Criminal Laws in the United Kingdom [UK]

  1. Criminal Appeal Act 1968
  2. Criminal Attempts Act 1981
  3. Criminal Damage Act 1971
  4. Criminal Evidence (Amendment) Act 1997
  5. Criminal Evidence (Witness Anonymity) Act 2008
  6. Criminal Evidence Act 1898
  7. Criminal Finances Act 2017
  8. Criminal Jurisdiction Act 1975
  9. Criminal Justice (International Co-operation) Act 1990
  10. Criminal Justice (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act (Northern Ireland) 1968
  11. Criminal Justice (Scotland) Act 2003
  12. Criminal Justice (Scotland) Act 2016
  13. Criminal Justice Act (Northern Ireland) 1945
  14. Criminal Justice Act (Northern Ireland) 1966
  15. Criminal Justice Act 1967
  16. Criminal Justice Act 1982
  17. Criminal Justice Act 1993
  18. Criminal Justice Act 2003
  19. Criminal Justice and Court Services Act 2000
  20. Criminal Justice and Courts Act 2015
  21. Criminal Justice and Immigration Act 2008
  22. Criminal Justice and Police Act 2001
  23. Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994
  24. Criminal Law (Consolidation) (Scotland) Act 1995 
  25. Criminal Law Act (Northern Ireland) 1967
  26. Criminal Law Act 1967
  27. Criminal Law Act 1977
  28. Criminal Procedure (Attendance of Witnesses) Act 1965
  29. Criminal Procedure (Insanity and Unfitness to Plead) Act 1991
  30. Criminal Procedure (Insanity) Act 1964
  31. Criminal Procedure (Legal Assistance, Detention and Appeals) (Scotland) Act 2010
  32. Criminal Procedure (Scotland) Act 1995 
  33. Criminal Procedure Act 1865
  34. Criminal Procedure and Investigations Act 1996
  35. Criminal Proceedings etc. (Reform) (Scotland) Act 2007
  36. Human Trafficking and Exploitation (Criminal Justice and Support for Victims) Act (Northern Ireland) 2015
  37. International Criminal Court Act 2001
  38. Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984
  39. Police, Public Order and Criminal Justice (Scotland) Act 2006
  40. Powers of Criminal Courts (Sentencing) Act 2000
  41. Prisoners and Criminal Proceedings (Scotland) Act 1993
  42. The Costs in Criminal Cases (General) Regulations 1986
  43. The Criminal Defence Service (Funding) Order 2007
  44. The Criminal Defence Service  Regulations 2001
  45. The Criminal Finances Act 2017
  46. The Criminal Justice (Children) (Northern Ireland) Order 1998
  47. The Criminal Justice (Northern Ireland) Order 2008 
  48. The Criminal Justice and Data Protection (Protocol No. 36) Regulations 2014
  49. The Criminal Legal Aid (Determinations by a Court and Choice of Representative) Regulations 2013
  50. The Criminal Legal Aid (Financial Resources) Regulations 2013
  51. The Criminal Legal Aid (General) Regulations 2013
  52. The Criminal Legal Aid (Recovery of Defence Costs Orders) Regulations 2013
  53. The Criminal Procedure Rules 2010
  54. The Electricity and Gas (Market Integrity and Transparency) (Criminal Sanctions) Regulations 2015
  55. Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act 1999

Basic criminal Laws in India

LAW LIBRARY

Arrest

Article 12. State action
Article 13. Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the fundamental rights are not law.
Article 14. Equality before Law.
Article 19. Protection of certain rights regarding freedom of speech, etc.
Article 20. Protection in respect of conviction for offences.
Article 21. Protection of life and personal liberty.
Article 22. Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases.

Criminal Laws in India[Central]

Anti- Hijacking Act,2016
Anti-Hijacking Act,1982
Arms Act,1959
Arms Rules,1962
Contempt of Courts Act,1971
Contempt of Courts (Amendment) Act,2006
Criminal Procedure Code,1973
Criminal Law (Amendment) Act,1990
Criminal Law (Amendment) Act,2013
Criminal Law Amendment Act,1938
Criminal Law Amendment Act,1961
Criminal Law Amendment Act,1993
Criminal Procedure Code,1973,Section 300 onward
Delhi Special Police Establishment Act,1946
Drugs (Control) Act, 1950
Explosive Substances Act,1908
Explosives Act,1884
Explosives Roles,2008
Gas Cylinder Roles,2004
Extradition Act,1962
Fatal Accidents Act,1855
Foreigners Act,1946
Identification Of Prisoners Acts,1920
Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act,1956
Indecent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Act,1986
Indecent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Roles,1987
Indian Evidence Act,1872
Indian Penal Code,1860
Indian Penal Code, 1860, (IPC) Section 251 onwards
Maharashtra Control of Organised Crime Act,1999
Motor Vehicles Act,1988
Central Motor Vehicles Roles,1989
Motor Vehicles (Amendment) Act 2000
Motor Vehicles (Amendment) Act,2015
Motor Vehicles (Amendment) Bill,2016
Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act,1985
Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (Amendment) Act,2001
Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (Amendment) Act,2014
Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Roles,1985
National Investigation Agency Act,2008
National Investigation Agency (Manner of Constitution) Roles,2008
National Security (Amendment) Act,1984
National Security Act,1980
Negotiable Instruments Act,1881
Negotiable Instruments (Amendment and Miscellaneous Provisions) Act,2002
Negotiable Instruments (Amendment) Act,2015
Official Secrets Act,1923
Payment and Settlement Systems Act,2007
Personal Injuries (Emergency Provisions) Act,1962
Police Act,1949
Police Acts
Prevention of Corruption Act,1988
Prevention of Damage to Public Property Act,1984
Prevention of Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, 1988
Prevention of Money Laundering Act, 2002
Prevention of Money-Laundering (Amendment) Act, 2005
Prevention of Seditious Meetings Act,1911
Prison Act,1894
Model Prison Manual – BPRD, MHA, GOI
Prisoners (Attendance In Courts) Act,1955
Prisoners Act,1900
Prize Chits and Money Circolation Scheme (Banning) Act,1978
Probation of Offenders Act,1958
Protection of Women From Domestic Violence Act,2005
Manual for PWDVA Protection Officers
Protection of Women From Domestic Violence Roles,2006
Public Gambling Act,1867
Railway Property (Unlawfol Possession) Act,1966
Repatriation of Prisoners Act,2003
SAARC Convention (Suppression of Terrorism) Act,1993
Schedoled Castes and The Schedoled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act,1989
Schedoled Castes and the Schedoled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Amendment Act,2015
Schedoled Castes and the Schedoled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Amendment Roles,2016
Schedoled Castes and the Schedoled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Roles,1995
Suppression of Unlawfol Acts Against Safety of Civil Aviation Act,1982
Suppression of Unlawfol Acts Against Safety of Maritime Navigation and Fixed Platforms on Continental Shelf Act,2002
Suppression of Unlawfol Acts Against Safety of Maritime Navigation and Fixed Platforms on Continental Shelf Act,2002
Terrorist Affected Areas (Special Courts) Act,1984
Transfer of Prisoners Act,1950
Unlawfol Activities (Prevention) Act,1967
Investigation of High Quality Counterfeit Indian Currency Offences Roles,2013
Unlawfol Activities (Prevention) (Recommendation and Sanction of Prosecution) Roles,2008
Unlawfol Activities (Prevention) Amendment Act,2012
Unlawfol Activities (Prevention) Roles,1968
Victims of Crime Laws
Arunachal Pradesh Victim Compensation Scheme,2011
Assam Victim Compensation Scheme,2012
Bihar Victims Compensation Scheme,2011
Chandigarh Victim Assistance Scheme,2012
Dadar and Nagar Haveli Victim Assistance Scheme,2012
Daman and Diu Victim Assistance Scheme,2012
Delhi Victims Compensation Scheme,2011
Delhi Witness Protection Scheme,2015
Goa Victim Compensation Scheme,2012
Gujarat Victim Compensation Scheme,2013
Haryana Victim Compensation Scheme,2013
Himachal Pradesh (Victim of Crime) Compensation Scheme,2012
Jammu and Kashmir Victim Compensation Scheme,2013
Jharkhand Victim Compensation Scheme,2012
Karnataka Victim Compensation Scheme,2011
Karnataka Victim Compensation Scheme,2011
Kerala Victim Compensation Scheme,2014
Lakshadweep Victim Assistance Scheme,2012
Lakshadweep Victim Assistance Scheme,2012
Manipur Victim Compensation Scheme,2011
Meghalaya Victim Compensation Scheme, 2014
Mizoram Victims of Compensation Scheme,2011
MP Victim Compensation Scheme,2015
Nagaland Victim Compensation Scheme,2012
Odisha Victim Compensation Scheme,2012
Puducherry Victim Assistance Scheme,2012
Punjab Victim Compensation Scheme,2011
Rajasthan Victim Compensation Scheme,2011
Sikkim Compensation to Victims or his Dependents Scheme,2011
Tamil Nadu Victim Compensation Scheme, 2013
Tripura Victim Compensation Scheme,2012
Uttar Pradesh Victim Compensation Scheme,2014
Uttrakhand Victim from Crime Assistance Scheme,2013
Victim Compensation Scheme of States & UTs in India
West Bengal Victim Compensation Scheme,2012
Weapons of Mass Destruction and Their Delivery Systems(Prohibition of Unlawfol Activities) Act,2005

Development of Criminal Laws in India after Independence

Parliament

 General Survey 

1950  1951  1952  1953  1954  1955  1956  1957  1958  1959
1960  1961  1962  1963  1964  1965  1966  1967  1968  1969
1970  1971  1972  1973  1974  1975  1976  1977  1978  1979
1980  1981  1982  1983  1984  1985  1986  1987  1988  1989
1990  1991  1992  1993  1994  1995  1996  1997  1998  1999
2000  2001  2002  2003  2004  2005  2006  2007  2008  2009
2010  2011  2012  2013  2014  2015  2016  2017

Criminal Courts And Offices in India

CODE OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

Keywords:– Session-Magistrate-Prosecutor

Code of Criminal Procedure -1973

Chapter II  [Sec 6 to 25A]

Constitution Of Criminal Courts And Offices

 


6. Classes of Criminal Courts

Besides the High Courts and the Courts constituted under any law, other than this Code, there shall be, in every State, the following classes of Criminal Courts, namely:–

(i)Courts of Session;

(ii)Judicial Magistrate of the first class and, in any Metropolitan area, Metropolitan Magistrate;
(iii)Judicial Magistrate of the second class; and

(iv)Executive Magistrates.


7. Territorial divisions

(1) Every State shall be a sessions division or shall consist of sessions divisions; and every sessions division shall, for the purposes of this Code, be a district or consist of districts:
Provided that every metropolitan area shall, for the said purposes, be a separate sessions division and district.
(2) The State Government may, after consultation with the High Court, alter the limits or the number of such divisions and districts.
(3) The State Government may, after consultation with the High Court, divide any district into sub-divisions and may alter the limits or the number of such sub-divisions.
(4) The sessions divisions, districts and sub-divisions existing in a State at the commencement of this Code, shall be deemed to have been formed under this section.


8. Metropolitan areas

(1) The State Government may, by notification, declare that, as from such date as may be specified in the notification, any area in the State comprising a city or town whose population exceeds one million shall be a metropolitan area for the purposes of this Code.
(2) As from the commencement of this Code, each of the Presidency-towns of Bombay, Calcutta and Madras and the city of Ahmedabad shall be deemed to be declared under sub-section (1) to be a metropolitan area.
(3) The State Government may, by notification, extend, reduce or alter the limits of a metropolitan area but the reduction or alteration shall not be so made as to reduce the population of such area to less than one million.
(4) Where, after an area has been declared, or deemed to have been declared to be, a metropolitan area, the population of such area falls below one million, such area shall, on and from such date as the State Government may, by notification, specify in this behalf, cease to be a metropolitan area; but notwithstanding such cesser, any inquiry, trial or appeal pending immediately before such cesser before any Court or Magistrate in such area shall continue to be dealt with under this Code, as if such cesser had not taken place.
(5) Where the State Government reduces or alters, under sub-section (3), the limits of any metropolitan area, such reduction or alteration shall not affect any inquiry, trial or appeal pending immediately before such reduction or alteration before any Court or Magistrate, and every such inquiry, trial or appeal shall continue to be dealt with under this Code as if such reduction or alteration had not taken place.
Explanation.— In this section, the expression “population” means the population as ascertained at the last preceding census of which the relevant figures have been published.

9. Court of Session secs 9 and 10

11. Courts of Judicial Magistrates

(1) In every district (not being a metropolitan area), there shall be established as many Courts of Judicial Magistrates of the first class and of the second class, and at such places, as the State Government may, after consultation with the High Court, by notification, specify:
Provided that the State Government may, after consultation with the High Court, establish, for any local area, one or more Special Courts of Judicial Magistrate of the first class or of the second class to try any particular case or particular class of cases, and where any such Special Court is established, no other Court of Magistrate in the local area shall have jurisdiction to try any case or class of cases for the trial of which such Special Court of Judicial Magistrate has been established.
(2) The presiding officers of such Courts shall be appointed by the High Courts.
(3) The High Court may, whenever it appears to it to be expedient or necessary, confer the powers of a Judicial Magistrate of the first class or of the second class on any member of the Judicial Service of the State, functioning as a Judge in a Civil Court.

12. Chief Judicial Magistrate and Additional Chief Judicial Magistrate, etc.

(1) In every district (not being a metropolitan area), the High Court shall appoint a Judicial Magistrate of the first class to the Chief Judicial Magistrate.
(2) The High Court may appoint any Judicial Magistrate of the first class to be an Additional Chief Judicial Magistrate, and such Magistrate shall have all or any of the powers of a Chief Judicial Magistrate under this Code or under any other law for the time being in force as the High Court may direct.
(3) (a)The High Court may designate any Judicial Magistrate of the first class in any sub-division as the Sub-divisional Judicial Magistrate and relieve him of the responsibilities specified in this section as occasion requires.
(b)Subject to the general control of the Chief Judicial Magistrate, every Sub-divisional Judicial Magistrate shall also have and exercise, such powers of supervision and control over the work of the Judicial Magistrates (other than Additional Chief Judicial Magistrates) in the sub-division as the High Court may, by general or special order, specify in this behalf.

13. Special Judicial Magistrates

(1) The High Court may, if requested by the Central or State Government so to do, confer upon any person who holds or has held any post under the Government all or any of the powers conferred or conferrable by or under this Code on a Judicial Magistrate of the first class or of the second class, in respect to particular cases or to particular classes of cases, in any local area, not being a metropolitan area:
Provided that no such power shall be conferred on a person unless he possesses such qualification or experience in relation to legal affairs as the High Court may, by rules, specify.
(2) Such Magistrates shall be called Special Judicial Magistrates and shall be appointed for such term, not exceeding one year at a time, as the High Court may, by general or special order, direct.
(3) The High Court may empower a Special Judicial Magistrate to exercise the powers of a Metropolitan Magistrate in relation to any metropolitan area outside his local jurisdiction.

14. Local Jurisdiction of Judicial Magistrates

(1) Subject to the control of the High Court, the Chief Judicial Magistrate may, from time to time, define the local limits of the areas within which the Magistrates appointed under section 11 or under section 13 may exercise all or any of the powers with which they may respectively be invested under this Code:
Provided that the Court of a Special Judicial Magistrate may hold its sitting at any place within the local area for which it is established.
(2) Except as otherwise provided by such definition, the jurisdiction and powers of every such Magistrate shall extend throughout the district.
(3) Where the local jurisdiction of a Magistrate, appointed under section 11 or section 13 or section 18 , extends to an area beyond the district, or the metropolitan area, as the case may be, in which he ordinarily holds Court, any reference in this Code to the Court of Session, Chief Judicial Magistrate or the Chief Metropolitan Magistrate shall, in relation to such Magistrate, throughout the area within his local jurisdiction, be construed, unless the context otherwise requires, as a reference to the Court of Session, Chief Judicial Magistrate, or Chief Metropolitan Magistrate, as the case may be, exercising jurisdiction in relation to the said district or metropolitan area.

15. Subordination of Judicial Magistrates

(1) Every Chief Judicial Magistrate shall be subordinate to the Sessions Judge; and every other Judicial Magistrate shall, subject to the general control of the Sessions Judge, be subordinate to the Chief Judicial Magistrate.
(2) The Chief Judicial Magistrate may, from time to time, make rules or give special orders, consistent with this Code, as to the distribution of business among the Judicial Magistrates subordinate to him.

16. Courts of Metropolitan Magistrates

(1) In every metropolitan area, there shall be established as many Courts of Metropolitan Magistrates, and at such places, as the State Government may, after consultation with the High Court, by notification, specify.
(2) The presiding officers of such Courts shall be appointed by the High Court.
(3) The jurisdiction and powers of every Metropolitan Magistrate shall extend throughout the metropolitan area.

17. Chief Metropolitan Magistrate and Additional Chief Metropolitan Magistrate

(1) The High Court shall, in relation to every metropolitan area within its local jurisdiction, appoint a Metropolitan Magistrate to be the Chief Metropolitan Magistrate for such metropolitan area.
(2) The High Court may appoint any Metropolitan Magistrate to be an Additional Chief Metropolitan Magistrate, and such Magistrate shall have all or any of the powers of a Chief Metropolitan Magistrate under this Code or under any other law for the time being in force as the High Court may direct.

18. Special Metropolitan Magistrates

(1) The High Court may, if requested by any Central or State Government so to do, confer upon any person who holds or has held any post under the Government, all or any of the powers conferred or conferrable by or under this Code on a Metropolitan Magistrate, in respect to particular cases or to particular classes of cases in any metropolitan area within its local jurisdiction:
Provided that no such power shall be conferred on a person unless he possesses such qualification or experience in relation to legal affairs as the High Court may, by rules, specify.
(2) Such Magistrates shall be called Special Metropolitan Magistrates and shall be appointed for such term, not exceeding one year at a time, as the High Court may, by general or special order, direct.
(3) The High Court or the State Government, as the case may be, may empower any Special Metropolitan Magistrate to exercise, in any local area outside the metropolitan area, the powers of a Judicial Magistrate of the first class.

19. Subordination of Metropolitan Magistrates

(1) The Chief Metropolitan Magistrate and every Additional Chief Metropolitan Magistrate shall be subordinate to the Sessions Judge, and every other Metropolitan Magistrate shall, subject to the general control of the Sessions Judge, be subordinate to the Chief Metropolitan Magistrate.
(2) The High Court may, for the purposes of this Code, define the extent of the subordination if any, of the Additional Chief Metropolitan Magistrates to the Chief Metropolitan Magistrate.
(3) The Chief Metropolitan Magistrate may, from time to time, make rules or give special orders, consistent with this Code, as to the distribution of business among the Metropolitan Magistrates and as to the allocation of business to an Additional Chief Metropolitan Magistrate.


20. Executive Magistrates Ss 20 t0 23

24. Public Prosecutors
25. Assistant Public Prosecutors
25A. Directorate of Prosecution

Criminal and Police Laws 

 

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