewed shall be excluded.
(3) Where a decree or order is appealed from or sought to be revised or reviewed, or where an application is made for leave to appeal from a decree or order, the time requisite for obtaining a copy of the judgment [* * *] shall also be excluded.
(4) In computing the period of limitation for an application to set aside an award, the time requisite for obtaining a copy of the award shall be excluded.

Explanation. In computing under this section the time requisite for obtaining a copy of a decree or an order, any time taken by the Court to prepare the decree or order before an application for a copy thereof is made shall not be excluded.

13. Exclusion of time in cases where leave to sue or appeal as a pauper is applied for – In computing the period of limitation prescribed for any suit or appeal in any case where an application for leave to sue or appeal as a pauper has been made and rejected, the time during which the applicant has been prosecuting in good faith his application for such leave shall be excluded, and the Court may, on payment of the Court-fees prescribed for such suit or appeal, treat the suit or appeal as having the same force and effect as if the Court-fees had been paid in the first instance.

14. Exclusion of time of proceeding bona fide in Court without jurisdiction – (1) In computing the period of limitation for any suit the time during which the plaintiff has been prosecuting with due diligence another civil proceeding, whether in a Court of first instance or of appeal or revision, against the defendant shall be excluded, where the proceeding relates to the same matter in issue and is prosecuted in good faith in a Court which, from defect of jurisdiction or other cause of a like nature, is unable to entertain it.
(2) In computing the period of limitation for any application, the time during which the applicant has been prosecuting with due diligence another civil proceeding, whether in a Court of first instance or of appeal or revision, against the same party for the same relief shall be excluded, where such proceeding is prosecuted in good faith in a Court which, from defect of jurisdiction or other cause of a like nature, is unable to entertain it.
(3) Notwithstanding anything contained in rule 2 of Order XXIII of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908), the provisions of sub-section (1) shall apply in relation to a fresh suit instituted on permission granted by the Court under rule 1 of that Order, where such permission is granted on the ground that the first suit must fail by reason of a defect in the jurisdiction of the Court or other cause of a like nature.

Explanation. For the purposes of this section,
(a) in excluding the time during which a former civil proceeding was pending, the day on which that proceeding was instituted and the day on which it ended shall both be counted;

(b) a plaintiff or an applicant resisting an appeal shall be deemed to be prosecuting a proceeding;

(c) misjoinder of parties or of causes of action shall be deemed to be a cause of a like nature with defect of jurisdiction.

15. Exclusion of time in certain other cases -(1) In computing the period of limitation for any suit or application for the execution of a decree, the institution or execution of which has been stayed by injunction or order, the time of the continuance of the injunction or order, the day on which it was issued or made, and the day on which it was withdrawn, shall be excluded.
(2) In computing the period of limitation for any suit of which notice has been given, or for which the previous consent or sanction of the Government or any other authority is required, in accordance with the requirements of any law for the time being in force, the period of such notice or, as the case may be, the time required for obtaining such consent or sanction shall be excluded.

Explanation. In excluding the time required for obtaining the consent or sanction of the Government or any other authority, the date on which the application was made for obtaining the consent or sanction and the date of receipt of the order of the Government or other authority shall both be counted.
(3) In computing the period of limitation for any suit or application for execution of a decree by any receiver or interim receiver appointed in proceedings for the adjudication of a person as an insolvent or by any liquidator or provisional liquidator appointed in proceedings for the winding up of a company, the period beginning with the date of institution of such proceeding and ending with the expiry of three months from the date of appointment of such receiver or liquidator, as the case may be, shall be excluded.
(4) In computing the period of limitation for a suit for possession by a purchaser at a sale in execution of a decree, the time during which a proceeding to set aside the sale has been prosecuted shall be excluded.
(5) In computing the period of limitation for any suit the time during which the defendant has been absent from India and from the territories outside India under the administration of the Central Government, shall be excluded.

16. Effect of death on or before the accrual of the right to sue -(1) Where a person who would, if he were living, have a right to institute a suit or make an application dies before the right accrues, or where a right to institute a suit or make an application accrues only on the death of a person, the period of limitation shall be computed from the time when there is a legal representative of the deceased capable of instituting such suit or making such application.
(2) Where a person against whom, if he were living, a right to institute a suit or make an application would have accrued dies before the right accrues, or where a right to institute a suit or make an application against any person accrues on the death of such person, the period of limitation shall be computed from the time when there is a legal representative of the deceased against whom the plaintiff may institute such suit or make such application.
(3) Nothing in sub-section (1) or sub-section (2) applies to suits to enforce rights of pre-emption or to suits for the possession of immovable property or of a hereditary office.

17. Effect of fraud or mistake -(1) Where, in the case of any suit or application for which a period of limitation is prescribed by this Act,
(a) the suit or application is based upon the fraud of the defendant or respondent or his agent; or

(b) the knowledge of the right or title on which a suit or application is founded is concealed by the fraud of any such person as aforesaid; or

(c) the suit or application is for relief from the consequences of a mistake; or

(d) where any document necessary to establish the right of the plaintiff or applicant has been fraudulently concealed from him;

the period of limitation shall not begin to run until the plaintiff or applicant has discovered the fraud or the mistake or could, with reasonable diligence, have discovered it; or in the case of a concealed document, until the plaintiff or the applicant first had the means of producing the concealed document or compelling its production:
Provided that nothing in this section shall enable any suit to be instituted or application to be made to recover or enforce any charge against, or set aside any transaction affecting, any property which
(i) in the case of fraud, has been purchased for valuable consideration by a person who was not a party to the fraud and did not at the time of the purchase know, or have reason to believe, that any fraud had been committed, or

(ii) in the case of mistake, has been purchased for valuable consideration subsequently to the transaction in which the mistake was made, by a person who did not know, or have reason to believe, that the mistake had been made, or

(iii) in the case of a concealed document, has been purchased for valuable consideration by a person who was not a party to the concealment and, did not at the time of purchase know, or have reason to believe, that the document had been concealed.

(2) Where a judgment-debtor has, by fraud or force, prevented the execution of a decree or order within the period of limitation, the Court may, on the application of the judgment-creditor made after the expiry of the said period extend the period for execution of the decree or order:
Provided that such application is made within one year from the date of the discovery of the fraud or the cessation of force, as the case may be.

18. Effect of acknowledgment in writing -(1) Where, before the expiration of the prescribed period for a suit or application in respect of any property or right, an acknowledgment of liability in respect of such property or right has been made in writing signed by the party against whom such property or right is claimed, or by any person through whom he derives his title or liability, a fresh period of limitation shall be computed from the time when the acknowledgment was so signed.
(2) Where the writing containing the acknowledgment is undated, oral evidence may be given of the time when it was signed; but subject to the provisions of the Indian Evidence Act, 1872 (1 of 1872), oral evidence of its contents shall not be received.

Explanation. For the purposes of this section,

(a) an acknowledgment may be sufficient though it omits to specify the exact nature of the property or right, or avers that the time for payment, delivery, performance or enjoyment has not yet come or is accompanied by a refusal to pay, deliver, perform or permit to enjoy, or is coupled with a claim to set-off, or is addressed to a person other than a person entitled to the property or right;

(b) the word signed means signed either personally or by an agent duly authorised in this behalf; and

(c) an application for the execution of a decree or order shall not be deemed to be an application in respect of any property or right.

19. Effect of payment on account of debt or of interest on legacy -Where payment on account of a debt or of interest on a legacy is made before the expiration of the prescribed period by the person liable to pay the debt or legacy or by his agent duly authorised in this behalf, a fresh period of limitation shall be computed from the time when the payment was made:
Provided that, save in the case of payment of interest made before the 1st day of January, 1928, an acknowledgment of the payment appears in the handwriting of, or in a writing signed by, the person making the payment.

Explanation. For the purposes of this section,
(a) where mortgaged land is in the possession of the mortgagee, the receipt of the rent or produce of such land shall be deemed to be a payment;

(b) debt does not include money payable under a decree or order of a Court.

20. Effect of acknowledgment or payment by another person -(1) The expression agent duly authorised in this behalf in sections 18 and 19 shall, in the case of a person under disability, include his lawful guardian, committee or manager or an agent duly authorised by such guardian, committee or manager to sign the acknowledgment or make the payment.
(2) Nothing in the said sections renders one of several joint contractors, partners, executors or mortgagees chargeable by reason only of a written acknowledgment signed by, or of a payment made by, or by the agent of, any other or others of them.
(3) For the purposes of the said sections,
(a) an acknowledgment signed or a payment made in respect of any liability by, or by the duly authorised agent of, any limited owner of property who is governed by Hindu law, shall be a valid acknowledgment or payment, as the case may be, against a reversioner succeeding to such liability; and

(b) where a liability has been incurred by or on behalf of a Hindu undivided family as such, an acknowledgment or payment made by, or by the duly authorised agent of, the manager of the family for the time being shall be deemed to have been made on behalf of the whole family.

21. Effect of substituting or adding new plaintiff or defendant -(1) Where after the institution of a suit, a new plaintiff or defendant is substituted or added, the suit shall, as regards him, be deemed to have been instituted when he was so made a party:
Provided that where the Court is satisfied that the omission to include a new plaintiff or defendant was due to a mistake made in good faith it may direct that the suit as regards such plaintiff or defendant shall be deemed to have been instituted on any earlier date.
(2) Nothing in sub-section (1) shall apply to a case where a party is added or substituted owing to assignment or devolution of any interest during the pendency of a suit or where a plaintiff is made a defendant or a defendant is made a plaintiff.

22. Continuing breaches and torts -In the case of a continuing breach of contract or in the case of a continuing tort, a fresh period of limitation begins to run at every moment of the time during which the breach or the tort, as the case may be, continues.

23. Suits for compensation for acts not actionable without special damage .In the case of a suit for compensation for an act which does not give rise to a cause of action unless some specific injury actually results therefrom, the period of limitation shall be computed from the time when the injury results.

24. Computation of time mentioned in instruments .All instruments shall for the purposes of this Act be deemed to be made with reference to the Gregorian calendar.

PART IV

Acquisition Of Ownership By Possession

25. Acquisition of easement by prescription -(1) Where the access and use of light or air to and for any building have been peaceably enjoyed therewith as an easement, and as of right, without interruption, and for twenty years, and where any way or watercourse or the use of any water or any other easement (whether affirmative or negative) has been peaceably and openly enjoyed by any person claiming title thereto as an easement and as of right without interruption and for twenty years, the right to such access and use of light or air, way, watercourse, use of water, or other easement shall be absolute and indefeasible.
(2) Each of the said periods of twenty years shall be taken to be a period ending within two years next before the institution of the suit wherein the claim to which such period relates is contested.
(3) Where the property over which a right is claimed under sub-section (1) belongs to the Government that sub-section shall be read as if for the words twenty years the words thirty years were substituted.
Explanation. Nothing is an interruption within the meaning of this section, unless where there is an actual discontinuance of the possession or enjoyment by reason of an obstruction by the act of some person other than the claimant, and unless such obstruction is submitted to or acquiesced in for one year after the claimant has notice thereof and of the person making or authorising the same to be made.

26. Exclusion in favour of reversioner of servient tenement -Where any land or water upon, over or from, which any easement has been enjoyed or derived has been held under or by virtue of any interest for life or in terms of years exceeding three years from the granting thereof, the time of the enjoyment of such easement during the continuance of such interest or term shall be excluded in the computation of the period of twenty years in case the claim is, within three years next after the determination of such interest or term, resisted by the person entitled on such determination to the said land or water.

27. Extinguishment of right to property -At the determination of the period hereby limited to any person for instituting a suit for possession of any property, his right to such property shall be extinguished.

PART V

Miscellaneous

28. Amendment of certain Acts – [Repealed by the Repealing and Amending Act, 1974 (56 of 1974), section 2 and First Schedule.]

29. Savings .(1) Nothing in this Act shall affect section 25 of the Indian Contract Act, 1872 (9 of 1872).
(2) Where any special or local law prescribes for any suit, appeal or application a period of limitation different from the period prescribed by the Schedule, the provisions of section 3 shall apply as if such period were the period prescribed by the Schedule and for the purpose of determining any period of limitation prescribed for any suit, appeal or application by any special or local law, the provisions contained in sections 4 to 24 (inclusive) shall apply only insofar as, and to the extent to which, they are not expressly excluded by such special or local law.
(3) Save as otherwise provided in any law for the time being in force with respect to marriage and divorce, nothing in this Act shall apply to any suit or other proceeding under any such law.
(4) Sections 25 and 26 and the definition of easement in section 2 shall not apply to cases arising in the territories to which the Indian Easements Act, 1882 (5 of 1882), may for the time being extend.

30. Provision for suits, etc., for which the prescribed period is shorter than the period prescribed by the Indian Limitation Act, 1908 -Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act,
(a) any suit for which the period of limitation is shorter than the period of limitation prescribed by the Indian Limitation Act, 1908, may be instituted within a period of seven years next after the commencement of this Act, or within the period prescribed for such suit by the Indian Limitation Act, 1908, whichever period expires earlier:

Provided that if in respect of any such suit, the said period of seven years expires earlier than the period of limitation prescribed therefor under the Indian Limitation Act, 1908 and the said period of seven years together with so much of the period of limitation in respect of such suit under the Indian Limitation Act, 1908, as has already expired before the commencement of this Act is shorter than the period prescribed for such suit under this Act, then, the suit may be instituted within the period of limitation prescribed therefor under this Act;
(b) any appeal or application for which the period of limitation is shorter than the period of limitation prescribed by the Indian Limitation Act, 1908, may be preferred or made within a period of ninety days next after the commencement of this Act or within the period prescribed for such appeal or application by the Indian Limitation Act, 1908, whichever period expires earlier.

31. Provisions as to barred or pending suits, etc – Nothing in this Act shall,
(a) enable any suit, appeal or application to be instituted, preferred or made, for which the period of limitation prescribed by the Indian Limitation Act, 1908, expired before the commencement of this Act; or

(b) affect any suit, appeal or application instituted, preferred or made before, and pending at, such commencement.

32. Repeal [Repealed by the Repealing and Amending Act, 1974 (56 of 1974), section 2 and First Schedule.]

The Schedule

PART I 

Suits Relating to Accounts

SL. NO. DESCRIPTION Of SUIT PERIOD Of LIMITATION TIME FROM WHICh PERIOD BEGINS TO RUN
1. For the balance due on a mutual, open and current account where there have been reciprocal demands between the parties. Three years The close of the year in which the last item admitted or proved is entered in the account; such year to be computed as in the account.
2. Against a factor for an account Three years When the account is during the continuance of the agency, demanded and refused or, where no such demand is made, when the agency terminates.
3. By a principal against his agent for movable property received by the latter and not accounted for. Three years When the account is during the continuance of the agency, demanded and refused or, where no such demand is made, when the agency terminates.
4. Other suits by principals against agents for Three years When the neglect or misconduct becomes known to the plaintiff.
5. For an account and a share of the profits of dissolved partnership Three years The date of the dissolution.
PART II 

Suits relating to Contracts

6. For a seaman’s wages Three years The end of the voyage during which the wages are earned.
7. For wages in the case of any other person. Three years When the wages accrue due.
8. For the price of food or drink sold by the keeper of a hotel, tavern or lodging house. Three years When the food or drink is delivered
9. For the price of lodging Three years When the price becomes payable .
10. Against a carrier for compensation for non-delivery of or delay in delivering goods. Three years When the loss or injury occurs.
11. Against a carrier for compensation for losing or injuring goods. Three years When the goods ought to be delivered.
12. For the hire of animals, vehicles, boats or household furniture. Three years When the hire becomes payable.
13. For the balance of money advance in payment of goods to be delivered. Three years When the goods ought to be delivered.
14. For the price of goods sold and delivered when no fixed period of credit is agreed upon. Three years The date of delivery of the goods.
15. For the price of goods sold and delivered to be paid for after the expiry of a fixed period of credit. Three years When the period of credit expires.
16. For the price of goods sold and delivered to be paid for by a bill of exchange, no such bill being given. Three years When the period of the proposed bill elapses.
17. For the price of trees or growing crops sold by the plaintiff to the defendant where not fixed period of credit is agreed upon. Three years The date of the sale.
18. For the price of work done by the plaintiff for the defendant at his request, where no time has been fixed for payment. Three years When the work is done.
19. For money payable for money lent. Three years When the loan is made.
20. Like suit when the lender has given a cheque for the money. Three years When the cheque is paid.
21. For money lent under an agreement that it shall be payable on demand. Three years When the loan is made.
22. For money deposited under an agreement that it shall be payable on demanded, including money of a customer in the hands of his banker so payable. Three years When the demand is made.
23. For money payable by the defendant to he plaintiff for money received by the defendant, for the plaintiff’s use. Three years When the money is paid.
24. For money payable to the plaintiff for money paid for the defendant. Three years When the money is received.
25. For money payable for interest upon money due from the defendant to the plaintiff. Three years When the interest becomes due.
26. For money payable to the plaintiff for money found to be due from the defendant to the plaintiff on accounts stated between them Three years When the accounts are stated in writing signed by the defendant or his agent duly Authorised in this behalf, unless where the debt is, by a simultaneous agreement in writing signed as aforesaid made payment at a future time, and then when that time arrives.
27. For compensation for breach of a promise to do anything at a specified time, or upon the happening of a specified contingency. Three years When the time specified arrives or the contingency happens.
28. On a single bond where a day is specified for payment Three years The day so specified.
29. On a single bond, where no such day is specified. Three years The date of executing the bond.
30. On a bond subject to a condition Three years When the condition is broken.
31. On a bill of exchange or promissory-note payable at a fixed time after date. Three years When the bill or note falls due.
32. On a bill of exchange payable at sight, or after sight but not at a fixed time. Three years When the bill is presented.
33. On a bill of exchange accepted payable at a particular place. Three years When the bill is presented at that place.
34. On a bill of exchange or promissory-note payable at a fixed time after sight or after demand. Three years When the fixed time expires.
35. On a bill of exchange or promissory note payable on demand and not accompanied by any writing restraining or postponing the right to sue. Three years The date of the bill or note.
36. On a promissory-note or bond payable by installments. Three years The expiration of the first term of payment as to the part then payable; and for the other parts, the expiration of the respective terms of payment.
37. On a promissory-note or bond payable by installments which provides that, if default be made in payment of one or more installments, the whole shall be due. Three years When the default is made unless where the payee or obligee waives the benefit of the provision and then when fresh default is made in respect of which there is no such waiver.
38. On a promissory-note given by the maker to a third person to be delivered to the payee after a certain event should happen. Three years The date of the delivery to the payee.
39. On a dishonored foreign bill where protest have been made and notice given. Three years When the notice is given.
40. By the payee against the drawer of a bill of exchange, which has been dishonored by non-acceptance. Three years The date of refusal to accept.
41. By the acceptor of an accommodation-bill against the drawer. Three years When the acceptor pays.
42. By a surety against the principal debtor. Three years When the surety pays the creditor.
43. By a survey against a crusty. Three years When the surety pays anything in excess of his own share.
44A. On a policy of insurance when the sum insured is payable after proof of the death has been given to or received by the insurers. Three years The date of the death of the deceased, or where the claim on the policy is denied, either partly or wholly, the date of such denial.
44B. On a policy of insurance when the sum insured is payable after proof of the loss has been given to or received by the insurers. Three years The date of the occurrence causing the loss, or where the claim on the policy is denied either partly or wholly, the date of such denial.
45. By the assured to recover preemie paid under a policy violable at the election of the insurers. Three years When the insurers elect to avoid the policy.
46. Under the Indian Succession Act,1925 (39 of 1925), section 360 of Section 361, to compel a refund by a person to whom an executor or administrator has paid a legacy or distributed assets. Three years The date of the payment or distribution.
47. For money paid upon on existing consideration which afterwards fails. Three years The date of failure.
48. For contribution by a party who has paid the whole or more then his share of the amount due under a joined decree, or by a sharer in a joint estate who has paid the whole or more than his share of the amount of revenue due from himself and his co-sharers. Three years The date of the payment in excess of the plaintiff’s own share.
49. By a co-trustee to enforce against the estate of a deceased trustee a claim for contribution. Three years When the right to contribution accrues.
50. By the manager of joint estate of an undivided family for contribution, in respect of payment made by him on account of the estate. Three years The date of the payment.
51. For the profits of immovable property belonging to the plaintiff which have been wrongfully received by the defendant. Three years When the profits are received.
52. For arrears of rent. Three years When the arrears become due.
53. By a vendor of immovable property for personal payment of up-paid purchase money. Three years The time fixed for completing the sale, or (where the title is accepted after the time fixed for completion) the date of the acceptance.
54. For specific performance of a contract. Three years The date of fixed for the performance, or, if no such date is fixed, when the plaintiff has notice that performance is refused.
55. For compensation for the breach of any contract, express or implied, not herein specially provided for. Three years When the contract is broken or (where there are successive breaches) when the breach in respect of which the suit is instituted occurs or (where the breach is continuing) when it ceases.
PART III

Suits relating to Declarations

56. To declare the forgery of an instrument issued or registered. Three years When the issue or registration becomes known to the plaintiff.
57. To obtain a declaration that an alleged adoption is invalid, or never, in fact, took place. Three years When the alleged adoption becomes known to the plaintiff.
58. To obtain any other declaration. Three years When the right to sue first accrues.
PART IV 

Suits relating to Declarations

59. To cancel or set aside an instrument or decree or for the rescission of a contract. Three years When the facts entitling the plaintiff to have the instrument or decree cancelled or set aside or the contract rescinded first becomes known to him.
60. To set aside a transfer of property made by the guardian of a ward
(a) By the ward who has attained majority; Three years When the ward attains majority.
(b) By the ward’s legal representative Three years
  1. When the ward dies within three years from the date of attaining majority;
When the ward attains majority.
When the ward dies before attaining majority Three years When the ward dies.
61. By a mortgagor –
(a) to redeem or recover, possession of immovable property mortgaged; Thirty years When the right to redeem or to recover possession accrues.
(b) to recover possession of immovable property mortgaged and afterwards transferred by the mortgage for a valuable consideration. Twelve years When the transfer becomes known to plaintiff.
(c) to recover surplus collection received by the mortgage after the mortgage has been satisfied. Three years When the mortgagor reenters on the mortgaged property.
PART V

Suits relating to Immovable Property

62. To enforce payment of money secured by a mortgage or otherwise charged upon immovable property. Twelve years When the money sued for becomes due.
63. By a mortgage
(a) for foreclosure; Thirty years When the money secured by the mortgage becomes due.
(b) for possession of immovable property mortgaged. Twelve years When the mortgage becomes entitled to possession.
64. For possession of immovable property based on previous possession and not on title, when the plaintiff while in possession of the property has been dispossessed. Twelve years The date of dispossession.
65. For possession of immovable property or any interest therein based on title. Twelve years When the possession of the defendant becomes adverse to the plaintiff.
Explanation – for the purposes of this article –
(a) Where the suit is by a remainder-man, a reversionary (other than a landlord); or a devisee the possession of the defendant shall be deemed to become adverse only when the estate of the remainder man, reversionary or devisee, as the case may be falls into possession;
(b) Where the suit is by a Hindu or Muslim entitled to the possession of immovable property on the death of a Hindu or Muslim female the possession of the defendant shall be deemed to become adverse only when the female dies.
(c) Where the suit is by a purchaser at a sale in execution of a decree when the judgment-debtor was out of possession at the date of the sale, the purchaser shall be deemed to be a representative of the judgment-debtor who was out of possession.
66. For possession of immovable property when the plaintiff has become entitled to possession by reason of any forfeiture or breach of condition. Twelve years When the forfeiture is incurred or the condition is broken.
67. By a landlord to recover possession from a tenant. Twelve years When the tenancy is determined.
PART VI

Suits relating to movable property

68. For specific movable property lost, or acquired by theft, or dishonest misappropriation or conversion. Three years When the person having the right to the possession of the property first learns in whose possession it is.
69. For other specific movable property. Three years When the property is wrongfully taken.
70. To recover movable property deposited or pawned from a depositary or pawnee. Three years The date of refusal after demand.
71. To recover movable property deposited or pawned, and afterwards brought from the deposited or pawned, and afterwards brought from the depositary or pawnee for a valuable consideration. Three years When the sale becomes known to the plaintiff.
PART VII 

Suits relating to torts

72. For compensation for doing or for omitting to do an act alleged to be in pursuance of any enactment in force for the time being in the territories to which this Act extends. One year When the act or omission takes place.
73. For compensations for false imprisonment. One year When the imprisonment ends.
74. For compensation for malicious prosecution. One year When the plaintiff is acquitted or the prosecution is otherwise terminated.
75. For compensation for libel. One year When the libel is published.
76. For compensation for slander. One year When the words are spoken or if the words are not actionable in themselves, when the special damage complained of results.
77. For compensation for loss of service occasioned by the seduction of the plaintiff’s servant or daughter. One year When the loss occurs.
78. For compensation for inducing a person to break a contract with the plaintiff. One year The date of the breach.
79. For compensation for an illegal, irregular or excessive distress. One year The date of the distress.
80. For compensation for wrongful seizure or movable property under legal process. One year The date of the seizure.
81. By executors, administrators or representatives under the Legal Representatives Suits Act,1855. One year The date of the death of the person wronged.
82. By executors, administrators or representatives under the Indian Fatal Accidents Act,1855. Two years The date of the death of the person killed.
83. Under the Legal Representative Suits Act,1855 against an executor, and administrator or any other representative. Two years When the wrong complained of is done.
84. Against one who, having a right to use property for specific purposes, perverts it to other purposes. Two years When the perversion first becomes known to the person injured thereby.
85. For compensation for obstructing a way or a water course. Three years The date of the obstruction.
86. For compensation for diverting a water course. Three years The date of the diversion.
87. For compensation for trespass upon immovable property. Three years The date of the trespass.
88. For compensation for infringing copyright or any other exclusive privilege. Three years The date of the infringement.
89. To restrain waste. Three years When the waste begins.
90. For compensation for injury caused by an injunction wrongfully obtained. Three years When the injunction ceases.
91. For compensation –
(a) for wrongfully taking or detaining any specific movable property lost, or acquired by theft, or dishonest misappropriation or conversion. Three years When the person having the right to the possession of the property first learns in whose possession it is.
(b) for wrongfully taking or injuring or wrongfully detaining any other specific movable property. Three years When the property is wrongfully taken or injured, or when the detainee’s possession becomes unlawful.
PART VIII

Suits relating to trust and trust property

92. To recover possession of immovable property conveyed or bequeathed in trust and afterwards transferred by the trustee for a valuable consideration. Twelve years When the transfer becomes known to the plaintiff.
93. To recover possession of immovable property conveyed or bequeathed in trust and afterwards transferred by the trustee for a valuable consideration. Three years When the transfer becomes known to the plaintiff.
94. To set aside a transfer to immovable property comprised in a Hindu, Muslim or Buddhist religious or charitable endowment, made by a manager thereof for a valuable consideration. Twelve years When the transfer becomes known to the plaintiff.
95. To set aside a transfer of movable property comprised in a Hindu, Muslim or Buddhist religious or charitable endowment, made by a manager thereof for a valuable consideration. Three years When the transfer, becomes known to the plaintiff.
96. By the manager of a Hindu, Muslim and Buddhist religious or charitable endowment to recover possession of movable or immovable property comprised in the endowment which has been transferred by a previous manager for a valuable consideration. Twelve years The date of death, resignation or removal of the transfer or the date of appointment of the plaintiff as manager of the endowment, whichever is later.
PART IX 

Suits relating to miscellaneous matters

97. To enforce a right of preemption whether the right is founded on law or general usage or on special contract. One year When the purchaser takes under the sale sought to be impeached, physical possession of the whole or part of the property sold, or, where the subject matter of the sale does not admit of physical possession of the whole or part of the property, when the instruments of sale is registered.
98. By a person against whom [an order referred to R.63 or rule 103] of Order XXI of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 or an order under section 28 of the Presidency Small Cause Courts Act,1882 has been made, to establish the right which he claims o the property comprised in the order. One year The date of the final order.
99. To set aside a sale by a civil or revenue court or a sale for arrears of Government revenue or for any demand recoverable as such arrears. One year When the sale is confirmed or would otherwise have become final and conclusive had no such suit been brought.
100. To alter or set aside any decision r order of a civil court any proceeding other than a suit of any act or order of an officer of Government in his official capacity. One year The date of the final decision or order by the court or the date of the act or order of the officer, as the case may.
101. Upon a judgment including a foreign judgment, or a recognizance. Three years The date of the judgment or recognisance.
102. For property which the plaintiff has conveyed while insane. Three years When the plaintiff is restored to sanity and has knowledge of the conveyance.
103. To make good out of the general estate of a deceased trustee the loss occasioned by a breach of trust. Three years The date of the trustee’s death or if the loss has not then resulted, the date of the loss.
104. To establish a periodically recurring right. Three years When the plaintiff is first refused the enjoyment for the right.
105. By a Hindu for arrears of maintenance. Three years When the arrears are payable.
106. For a legacy or for a share of a residue bequeathed by a testator or for a distributive share of the property of an intestate against an executor or an administrator or an administrator or some other person legally charged with the duty of distributing the estate. Twelve years When the legacy or share becomes payable or deliverable.
107. For possession of a hereditary office.Explanation – A hereditary office is possessed when the properties thereof are usually received, or (if there are no properties) when the duties thereof are usually performed. Twelve years When the defendant takes possession of the office adversely to the plaintiff.
108. Suit during the life of a Hindu r Muslim female by a Hindu or Muslim who, if the female died at the date of instituting the suit, would be entitled to the possession of land, to have an alienation of such land made by the female declared to be void except for her life or until her re-marriage. Twelve years The date of the alienation.
109. By Hindu governed by Mitakshara Law to set aside his father’s alienation or ancestral property. Twelve years When the Aileen takes possession of the property.
110. By a person excluded from a joint-family property to enforce a right to share therein. Twelve years When the exclusion becomes known to the plaintiff.
111. By or on behalf of any local authority for possession of any public street or road or any part thereof from which it has been dispossessed or of which it has discontinued the possession. Thirty years The date of the dispossession or discontinuance.
112. Any suit (except a suit before the Supreme Court in the exercise of its original jurisdiction) by or on behalf of the Central Government, or any State Government including the Government of the State of Jammu and Kashmir. Thirty years When the period of limitation would begin to run under this Act against a like suit by a private person.
PART X – Suits for which there is no prescribed period

113. Any suit for which no period of limitation is provided elsewhere in this Schedule. Three years When the right to sue accrues.
Second Division – Appeals
SL. NO. DESCRIPTION OF SUIT PERIOD OF LIMITATION TIME FROM WHICH PERIOD BEGINS TO RUN
114. Appeal from an order of acquittal, –
(a) under sub-section (1) or sub-section (2) of section 417 of the Code of Criminal Procedure,1898; Ninety days The date of the order appealed from.
(b) under sub-section (3) of Section 417 of the that Code. Thirty days The date of the grant of Special leave.
115. Under Code of Criminal Procedure,1898
(a) From a sentence of death passed by a court of section or by a High Court in the exercise of its original Criminal Jurisdiction. Thirty days The date of the sentence
(b) From any other sentence or any order not being an order of acquittal –
(i) to the High Court Sixty days The date of the sentence or order.
(ii) to any other Court Thirty days The date of the sentence or order.
116. Under the Code of Civil Procedure,1908
(a) To a High Court from any decree or order; Ninety days The date of the decree or order.
(b) To any other court from any decree or order. Thirty days The date of the decree or order.
117. From a decree or order of any High Court to the same Court. Thirty days The date of the decree or order.

THIRD DIVISION APPLICATIONSPART I – Applications in specified cases

SL.NO. DESCRIPTION OF SUIT PERIOD Of LIMITATION TIME FROM WHICh PEROID BEGINS TO RUN
118. For leave to appear and defend a suit under summary procedure. Ten days When the summons is served.
119. Under the Arbitration Act,1940
(a) For the filing in court of an award; Thirty days The date of service of the notice of the making of the award;
(b) For setting aside an award or getting an award remitted for reconsideration. Thirty days The date of the service of the notice of the filing of the award.
120. Under the Code of Civil Procedure,1908, to have the legal representative of a deceased plaintiff or appellant or of a deceased defendant or respondent, made a party. Ninety days The date of the death f the plaintiff, appellant, defendant or respondent, as the case may be;
121. Under the same Code for an order to set aside an abatement. Sixty days The date of abatement.
122. To restore a suit or appeal or application for review or revision dismissed for default of appearance or for want of prosecution or for failure to pay costs of service of process or to furnish security for costs. Thirty days The date of dismissal.
123. To set aside a decree passed ex prate or to rehear an appeal decree or head ex prate.Explanation – For the purpose of this article, substituted service under rule 20 of Order V of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 shall not be deemed to be due service. Thirty days The date of the decree or where the summons or notice was not duly served when the applicant had knowledge of the decree.
124. For a review of judgment by a court other than the Supreme Court. Thirty days The date of the decree or order.
125. To record an adjustment or satisfaction of a decree. Thirty days When the payment or adjustment is made.
126. For the payment of the amount of a decree by installments. Thirty days The date of the decree.
127. To set aside a sale in execution of a decree, including any such application by a judgment-debtor. [Sixty days] The date of the sale.
128. For possession by on dispossessed of immovable property and disputing the right f the decree-holder or purchaser at a sale in execution of a decree. Thirty days The date of the dispossession.
129. For possession after removing resistance or obstruction of delivery of possession of immovable property decreed or sold in execution f a decree. Thirty days The date of resistance or obstruction.
130. For leave to appeal as a pauper –
(a) To thee High Court; Sixty days The date of decree appealed from.
(b) To any other Court; Thirty days The date of decree appealed from.
131. To any court for the exercise of its powers of revision under the Code of Civil Procedure,1908, or the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1898. Ninety days The date of the decree or order of sentence sought to be revised.
132. To the High Court for a certificate of fitness to appeal to the Supreme Court under Clause (1) of Article 132, Article 133 or sub-clause (c) of clause (e) of Article 134 of thee Constitution or under any other law for the time being in force. Sixty days The date of the order or sentence.
133. To the Supreme Court for Special leave to appeal,
(a) In a case involving death sentence; Sixty days Th date of the judgment, final order or sentence.
(b) In a case where leave to appeal was refused by the High Court; Sixty days The date of the order of refusal.
(c) In any other case. Ninety days When date of the judgment or order.
134. For delivery of possession by a purchaser of immovable property at a sale in execution of a decree. One year When the sale becomes absolute.
135. For the enforcement of a decree granting a mandatory injunction. Three years The date of the decree or where a date is fixed for performance, such date.
136. For the execution of any decree (other than a decree granting a mandatory injunction) or order of any civil court. Twelve years [Where] the decree or order becomes enforceable or where the decree or any subsequent order directs any payment of money or the delivery of any property to be made at a certain date or at recurring period, when default in making the payment or delivery in respect of which execution is sought, takes place:Provided that an application for the enforcement or execution of a decree granting a perpetual injunction shall not be subject to any period of limitation.

PART II 

Other applications

137. Any other application for which no period of limitation is provided elsewhere in this Division. Three years When the right to apply accrues.

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  • BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS  (RECOGNITION OF CONSUMERS’ ASSOCIATIONS) RULES, 1991 - BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS (RECOGNITION OF CONSUMERS’ ASSOCIATIONS) RULES, 19911 GSR 619(E) DATED 9-10-1991 In exercise of the powers conferred by section 37 of theContinue Reading
  • Central Educational Institutions (Reservation in Teachers’ Cadre) Act, 2019 - Gazette Notification: 09/07/2019 10 of 2019 An Act to provide for the reservation of posts in appointments by direct recruitment of persons belonging to the ScheduledContinue Reading
  • Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 - SECTIONS Short title, commencement and extent Definitions Subordination of Courts Savings Application of the Code to Revenue Courts Pecuniary jurisdiction Provincial Small Cause Courts PresidencyContinue Reading
  • Code on Wages, 2019 - An Act to amend and consolidate the laws relating to wages and bonus and matters connected therewith or incidental thereto. (1) The Payment of Wages Act, 1936 (4 of 1936), the Minimum Wages Act, 1948 (11 of 1948), the Payment of Bonus Act, 1965 (21 of 1965) and the Equal Remuneration Act, 1976 (25 of 1976) are hereby repealed.
  • Constitution (One Hundred and Third Amendment) Act, 2019 -  Gazette Notification: 12/01/2019 Bill No. 3-C of 2019 A BILL further to amend the Constitution of India. BE it enacted by Parliament in the Sixty-ninthContinue Reading
  • Consumer Protection Act, 2019 - (Act No. 35 of 2019) Dated: 09.08.2019. The following Act of Parliament received the assent of the President on the 9th August, 2019, and isContinue Reading
  • Delhi University Act, 1922 - Act No. 8 of 1922 [5th March, 1922.] An Act to establish and incorporate a teaching and affiliating University at Delhi. WHEREAS it is expedientContinue Reading
  • DEPOSITORIES ACT 1996 - An Act to provide for the regulation of depositories in securities and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto. The Depositories Act, 1996 [As amendedContinue Reading
  • Finance Act, 2019 - An Act to continue the existing rates of income-tax for the financial year 2019-2020 and to provide for certain relief to taxpayers and to make amendments in certain enactments.
  • Hallmarking Regulations 2018 - MINISTRY OF CONSUMER AFFAIRS, FOOD AND PUBLIC DISTRIBUTION (Department of Consumer Affairs) NOTIFICATION New Delhi, the 14th June , 2018 S.O 2421(E).—In exercise of theContinue Reading
  • INCOME-TAX ACT, 1961 - INDEX Income-tax Act, 1961-2017 INCOME-TAX ACT, 1961 [43 OF 1961] [AS AMENDED BY FINANCE ACT, 2018] An Act to consolidate and amend the law relatingContinue Reading
  • INDIAN EVIDENCE ACT 1872 - LIVE COMMENTARY ON INDIAN EVIDENCE ACT
  • INDIAN LEGISLATION [Central Acts] - Indian Acts passed by the British Parliament List of Central Acts [India] ACTS IN FORCE Aadhaar (Targeted Delivery of Financial and other Subsidies, Benefits and Services)Continue Reading
  • Indian Stamp Act, 1899 - The scheme of the Stamp Act may be briefly noticed. Chapter II contains provisions about the liability of the instrument to duty, of the timeContinue Reading
  • Industrial Development Bank (Transfer of Undertaking and Repeal) Act, 2003 - The Industrial Development Bank of India (IDBI) was established in 1964 under an Act of Parliament as a wholly owned subsidiary of the Reserve BankContinue Reading
  • Legal Practitioners (Fees) Act 1926 - No legal practitioner who has acted or agreed to act shall, by reason only of being a legal practitioner, be exempt from liability to be sued in respect of any loss or injury due to any negligence in the conduct of his professional duties.
  • National Council For Teacher Education Act, 1993 - Functions of the Council. - It shall be the duty of the Council to take all such steps as it may think fit for ensuring planned and co-ordinated development of teacher education and for the determination and maintenance of standards for teacher education
  • National Medical Commission Act, 2019 - An Act to provide for a medical education system that improves access to quality and affordable medical education, ensures availability of adequate and high quality medical professionals in all parts of the country; that promotes equitable and universal healthcare that encourages community health perspective and makes services of medical professionals accessible to all the citizens; that promotes national health goals; that encourages medical professionals to adopt latest medical research in their work and to contribute to research; that has an objective periodic and transparent assessment of medical institutions and facilitates maintenance of a medical register for India and enforces high ethical standards in all aspects of medical services; that is flexible to adapt to changing needs and has an effective grievance redressal mechanism
  • New Delhi International Arbitration Centre Act, 2019 - The Central Government shall, by notification, establish a body to be called the New Delhi International Arbitration Centre for the purposes of exercising the powers and discharging the functions under this Act. The Centre shall be a body corporate by the name aforesaid, having perpetual succession and a common seal with power, subject to the provisions of this Act, to acquire, hold and dispose of property, both movable and immovable, and to enter into contract, and shall, by the said name, sue or be sued.
  • Partition Act, 1893 - Contents 1.Title, extent and saving 2.Power to Court to order sale instead of division in partition suits 3.Procedure when sharer undertakes to buy 4.Partition suitContinue Reading
  • Securitisation And Reconstruction Of Financial Assets And Enforcement Of Security Interest Act, 2002[SARFAESI] - An Act to regulate securitisation and reconstruction of financial assets and enforcement of security interest and to provide for a Central database of security interests created on property rights, and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.
  • Specific Relief Act 1963 - PART I -Preliminary PART II-Specific Relief PART III-Preventive relief The Schedule Latest Change in the Law The Specific Relief (Amendment) Act, 2018 [18 of 2018]Continue Reading
  • State Bank of India Act 1955 - THE STATE BANK OF INDIA ACT, 1955 (Act No. 23 OF 1955) AN ACT To constitute a State Bank for India, to transfer to itContinue Reading
  • The Advocates’ Welfare Fund Act 2001 - The Advocates’ Welfare Fund Act, 2001 (45 OF 2001) 14th September, 2001 An Act to provide for the constitution of a welfare fund for theContinue Reading
  • The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 - (14 of 1981) [29th March, 1981 An Act to provide for the prevention, control and abatement of air pollution, for the establishment, with a viewContinue Reading
  • The Apprentices Act 1961 - "technician (vocational) apprentice" means an apprentice who holds or is undergoing training in order that he may hold a certificate in vocational course involving two years of study after the completion of the secondary stage of school education recognised by the All-India Council and undergoes apprenticeship training in any Designated trade;
  • The Arbitration and Conciliation Act 1996 - An Act to consolidate and amend the law relating to domestic arbitration, international commercial arbitration and enforcement of foreign arbitral awards as also to define the law relating to conciliation and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto. Preamble.
  • The Armed Forces (Assam and Manipur) Special Powers Act, 1958 - (Act No. 28 of 1958) [Dated 11th September, 1958] An Act to enable certain special powers to be conferred upon members of the armed forcesContinue Reading
  • The Arms Act 1959 - Chapter I – Preliminary Chapter II – Acquisition, Possession, Manufacture, Sale, Import, Export and … Chapter III – Provisions relating to Licences Chapter IV –Continue Reading
  • The Army Act, 1950 - (46 OF 1950) [20th May, 1950] An Act to consolidate and amend the law relating to the Government of the regular Army. Be it enactedContinue Reading
  • The Army Rules, 1954 - Published Vide S.R.O., Dated 27.11.1954, Published In The Gazettee Of India, Pt. II, Section 4 In exercise of the powers conferred by section 191 ofContinue Reading
  • The Black Money (Undisclosed Foreign Income and Assets) and Imposition of Tax Act, 2015 - An Act to make provisions to deal with the problem of the Black money that is undisclosed foreign income and assets, the procedure for dealing with such income and assets and to provide for imposition of tax on any undisclosed foreign income and asset held outside India and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.
  • The Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act 1976 - Where an offence under this Act has been committed by a company, every person who, at the time the offence was committed, was in charge of, and was responsible to, the company for the conduct of the business of the company, as well as the company, shall be deemed to be guilty of the offence and shall be liable to be proceeded against and punished accordingly.
  • The Building and other Construction Workers (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service) Act 1996 - "building worker" means a person who is employed to do any skilled, semi-skilled or unskilled, manual, supervisory, technical or clerical work for hire or reward, whether the terms of employment be expressed or implied, in connection with any building or other construction work
  • The Bureau of Indian Standards Act, 2016 - Overview BIS is the National Standard Body of India established under the BIS Act 1986 for the harmonious development of the activities of standardization, markingContinue Reading
  • The Chennai City Civil Court Act, 1892 - Central Act No. 7 of 1892 An Act to establish an additional Civil Court for the City of [Chennai]. Whereas it is expedient to establishContinue Reading
  • The Child and Adolescent Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act 1986 - The appropriate Government may confer such powers and impose such duties on a District Magistrate as may be necessary, to ensure that the provisions of this Act are properly carried out and the District Magistrate may specify the officer, subordinate to him, who shall exercise all or any of the powers, and perform all or any of the duties, so conferred or imposed and the local limits within which such powers or duties shall be carried out by the officer as may be prescribed.
  • The Citizenship Act, 1955 - An Act to provide for the acquisition and determination of Indian citizenship.
  • The Commercial Courts Act, 2015 - (Act No. 4 of 2016) [Dated 31st December, 2015] An Act to provide for the constitution of Commercial Courts, [Commercial Appellant Courts] Commercial Division andContinue Reading
  • The Commercial Courts, Commercial Division and Commercial Appellate Division of High Courts Act, 2015 - CENTRAL ACT Act No. 4 of 2016 [Dated 31st December, 2015] An Act to provide for the constitution of Commercial Courts, Commercial Division and CommercialContinue Reading
  • The Companies Act, 2013 - 18 OF 2013 [29th August 2013] COMPANY LAW ENCYCLOPEDIA [GLOBAL] COMPANY LAW MANUAL [INDIAN] THE COMPANIES ACT, 1956 THE COMPANIES (AMENDMENT) ACT, 2015 THE COMPANIES (AMENDMENT)Continue Reading
  • The Constitution Of India - Index Page Preamble WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN, SOCIALIST, SECULAR, DEMOCRATIC, REPUBLIC and to secure toContinue Reading
  • The Consumer Protection Act, 1986 - The Consumer Protection Act, 1986
  • The Contract Labour (Regulation And Abolition) Act 1970 - No Court shall take cognizance of an offence punishable under this Act unless the complaint thereof is made within three months from the date on which the alleged commission of the offence came to the knowledge of an inspector: Provided that where the offence consists of disobeying a written order made by an inspector, complaint, thereof may be made within six months of the date on which the offence is alleged to have been committed.
  • The Customs And Excise Revenues Appellate Tribunal Act 1986 - The Customs And Excise Revenues Appellate Tribunal Act, 1986 [ACT NO. 62 OF 1986] [23rd December, 1986] An Act to provide for the adjudication, byContinue Reading
  • The Direct Selling Guidelines 2016 - Any direct selling entity, conducting direct selling activities, shall submit an undertaking to the Department of Consumer Affairs by 9th December, 2016 stating that itContinue Reading
  • The Direct Selling Guidelines 2016 - hese guidelines, may be called the Direct Selling Guidelines 2016. These are issued as guiding principles for State Governments to consider regulating the business of "Direct Selling" and Multi-Level Marketing (MLM) and strengthen the existing regulatory mechanism on Direct Selling and MLM, for preventing fraud and protecting the legitimate rights and interests of consumers.
  • The Disaster Management Act 2005 - "disaster" means a catastrophe, mishap, calamity or grave occurrence in any area, arising from natural or man made causes, or by accident or negligence which results in substantial loss of life or human suffering or damage to, and destruction of, property, or damage to, or degradation of, environment, and is of such a nature or magnitude as to be beyond the coping capacity of the community of the affected area
  • THE EPIDEMIC DISEASES ACT 1897 - WHEREAS it is expedient to provide for the better prevention of the spread of dangerous epidemic disease;
  • The Factories Act 1948 - The Factories Act, 1948 (63 OF 1948) 23rd September 1948 An Act to consolidate and amend the law regulating labour in factories. Whereas it isContinue Reading
  • The Family Courts Act of 1984 - Central Act (66 OF 1984) [14th September, 1984]An Act to provide for the establishment of Family Courts with a view to promote conciliation in, andContinue Reading
  • The Foreign Exchange Management Act 1999 - An Act to consolidate and amend the law relating to foreign exchange with the objective of facilitating external trade and payments and for promoting the orderly development and maintenance of foreign exchange market in India.
  • The Foreign Trade (Development And Regulation) Act 1992 - The Foreign Trade (Development And Regulation) Act, 1992 (22 OF 1992) 7th August 1992 An Act to provide for the development and regulation of foreignContinue Reading
  • The Government Buildings Act 1899 - An Act to provide for the exemption from the operation of municipal building laws of certain buildings and lands which are the property, or in the occupation, of the Government and situate within the limits of a municipality.
  • The Indian Institutes of Information Technology (Public-Private Partnership) Act 2017 - n Act to declare certain Indian Institutes of Information Technology established under public-private partnership as institutions of national importance, with a view to develop new knowledge in information technology and to provide manpower of global standards for the information technology industry and to provide for certain other matters connected with such institutions or incidental thereto.
  • The Indian Partnership Act, 1932 - Whereas it is expedient to define and amend the law relating to partnership; It is hereby enacted as follows
  • The Indian Penal Code 1860 - Indian Penal Code
  • The Indian Telegraph Act 1885 - Telegraph means any appliance, instrument, material or apparatus used or capable of use for transmission or reception of signs, signals, writing, images, and sounds or intelligence of any nature by wire, visual or other electro-magnetic emissions, Radio waves or Hertzian waves, galvanic, electric or magnetic means
  • The Indian Wireless Telegraphy Act 1933 - wireless communication means any transmission, emission or reception of signs, signals, writing, images and sounds, or intelligence of any nature by means of electricity, magnetism, or Radio waves or Hertzian waves, without the use of wires or other continuous electrical conductors between the transmitting and the receiving apparatus.
  • The Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act, 2019 - The Ladakh Division of the State of Jammu and Kashmir has a large area but is sparsely populated with a very difficult terrain. There has been a long pending demand of people of Ladakh, to give it the status of a Union Territory to enable them to realise their aspirations. The Union Territory of Ladakh will be without Legislature. Further, keeping in view the prevailing internal security situation, fuelled by cross border terrorism in the existing State of Jammu and Kashmir, a separate Union Territory for Jammu and Kashmir is being created. The Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir will be with legislature.
  • The Limitation Act 1963 - An Act to consolidate and amend the law for the limitation of suits and other proceedings and for purposes connected therewith.
  • The Limited Liability Partnership Act, 2008 - (6 of 2009) Date: 7th January, 2009 An Act to make provisions for the formation and regulation of limited liability partnerships and for matters connectedContinue Reading
  • The Minimum Wages Act, 1948 - (11 OF 1948) [15th March, 1948] An Act to provide for fixing minimum rates of wages in certain employments. Whereas it is expedient to provideContinue Reading
  • The National Security Act, 1980 - The Central Government or the State Government may, if satisfied with respect to any person that with a view to preventing him from acting in any manner prejudicial to the defence of India, the relations of India with foreign powers, of the security of India,make an order directing that such person be detained.
  • The Notaries Rules, 1956 - Under the Notaries Act, 1952 (53 of 1952)
  • The Official Languages Act 1963 - An act to provide for the languages which may be used for the official purposes of the union, for transaction of business in parliament, for central and state acts and for certain purposes in high courts.
  • The Payment Of Wages Act, 1936 - (4 OF 1936) [23rd April, 1936] An Act to regulate the payment of wages of certain classes of [employed persons]. Whereas it is expedient toContinue Reading
  • The Press And Registration Of Books Act 1867 - An Act for the regulation of Printing-presses and Newspapers, for the preservation of copies of books and newspapers printed in India, and for the registration of such books and newspapers.
  • The Press Council Act 1978 - Statement of Objects and Reasons 1. The Press Council of India was established in July, 1966 under the Press Council Act, 1965, mainly to preserveContinue Reading
  • The Prevention Of Damage To Public Property Act, 1984 - (3 of 1984) An Act to provide for prevention of damage to public property and for matters connected therewith . Be it enacted by ParliamentContinue Reading
  • The Prevention Of Money-Laundering Act, 2002 - The Prevention Of Money-Laundering Act, 2002 (15 of 2003) An Act to prevent money-laundering and to provide for confiscation of property derived from, or involvedContinue Reading
  • The Protection Of Civil Rights Act 1955 - civil rights means any right accruing to a person by reason of the abolition of untouchability by article 17 of the Constitution;
  • The Protection of Human Rights Act 1993 - human rights means the rights relating to life, liberty, equality and dignity of the individual guaranteed by the Constitution or embodied in the International Covenants and enforceable by Courts in India;
  • THE PROTECTION OF WOMEN FROM DOMESTIC VIOLENCE ACT 2005 - Came into force on 26-10-2006, vide S.O. 1776(E), dated 17th October, 2006, published in the Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Sec. 3(ii), dated 17thContinue Reading
  • The Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991 - An Act to provide for public liability insurance for the purpose of providing immediate relief to the persons affected by accident occurring while handling any hazardous substance and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.
  • The Registration Of Births And Deaths Act 1969 - The Registration Of Births And Deaths Act 1969 (18 of 1969) 31 st May , 1969 An Act to provide for the regulation of registrationContinue Reading
  • The Special Protection Group Act 1988 - An Act to provide for the constitution and regulation of an armed force of the Union for providing proximate security to the Prime Minister of India and the former Prime Ministers of India and members of his immediate family and for matters connected therewith
  • The Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967 - PREVENTION OF TERRORISM IN INDIA
  • The Water (Prevention And Control of Pollution) Act 1974 - The Water (Prevention And Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 (6 of 1974) 23rd March 1974 An Act to provide for the prevention and control ofContinue Reading
  • The Whistle Blowers Protection Act 2014 - AN ACT to establish a mechanism to receive complaints relating to disclosure on any allegation of corruption or wilful misuse of power or wilful misuse of discretion against any public servant and to inquire or cause an inquiry into such disclosure and to provide adequate safeguards against victimisation of the person making such complaint and for matters connected therewith and incidental thereto
  • The Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972 - An Act to provide for the protection of wild animals, birds and plants and for matters connected therewith or ancillary or incidental thereto with a view to ensuring the ecological and environmental security of the country.
  • United Nations (Security Council) Act, 1947 - Statement of Objects and Reasons.  Article 41 of the Charter of the United Nations which has been ratified by the Government of India reads asContinue Reading
  • Vesting of Certain Area at Ayodhya on 1993 - WHEREAS there has been a long-standing dispute relating to the structure (including the premises of the inner and outer courtyards of such structure), commonly knownContinue Reading