Role of judges in upholding rule of law in Europe-Conference of the Heads of the Supreme Courts of EU-2022

Within the European system for the protection of fundamental rights, national judges hold a central place. It is up to them, on the one hand, to ensure effective respect for these rights guaranteed in national constitutions, and on the other hand, to exercise their office as ordinary judges under the European Union law and the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms in application of the principle of subsidiarity.

Latvian National Armed Forces Law

The Commander of the National Armed Forces shall approve the by-laws of regular forces of the National Armed Forces. The commanders of the units of regular forces of the National Armed Forces shall approve the by-laws of the units subordinate thereto. The Constitution of the National Defence Academy of Latvia shall be approved in accordance with the Law on Institutions of Higher Education.

Hungarian Constitutional Court’s Rules of Procedure – 2020

If the petitioner empowers a legal representative, an attorney-at-law (law office, lawyer of the European Communities), a representative of a human rights non-governmental organisation who passed the bar exam, and legal counsels of legal entities and of other economic organisations shall be entitled to act as legal representatives at the Constitutional Court.

Constitution of the Republic of Estonia – 1992

Everyone whose rights and freedoms have been violated has the right of recourse to the courts. Everyone is entitled to petition the court that hears his or her case to declare unconstitutional any law, other legislative instrument, administrative decision or measure which is relevant in the case. The courts observe the Constitution and declare unconstitutional any law, other legislative instrument, administrative decision or measure which violates any rights or freedoms provided in the Constitution or which otherwise contravenes the Constitution.

Romanian National Defence Strategy (2020-2024)

The Black Sea region is of strategic interest for Romania and it must be a safe and predictable area – these are vital aspects for the national security, as well as for the European and transatlantic security. Therefore, I will continue my endeavours for the development of the national defence posture and for the increase of the Allies’ presence in NATO structures on Romanian territory, in addition to an enhanced efficiency of the efforts made by the Romanian State in support of consolidating national security.

EU imposes sanction on President Vladimir Putin and FM Sergey Lavrov of Russian Federation-25/02/2022

In addition to freezing the assets the Russian President and Minister of Foreign Affairs, the EU will impose restrictive measures on the members of the National Security Council of the Russian Federation who supported Russia’s immediate recognition of the two non-government controlled areas of the Donetsk and Luhansk oblasts of Ukraine as independent entities. Sanctions will also be extended to the remaining members of the Russian State Duma, who ratified the government decision of the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance between the Russian Federation and the two entities.

Russia’s invasion of Ukraine is a gross violation of Budapest Memorandum – Dutch FM Hoekstra – 25/02/2022

Historically speaking, the security and stability with which many of us in Europe grew up is an exception. Our content has a dark history of war and instability. Ukraine’s history is a particularly poignant example. You only have to think of the horrific Holodomor famine under Stalin, the millions of Ukrainians who died in the Second World War and the oppression of Ukrainians in the Soviet period. In the 20th century, Russia cast a dark shadow over Ukraine.

Law of the Constitutional Court of Portugal

The Constitutional Court is responsible for the prior verification of the constitutionality and legality of proposals for national, regional and local referenda, envisaged in n.º 1 of article 115, n.º 2 of article 232 and in articles 240 and 256 of the Constitution, including consideration of requirements relating to the respective voting population, and for whatever else it has competence for according to the law regarding the implementation of such referenda.

Constitution of the Portugal Republic

The Constituent Assembly affirms the Portuguese people’s decision to defend national independence, guarantee citizens’ fundamental rights, establish the basic principles of democracy, ensure the primacy of a democratic state based on the rule of law and open up a path towards a socialist society, with respect for the will of the Portuguese people and with a view to the construction of a country that is freer, more just and more fraternal.

Source of Law in Poland

Acts of generally applicable law are published in official publications : Journal of Laws of the Republic of Poland, Official Journal of the Republic of Poland - "Monitor Polski", official journals of ministers, official journals of central offices and voivodeship official journals.