Geo-Politics in context

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Geopolitical research is frequently portrayed as a dead end. To some scholars it appears that in the 21st century geography is largely scenery, all but irrelevant to the most important issues of grand strategy. Understanding specific phenomena that occur in international relations therefore requires taking into consideration non-geographical factors. Such a combination of geographical and non-geographical factors provides sound explanations, as several examples demonstrate: China’s projection of power into the Indian Ocean, South Africa’s approach to the political crisis in Zimbabwe in 2008, Iran’s maritime strategy and the poor integration of Colombia and South America. [Sören Scholvin-Institute of Economic and Cultural Geography, University of Hanover-2016]

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Current Issues

  • “I stand squarely behind my decision”- Biden on Afghan-Taliban catastrophe - I’m now the fourth American President to preside over war in Afghanistan — two Democrats and two Republicans.  I will not pass this responsibly on — responsibility on to a fifth President.
  • ‘War is over’ declares Taliban from Afghan presidential desk - President Ashraf Ghani fled the country on Sunday as the Islamist militants entered the capital virtually unopposed, saying he wanted to avoid bloodshed
  • 77th Session of the United Nations General Assembly (21/09/2022) - Let me be direct about the competition between the United States and China. As we manage shifting geopolitical trends, the United States will conduct itself as a reasonable leader. We do not seek conflict. We do not seek a Cold War. We do not ask any nation to choose between the United States or any other partner.
  • 79 people injured by Russian strike – Lamentation by President Zelenskyy (17/01/2023) - Ukraine will be provided with another Patriot battery. Thank you, Mark! That is, we already have three guaranteed batteries. But this is only the beginning. We are working on new decisions to strengthen our air defense.
  • Address by President of Ukraine: Together, we can certainly stop Russian and reliably defend freedom in Europe-28/04/2022 - The United States has prepared a new support package for Ukraine worth $ 33 billion. In particular, more than 20 billion can be allocated for defense. More than $ 8 billion is planned for economic support. Another $ 3 billion will be allocated for humanitarian aid.
  • Administrative Structure of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the North Korea (DPRK) - The Institute for Disarmament and Peace, as a policy research institute under the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, seeks ways for achieving disarmament and peace on the Korean Peninsula, strengthening peace and security in the Asia-Pacific region and the rest of the world and preventing war.
  • Admission of Israel to UN-General Assembly Resolution 273 (III)11/05/1949 - In the fall of 1948, Israel had applied for membership in the United Nations but failed to win the necessary majority in the Security Council. In the spring of 1949, the application was renewed This time, armistice agreements having been signed between Israel and Egypt, Jordan and Lebanon, Israel was admitted by 37 votes in favour, 12 against, with 9 abstentions.
  • Adolf Hitler’s letter on Jewry-16/11/1919 - To begin with, the Jews are unquestionably a race, not a religious community. The Jew himself never describes himself as a Jewish German, a Jewish Pole or a Jewish American, but always as a German, Polish or American Jew. Jews have never adopted more than the language of the foreign nations in whose midst they live.
  • Afghanistan in 1982 - Afghanistan's recent history is a story of war and civil unrest. The Soviet Union invaded in 1979, but was forced to withdraw 10 years later by anti-Communist mujahidin forces. The Communist regime in Kabul collapsed in 1992. Fighting that subsequently erupted among the various mujahidin factions eventually helped to spawn the Taliban, a hardline Pakistani-sponsored movement that fought to end the warlordism and civil war which gripped the country.
  • Agreement between Fatah and Hamas – 03/05/2011 - The political parties of both Fatah and Hamas agree that the tasks and decisions of the provisional interim leadership cannot be hindered or obstructed, but in a manner that is not conflicting with the authorities of the Executive Committee of the Palestine Liberation Organization.
  • Agreement between Government of Australia and Government of Russian Federation on Cooperation in Use of Nuclear Energy for Peaceful Purposes-2007 - MINDFUL that Australia, as a non-nuclear-weapon State, has, under the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, undertaken not to manufacture or otherwise acquire nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices and that it is party to the Agreement between Australia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, concluded on 10 July 1974 (hereinafter referred to as “the 1974 Safeguards Agreement”);
  • Agreement on the Sphere of Influence between Russia and Great Britain in Afghanistan – 1895 - The Cominission shall be composed of British and Russian delegates, with the necessary technical assistance. Her Britannic Majesty's Government will arrange with the Amir of Afghanistan as to the manner in which His Highness shall be represented on the Commission.
  • Amanullah Khan letter to Vladimir Lenin (1920) - The Afghan Government has great hopes concerning this common object, to which it attributes very great significance, and places as the very foundation of its policy this aim, humane with regard to all mankind, and is ready by all means and at all times to pursue the continuance of our mutual friendship.
  • Arab land or Arabia - Ptolemy divides Arabia into Tiḥāmah, al-Ḥijāz, an-Najd, al-ʿArūz̤, and al-Yaman.
  • As long as Russian missiles hit Ukraine, normal economy is impossible-Zelenskyy at ISPI Global Policy Forum 20/06/2022 - And as long as the war continues, as long as Russian missiles hit our cities, normal economic life is simply impossible. Up to half of our entire economy, up to half of our economic system is not working now.
  • Ashgabat Energy Charter-2017 - On November 29, 2017, the 28th session of the Energy Charter Conference under the theme "Mobilizing Investments for Sustainable Energy of the Future and Diversifying Transport Routes" continued its work at the Oguzkent Hotel.
  • Assessing the Guam war claim process-02/12/2009 - It has been nearly 68 years since the Imperial Japanese military forces invaded and occupied the United States territory of Guam, subjecting its residents to 33 months of horrific pain and death.  Through it all however, the largely native population, the Chamorro, remained ever-loyal to the United States.  In prayer and song, all longed for the return of the Americans. 
  • Atlantic Charter 2021, signed by Biden and Johnson - we resolve to defend the principles, values, and institutions of democracy and open societies, which drive our own national strength and our alliances.
  • Australia, India, Japan and the United States of Quad recognize need for improving cybersecurity-25/03/2022 - Australia, India, Japan and the United States recognize the need for improving cybersecurity in an increasingly digital world with sophisticated cyber threats. Improvements are particularly important in delivering the essential services of life, health and livelihood that are provided by critical infrastructure.
  • Australia-Germany Foreign Ministers’ Statement (19.09.2023) - Australia and Germany unequivocally condemn Russia’s illegal war of aggression against Ukraine. We demand Russia’s complete and unconditional withdrawal from the territory of Ukraine in respect of its internationally recognised borders.
  • Benjamin H Freedman – Speech at the Willard Hotel-1961 - Well, that's the way they were fighting the Jews in Germany. And, at that time, mind you, there were 80 to 90 million Germans and there were only 460,000 Jews . . . less than one half of one percent of Germany were Jews. And yet, they controlled all of the press, they controlled most of the economy, because they had come in and with cheap money -- you know the way the Mark was devalued -- they bought up practically everything.
  • Bhutan in 1982 - Following Britain’s victory in the 1865 Duar War, Britain and Bhutan signed the Treaty of Sinchulu, under which Bhutan would receive an annual subsidy in exchange for ceding land to British India.
  • Brazil and Germany Relationship-Joint Statement on Visit to Brasil by Chancellor Olaf Scholz and Prez Lula (30/01/2023) - President Lula and Chancellor Scholz reviewed the major global issues. They reaffirmed Brazil and Germany's unwavering commitment to democracy, human rights and social inclusion. They also emphasized their commitment to international law, the United Nations Charter, and peaceful conflict resolution. They deplored, in the strongest terms, the violation of the territorial integrity of Ukraine by Russia and the annexation of parts of its territory as flagrant violations of international law.
  • British Columbia Terms of Union-1871 - Whereas by the British North America Act, 1867 provision was made for the Union of the Provinces of Canada, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick into the Dominion of Canada, and it was (amongst other things) enacted that it should be lawful for the Queen, by and with the Advice of Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, on Addresses from the Houses of the Parliament of Canada
  • Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurances in connection with Ukraine’s accession to Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons – 1994 - The United States of America, the Russian Federation, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, reaffirm their obligation to refrain from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of Ukraine, and that none of their weapons will ever be used against Ukraine except in selfdefense or otherwise in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations.
  • Catholic Church is a political organization to establish “supremacy of Pope over all persons” - The papal monarchy was neither designed nor calculated to foster the growth of either truth, reason or virtue. The policy and measures which it adopted were never intended to correct vice, but to make it administer to the importance of its power, and the wealth of its coffers. Its design has always been to reign supreme; and in conformity with a policy dictated by this design, it has destroyed every virtue that obtruded an obstacle to the accomplishment of its purposes, and protected every vice that appeared to favor their success.
  • China and Africa in the New Era: A Partnership of Equals-2021  - China and Africa have both proposed that the rights to subsistence and development are seen as the primary and basic human rights, that equal importance is attached to all human rights, that exchanges and cooperation on human rights are carried out on the basis of equality and mutual respect, and that individual countries' right in choosing their development paths is respected.
  • China opposes politicization of virus origin-tracing by US politicians - I would like to reiterate that origin-tracing is a scientific issue. On this issue concerning the health and safety of humanity, we should stay true to the original aspiration of saving lives and getting better prepared to cope with similar public health crisis in the future. We should embark on the path of unity and cooperation instead of instigating confrontation and division. We should rely on science rather than political manipulation. Any attempt to politicize the origin-tracing issue is neither moral nor popular, and will only end in failure.
  • China’s socialist democracy is a whole-process, U.S democracy is Coca-Cola, Taliban can form govt with moderate policies- China - What is democracy? Who gets to define it? How to judge whether a country is democratic? These rights should not be monopolized by the US and its few allies. For us, a key criterion is whether the country can meet people's expectations, needs and aspirations. In this sense, Chinese democracy is people's democracy while the US' is money democracy; the Chinese people enjoy substantial democracy while Americans have democracy only in form; China has a whole-process democracy while the US has voting democracy that comes every four years.
  • Code of conduct for UNFCCC conferences, meetings and events - UNFCCC ( United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) events are guided by the highest ethical and professional standards, and all participants are expected to behave with integrity and respect towards all participants attending or involved with any UNFCCC event.
  • Concept of the Foreign Policy of the Republic of Tajikistan - The Concept of the foreign policy of the Republic of Tajikistan is a political act, which determines and regulates major principles, objectives, obligations and priority directions of the foreign policy of the Republic of Tajikistan based on the long-term national interests of the country.  
  • Constitution of the State of Kosrae -1995 - To confirm our oneness, to preserve our natural riches, to renew our pride, to fortify our strengths, to meet our concerns, to guard our aspirations, and to enable our determination, WE, THE PEOPLE OF KOSRAE, give life to and establish this Constitution
  • Constitution of Yemen-1991 - The Yemen Republic is an independent, sovereign, unitary, and indivisible state whose territorial integrity is inviolable.  The Yemeni People is a part of the Arab nation and the Islamic world.
  • Constitutional Court of Ukraine initiates suspension of membership of Constitutional Courts of Russia and Belarus in WCCJ-04/03/2022 - The Constitutional Court of Ukraine initiates the suspension of the membership of the Constitutional Courts of Russia and Belarus in the World Conference of Constitutional Justice (WCCJ) March 4, 2022 Bureau of the World Conference on Constitutional JusticeSecretariat of the World Conference on Constitutional Justice World Conference of Constitutional Justice (WCCJ) On these days it is exactly eight years since […]
  • Core Hinduttva Philosophy in Rig Veda - ऋग्वेदः - मण्डल १० [सूक्तं १०.१९०- १०.१९१] संसमिद्युवसे वृषन्नग्ने विश्वान्यर्य आ । इळस्पदे समिध्यसे स नो वसून्या भर
  • Declaration of Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan on the eve of 102nd anniversary of Afghan freedom from British rule - today we are celebrating the anniversary of our independence from British rule at a time when the United States, another proud superpower in the world, has failed miserably in its jihadist resistance and has been forced to withdraw from Afghanistan's sanctuary.
  • DECLARATION OF THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE STATE OF ISRAEL-14/05/1948 - ERETZ-ISRAEL [(Hebrew) - the Land of Israel, Palestine] was the birthplace of the Jewish people. Here their spiritual, religious and political identity was shaped. Here they first attained to statehood, created cultural values of national and universal significance and gave to the world the eternal Book of Books.After being forcibly exiled from their land, the people kept faith with it throughout their Dispersion and never ceased to pray and hope for their return to it and for the restoration in it of their political freedom.
  • Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea) country brief - The Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK, also known as North Korea) is a highly centralised totalitarian state. Despite being one of the poorest countries in the world, it maintains one of the largest militaries and devotes significant resources to its nuclear weapon and ballistic missile development programs. These programs pose a serious threat to international peace and security and a major challenge to global non-proliferation objectives.
  • Destructive policies implemented by NATO – Statement of Fed Council of Fed Assembly of Russian Federation-10/04/2019 - At the end of the Cold War, the common intention of NATO Member States and countries that formerly belonged to the Warsaw Pact to build brand new relations and security architecture in the Euro-Atlantic region was enshrined in a number of international documents. Thus, the Charter of Paris for a New Europe signed in Paris on 21 November 1990 asserts that security is indivisible and the security of every State is inseparably linked to that of all the others.
  • Eleventh Emergency Special Session of General Assembly-02/03/2022 - GA/12407- Plenary 2 MARCH 2022 ELEVENTH EMERGENCY SPECIAL SESSION, 5TH & 6TH MEETINGS (AM & PM) Statements NOEL MARTIN MATEA (Solomon Islands), stressing that the Russian Federation’s intervention in Ukraine is a violation of the rule of law, called for immediate de-escalation and restoration of Ukraine’s independence and territorial integrity. Welcoming the talks currently taking place, he stressed the need for […]
  • Eretz Yisrael in our Program and Tactics – Ber Borochov (1917) - Our experiments in Palestine have taught us a new lesson. Colonization in Palestine is an especially difficult task. But in spite of the difficulties and temporary failures, colonization in Palestine is developing and is gradually approaching the Socialist ideal.
  • EU imposes sanction on President Vladimir Putin and FM Sergey Lavrov of Russian Federation-25/02/2022 - In addition to freezing the assets the Russian President and Minister of Foreign Affairs, the EU will impose restrictive measures on the members of the National Security Council of the Russian Federation who supported Russia’s immediate recognition of the two non-government controlled areas of the Donetsk and Luhansk oblasts of Ukraine as independent entities. Sanctions will also be extended to the remaining members of the Russian State Duma, who ratified the government decision of the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance between the Russian Federation and the two entities.
  • European Parliament resolution on humanitarian and political situation in Yemen-11/02/2021 - Calls on the Human Rights Council to ensure that the situation of human rights in Yemen remains on its agenda by continuing to renew the mandate of the UN GEE and ensuring it be given sufficient resources to carry out its mandate effectively, including collecting, keeping and analysing information related to violations and crimes;
  • European Parliament resolution on the situation in Myanmar – 11/02/2021 - whereas, on 1 February 2021, the military of Myanmar, known as the Tatmadaw, in a clear violation of the constitution of Myanmar, arrested President Win Myint and State Counsellor Aung San Suu Kyi, as well as leading members of the government, seized power over the legislative, judicial and executive branches of government through a coup d’état, and issued a one-year state of emergency;
  • Farewell speech of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto to the UNSC-1971 - Everyday that the Indian Army of occupation stays there, it will be a grim reminder for Muslim Bengal that they are under Hindu occupation, and you will see the result of it. You will see how it will turn out. Let them stay—why not? Let them stay. Let them swagger around. If they want to take East Pakistan, let them stay as an army of occupation. They are an army of occupation; how can they be called liberators? They will stay, and they will see how the clock is going to move in a different direction.
  • First-Ever Pacific Partnership Strategy of USA (2022) - We will fulfill our historical commitments and strengthen our enduring relationships with the full Pacific Islands region, including our special relationship with the Republic of Palau, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Federated States of Micronesia. W
  • Forty years of freedom have been wasted by the Nehru family-OSHO on Rajiv Gandi (1992) - The fact is that forty years of freedom have been wasted by one family - the Nehru family. From Jawaharlal Nehru up to Rajiv Gandhi, forty years of this great country have been simply wasted.
  • G20 Bali Leaders’ Declaration (15-16 Nov 2022) - We will step up efforts to halt and reverse biodiversity loss, including through Nature-based Solutions and Ecosystem-based Approaches, support climate mitigation and adaptation, enhance environmental conservation and protection, sustainable use and restoration, responding to natural disasters, reduce ecosystem degradation, enhance ecosystem services and to address issues affecting the marine and coastal environment.
  • G7 LEADERS STATEMENT: Partnership for infrastructure and investment-3/12/2021 - The G7 Leaders have issued a joint statement, setting out principles and next steps to modernise the G7's approach to infrastructure finance and narrow the infrastructure investment gap in developing countries. This supports a key part of the agreement reached by Leaders at the G7 Carbis Bay Summit in June, as a part of the G7's commitment to build back better for a greener, more prosperous future.
  • Hasba Bill-2005 - The Hasba Bill  was passed by the Muthahida Majlis Amal (MMA) government in the NWFP conferred judicial powers on ombudsman not only to inquire into cases of maladministration of government agencies but also to keep an eye on the religious and personal affairs of individuals thus blocking the powers of judicial review by civil and criminal courts. A nine-member Supreme Court bench had on August 4 struck down as unconstitutional several of the bill's clauses and asked the NWFP Governor not to give his assent to the law in its present form.
  • How British ‘Democracy’ Works in South Africa-Jerry Kirk (22/11/1941) - The ravages of tuberculosis were plainly visible in the faces and bodies of the natives. TB is one of the great scourges which “civilization” has brought the African natives; the hunger and filth which is their lot is a perfect breeding ground for this disease of poverty.
  • India Ambassador to Qatar met the Head of Taliban’s Political Office in Doha-31/08/2021 - Today, Ambassador of India to Qatar, Deepak Mittal, met Sher Mohammad Abbas Stanekzai, the Head of Taliban’s Political Office in Doha. The meeting took place at the Embassy of India, Doha, on the request of the Taliban side.
  • India-Greece Joint Statement (24/08/2023) - Technology's transformative power in trade is undeniable. India's shift to an online single indirect tax - the GST - helped create a single internal market boosting inter-state trade.
  • India’s National Statement at the Commonwealth Foreign Affairs Ministers Meeting (21/09/2023) - Climate change is a reality and it bites. Green Growth is our common future. It is important to stand by our friends in the Global South, who face the worst of this apocalyptic weather changes.
  • Indian Remark for its candidature in UN Security Council 2021-22 - In this extraordinary situation, India can play a positive global role. We have always been a voice of reason and a votary of international law. We advocate dialogue, consultation and fairness in our approach to global issues. And we emphasize global development, addressing climate change and eradicating of poverty as central to planet’s future.
  • Indochina – Agreement on Cessation of Hostilities in Laos-20/07/1954 - The Commanders of the armed forces of the parties in Laos shall order and enforce the complete cessation of all hostilities in Laos by all armed forces under their control, including all units and personnel of the ground, naval and air forces.
  • Iraq’s Weapons of Mass Destruction – The assessment of British Government (2002) - But the threat from Iraq does not depend solely on the capabilities we have described. It arises also because of the violent and aggressive nature of Saddam Hussein’s regime. His record of internal repression and external aggression gives rise to unique concerns about the threat he poses. The paper briefly outlines in Saddam’s rise to power, the nature of his regime and his history of regional aggression. Saddam’s human rights abuses are also catalogued, including his record of torture, mass arrests and summary executions.
  • Iraqi High Tribunal-Supreme Iraqi Criminal Court - A Tribunal is hereby established and shall be known as The Supreme Iraqi Criminal Tribunal (the “Tribunal”). The Tribunal shall enjoy complete independence.
  • Islands under the control of U.S. Dept of Interior - he Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) emerged from the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (TTPI) which the United States administered on behalf of the United Nations from 1947 until Palau, the last member of the TTPI to choose its own political future, became an independent country 1994.
  • Israel Claims Jerusalem by President Weizmann-01/12/1948 - Had it not been for your heroic defence, who knows what would have remained of its non-Jewish values. We are anxious to see these values effectively protected and we are agreeable that special arrangements be made for the Old City with its Holy Places. We would like to see this sacred zone beautified, so that worshippers coming from all parts of the world to Jerusalem will derive joy and inspiration from their pilgrimage.
  • Jean-Paul Sartre on The Birth of Israel-1949 - I have always wanted the Jewish problem to find a definitive solution within the framework of humanity, and still do, but since no social evolution can avoid the stage of national independence, we must rejoice that an autonomous Israeli state has legitimated the hopes and combats of Jews throughout the world.
  • Joint Statement between Uzbekistan and U.S following Inaugural Meeting of Strategic Partnership Dialogue -13/12/2021 - On December 13, 2021, Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Uzbekistan Abdulaziz Kamilov and US Department of State Bureau of South and Central Asian Affairs Assistant Secretary Donald Lu led a successful inaugural meeting of Uzbekistan-US Strategic Partnership Dialogue in Tashkent.
  • Joint Statement by Representatives of Iran, Russia and Türkiye on 17th International Meeting on Syria-2021 - Reaffirmed their strong commitment to the sovereignty, independence, unity and territorial integrity of the Syrian Arab Republic as well as to the purposes and principles of the UN Charter and highlighted that these principles should be universally respected and complied with;
  • Joint Statement of Leaders of India, Israel, UAE and United States (I2U2- 14/07/2022) - Today’s inaugural I2U2 leaders meeting focused on the food security crisis and clean energy.  The leaders discussed innovative ways to ensure longer-term, more diversified food production and food delivery systems that can better manage global food shocks. 
  • Kigali Declaration on Child Care and Protection Reform (CHOGM-RWANDA-25/06/2022) - Recalling the Nadi Declaration of the 20th Conference of Commonwealth Education Ministers where the importance of providing all children with access to quality early childhood education was highlighted; recognising the importance of multi-sectoral coordination to support and promote early learning and development of all young children, and further highlighting the need to invest in early learning with the goal of providing universal pre-primary education to enable sustainable development;
  • King Charles III’s declaration before the accession council (10/09/2022) - The Principal Proclamation, announcing Charles III as the new British monarch was read from the St James’s Palace balcony, preceded by fanfare.
  • Legal Documents of Islamic Republic of Afghanistan - AGREEMENT ON STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP BETWEEN THE KINGDOM OF NORWAY AND THE ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF AFGHANISTAN Agreement on Strategic Partnership between the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan and the Republic of India Memorandum of Understanding between The Islamic Republic of Afghanistan and the United States of America On Afghanization of Special Operations on Afghan Soil Memorandum of Understanding between The Islamic Republic […]
  • Letter from Sir Mortimer Durand to Ameer Abdul Rahman Khan-11/11/1893 - Letter from Sir Mortimer Durand to Ameer Abdul Rahman Khan Kabul, November 11, 1893 Text After compliments “When Your Highness came to the throne of Afghanistan, Sir Lepel Griffin was instructed to give you the assurance that, if any Foreign Power should attempt to interfere in Afghanistan, and if such interference should lead to unprovoked aggression on the dominions of […]
  • List of the Middle East & West Asian Peace Agreements (UNO-Security Council) - Protocol Concerning Safe Passage between the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. General Agreement on the Establishment of Peace and National Accord in Tajikistan.Agreement on the Temporary International Presence in the City of Hebron.
  • Mahinda Rajapaksa addressed UNGS-20/09/2006 - However, Sri Lanka’s dream is threatened by a terrible affliction that impedes development, undermines democracy and challenges fundamental freedoms. I refer to the bane of terrorism which confronts my country and many other countries of the world. I reaffirm my Government’s firm commitment to supporting all global efforts to combat terrorism whenever and wherever it raises its ugly head. Terrorism has become closely intertwined with organized crime.
  • Membership of SC should be suspended against aggressive states, which violate UN Charter-Zelenskyy in Security Council (20/09/2023) - These days, the word "inequality" has often been heard in the UN General Assembly. Inequality is mentioned by different nations – both larger and smaller ones. It is precisely inequality that renders the UN ineffective now.
  • Memorandum to Pak PM Liaquat Ali Khan by Members of Opposition (Assembly), East Bengal-1950 - In August 1949, some villages under Bianibazar and Barlekha P.S. of Sylhet district were raided by large band of Muslim villagers in company with the police and Ansars. Houses were looted, broken and burnt. Hindu villagers were murdered and assaulted in large number. Women were assaulted and raped even by policemen.
  • More than 2,000 Russian missiles have hit Ukraine and more than 500,000 citizens have been deported to Russia by force-President Zelenskyy at Cannes Flim Festival (17 /05/ 2022) - "The Great Dictator" by Charlie Chaplin did not destroy the real dictator then. But thanks to it, cinematography ceased to be dumb. Dumb in every sense of the word. Cinematography spoke, and it was the voice of the future victory of freedom.
  • MOST POWERFUL MEN AND THEIR ORGANISATIONS 2018 - The purposes to illustrate the list of the most powerful men/women of the world is to study their circumstances and legal conditions which helped them to become the most powerful.
  • MUNICH SECURITY REPORT 2022 - The 58th Munich Security Conference (MSC) was held from February 18 to 20, 2022, at its usual venue in Munich, the Hotel Bayerischer Hof. Participants in the forthcoming 58th edition of the Munich Security Conference (MSC) will discuss the findings of a 180-page report titled "Turning the Tide - Unlearning Helplessness," which warns of a mounting feeling of "helplessness" in many societies of the world in the face of a growing number of crises and conflicts
  • Nation and Race-Adolf Hitler - The consequence of this racial purity, universally valid in Nature, is not only the sharp outward delimitation of the various races, but their uniform character in themselves. The fox is always a fox, the goose a goose, the tiger a tiger, etc., and the difference can lie at most in the varying measure of force, strength, intelligence, dexterity, endurance, etc., of the individual specimens. But you will never find a fox who in his inner attitude might, for example, show humanitarian tendencies toward geese, as similarly there is no cat with a friendly inclination toward mice.
  • Nehru’s loose Tibet policy and withdrawal of Indian maps with clear boundary lines in 1954 sourced Sino-Indian conflicts - Nehru’s loose Tibet policy and withdrawal of Indian maps with clear boundary lines in 1954 sourced Sino-Indian conflicts -Nehru’s hands-off policy toward Tibet did not turn out to be a viable approach toward the sub-subsequent developments north of the Himalayas. He quickly found himself in the quicksand of Sino-Tibetan relations. In the year of the Bandung conference, Beijing decided to set up a Preparatory Committee for the establishment of the Tibetan Autonomous Region.
  • New Delhi Declaration of Council of Heads of States of Shanghai Cooperation Organization (4/07/2023) - NEW DELHI DECLARATION OF THE COUNCIL OF HEADS OF STATE OF SHANGHAI COOPERATION ORGANIZATION   Leaders of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization Member States (hereinafter referred to as “the SCO” or “the Organization”) held the meeting of the Council of Heads of State of SCO in the video conference format on 4 July 2023 and declare the following: Today, the world […]
  • No nation or person of conscience can ignore the voices of those crying out for liberty-‘Captive Nations Week’ Proclamation-2021 - As the world's longest-standing democracy, we carry a special responsibility to lead at home and abroad, not only by the example of our power, but by the power of our example—to prove to ourselves and to the world that democracy can deliver for all people.
  • Notice issued by US President Obama-Continuation of National Emergency With Respect to Iran 13/01/2017 - On March 15, 1995, by Executive Order 12957, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Iran to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted by the actions and policies of the Government of Iran. On May 6, 1995, the President issued Executive Order (E.O.) 12959, imposing more comprehensive sanctions on Iran to further respond to this threat. On August 19, 1997, the President issued E.O. 13059, consolidating and clarifying the previous orders.
  • On the migration of races- F. Muller - The fate of the Jews is well known, at present scattered over the whole world as traders and bankers. The Phœnicians played the same rôle in antiquity as the Jews in modern times; we find them everywhere at that time, wherever the country was open to commerce.
  • Only Israel in Middle East has ideals of freedom, democracy and rule of law-Stephen Harper-20/01/2014 - It is a story, essentially, of a people whose response to suffering has been to move beyond resentment and build a most extraordinary society, a vibrant democracy, a freedom-loving country with an independent and rights-affirming judiciary, an innovative, world-leading "start-up" nation.
  • Opening Remarks by PM Modi at XIV BRICS Summit-2022 - Excellency President Xi, Excellency President Ramaphosa, Excellency President Bolsonaro, Excellency President Putin,
  • Our borders were not of our own drawing -Martin Kimani at UNSC 22/02/2022 - Kenya registers its strong concern and opposition to the recognition of Donetsk and Luhansk as independent states. We further strongly condemn the trend in the last few decades of powerful states, including members of this Security Council, breaching international law with little regard.
  • Pakistan’s special Committee of the Parliament on Kashmir - The Special Committee of the National Assembly on Kashmir was constituted by the Assembly through a motion on 3rd November, 2003. Subsequently, the Committee was elevated as the Special Committee of the Parliament vide the Senate Resolution dated 23rd July, 2004
  • Papal political machinery and interest in England by John Alberger-1871 - The design of ruling nations was clearly indicated by the principles upon which the monastic orders were founded. Regarding supremacy to the pope as the main substance of Christianity, and obedience to his will as necessary to salvation, their doctrines harmonized with his claim to supreme temporal and spiritual power; and their organization, based strictly on monarchial principles, skilfully adapted to secure unity and concentration of action, formed, together with the military knights, a political machinery in the advancement of the papal interests, which was capable of intimidating the boldest antagonist, and of shaking the power of the strongest government.
  • Papal political machinery and interest in United States by John Alberger-1871 - America is the promised land of the Jesuists. To obtain the ascendency they have no need of Swiss guards, or the assistance of the holy alliance, but a majority of votes, which can easily be obtained by the importation of Catholic voters from Ireland, Austria, and Bavaria.... I am not a politician, but knowing the active spirit of Jesuitism, and the indifference of the generality of Protestants, I have no doubt that in ten years the Jesuists will have a mighty influence over the ballot box, and in twenty will direct it according to pleasure. Now they fawn, in ten years they will menace, in twenty command
  • Pathan tribes are partly agriculturists and partly nomads-H. C. Wylly(1912) - The whole of the country lying immediately to the west of the Punjab, and between it and the kingdom of Afghanistan, is held by the two great nations of Pathan and Baluch, the former lying to the north and the latter to the south of a line drawn from the western face of the Suleiman Mountains opposite Dera Ghazi Khan, almost due west to Quetta.
  • PM Boris Johnson spoke with International leaders, asked Pakistan not to recognize Taliban regime unilaterally - The Prime Minister underlined that any recognition of the new government in Afghanistan to happen on an international, not unilateral basis. He said that any the legitimacy of any future Taliban government will be subject to them upholding internationally agreed standards on human rights and inclusivity.
  • Poland Council of Ministers adopted a draft Homeland Defence Act – Higher level of funding for Polish Army-22/02/2022  - The Council of Ministers adopted a draft Homeland Defence Act. It is a response to the increasingly difficult geopolitical situation in the region. The proposed changes are aimed at strengthening the Polish army – increase in the number of soldiers to around 300,000, increase in the budget for defence, as well as technical modernisation of the army. Moreover, the Act organises regulations concerning the Polish Armed Forces.
  • Policy Statement delivered by President Maithripala Sirisena -2015 - It is the constitution that any country or nation considers as the foundation of its self-identity. That is why we consider our constitution as the most supreme document of our nation. We have put three different constitutions in to practice during past 60 years since independence. Yet, it is unfortunate that we have not been able to come to a consensus on one constitution that could be acceptable to everybody as the foundation of the Sri Lankan nation.
  • President Biden approved deployment of appx 5,000 U.S. troops in Afghanistan - When I came to office, I inherited a deal cut by my predecessor—which he invited the Taliban to discuss at Camp David on the eve of 9/11 of 2019—that left the Taliban in the strongest position militarily since 2001 and imposed a May 1, 2021 deadline on U.S. Forces.
  • President Rivlin on terrorist attack by Hamas and Islamic Jihad-12/05/2021 - My dear ones, the sight of the pogrom in Lod and the disturbances across the country by an incited and bloodthirsty Arab mob, Injuring people, damaging property and even attacking sacred Jewish spaces is unforgiveable. Tearing down the Israeli flag by Arab rioters and replacing it with the Palestinian flag is a brutal assault on shared existence in the State of Israel. The silence of the Arab leadership about these disturbances is shameful, giving support to terrorism and rioting and encouraging the rupture of the society in which we live and in which we will continue to live once all this has passed
  • President Biden’s Call with President Putin of the Russian Federation for discussion on Ukraine-30/12/2021 - President Biden laid out two paths, two aspects of the U.S. approach that will really depend on Russia’s actions in the period ahead. One is a path of diplomacy leading toward a de-escalation of the situation, and the other is a path that’s more focused on deterrence, including serious costs and consequences should Russia choose to proceed with a further invasion of Ukraine. And those costs include economic costs, include adjustments and augmentations of NATO force posture in Allied countries, and include additional assistance to Ukraine to enable it to further defend itself and its territory, as we’ve laid out previously.
  • Press Briefing by White House Press Secretary Jen Psaki-10/01/2022 - MS. PSAKI: Well, we continue to closely monitor the situation, and we continue to support dialogue and peaceful resolution of these border disputes. We’ve been pretty clear how we view Beijing’s behavior in the region and around the world. We believe it can be destabilizing. And we’re concerned by the PRC’s attempt to intimidate its neighbors.
  • Press Call by an USA Administration Official on the President’s Call with Russian President Vladimir Putin-12/02/2022 - President Biden was clear that, if Russia undertakes a further invasion of Ukraine, the United States together with our Allies and partners will respond decisively and impose swift and severe costs on Russia.
  • Press Statement by Indian Defense Minister after India-US 2+2 Ministerial Dialogue – 12/04/2022 - The 2+2 meeting today is important in strengthening the strategic defence engagement between India and US and will enable us to work alongside in number of areas of mutual interest. Our increased cooperation will be critical to maintain peace and security, and to ensure free access to global commons.
  • Press Statement of Spokesperson of Ministry of Foreign Affairs of North Korea-22/11/2021 - The countries picking on our "human rights issue" are unexceptionally the worst violators of human rights with horrible human rights records such as racial discrimination, national chauvinism, violence against women, police violence and gun-related crime.
  • Prez Biden and PM Modi of India in Joint Press Conference (22/06/2023) - Our economic relationship is booming.  Trade between our countries has almost doubled over the past decade to more than $191 billion, supporting tens of thousands of good jobs in both India and the United States.
  • Prime Minister Liz Truss’s statement on the death of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II (08/09/2022) - Queen Elizabeth II was the rock on which modern Britain was built. Our country has grown and flourished under her reign. Britain is the great country it is today because of her. She ascended the throne just after the Second World War.
  • Program of a Translation of the Sacred Books of the East-Max Müller (1876) - Apart from the interest which the Sacred Books of all religions possess in the eyes of the theologian, and, more particularly, of the missionary, to whom an accurate knowledge of them is as indispensable as a knowledge of the enemy's country is to a general, these works have of late assumed a new importance, as viewed in the character of ancient historical documents.
  • Protocols to the North Atlantic Treaty of 1949 on the Accession of the Republic of Finland and the Kingdom of Sweden (11/07/2022) - The Protocols propose allowing Finland and Sweden to become parties to the North Atlantic Treaty of 1949, which would make them members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) with all the privileges and responsibilities that apply to current NATO Allies.
  • Putin and President of Turkmenistan made press statements following Russia-Turkmenistan talks-10/06/2022 - The President of Turkmenistan and I have agreed to further promote comprehensive development of bilateral cultural contacts between our citizens and encourage scientific, educational, cultural and sports exchanges.
  • Radicals have been Ukrainizing the country using Nazi propaganda tools – Belarusian President Aleksandr Lukashenko (01/03/2022) - The West’s absolute disregard for the security system, the destruction of the hard-won system of checks and balances after the collapse of the Soviet Union. The degradation and devaluation of international treaties and agreements led to an escalation of the military and political situation in the region.
  • Remarks by Indian PM at 2nd India-Australia Virtual Summit-21/03/2022 - Our relations have made remarkable progress in the last few years. Trade and investment, defence and security, education and innovation, science and technology – we have very close cooperation in all these areas. Our collaboration has grown rapidly in many other areas, such as critical minerals, water management, renewable energy, and Covid-19 research.
  • Remarks by President Biden and PM Fumio Kishida of Japan in Joint Press Conference (Quad-23/05/2022) - A strong Japan and a strong U.S.-Japan alliance is a force for good in the region. I support the peace and stability that’s going to continue and, we hope, increase across the Taiwan Straits; promote freedom of navigation in the East and South China Seas; and to deter the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea.
  • Remarks of Chinese foreign ministry on Afghan situation-16/08/2021 - On the basis of fully respecting the sovereignty of Afghanistan and the will of all factions in the country, China has maintained contact and communication with the Afghan Taliban and played a constructive role in promoting the political settlement of the Afghan issue.
  • Report of the Conference of Small States, held in New York – 01/10/2012 - Established in 1992, the Forum of Small States is a diverse, non-ideological and informal grouping at the United Nations. The Forum provides a platform for small States to share information and strategies, to work together on issues of mutual interest and to lend a greater voice to their views and concerns. Currently, the Forum has 105 member States
  • Rishi Sunak gave his first speech as Prime Minister in Downing Street (Text-25/10/2022) - I know he would agree that the mandate my party earned in 2019 is not the sole property of any one individual, it is a mandate that belongs to and unites all of us.
  • Rohingya Illegal foreigners are to be kept in Detention Centres till their deportation-MHA (17/08/2022) - Illegal foreigners are to be kept in the Detention Centre till their deportation as per law.  The Government of Delhi has not declared the present location as a Detention Centre. They have been directed to do the same immediately.
  • Rules and Procedure National assembly of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan - These Articles of Procedures are issued to regulate the internal affairs of the Wolesi Jirga pursuant to articles 87, 88, 89, 106, 108, and 109 of the Constitution of Afghanistan.
  • Russia has launched military operation in Ukraine, martial law imposed – President of Ukraine – 24/02/2022 - Our diplomats are informing the world about what is happening. Ukrainians will never give up their freedom and independence to anyone. Only we, all citizens of Ukraine, have been determining our future since 1991. But now the fate of not only our state is being decided, but also what life in Europe will be like.
  • Russian President Putin addressed the SCO Heads of State Council in Samarkand (16/09/2022) - The SCO Heads of State Council adopted statements in response to climate change, on ensuring reliable, sustainable and diversified supply chains, and on ensuring global food security and international energy security. The SCO Heads of State Council also adopted a decision to sign the Memorandum between the SCO Secretariat and the United Nations on education, science and culture (2023–2027).
  • Russian Prez Putin and Iranian Prez Ebrahim Raisi held talks in Tehran(19/07/2022) - Our relations have been developing at a good pace, indeed. We boast record figures in trade growth. We are strengthening our cooperation on international security and making a tangible contribution to settling the Syrian conflict.
  • Speech by PM Yair Lapid of Israel At 77th session of UN General Assembly (23/09/2022) - The Jews today have a state. We have an army. We have great friendships, first and foremost with the United States. We have capabilities and we are not afraid to use them. We will do whatever it takes: Iran will not get a nuclear weapon. We will not stand by while there are those who try to kill us. Not again. Never Again.
  • Speech by Chinese President Xi Jinping at opening ceremony of 8th FOCAC ministerial conference-29/11/2021 - Chinese President Xi Jinping delivered a keynote speech via video link at the opening ceremony of the Eighth Ministerial Conference of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) on Monday.
  • Speech by President of European Council Charles Michel At 77th session of UN General Assembly (23/09/2022) - I stand before you and solemnly say to you that the EU does not ask anyone to choose between East or West, North or South. But there is a choice to be made. The EU’s choice is for respect for borders over aggression. Cooperation over threats. The rules-based order over the rule of the strongest.
  • Speech by Prime Minister Liz Truss At 77th Session of UN General Assembly (21/09/2022) - They are fundamentally rigid and unable to adapt. Any short-term gains are eroded in the long term because these societies stifle the aspiration and creativity which are vital to long-term growth. A country where Artificial Intelligence acts as judge and jury, where there are no human rights and no fundamental freedoms, is not the kind of place anyone truly wants to live.
  • Speech by Xi Jinping at CPC and World Political Parties Summit-07/07/2021 - It gives me great pleasure to join you, leaders of more than 500 political parties, political and other organisations from over 160 countries as well as the ten thousand and more representatives of political parties and various circles, at this cloud event to discuss the important question of "working for the people's wellbeing and the responsibility of political parties", just as the Communist Party of China (CPC) reaches its one hundredth anniversary. Over the past weeks, more than 600 political parties, political and other organisations from over 170 countries have sent 1500-plus congratulatory messages and letters on the CPC's centenary conveying their goodwill and best wishes. I wish to take this opportunity to express to all of you, on behalf of the Communist Party of China, our heartfelt thanks!
  • Statement by U.S President Joseph Biden on the Situation in Burma(Myanmar)-1/2/2021 - The military’s seizure of power in Burma, the detention of Aung San Suu Kyi and other civilian officials, and the declaration of a national state of emergency are a direct assault on the country’s transition to democracy and the rule of law. In a democracy, force should never seek to overrule the will of the people or attempt to erase the outcome of a credible election. For almost a decade, the people of Burma have been steadily working to establish elections, civilian governance, and the peaceful transfer of power. That progress should be respected.
  • Statement by India at UNSC on Middle East Peace Process, including the Palestine Question-30/08/2021 - 5. The West Bank continues to witness incidents of violence and clashes between the Palestinians and Israeli security forces. Both sides must desist from provocative action in the interest of peace and stability.
  • Statement by President Joe Biden on Afghanistan-30/08/2021 - The Taliban has made commitments on safe passage and the world will hold them to their commitments. It will include ongoing diplomacy in Afghanistan and coordination with partners in the region to reopen the airport allowing for continued departure for those who want to leave and delivery of humanitarian assistance to the people of Afghanistan.
  • Statement by Prime Minister of Thailand on APEC – 10/02/2022 - The theme of APEC 2022 is “Open. Connect. Balance.” Our priorities are to make APEC open to all opportunities, connect in all dimensions and balanced in all aspects. Thailand’s theme is driven by our vision to address the imbalances revealed by the pandemic and achieve growth through the integration of the Bio-Circular-Green (BCG) model, three well-established economic development approaches, into the region’s economy.
  • Statement by the North Atlantic Council on the situation in and around Ukraine-16/12/2021 - We support the right of all countries to decide their own future and foreign policy free from outside interference. NATO’s relationship with Ukraine is a matter only for Ukraine and the 30 NATO Allies. We firmly reject any attempts to divide Allied security.
  • Statement from President Joe Biden Welcoming Finland to NATO (04/04/2023) - April 04, 2023 Today, I am proud to welcome Finland as NATO’s 31st Ally.    Seventy-four years ago today—as the United States and 11 other nations came together to form the North Atlantic Treaty Organization—President Truman said, “if there is anything inevitable in the future, it is the will of the people of the world for freedom and for peace.” Today, […]
  • Statement of US President on the NATO Summit- 25/02/ 2022 - As I said yesterday, the United States will defend every inch of NATO territory. Our commitment to Article 5 is ironclad. I have ordered the deployment of additional forces to augment our capabilities in Europe to support our NATO Allies.
  • States with which Turkmenistan established diplometic relations - STATES WITH WHICH TURKMENISTAN ESTABLISHED DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS Status-2022 № Country Form Date 1 Australian Union Protocol 14.05.1992 2 Republic of Austria Joint communiqué 16.10.1992 3 The Republic of Azerbaijan Exchange of notes 09.06.1992 4 The Republic of Albania Exchange of notes 24.03.1994 5 Algerian People’s Democratic Republic Protocol 21.09.1994 6 The Republic of Angola Protocol 18.06.1997 7 The Principality of […]
  • Television Speech by USSR President Gorbachev as he relinquished power on 25/12/1991 - Due to the current situation with the formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States, I terminate my activity as President of the USSR . I am making this decision for reasons of principle. [В силу сложившейся ситуации с образованием GlossarСодружества Независимых Государств я прекращаю свою деятельность на посту GlossarПрезидента СССР. Принимаю это решение по принципиальным соображениям]
  • Text of India’s statement to the UNSC on Afghan Crisis - If there is a zero tolerance for terrorism in all its forms and manifestations, and it is ensured that the territory of Afghanistan is not used by terrorist groups to threaten or attack any other country, then Afghanistan’s neighbours and the region would feel safer. 
  • Text of the joint news conference of Prez Putin and Recep Tayyip Erdogan (04/09/2023) - In April, Russian nuclear fuel was sent to Akkuyu, and the nuclear power plant received the official status of a nuclear facility. This status was granted by the IAEA. Thus, Turkiye has joined the club of countries with peaceful nuclear technology.
  • Text of the Speech by Iranian Foreign Minister at 2nd Meeting of Foreign Ministers of Afghanistan’s Neighboring Countries-27/10/2021 - The United States attacked Afghanistan twenty years ago under the pretext of fighting terrorism, and perpetuated and regenerated instability, war and insecurity in that country by maintaining its military presence there. Without promoting and empowering Afghanistan and its people, Washington tactlessly and irresponsibly fled the scene and created the situation that all of us are facing today.
  • THE PERIPLUS OF THE ERYTHRAEAN SEA- 60 CE - Erythraean Sea was the term applied by Greek and Roman geographers to the Indian Ocean, including its adjuncts, the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf. Erythra means Red, so that the modern name perpetuates the ancient; but we are assured by Agatharchides that it means, not Red Sea, but Sea of King Erythras, following a Persian legend.
  • The role of the constitutional court of Russian-federation in annexation of Crimea-2014 - The doctrine of obligatory non-recognition provides that states are under an obligation not to recognise, through individual or collective acts, the purported statehood of an effective territorial entity created in violation of one or more fundamental norms of international law. This rationale underlies the Stimson Doctrine that was used as a justification for states not to recognise the annexation of the Baltic States by the Soviet Union. This rationale is also expressed in the International Law Commission’s Article 41 of the Draft Articles on State Responsibility. The obligation is a norm of customary international law and aims at preventing that a violation of international law becomes validated by means of recognition. It contains a “minimum resistance” and “a continuous challenge to a legal wrong”. The obligation arises where a territorial entity has been created in violation of an erga omnes norm, especially by violating the prohibition of the use of force, by violating the right to self-determination, or by violating the prohibition of systematic racial discrimination.
  • The Sultan of Oman Issues Four Royal Decrees - Employees designated as “Judicial Inspectors”: Employees of the specialised “Authority” and the ministries of “Commerce, Industry and Investment Promotion”, “Agriculture, Fisheries and Water Resources”, “Health” and other departments concerned, in accordance with the laws and Royal Decrees awarding such officials the designation/mission of ‘judicial inspection’ as regards crimes stated in the attached law/system that are related to their job tasks.
  • The UK King’s Speech to Parliament-1909 - The reception of the measures designed by my Government for improving Indian administration has given me deep satisfaction. A Bill will at once be laid before you, dealing with matters in which your sanction is required; and it is my strong desire that the steps to be taken for giving effect to the policy announced in my Message of last November to the Princes and people of India may impartially protect the interests and advance the welfare of all races, classes, and communities in my Indian dominions
  • The Voyage around the Erythraean Sea - Likewise from the district of Ariaca across this sea, there are imported Indian iron, and steel, and Indian cotton cloth; the broad cloth called monachê and that called sagimtogênê, and girdles, and coats of skin and mallow-colored cloth, and a few muslins, and colored lac. There are exported from these places ivory, and tortoise-shell and rhinoceros-horn. The most from Egypt is brought to this market from the month of January, to September, that is, from Tybi to Thoth; but seasonably they put to sea about the month of September.
  • Transcript of Joint Press Briefing by President Ashraf Ghani and Speaker Nancy Pelosi-25/06/2021 - Good morning Mr. President. Once again, it is an honor for me, Speaker of the House, to welcome you to the Capitol of the United States. We are many friends looked forward to meeting with you this morning. As you know, we have had a relationship between our two countries, an intense relationship for the past twenty years.
  • Treaty between Ameer Dost Muhammad Khan & British India, 1855 - countries of Afghanistan now in his possession ; concluded on the part of the British Government by John Lawrence, Esquire, Chief Commissioner of the Punjab in virtue of full powers vested in him by the most Noble James Andrew, Marquis of Dalhousie, KT, &C., Governor-General of India ; and on the part of the Ameer of Cabool, Dost Mohummud Khan by Sirdar Gholam Hydur Khan, in virtue of full authority granted to him by His Highness, - 1855.
  • Treaty Between Spain and U.S. Regarding Guam – 1898 - The United States of America and Her Majesty The Queen Regent of Spain, in the name of her august son Don Alfonso XIII, desiring to end the state of war now existing between the two countries
  • Treaty of Peace Between Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan And Israel-1994 - The Government of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan and the Government of the State of Israel:-Bearing in mind the Washington Declaration, signed by them on 25th July, 1994, and which they are both committed to honor;-Aiming at the achievement of a just, lasting and comprehensive peace in the Middle East based on Security Council resolutions 242 and 338 in all their aspects;
  • Trilateral meeting between Russian Prez Putin, Iranian Prez Raisi and Turkish prez Erdogan in Teheran (19/07/2022) - Overall, the joint efforts of Russia, Iran and Turkiye to facilitate the comprehensive settlement of the crisis in the Syrian Arab Republic are highly productive. Owing to the assistance and support of our countries, the level of violence in Syria has decreased significantly; peaceful life is returning and the country is gradually rebuilding its economy and social sphere.
  • Turkish Foreign Policy - Turkish Foreign Policy aims to protect Turkey’s interests in a volatile regional and global environment, while also shaping conditions for sustainable peace and development in our neighborhood and beyond. In the pursuit of this primary goal, Turkey contributes to peace, prosperity, and stability around the world.
  • U.S strategy towards sub-saharan Africa-08/08/2022 - This strategy represents a new approach, emphasizing and elevating the issues that will further embed Africa’s position in shaping our hared future. It resolves to press for the necessary resources and prize innovation in our efforts to trengthen vital partnerships. The United States will both address immediate crises and threats, and seek to connect short-term efforts with the longer-term imperative of bolstering Africa’s capabilities to solve global problems. The strategy’s strength lies in its determination to graduate from policies that inadvertently treat sub- Saharan Africa as a world apart and have struggled to keep pace with the profound transformations across the continent and the world.
  • U.S. – Guatemala Cooperation-2021 - Today, the Department of Justice will file a brief in the Supreme Court in the case United States v. Vaello-Madero, which addresses whether a provision in the Social Security Act that declines to provide Puerto Rico residents with Supplemental Security Income (SSI) violates the Constitution’s equal protection principle.
  • U.S. celebrates National Day of Celebration of Greek and American Democracy 2021 - Today, Greece is a crucial NATO ally and friend of the United States, and a leader for peace and prosperity in the Eastern Mediterranean, Black Sea, and Western Balkans regions. The United States welcomes Greece's commitment to hosting the United States Naval Support Activity at Souda Bay, Crete, and United States rotational forces elsewhere in Greece. Through our ongoing Strategic Dialogue, we have advanced our relationship in nearly every respect. We have accelerated progress on making the region a safer place, and we have increased trade and investment that brings jobs and prosperity to the people of our nations and to the world.
  • U.S.-Brazil diplomatic relationship-Joint Statement Following the Meeting Between Biden and Lula (10/02/2023) - The two leaders discussed a wide range of global and regional issues of mutual concern. They deplored the violation of the territorial integrity of Ukraine by Russia and the annexation of parts of its territory as flagrant violations of international law and called for a just and durable peace. They expressed concern about the global effects of the conflict on food and energy security, especially on the poorest regions of the planet and voiced support for the full functioning of the Black Sea Grain Initiative.
  • U.S.-EU Constituted Task Force on Energy Security,issued joint statement (03/04/2023) - The U.S.-EU Task Force on Energy Security builds on long-standing, transatlantic cooperation under the U.S.-EU Energy Council and is an outcome of the joint commitment to reduce the EU’s dependency on Russian energy and accelerate the global transition to clean energy in the wake of unjustified and unprovoked Russian military aggression on Ukraine.
  • UK G7 Presidency Statement: Digital and Tech-30/11/2021 - The G7 Digital and Technology Ministers’ Declaration identified six priority interventions to help ensure that our collective recovery from COVID-19 builds back a better, more productive, and resilient global economy, with digital technology at its heart. We welcome the significant progress achieved together through open and constructive collaboration from G7 members and partners as the UK G7 Presidency comes to an end.
  • UK PM’s address to the nation on Russian invasion of Ukraine – 24/02/2022 - Ukraine is a country that for decades has enjoyed freedom and democracy and the right to choose its own destiny. We – and the world – cannot allow that freedom just to be snuffed out. We cannot and will not just look away.
  • United States should legally recognize Russia as a terrorist state – Volodymyr Zelenskyy (30/07/2022) - And formal legal recognition of Russia as a terrorist state, in particular, recognition by the United States Department of State, is needed not as a political gesture, but as an effective defense of the free world.
  • United States and India Elevate Strategic Partnership with initiative on Critical and Emerging Technology (Fact Sheet-31/01/2023) - To expand and deepen our technology partnership, the United States and India are launching new bilateral initiatives and welcoming new cooperation between our governments, industry and academia
  • US Speaker Nancy Pelosi’s Taiwan visit is a provocation on China’s sovereignty and territorial integrity-China (03/08/2022)  - The position of the Chinese government and Chinese people on the Taiwan question is consistent. Resolutely safeguarding China’s sovereignty and territorial integrity is the firm will of the more than 1.4 billion Chinese people. To achieve national reunification is the shared aspiration and sacred duty of all Chinese people.
  • USA is a mafia regime creates crises in world and feeds on them – Imam Khamenei (01/03/2022) - Today, life in the western civilization is based on greed and avarice. The basis of life in western civilization is greed and avarice. Today, the basis of all western values is money. Everything is measured with money. The foundation of all western values rests on money at present. Morality, spirituality and everything else is measured with money.
  • USA or NATO have no intention to put forces in Ukraine but there shall be serious economic consequences if Russia moves-Biden in Press Gaggle-25/01/2022 - It’s just exactly what I said: is that — is that as long as we have to reassure — if you noticed, you don’t see a lot of concern in terms of their security of our — and of our — our NATO Allies in Western Europe. But in Eastern Europe, there’s reason for concern. They’re along the Russian border. They’re on the Belarus border. So, everyone from Poland on has — has reason to be concerned about what would happen and what spillover effects could occur.
  • Vietnamese PM Remarks at 26th International Conference on Future of Asia - The COVID-19 pandemic, however, is viewed as “the most dreadful disaster facing the humanities since the World War II. The pandemic has been and will enormously impact the regional and global landscape, and the social and economic life of all countries.
  • Vladimir Putin met with UNO Secretary-General Antonio Guterres in Kremlin-26/04/2022 - It is clear to us that if we take these issues to the heads of state level without even resolving them in a preliminary draft agreement, they will never be resolved. In this case, we simply cannot sign a document on security guarantees without settling the territorial issues of Crimea, Sevastopol and the Donbass republics.
  • Washington Declaration signed by King Hussein and Israeli PM Yitzhak Rabin at White House-25/07/1994 - This document  safeguards Islamic control over the Muslim Holy Sites of Jerusalem, as Israel: “respects the present role of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan in the Muslim Holy Shrines in Jerusalem. When negotiations on the permanent status will take place, Israel will give high priority to the Jordanian historic role in these shrines.”

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      Geopolitical research is frequently portrayed as a dead end. To some scholars it appears that in the 21st century geography is largely scenery, all but irrelevant to the most important issues of grand strategy. Understanding specific phenomena that occur in international relations therefore requires taking into consideration non-geographical factors. Such a combination of geographical and non-geographical factors provides sound explanations, as several examples demonstrate: China’s projection of power into the Indian Ocean, South Africa’s approach to the political crisis in Zimbabwe in 2008, Iran’s maritime strategy and the poor integration of Colombia and South America. [Sören Scholvin-Institute of Economic and Cultural Geography, University of Hanover-2016]

      [See the full post at: Geo-Politics in context]

    • #227883

      Kashi is known to be a treasure chest of knowledge – PM addresses G20 Culture Ministers’ Meeting

      The Prime Minister, Shri Narendra Modi addressed the G20 Culture Ministers’ Meeting held in Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh via video link today.

      The Prime Minister welcomed the dignitaries to Varanasi, also known as Kashi, and expressed delight that the G20 Culture Ministers’ Meeting is taking place here as the city is his parliamentary constituency. Referring to Kashi as one of the oldest living cities, the Prime Minister mentioned the nearing town of Sarnath where Lord Buddha delivered his first sermon. “Kashi is known to be a treasure chest of knowledge, duty and truth and it is indeed the cultural and spiritual capital of India”, the Prime Minister remarked and suggested the guests witness the the Ganga Aarti program, pay a visit to Sarnath and try out the delicacies of Kashi.

      Highlighting the inherent potential of culture to unite and enable us to understand diverse backgrounds and perspectives, the Prime Minister said that the work of the G20 Culture Ministers Group holds immense significance for entire humanity. “We in India are very proud of our eternal and diverse culture. We also attach great value to our intangible cultural heritage”, Shri Modi said as he underlined that India has been working hard to preserve and revitalize its heritage sites. He mentioned mapping the country’s cultural assets and artists at the national level as well as village level. He also mentioned building several centers to celebrate India’s culture and gave the example of the tribal museums located in different parts of the country which showcase the vibrant culture of India’s tribal communities. Referring to the Prime Ministers’ Museum in New Delhi, the Prime Minister said that it is a one-of-a-kind effort to showcase India’s democratic heritage. He also mentioned developing the ‘Yuge Yugeen Bharat’ National Museum, which upon completion will stand as the world’s largest museum showcasing India’s history and culture spanning over 5,000 years.

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Development Through Solidarity and Cooperation - Remarks of Xi Jinping At 5th BRICS Summit (2023)

Sat Aug 26 , 2023
We should expand political and security cooperation to uphold peace and tranquility. As a Chinese saying suggests, “Nothing is more beneficial than stability, and nothing is more detrimental than turmoil.”

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