Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks On US: 9/11 Commission Report

The Final Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

We present the narrative of this report and the recommendations that flow from it to the President of the United States, the United States Congress, and the American people for their consideration. Ten Commissioners-five Republicans and five Democrats chosen by elected leaders from our nation’s capital at a time of great partisan division-have come together to present this report without dissent.

We have come together with a unity of purpose because our nation demands it. September 11, 2001, was a day of unprecedented shock and suffering in the history of the United States. The nation was unprepared.

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Scholars are the Prophet’s Successors: Osama bin Laden

May 6, 1995

Scholars are successors of the Prophet and the defenders of religion.

They are the ones who do not deviate from the truth, embracing lairs and ignorant interpretations.

They play a major role in the Ummah.

Due to the importance of scholars in Islam, and the role of their tasked mission, one should be aware of the danger of not distinguishing between scholars working to further the word of Allah, and those preferring earthly things and materials. It is necessary to differentiate between the two types according to religious law in obeying and respecting these scholars. Following the religious way of addressing their mistakes and hoping to reconcile between scholars and those working for Islam, we we decided to approach this subject as follows;

1. Scholars’ status in Islam

It is known that religious knowledge is the successor to prophecy as scholars are to prophets. For this reason, they deserve credit. Allah describes them in his holy Quran “Allah elevates those believers among you and scholars”. He also made their uniqueness third in line, after himself and his angels. Allah says “Allah, his angels and scholars are witnesses that there is no Allah but him.” He also added that the Prophet said “the preference of a scholar compared to an average person, is like the moon compared to others starting on a full-moon night.” In the Hadith, Abu Da’ud al-Tarmidi and al-Darqtani stated the prophet’s saying “Prophets did not inherit money, but rather knowledge, so whoever follows the same path, is lucky”.

The classification of scholars is derived from the importance of their role and responsibilities assigned to them, according to what Allah says. For this reason, underestimating them or talking negatively about their knowledge is associated with danger. Talking negatively about scholars is the beginning of launching destruction of the credibility and creating a religious leadership void in the Ummah. This would lead ignorant leaders to take over and mislead the Ummah.

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CHARGE SHEET OF MUMBAI TERROR ATTACK CASES 26TH NOVEMBER 2008

FINAL FORM / REPORT

(Under Section 173 Cr.P.C.)

IN THE COURT OFADDL. CH. M.M., 37TH COURT, ESPLANADE, MUMBAI

The Chief Investigating Officer of the sensational and diabolic attacks by the terrorists at different iconic locations in Mumbai on 26th November 2008, hereby submits a report under Section 173 of Criminal Procedure Code, 1973 as under.A heinous criminal conspiracy has beenplanned and hatched in Pakistan by the internationally banned Lashkar-e-Taiba to execute a series of attacks at prominent places in Mumbai, the financial capital of the country on 26thNovember 2008. This was with the express intention to destabilize India, wage war against this country, terrorize its citizens, create financial loss and issue a warning to other countries whose citizens were also targetted , humiliated and cold-bloodedly killed. This Fidayeen Mission was part of a larger criminal conspiracy planned in Pakistan for attacking the commercial capital of India with intent to wage war, to weaken India economically and to create terror and dread amongst the citizens of the Mumbai metropolis in particular and India in general and, thereby, through the said unlawful activities its perpetrators committed terrorist acts.

Lashkar-e-Taiba (Lashkar-e Tayyiba; literally means Army of the Good, translated as Army of the Righteous, or Army of the Pure) — also pronounced and spelt as Lashkar-i-Tayyaba, Lashkar-e-Tayyaba, Lashkar-e-Tayyiba, Lashkar-i-Taiba, or LeT — is one of the largest, most active and lethal militant organizations in South Asia.Lashkar-e-Taiba – “The Army of the Pure” is a militant offshoot of Markaz-ud-Dawa-wal- Irshad (MDI), an Islamic fundamentalist organization. Markaz-ud-Dawatul-wal- Irshad has since been renamed as Jamaat-ud-Dawa.It was founded by Hafiz Muhammad Saeed and Zafar Iqbal in the Kunar province of Afghanistan in 1989. It has its headquarter at Muridke near Lahore, Pakistan. It operates numerous training camps in Pakistan occupied Kashmir as well as in other parts of Pakistan. Lashkar has forged cooperative and operational ties with religious militant groups throughout the Middle East, South East Asia and also in other parts of the world.The Militant group’s defining objective is to Islamicise South Asia with its main aim being freedom for Muslims in India-administered Kashmir.The Lashkar-e-Taiba is banned as a terrorist organization by India, Pakistan, the United States, the United Kingdom, the European Union, Russia, Australia besides a host of other countries. Hafiz Saeed has been listed as the leader of the Lashkar-e-Taiba. The United Nations Security Council has also listed Zaki-ur-Rehman Lakhvi, Haji Mohammad Ashraf, and Mahmoud Mohammad Ahmed Bahaziq as senior members of the Lashkar-e-Taiba.Zaki-Ur-Rehman Lakhvi is listed as the terror group’s chief of Anti-India operations. Haji Mohammed Ashraf is the group’s chief of finance whereas Mahmoud Mohammed Bahaziq, a Saudi national who served as the leader of Lashkar-e-Taiba in Saudi Arabia, is a senior financier. Jamaat – Ud – Dawa has been recently declared as a terrorist front group by the United Nations (UN) as per its Resolution 1267. UN believes that this organization also supports Al-Qaeda and the Taliban.

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Islamic State: Sunni jihadist group

Other names :

Daesh, Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant, ISIL, Islamic State of Iraq and Syria, Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham, ISIS, Al-Dawla Al-Islamiya fi al-Iraq wa al-Sham, Al Qaida in Iraq, al-Qaida in Iraq, Al-Qaeda in Iraq, Al Qaeda in Iraq, AQI, AQI-Zarqawi, al-Tawhid, al-Tawhid and al-Jihad, Kateab al-Tawhid, Brigades of Tawhid, Monotheism and Jihad Group, Al Qaida of the Jihad in the Land of the Two Rivers, Al-Qaida of Jihad in the Land of the Two Rivers, Al-Qaeda in the Land of the Two Rivers, Al-Qaida in the Land of the Two Rivers, Al-Qaida of Jihad Organization in the Land of the Two Rivers, Al-Qaida Group of Jihad in Iraq, Al-Qa’ida of Jihad in Iraq, Al-Qaida Group of Jihad in the Land of the Two Rivers, The Organization of Jihad’s Base in the Country of the Two Rivers, The Organization of al-Jihad’s Base of Operations in the Land of the Two Rivers, The Organization of al-Jihad’s Base of Operations in Iraq, The Organization of al-Jihad’s Base in Iraq, The Organization of al-Jihad’s Base in the Land of the Two Rivers, The Organization Base of Jihad/Country of the Two Rivers, The Organization Base of Jihad/Mesopotamia, Al-Qaida in Mesopotamia, Tanzim Qa’idat Al-Jihad fi Bilad al-Rafidayn, Tanzim al-Qaeda al-Jihad fi Bilad al-Rafidain, Tanzeem Qa’idat al Jihad/Bilad al Raafidaini, Jama’at Al-Tawhid Wa’al-Jihad, JTJ, Islamic State of Iraq, Islamic State in Iraq, ISI, Mujahidin Shura Council, Unity and Holy Struggle, Unity and Holy War, Unity and Jihad Group, al-Zarqawi Network.

The Islamic State is a Sunni jihadist group that seeks to sow civil unrest in Iraq and the Levant with the aim of establishing a single, transnational Islamic state based on Sharia Law, replacing the Iraqi and Syrian governments. The group was originally created in Jordan in the early 1990s under the name Bayat al Imam. The group associated with Al Qaida Core’s senior leadership in 1999 and fought alongside Al Qaida Core and the Taliban during the US strikes in Afghanistan in late 2001. The group then transferred to Iraq in anticipation of the US led invasion, and, in October 2004, formally renamed itself “Al Qaida in Iraq” (AQI). The group has also operated under the name of Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) and Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS). In 2013, the group renamed itself the “Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant” (ISIL). In June 2014, the group renamed itself “Islamic State”. The Islamic State’s tactics include suicide attacks using vehicles and improvised explosive devices, armed attacks, hostage takings, and video-taped beheadings. In November 2015, IS claimed responsibility for coordinated attacks in six Paris locations that killed 120 and injured 200. Four months later, in March 2016, IS claimed responsibility for two bomb explosions at the Brussels Airport and another bomb explosion at the Maelbeek metro station near the offices of the European Union; these attacks killed 31 people and injured 340. IS also claimed responsibility for the May 22, 2017 suicide bombing during a concert at the Manchester Arena in the United Kingdom, which killed at least 22 people and injured hundreds more. In June and August 2017, IS claimed responsibility for three vehicular ramming attacks in the UK and Spain. These attacks killed at least 27 people, including 2 Canadians.

Haqqani Network

The Haqqani Network is an Afghan and Pakistani insurgent group described as one of the most powerful and violent organizations in the region. The immediate objective of the Haqqani Network is the withdrawal of all foreign forces from Afghanistan, and the re-establishment of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan through the overthrow of the Karzai administration. Controlling the security environment in Afghanistan and cultivating the global Jihadist movement are also priorities of the Network. The Haqqani Network poses a significant local threat to Afghan and coalition forces, as well as innocent civilians in its area of operations. The Haqqani Network has been responsible for many of the highest-profile attacks in Afghanistan. According to official American estimates, Haqqani Network operations account for about one-tenth of attacks on coalition troops, and about 15 percent of casualties. The Haqqani Network was the first group to adopt the use of suicide bombers for attacks in Afghanistan. The Haqqani Network uses large vehicle-borne Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs), suicide vests, and swarming attacks, which capture headlines and create doubts about the ability of Afghan forces to protect its civilians without North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) support. The Haqqani Network specializes in coordinated attacks. It has carried out a series of tactically sophisticated complex attacks, often directly assaulting coalition facilities.

Hamas (Harakat Al-Muqawama Al-Islamiya) (Islamic Resistance Movement)

Hamas, the Arabic acronym for the group Harakat Al-Muqawama Al-Islamiya, is a radical Islamist-nationalist terrorist organization that emerged from the Palestinian branch of the Muslim Brotherhood in 1987. It uses political and violent means to pursue its goal of establishing an Islamic Palestinian state in Israel. Since 1990, Hamas has been responsible for several hundred terrorist attacks against both civilian and military targets. Hamas has been one of the primary groups involved in suicide bombings aimed at Israelis since the start of the Al-Aqsa intifada in September 2000. In 2006, Hamas participated in and won Palestinian parliamentary elections, leading to negotiations between the group and the Palestinian Authority over the establishment of a unity government. In 2007, however, Hamas overthrew the Palestinian Authority in the Gaza Strip and seized power of the coastal territory. Although the group’s political leadership resides in Damascus, Hamas uses the Gaza Strip as a base for terrorist operations aimed against Israel.

Gulbuddin Hekmatyar & Hezb-e Islami

Gulabudin Hekmatyar, Gulbuddin Khekmatiyar, Gulbuddin Hekmatiar, Gulbuddin Hekmartyar, Gulbudin Hekmetyar, Golboddin Hikmetyar and Gulbuddin Hekmetyar

Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, leader of the group Hezb-e Islami Gulbuddin (HIG), espouses an extreme Islamist anti-Western ideology with the objective of overthrowing the Afghani administration and creating an Islamic state. Hekmatyar has declared his intention to wage jihad against foreign troops and interests in Afghanistan until all occupation forces are driven out. He has perpetrated indiscriminate attacks against civilians, government officials and foreign officers. In 2006, Hekmatyar pledged allegiance to Al Qaida leader Usama bin Laden and vowed to join Al Qaida’s holy war. On May 18, 2016, Afghanistan’s government signed a draft peace agreement with HIG. In July 2016, Hekmatyar ordered his followers to fight against the Taliban in support of the Islamic State.


Gulbuddin Hekmatyar’s faction of the Hezb-e Islami, Hezb-e Islami Gulbuddin (HIG), espouses a radical Islamist anti-Western ideology with the objectives of overthrowing the Karzai administration, eliminating all Western influence in Afghanistan, and creating an Islamic state. Hekmatyar’s men were reputed to be the most effective mujahideen group to fight against the Soviet occupation and the most extreme of all Afghan fighters. Drawing support from Pakistan, HIG now has a presence in much of Afghanistan and is an important component of resistance forces in the country. HIG is known to cooperate with Al Qaida and the Taliban, and has a history of engaging in terrorist activities including killings, torture, kidnappings and forcible detainment, and attacking political figures. HIG often targets civilians, journalists, and foreign aid workers. On May 18, 2016, after over two months of negotiations, Afghanistan’s government signed a draft peace agreement with the HIG.