In India, 33% to 45% fake people are in legal profession as per Law Commission Report

Report no 266

As per recent media reports 35, the Bar Council of India conducted verification of advocates under the Bar Council of India Certificate and Place of Practice (Verification) Rules, 2015, and it was reported that a very high percentage (33 to 45%) of lawyers were fake. Such lawyers were practicing either with the fake law degree or without any degree at all. The process of verification is not yet complete and the so-called bogus lawyers could be identified only by scrutiny. Apprehension has been raised that the alleged bogus lawyers could have succeeded in making entry in the judiciary, government services and some of them could have been appointed as Government pleaders, Law Officers, etc. Such persons might have succeeded in mission by impersonation and entering into criminal conspiracy. Thus legal advice offered by such persons could affect the deliverance and quality of justice and their mere existence in legal system would definitely erode the public trust . Continue reading

What are the rules for appearance by non-advocate before a Judicial Body

Brief summary of Rules pertaining to Non-Advocates in different jurisdictions

United States of America

• Congressional legislation neither grants nor denies the right to have a non-attorney representative in quasi-judicial proceedings.

• The individual fora (administrative law courts) are allowed to create their own rules for non-attorney representatives.

• Several administrative law courts/fora allow non-attorney representatives to appear if they meet certain qualifications.

Social Security Administration Continue reading

Indian Advocate shall not personally engage in any business or employment

Under Bar Council of India Rule

SECTION VII–RESTRICTION ON THEIR EMPLOYMENTS

47. An Advocate shall not personally engage in any business; but he may be a sleeping partner in a firm doing business provided that, in the opinion of the appropriate State Bar Council, the nature of the business is not inconsistent with the dignity of the profession. Continue reading

An advocate shall not personally engage in any business [Bar Council of India Rules 47-51]

47. An advocate shall not personally engage in any business; but he may be a sleeping partner in a firm doing business provided that in the opinion of the appropriate State Bar Council, the nature of the business is not inconsistent with the dignity of the profession.

48. An advocate may be Director or Chairman of the Board of Directors of a Company with or without any ordinarily sitting fee, provided none of his duties are of an executive character. An advocate shall not be a Managing Director or a Secretary of any Company.

49. An advocate shall not be a full-time salaried employee of any person, government, firm, corporation or concern, so long as he continues to practise, and shall, on taking up any such employment, intimate the fact to the Bar Council on whose roll his name appears and shall thereupon cease to practise as an advocate so long as he continues in such employment.

“That as Supreme Court has struck down the appearance by Law Officers in Court even on behalf of their employers the Judgement will operate in the case of all Law Officers. Even if they were allowed to appear on behalf of their employers all such Law Officers who are till now appearing on behalf of their employers shall not be allowed to appear as advocates. The State Bar Council should also ensure that those Law Officers who have been allowed to practice on behalf of their employers will cease to practice. It is made clear that those Law Officers who after joining services obtained enrolment by reason of the enabling provision cannot practice even on behalf their employers.”

“That the Bar Council of India is of the view that if the said officer is a whole time employee drawing regular salary, he will not be entitled to be enrolled as an advocate. If the terms of employment show that he is not in full time employment he can be enrolled.”

50. An advocate who has inherited, or succeeded by survivorship to a family business may continue it, but may not personally participate in the management thereof. He may continue to hold a share with others in any business which has decended to him by survivorship or inheritance or by will, provided he does not personally participate in the management thereof.

51. An advocate may review Parliamentary Bills for a remuneration, edit legal text books at a salary, do press-vetting for newspapers, coach pupils for legal examination, set and examine question papers; and subject to the rules against advertising and full-time employment, engage in broadcasting, journalism, lecturing and teaching subjects, both legal and non-legal.

52. Nothing in these rules shall prevent an advocate from accepting after obtaining the consent of the State Bar Council, part-time employment provided that in the opinion of the State Bar Council, the nature of the employment does not conflict with his professional work and is not inconsistent with the dignity of the profession. This rule shall be subject to such directives if any as may be issued by the Bar Council India from time to time.

Law officer engaged by the Government if not acting or pleading on behalf of his employer, then he ceases to be an advocate.

Supreme Court of India in Satish Kumar Sharma vs The Bar Council Of Himachal[2001] held :

An advocate employed by the Government or a body corporate as its law officer even on terms of payment of salary would not cease to be an advocate in terms of Rule 49 if the condition is that such advocate is required to act or plead in courts on behalf of the employer. The test, therefore, is not whether such person is engaged on terms of salary or by payment of remuneration, but whether he is engaged to act or plead on its behalf in a court of law as an advocate. In that event the terms of engagement will not matter at all. What is of essence is as to what such law officer engaged by the Government does whether he acts or pleads in court on behalf of his employer or otherwise. If he is not acting or pleading on behalf of his employer, then he ceases to be an advocate. If the terms of engagement are such that he does not have to act or plead, but does other kinds of work, then he becomes a mere employee of the Government or the body corporate. Therefore, the Bar Council of India has understood the expression advocate as one who is actually practicing before courts which expression would include even those who are law officers appointed as such by the Government or body corporate. [emphasis supplied] As stated in the above para the test indicated is whether a person is engaged to act or plead in a court of law as an Advocate and not whether such person is engaged on terms of salary or payment by remuneration. The essence is as to what such Law Officer engaged by the Government does.

The word Advocate in Article 233(2) of Indian constitution was held to include a Law Officer of Central or State Government, public corporation or a body corporate who is enrolled as an Advocate under exception to Rule 49 of Bar Council of India Rules and is practicing before courts for his employee.

 In case the appellant gives up his full time employment or ceases to be employee of the Board, he may be allowed to practice maintaining his seniority as an advocate from the date of his enrolment on the rolls of the respondent; if the enrolment is cancelled or withdrawn he would lose the seniority for no fault of him. There is a difficulty in accepting this argument. When the appellant was not entitled for enrolment and his enrolment itself was opposed to law, such enrolment was non-est. Hence the question of maintaining his seniority on the rolls of the respondent does not arise. However, we make it clear that in case the appellant resigns or ceases to be a full time employee of the Board, it is open to him if so desired to apply afresh for enrolment as an advocate.

Within the Court, the right of audience of an advocate is to be regulated by the Court itself

 SUPREME COURT  in Harish Uppal v. Union of India held as under:

“34. One last thing which must be mentioned is that the right of appearance in courts is still within the control and jurisdiction of courts. Section 30 of the Advocates Act has not been brought into force and rightly so. Control of conduct in court can only be within the domain of courts. Thus Article 145 of the Constitution of India gives to the Supreme Court and Section 34 of the Advocates Act gives to the High Court power to frame rules including rules regarding condition on which a person (including an advocate) can practise in the Supreme Court and/or in the High Court and courts subordinate thereto. Many courts have framed rules in this behalf. Such a rule would be valid and binding on all. Let the Bar take note that unless self-restraint is exercised, courts may now have to consider framing specific rules debarring advocates, guilty of contempt and/or unprofessional or unbecoming conduct, from appearing before the courts. Such a rule if framed would not have anything to do with the disciplinary jurisdiction of the Bar Councils. It would be concerning the dignity and orderly functioning of the courts.”

The Supreme Court further held that:-

“Conduct in court is a matter concerning the court and hence the Bar Council cannot claim that what should happen inside the court could also be regulated by them in exercise of their disciplinary powers. The right to practise, no doubt, is the genus of which the right to appear and conduct cases in the court may be a specie. But the right to appear and conduct cases in the court is a matter on which the court must and does have major supervisory and controlling power. Hence courts cannot be and are not divested of control or supervision of conduct in court merely because it may involve the right of an advocate.”

And :-

“An advocate appears in a court subject to such conditions as are laid down by the court. It must be remembered that Section 30 has not been brought into force and this also shows that there is no absolute right to appear in a court. Even if Section 30 were to be brought into force control of proceedings in court will always remain with the court. Thus even then the right to appear in court will be subject to complying with conditions laid down by courts just as practice outside courts would be subject to conditions laid down by the Bar Council of India.”

The right to practise and the right to appear in courts are not synonymous

Apex Court decision delivered in Pravin C. Shah vs. K.A. Mohd. Ali and Another :-

“18. In the above context it is useful to quote the following observations made by a Division Bench of the Allahabad High Court in Prayag Das v. Civil Judge, Bulandshahr :

The High Court has a power to regulate the appearance of advocates in courts. The right to practise and the right to appear in courts are not synonymous. An advocate may carry on chamber practice or even practise in courts in various other ways, e.g. drafting and filing of pleadings and vakalatnama for performing those acts. For that purpose his physical appearance in courts may not at all be necessary. For the purpose of regulating his appearance in courts the High Court should be the appropriate authority to make rules and on a proper construction of Section 34(1) of the Advocates Act it must be inferred that the High Court has the power to make rules for regulating the appearance of advocates and proceedings inside the courts. Obviously the High Court is the only appropriate authority to be entrusted with this responsibility.”

A lawyer in discharge of his professional assignment has a duty to his client, a duty to his opponent, a duty to the Court, a duty to the society at large and a duty to himself. It needs a high degree of probity and poise to strike a balance in arriving at the place of right stand. The real question is that why, while framing the rules the rule maker instead of using language in the nature of prohibiting an advocate from appearing in the matter, indicated that it is not proper for an advocate to appear in a matter which was dealt with by him as a Judicial Officer. Many times mandate is not required to be given. Rule 15 is used for indicating impropriety, it is only for the understanding and putting in practice only by the persons who had experience in the judiciary. It is clear from the intention of the rule maker that by indicating “not proper” persons who had experience in judiciary will understand the spirit of the rule and shall not appear in the matter once conduced as a judicial officer. The governing factor is the meaning and the intent of the rule maker and that is to be gathered not merely from the words used by the rule maker but from several circumstances. Thus, even reading the language of Rule 15 it is very clear that the rule maker indicated that the person who has acted as a Judicial Officer in a proceedings subsequently in the same proceedings he shall not appear as an advocate.

Halsbury’s Laws of England, Fourth Edition, page 308, which are reproduced below:-

“Every court or other tribunal has an inherent jurisdiction to regulate its own practice and proceedings, unless fettered by statute or, possibly, by ancient usage, and it is an incident of this inherent jurisdiction that a court has power to determine what persons should be permitted to appear before it as advocates.

In deciding whether to impose or remove restrictions on rights of audience the judges should have regard solely to what is required in the public interest for the efficient and effective administration of justice and not to the interests of the lawyers concerned. There is a recognized public interest in limiting the categories of person whom the courts are prepared to hear as advocates to ensure that the advocates appearing in a particular court have the requisite standard of skill and a high standard of probity.

ENGLISH VOCABULARY FOR LAWYERS

  1. abandon – to leave behind
  2. abandoned left behind
  3. abash – embarrass
  4. abated – lessened
  5. aboard – on something
  6. abolitionist – slavery opponent
  7. abominable – disgusting
  8. abridge – to shorten
  9. absent – not present
  10. absolute value – distance from zero on the number line
  11. abstain – do without
  12. absurd – unreasonable
  13. academic – relating to education
  14. accept – take what is given
  15. access – approach
  16. accidental – happening by chance
  17. accidentally – not on purpose
  18. acclaim – to approve
  19. accomplishment – achievement
  20. accord – being in agreement
  21. accost – approach to speak
  22. achiever – someone who reaches a goal
  23. acquiesce – to agree
  24. acrobats – trapeze artists
  25. activate – start
  26. acute – sharp
  27. acute – sharp and quick
  28. acuteness – quick mind
  29. AD – Anno domini
  30. adage – wise saying
  31. adapt – adjust to
  32. addle – to make confused
  33. addled – confused
  34. address – speech
  35. adept – expert
  36. adherent – supporter or follower
  37. adjacent – directly next to
  38. adjacent – near or close
  39. adjourned – ended a session
  40. adobe – made of clay
  41. advantage – something that is helpful
  42. advent – coming event
  43. adventure – an exciting experience
  44. advice – guidance
  45. advise – offer helpful suggestions
  46. advocate – to plead in favor
  47. advocate – to support
  48. affect – have an influence on
  49. affliction – misery
  50. affluence – abundance of riches
  51. against – in opposition
  52. agenda – a plan
  53. agent – representing another
  54. aggregation – group of people
  55. aghast – horrified
  56. agile – moving easily
  57. air – gases that we breathe
  58. albeit – even though
  59. allay – lessen
  60. allay – lessen
  61. alleviate – make bearable
  62. alliance – union for a common purpose
  63. allies – friends in war
  64. allowance – something granted
  65. allusion – indirect mention of something
  66. almanac – yearly book of facts
  67. aloof – disinterested
  68. already – before now
  69. ambiance – special atmosphere
  70. ambiguous – unclear
  71. Ameliorate- to make better
  72. amity – friendliness
  73. analogy – comparison
  74. analysis – examination of something
  75. analyze – study
  76. anarchy – lawlessness
  77. ancestors – people one is descended from
  78. anecdote – brief story
  79. anemic – lacking vitality
  80. angry – feeling or showing displeasure
  81. animated – very lively
  82. ankles – joints where feet meet legs
  83. annals – chronological record of the events
  84. announced – said or told
  85. anonymous – unidentified
  86. anthology – collection of writings
  87. antibiotic – stops growth of microorganisms
  88. anxiety – extreme nervousness
  89. anxiously – nervously
  90. apathy – lack of emotion
  91. aperture – opening
  92. aplomb – great composure
  93. appalling – terrible
  94. apparition – anything that appears unexpectedly
  95. appeal – to ask for
  96. appear – come into sight
  97. appearance – the way something looks
  98. appease – quieten
  99. applause – clapping of hands
  100. appreciate – show gratitude
  101. apprehensive – uneasy
  102. appropriate – suitable
  103. aquarium – container for fish
  104. arbitrary – whimsical
  105. archeologist – studies man’s past
  106. arduous – difficult
  107. argument – disagreement
  108. aristocrat – nobility
  109. arrogance – excessive pride
  110. arrogant – overly proud
  111. articulate – express oneself clearly
  112. articulate – speak clearly
  113. articulate – to speak distinctly
  114. artist – one who paints or draws
  115. ascetic – very self-disciplined person
  116. ascribe – assign something to
  117. aspect – point of view
  118. aspiration – strong desire
  119. assaults – attacks
  120. assemble – to gather together
  121. assiduously – carefully
  122. assurance – confidence
  123. assure – to make confident
  124. astonish – surprise
  125. astonishment – amazement
  126. astronomer – solar system expert
  127. astronomy – study of heavenly bodies
  128. atom – smallest component of an element
  129. atrocity – cruel action
  130. attempt – to make an effort
  131. audacious – outrageous
  132. audacity – aggressive courage
  133. audible – can be heard
  134. audible – heard
  135. audition – to try out
  136. audition – to try out for a part
  137. augment – to add to
  138. authentic – genuine
  139. authority – control
  140. avail – take advantage of
  141. available – able to be used now
  142. available – ready for use
  143. avalanche – sliding of material down a hillside
  144. avalanches – large mass sliding down a hillside
  145. avarice – greed
  146. aversion – definite dislike
  147. avert – to prevent
  148. aviator – pilot
  149. aware – having knowledge
  150. azure – blue colored
  151. babble – make meaningless sounds
  152. babbling – talking excessively
  153. bacteria – single-celled microscopic organisms
  154. badge – distinctive emblem
  155. baffle – to perplex
  156. baggage – luggage a traveler takes on a trip
  157. bailiff – officer of a court
  158. bakery – place baked goods are made
  159. balance – equality between opposing forces
  160. balance – steady position
  161. bald – having no hair on head
  162. bale – large bundle of material
  163. baleful – ominous
  164. ballot – form used to cast a vote
  165. barbecue – meat roasted on an open fire
  166. bargain – a deal
  167. baritone – male voice above a bass
  168. barometer – measures air pressure
  169. baronial – suitable for nobility
  170. barter – to trade
  171. base – lowest point or number
  172. basin – low area on Earth’s surface
  173. bathysphere – sphere-shaped diving vessel
  174. baton – wand used by a musical conductor
  175. battery – basic unit of military personnel
  176. battle – fight or conflict
  177. bawl – to call out noisily
  178. BC – Before Christ
  179. beacon – guiding device
  180. beckon – silent gesture
  181. beguile – to trick
  182. beleaguer – beset with difficulties
  183. beleaguer – beset with difficulties
  184. believe – to trust in
  185. belligerent – seeking conflict
  186. benevolence – kindness
  187. benevolent – intending to do good
  188. bestow – give
  189. betrothal – engagement
  190. between – space that separates
  191. bevy – any group
  192. bewilderment – hopelessly confused
  193. bias – prejudice
  194. bicentennial – two hundredth anniversary
  195. billowy – surge
  196. biography – story of a person’s life
  197. biologist – those who study living things
  198. biopsy – removal of living tissue
  199. biosphere – atmosphere in which living things exist
  200. Bizarre-out of wall
  201. blackmail – to get something by threatening
  202. bland – tasteless
  203. blatant – brazenly obvious
  204. blemish – physical defect
  205. blind – unable to see
  206. blinding – hard to see through
  207. blockade – barring entry by ships
  208. bluff – high bank or cliff
  209. boardinghouse – furnished rooms and meals
  210. boast – to speak too well of yourself
  211. bolster – support or strengthen
  212. BOO( RAZZ)- CRY TO SHOW DISPLESURE(N)
  213. boorish – ill-mannered
  214. bore – make a hole
  215. bore – to make a hole
  216. borrow – temporary use something
  217. boycott – refusal to buy
  218. boycott – refusal to do something
  219. brazen – shameless
  220. break – to crack into pieces
  221. breaker – ocean wave that collapses
  222. breed – one partricular kind of animal
  223. breeds – particular kinds of animals
  224. briar – thorny stem
  225. bridle – horse’s harness for the head
  226. brilliant – bright
  227. brink – edge
  228. broadcaster – person sending messages electronically
  229. brook – small stream
  230. brought – carried with one
  231. browse – to look casually
  232. Buck – One US DOLLAR
  233. buffer – used to store data
  234. building – structure
  235. bullying – threatening
  236. burgeon – blossom
  237. burly – heavily built
  238. burly – muscular
  239. busy f – ull of activity
  240. buy – to purchase
  241. byte – a small unit of measure of computer memory
  242. cackle – to laugh harshly
  243. cacophony – harsh jarring sound
  244. cairn – marker
  245. cajole – coax
  246. cajole – flatter
  247. cake – baked dessert
  248. calamity – misery
  249. calligraphy – fine handwriting
  250. camphor – smelly white powder
  251. campus – grounds of a school
  252. canard – false report
  253. canopy – covering
  254. cantankerous – grouchy
  255. canyon – deep narrow valley
  256. canyon – deep narrow valley
  257. canyon – deep, narrow valley
  258. cape – land that extends into water
  259. capsize – to overturn
  260. capture – catch and hold
  261. career – profession
  262. caricature – representation of a person
  263. carnival – fair or festival
  264. carpenter – person who builds things with wood
  265. cartography – mapmaking
  266. cascade – small waterfall
  267. castigate – inflict severe punishment
  268. catastrophe – a great calamity
  269. catcall – loud cry
  270. cater – to satisfy the needs of
  271. caterwauling – harsh crying
  272. caught – captured
  273. cause – to make something happen
  274. cautiously – carefully
  275. cave – hollow passage in the earth
  276. cavernous – resembling a cave
  277. cavity – hole
  278. CE – common era
  279. cell – small unit
  280. cell wall – outermost boundary of a cell
  281. censor – to ban
  282. censure – an official reprimand
  283. centennial – one hundredth anniversary
  284. centi 1/100
  285. centripetal – tendency to move to the center
  286. century – one hundred years
  287. ceramics – type of pottery
  288. chagrin – embarrassment
  289. chamber – room
  290. change – to make different
  291. character – symbol such as a letter
  292. characterization – vivid description
  293. charisma – personal appeal
  294. cheerfulness – good humored
  295. chemical – made from changed substances
  296. cherish – love
  297. chlorophyll – green substance in plants
  298. choleric – easily angered
  299. chromosomes – carries the traits of a cell
  300. chronology – events in order
  301. Chump – full / gull – buddhu
  302. churn – to stir quickly
  303. circuitously – indirectly
  304. circumference – boundary of a circular object
  305. circumlocution – to evade with words
  306. circumspection – carefully considering
  307. cirrush -High altitude clouds
  308. cistern – receptacle for holding water
  309. citation – quotation from a reliable source
  310. citizen – member of a country
  311. citizenship – conduct within the community
  312. clamor – cry out
  313. clandestine – done in secret
  314. clarify – to make clear
  315. classical – arts in a past era
  316. cleanliness – free from dirt
  317. cleavage – groove between parts
  318. clever – sly and resourceful
  319. cockfight – fighting gamecocks
  320. cocoon – covering around a pupa
  321. coherent – consistent and logical
  322. coherent – logical
  323. coin – metal piece of money
  324. colossus – huge
  325. combustible – flammable
  326. comely – attractive
  327. comet – object of gas and dust orbiting the sun
  328. comfortable – relaxed without pain
  329. command – causes a computer to do a task
  330. commemorate – honor the memory of
  331. commend – to express a good opinion
  332. commission – share of the profit
  333. commitment – binding oneself
  334. commotion – excitement and confusion
  335. communal – belonging to a group
  336. commute – travel back and forth
  337. companion – close associate
  338. company – with others
  339. compass – direction determining device
  340. compassion – showing pity
  341. compel – to make someone do something
  342. compendium – short but complete summary
  343. competent – fit
  344. competently – skillfully
  345. complacency – quiet satisfaction
  346. compose – make up
  347. composition – makeup
  348. comprehend – understand
  349. compulsion – feeling of having to do something
  350. compulsory – enforced
  351. conceive – develop in the mind
  352. conceive – develop in the mind
  353. conclave – private meeting
  354. concoction – mixture of things
  355. concussion – shock from impact
  356. concussion – violent blow
  357. condemned – strongly disapproved
  358. condescend – lower oneself
  359. condone – excuse
  360. confer – to present
  361. confide – to reveal in private
  362. confide – totell something in secret
  363. confidentially – secretly
  364. confidently – feeling sure of yourself
  365. confluence – where rivers join
  366. congress – meeting of elected representatives
  367. congruent – same shape and size
  368. conjure – exaggerated dignity
  369. connotation – emotional added meaning to a word
  370. conquer – to overpower
  371. cons – disadvantages
  372. conscious – awake
  373. conscious – awake and alert
  374. conscious – being aware
  375. consecutive – one after another
  376. consent – give permission
  377. consequence – result of an action
  378. conservancy – preserve of natural resources
  379. conservation – preserving something
  380. consolation – making less sad
  381. consume – devour
  382. consumer – user of goods or services
  383. contagion – spreading of a disease
  384. contemplating – deciding
  385. contempt – disdain
  386. contour lines – lines that connect points of equal elevation
  387. contrivance – invention
  388. conveyance – a transport or carrier
  389. convulsive – involuntary spasms
  390. cooperation – working together
  391. copiously – abundantly
  392. corroborate – support
  393. Corrode-Cause to deteriorate
  394. cossack – skilled Russian horsemen
  395. countenance – appearance
  396. countenance – facial expression
  397. countless – too many to be counted
  398. country – land of a nation
  399. countryside – rural area
  400. couple – two
  401. courage – bravery
  402. courage – overcoming fear
  403. courtesy – well-mannered
  404. cousin – child of your aunt or uncle
  405. cover – hide under something
  406. covet – long for with envy
  407. covetous – greedy
  408. covey – small flock of birds
  409. cowl – hood
  410. crags – uneven parts of cliffs
  411. crane – machine that lifts heavy objects
  412. cranes – large water birds
  413. crater – deep hole
  414. craven – cowardly
  415. craven – cowardly
  416. crawled – moved slowly
  417. creativity – originality
  418. creatures – living beings
  419. crest – highest point of a wave
  420. crevice – crack or narrow hole
  421. cringe – to shrink back
  422. cringed – crouch in fear
  423. cubicle – small space
  424. culminate – climax or end
  425. culprit – guilty person
  426. cultivate – grow plants
  427. cultivated – refined
  428. culture – way of life of a group
  429. cumulonimbus – anvil shaped clouds
  430. cumulus – low-lying puffy white clouds
  431. cunning – clever
  432. cup – 8 fluid ounces
  433. curious – wanting to know more
  434. curmudgeon – ill-tempered person
  435. current – flow of water
  436. curtail – abbreviate
  437. curtain – window covering
  438. customary – usual or expected
  439. cycle – repeating set of events
  440. cynical – showing scorn
  441. damage – harm
  442. dandy – a dude concerned with his clothes
  443. dangerous – unsafe
  444. dangling – swinging loosely
  445. data – information
  446. daub – apply paint with crude strokes
  447. daubed – coated
  448. daunt – frighten
  449. dearth – scarce supply
  450. debt – money that is owed
  451. decade – ten years
  452. decapitate – to remove one’s head
  453. decapitate – to remove one’s head
  454. deci 1/10
  455. decibel – measure for sound volume
  456. decided – made up one’s mind
  457. dedicated – committed to a goal
  458. deference – respect
  459. definite – precise
  460. deflect – to turn aside
  461. deforestation – large-scale cutting down of forests
  462. defrost – thaw
  463. defunct – no longer used
  464. degrade – bring to dishonor
  465. degrade – demote
  466. deign – condescend
  467. delete – to remove
  468. deliberation – slowness and with care
  469. delicious – very good to taste
  470. delighted – very happy
  471. deliquesce – melt away
  472. delta – mouth of a river
  473. demand – ask forcefully
  474. demonstration – public display
  475. demure – shy
  476. denotation – exaction definition to a word
  477. denounce – condemn
  478. density – amount per unit of measure
  479. dentures – false set of teeth
  480. deny – declare something to be untrue
  481. deny – refuse to give
  482. dependability – reliability
  483. deplete – empty out
  484. deploy – place military troops
  485. deprive – keep from having
  486. derelict – abandoned
  487. derision – contempt or ridicule
  488. derive – to receive
  489. descendant – person born from an ancestor
  490. desert – large region of sand
  491. desist – stop
  492. desolate – barren or deserted
  493. desolate – uninhabited
  494. despair – loss of hope
  495. despondent – without hope
  496. destitute – lacking necessary things
  497. destroy – to ruin completely
  498. detachment – separation
  499. deter – discourage
  500. deter – discourage someone
  501. deteriorate – to become worse
  502. determination – decided action
  503. determination – firm of purpose
  504. dethronement – act of ousting
  505. detonation – explosion
  506. devastate – destroy
  507. deviate – turn aside from
  508. device – an instrument or tool
  509. dew point – temperature at which water vapor condenses
  510. dexterous – skillful
  511. dexterous – skillful
  512. dialect – localized form of a language
  513. dialogue – conversation
  514. diameter – width of a circular object
  515. diatribe – abusive denunciation
  516. dietitian – specialist in nutrition
  517. different – not the same
  518. diffident – shy
  519. digestion – breaking food down
  520. digital – camera a camera which uses a chip to store images
  521. dike – dam made of dirt
  522. dike – dam or levee
  523. dilemma – problem
  524. diligence – steady manner
  525. dilution – weakened substance
  526. din – harsh noice
  527. dire – terrible
  528. disappear – to move out of sight
  529. disapprove – show dislike
  530. disarray – state of disorder
  531. disaster – terrible loss
  532. discern – detect
  533. discern – distinguish
  534. disclose – to make known
  535. disclose – to uncover
  536. discourse – long communication
  537. discover – find out
  538. discover – to find something
  539. discovered – found out
  540. discovered – found out
  541. discriminate – distinguish
  542. discrimination – extreme favoritism in actions or attitude
  543. disdain – despise
  544. disfigure – to mar the appearance
  545. disgorge – empty
  546. disgrace – to bring shame upon
  547. disguising – changing appearance
  548. dishonest – deceitful
  549. disinfectant – used to destroy germs
  550. dismal – gloomy and dark
  551. dismal – gloomy or depressing
  552. disparage – discredit
  553. dispense – do away with
  554. disposition – temperament
  555. dispute – to call into question
  556. disseminate – to spread
  557. dissentient – against the majority
  558. dissimulation – act of hiding
  559. dissuade – persuade not to do something
  560. dissuade – persuade not to do something
  561. distort – twist out of the true meaning
  562. distribution – area over which something is spread
  563. disturb – to make uneasy
  564. diverse – differing from one another
  565. document – text file
  566. dodge – move quickly aside
  567. doggedly – persistently
  568. dogma – doctrine
  569. doleful – mournful
  570. dominant – stronger
  571. dominate – rule
  572. donation – contribution
  573. doubtful – uncertain
  574. dough – mixture of flour and water
  575. dovecote – box for domestic pigeons
  576. download – to transfer data to a computer
  577. drab – dull
  578. drastically – extremely
  579. draught – long spell of dry weather
  580. draw – to make a picture
  581. drawl – speak very slowly
  582. dread – to wait with fear
  583. dreaded – greatly feared
  584. dreadful – terrible
  585. drift – move along on a current of air or water
  586. drivel – talk childishly
  587. drone – continuous buzzing sound
  588. dugout – Indian log boat
  589. dun – dull grayish brown
  590. dusk – time when darkness begins
  591. duty – obligation
  592. dynasty – family of rulers
  593. ebb – decline
  594. ebony – dark
  595. eccentricities – odd behaviors
  596. echoes – repeated sounds
  597. eclipse – complete or partial hiding
  598. ecosystems – specific environment
  599. eddies – currents that move with the main current
  600. edict – having the force of law
  601. edifice – building
  602. edit – to modify data
  603. edition – copies printed at one time
  604. efficacious – effective
  605. efficient – effective without waste
  606. elated – happy
  607. electricity – energy from the flow of electrons
  608. electron – negative part of atom outside nucleus
  609. elemental – most basic
  610. eliminate – to get rid of
  611. eloquence – polished speech
  612. eloquent – expressive
  613. e-mail – electronic mail
  614. embarrass – humiliate
  615. embed – set firmly
  616. embellish – decorate
  617. embroil – entangle
  618. emerges – breaks through
  619. emigrant – person leaving his country
  620. emit – to give off
  621. empathy – understand what another person is feeling
  622. emphasize – give special attention to
  623. emphatic – strongly expressive
  624. empire – groups of lands under the rule of one ruler
  625. enables – allows
  626. enchanted – magically delighted
  627. encrypt – scramble computerized information
  628. encumber – to place a heavy load on
  629. endangered – threatened
  630. endeavor – to strive
  631. endeavor – to try
  632. endow – to give
  633. energy – power to do work
  634. engineer – person who plans and builds structures
  635. engineering – planning and building
  636. enigma – perplexing
  637. enigma – riddle
  638. enigmatic – perplexing
  639. enjoyed – pleased with
  640. enlighten – to inform
  641. enough – all that is needed
  642. ensemble – group of musicians who perform together
  643. ensnare – to catch
  644. entertain – to amuse
  645. entice – lure
  646. entitled – having the right to something
  647. entreat – ask earnestly
  648. envelop – enclose with a covering
  649. enveloped – completely surrounded
  650. enzyme – body protein
  651. eon – age in the earth’s history
  652. epicenter – point directly above an earthquake
  653. epigram – short saying
  654. episode – part in a series
  655. equator – north-south line around the middle of the Eath
  656. equivocate – lie
  657. era – long period of time
  658. error – mistake
  659. escape – to break free or run away
  660. establish – to set up
  661. estimate – educated guess
  662. etymology – study of the origin of words
  663. evading – avoiding
  664. evaluate – find the value of a variable expression
  665. evict – expel
  666. evident – plain
  667. exalt – glorify, praise, or honor
  668. excavate – to dig up
  669. excavation – expose by digging
  670. except – instead of
  671. exclude – shut out
  672. exclusively – particular way
  673. excoriate – to tear
  674. excretion – getting rid of waste materials
  675. executable – computer file that will perform a tast
  676. exercises – training by repetition and review
  677. exertion – energetic activity
  678. exhort – spur on
  679. exist – to live
  680. expanse – open area
  681. expansion – act of expanding
  682. expedition – journey for a purpose
  683. explained – told about something
  684. exploration – travel for the purpose discovery
  685. exponent – how many times a number is used as a factor
  686. exposition – explanation
  687. expostulate – argue
  688. expound – to make a detailed statement on a topic
  689. expression – look on the face
  690. extinct – no longer living
  691. extinction – when no member of a species survives
  692. extol – praise highly
  693. exuberance – excitement
  694. exultant – triumphant
  695. exultation – celebration
  696. failure – not successful
  697. fair – not favoring more than another
  698. fairness – impartiality
  699. fallow – not cultivated
  700. false – wrong
  701. falter – to loose force
  702. family – people related to each another
  703. famished – starving
  704. fanatic – zealot
  705. fancy – whimsical imagination
  706. father – male parent
  707. fatuous – foolish
  708. fault – blame or cause
  709. feather – covering on bird’s body
  710. feel – to know by touch
  711. ferocious – savage
  712. ferocity – savage
  713. fertile – fruitful
  714. fertile – productive soil
  715. fester – to decay
  716. few – not many
  717. fiction – an imagined story
  718. fiercest – wildest
  719. figurative – non-literal language
  720. file – stored document
  721. finagle – to obtain
  722. finally – at last
  723. firebrand – troublemaker
  724. fishtail – swing from side to side
  725. flag – cloth with a distinct design
  726. flagon – container for liquids
  727. flank – fleshy part near the ribs
  728. flashback – part of a story that already happened
  729. flex – bend
  730. flooded covered with water
  731. floodplain – land that is flooded by a river
  732. fluctuate – continually changing
  733. fluctuate – shift back and forth
  734. fluctuation – unsteady motion
  735. fluent – express oneself readily
  736. fluently – clearly
  737. flustered – confused
  738. foolish – not having good sense
  739. foot – 12 inches
  740. foot – lowest part of the leg
  741. footer – information at the bottom of a page
  742. foothills – hilly area at the base of a mountain
  743. forbidden – not allowed
  744. foreboding – prediction of something bad
  745. foreshadow – foretell or bode
  746. forethought – thinking ahead
  747. forfeited – given up
  748. formal – following established customs
  749. format – to divide in sectors for data storage
  750. formidable – inspiring fear
  751. formula – mathematical equation
  752. fortuitous – fortunate
  753. fortune – success
  754. founded – established
  755. fracture – to break
  756. freight – goods transported
  757. frightened – afraid
  758. frigid – intensely cold
  759. frippery – elegance
  760. frolic – lively recreation
  761. frond – palm
  762. frontier – edge of an unknown land
  763. froth – churn
  764. frowzy – unkempt
  765. frozen – turned to ice or motionless
  766. full – able to hold no more
  767. furtively – secretly
  768. fusillade – simultaneous firing of weapons
  769. FUSS- AFFRY / TIFF / FRACAS
  770. futile – unproductive
  771. future – time that hasn’t happened yet
  772. gallivanting – roaming
  773. gallon – 4 quarts
  774. gallop – to go very fast
  775. gap – passage through mountains
  776. gargoyle – decorative monster
  777. garish – tacky
  778. garrulous – wordy and rambling
  779. gauged – estimated
  780. gaunt – starved
  781. gazetteer – geographical dictionary
  782. gem – valuable mineral
  783. general – high officer
  784. generalization – broad conclusion
  785. generations – family members around the same age
  786. generosity – unselfishness
  787. genes – specific portion of DNA
  788. genetics – study of heredity
  789. geologist – scientist who studies rocks
  790. gesticulate – express through movement
  791. gibberish – foolish talk
  792. gigabyte – one billion bytes of information
  793. gingerly – carefully
  794. glint – sparkle
  795. glossary – alphabetical list of words back of a book
  796. glut – fill beyond capacity
  797. Goo( gook) – thick viscous matter(n)
  798. gorge – deep valley
  799. gourmand – glutton
  800. gram – basic unit of mass
  801. grant – something that is given
  802. graphic – evoking lifelike images
  803. graphics – pictures
  804. gratify – satisfy
  805. gratitude – thankfulness
  806. gravity – attractive force
  807. grazing – eating grass and other plants
  808. greedy – wanting too much
  809. grievances – complaints
  810. group – number of things together
  811. groveling – crawling face-down
  812. grown – larger
  813. guide – person leading a trip
  814. gurgling – making a flowing or low sound
  815. habitat – living environment
  816. hacker – someone who breaks into a computer system
  817. haggard – worn look
  818. harbor – seaport
  819. harbor – sheltered body of water
  820. hard copy – a document that is printed on paper
  821. hard drive – magnetic metal disk that stores data
  822. hardware – physical parts of the computer
  823. hardy – vigorous
  824. harridan – vicious
  825. harrowing – vexing
  826. harvest – gather a crop
  827. haven – safe place
  828. hazard – danger
  829. haze – fog or cloud
  830. haze – unclear
  831. header – information at the top margin
  832. heard – listened to
  833. hearkening – listening carefully
  834. heart-wrenching – very emotional
  835. hedonism – pursuit of
  836. helter-skelter – haphazardly
  837. hem – surround
  838. herb – useful plant
  839. here – in this place
  840. heredity – passing of traits to offspring
  841. heroine – main female character
  842. heterogeneous – make of different elements
  843. hibernate – inactive state
  844. historian – studies the past
  845. histrionic – melodramatic
  846. hobby – something a person does for fun
  847. hobgoblin – mischievous elf
  848. holography three – dimensional image
  849. homage – anything done to show honor
  850. homage to pay respect
  851. homely – plain
  852. homicide – murder
  853. honesty – truthfulness
  854. honorary – having distinction
  855. hoodwink – deceive
  856. horizon – line where sky meets earth
  857. horrible – terrible
  858. hostile – unfriendly
  859. hostility – hate or dislike
  860. hour – sixty minutes
  861. howl – a long and sad cry
  862. hue – color
  863. humane – showing sympathy for others
  864. humiliation – causing shame shame
  865. humility – meekness or a lack of pride
  866. hungry – feeling a need for food
  867. hypnotizing – mesmerizing
  868. hypocrite – who fakes virtue
  869. hypocritical – pretending
  870. hypothesis – tentative assumption
  871. identified – named or discovered
  872. ignore – disregard
  873. image – picture
  874. image – vivid description
  875. imagery – language that describes something
  876. imitate – follow the example of
  877. immediately – right now
  878. immemorial – extending back beyond memory
  879. immense – enormous
  880. imminent – likely to happen soon
  881. impact – effect of an action
  882. impart – give
  883. impatient – not wanting to wait
  884. impatient – unwillingness to wait
  885. impediment – hinders a certain action
  886. impediment – obstruction
  887. imperceptible – difficult to detect
  888. impinge – strike
  889. implore – ask
  890. implore – to beg for earnestly
  891. implored – begged
  892. important – necessary or valuable
  893. importunity – persistent urgent demands
  894. impose – compel
  895. impose – to apply by force
  896. impose – to enforce
  897. impossible – unable to happen
  898. improper fraction – fraction whose numerator is greater that denominator
  899. impudence – rudeness
  900. impulse – sudden inclination
  901. impunity – freedom from punishment
  902. inaccurate – wrong
  903. inactive – idle
  904. inanimate – not moving
  905. inarticulate – speak poorly
  906. inaudibly – not able to be heard
  907. incandescent – very bright
  908. incense – infuriate
  909. incessant – continuous
  910. incessantly – never stopping
  911. incidental – accidental
  912. incomplete – not finished
  913. inconclusive – not leading to a definite result
  914. incongruity – having a lack of harmony
  915. incontinently – able to restrain
  916. incorrect – not right
  917. incredulous – skeptical
  918. incrustation – crust
  919. incur – to bring on oneself
  920. indefatigable – unwearying
  921. independent – self-reliant
  922. indicate – to show
  923. indifference – lack of interest or concern
  924. indifferent – without interest
  925. indigenous – native to an area
  926. indignant – anger over something unjust
  927. indiscriminate – failing to clearly choose
  928. indispensable – absolutely necessary
  929. indisputably – unquestionably
  930. indolently – lazily
  931. indomitable – unconquerable
  932. indulge – pamper
  933. industrious – steadily working hard
  934. inert – inactive
  935. inevitable – certain to happen
  936. inevitable – incapable of being avoided
  937. infer – hint
  938. inference – reasonable conclusion
  939. infield – playing area of a baseball field
  940. infiltrate – to enter maliciously
  941. influence – ability to affect what others do
  942. ingenious – clever
  943. ingestion – taking in food
  944. ingrained – impressed firmly on the mind
  945. ingratiate – gain favor
  946. ingredients – parts of a mixture
  947. inhabit – to live in
  948. initiative – first step
  949. inlet – narrow passage of water
  950. innocuous – inoffensive
  951. innovate – introduce something new
  952. input – information given to a computer
  953. inquire – investigate
  954. inscrutable – mysterious
  955. insensate – not capable of feeling sensation
  956. insert – process of adding
  957. insignia – emblem
  958. insomniac – person who is unable to sleep
  959. installed – set up correctly
  960. instantaneous – done immediately
  961. instinct – natural feeling
  962. instincts – natural tendencies
  963. instrument – something making musical sounds
  964. integers – whole numbers
  965. intense – extreme
  966. interest – charge for the use of money
  967. intermittent – stopping and starting
  968. intermittently – periodically
  969. international – between nations
  970. interpreter – person that translates languages
  971. intersect – meet at a point of crossing
  972. intimidate – make fearful
  973. intolerable – unbearable
  974. intonation – ability to play notes in tune
  975. intricate – full of elaborate detail
  976. inutemen – soldiers available on short notice
  977. invalid – sickly person
  978. invective – abusive language
  979. inversion – reversal of the usual order
  980. invest – to put into
  981. invigorate – energize
  982. iridescent – display of lustrous colors
  983. irony – sarcasm or an unexpected outcome
  984. irresolute – wavering in purpose
  985. irrigation – supplying land with water
  986. isthmus – narrow strip of land
  987. itinerary – plan for a journey
  988. jaundice – yellowish coloring of the eyes and skin
  989. jeans – tough cotton pants
  990. jeer – to taunt
  991. jewel – valuable stone or gem
  992. jostle – push
  993. jubilant – triumphant
  994. jungle – land thickly covered with plants
  995. jute – plant fiber used in making rope
  996. kind – type
  997. kindness – being friendly and sympathetic
  998. kingfisher – fish eating bird
  999. knapsack – backpack
  1000. kneaded – pressed with the hands
  1001. knew – having the facts
  1002. knit – to made with yarn
  1003. KO(KNOCKOUT)- A blow that make opponent unconscious
  1004. lacerated – torn roughly
  1005. laden – burdened
  1006. lagoon – pool of water
  1007. lake – body of fresh water with land on all sides
  1008. lame – not able to walk well
  1009. landmark – outstanding or well-know object
  1010. landscape – stretch of natural scenery on land
  1011. languish – lose strength
  1012. lapse – to be no longer valid
  1013. larger bigger in size
  1014. lassitude – weariness
  1015. laughingstock – object of ridicule
  1016. lavish – give generously
  1017. lavish – to give abundantly
  1018. layers – levels
  1019. lazy – not willing to work
  1020. leaves – green parts of a plant
  1021. ledge – shelf-like rock on a mountain
  1022. legend – supernatural story
  1023. lens – transparent object that bends light
  1024. lethargic – lack of energy
  1025. lethargy – great lack of energy
  1026. levering – prying
  1027. levity – humor
  1028. lie – to rest by not standing or to no tell the truth
  1029. lightning – visible discharge in the sky
  1030. liter – basic unit of capacity
  1031. literary – referring to books and writing
  1032. literate – able to read and write
  1033. little – small
  1034. live – to exist
  1035. lock – to bind tightly
  1036. locution – word or phrase
  1037. loll – rest in a lazy way
  1038. lonely – sad about being by yourself
  1039. longitude – east-west direction on the globe
  1040. loon – duck-like bird
  1041. lore – traditional knowledge
  1042. lose – not have any longer
  1043. loyalty – faithfulness
  1044. lubricate – to apply oil or grease
  1045. lucid – sane or rational
  1046. lumberjack – person who chops down trees
  1047. luminous – bright or glowing
  1048. lurid – glowing
  1049. lurid – vivid or harsh
  1050. lurk – wait out of sight
  1051. luster – shininess
  1052. lustrous – shiny
  1053. luxurious – something pleasurable
  1054. maelstrom – violent situation
  1055. magnanimity – kind-heartedness
  1056. majority – greater part
  1057. malaise – sense of unease
  1058. malign – to make untrue statements
  1059. malignant – disposed to do evil
  1060. maneuver – move skillfully
  1061. manifest – obvious
  1062. manifesto – declaration of principles
  1063. manipulate – to control skillfully
  1064. mannequin – plastic person
  1065. mantle – cape like covering
  1066. mantle – thickest layer inside Earth
  1067. manufacture – to make something
  1068. mariners – sailors
  1069. marsh – lowland with moist soil
  1070. masonry – brick
  1071. massacre – killing many defenseless people
  1072. meadow – grassy field
  1073. meadow – grassy land
  1074. meager – small amount
  1075. meandered – walk along without direction
  1076. mechanical – like a machine
  1077. mechanical – operated by a machine
  1078. medley – mixture
  1079. melancholy – gloomy state of mind
  1080. melodious – pleasant to hear
  1081. memory – computer storage capacity
  1082. menagerie – collection of animals
  1083. mentor – trusted counselor
  1084. menu – list of functions that a computer performs
  1085. meringue – sweet topping
  1086. mesa – flat-topped mountain
  1087. mesas – steep hills with flat tops
  1088. metabolism – chemical reactions in living things
  1089. metaphor – comparison between two unlike things
  1090. meteorite – an object striking the earth from space
  1091. meter – basic unit of length in the metric system
  1092. metric – system of measurement
  1093. mettle – spirit
  1094. Mettle-nerve-spunk
  1095. microbe – tiny life form
  1096. microfiche – sheet of microfilm
  1097. mile – 5,280 feet
  1098. millennium – one thousand years
  1099. milli 1/1000
  1100. mimic – copy
  1101. mind – to care about or obey
  1102. mine – extracting minerals from the ground
  1103. miniature – tiny version
  1104. minuscule – very small
  1105. minute – short period of 60 seconds
  1106. minute – small
  1107. minutia – trivial detail
  1108. misanthrope – someone who does not like people
  1109. misdemeanor – offense less serious than a felony
  1110. misery – great pain or suffering
  1111. missive – written communication
  1112. misspell – spell incorrectly
  1113. mixed number – whole number and a fraction
  1114. mockery – mean spirited joking
  1115. modem – device that connects the computer to a communications system
  1116. molten – liquefied by heat
  1117. monarch – royal ruler
  1118. mono – prefix meaning “one”
  1119. monogram – design composed of one or more initials
  1120. monograph – scholarly study
  1121. monsoon – strong seasonal wind
  1122. morose – gloomy
  1123. morrow – the next day
  1124. mother – female parent
  1125. mountain – high hill
  1126. mouse – pointing device
  1127. mouthful – as much as can be held in the mouth at one time
  1128. muffle – to deaden sound
  1129. multimedia – graphics and sound
  1130. multiply – increase in number
  1131. multitude – large number of persons
  1132. music – pleasant expressive sounds
  1133. mute – silent
  1134. mute – to muffle or make quiet
  1135. mutiny – rebellion against authority
  1136. mutual – shared equally
  1137. myriad – innumerable
  1138. mystical – spiritual meaning
  1139. navigator – person who charts the course
  1140. nectar – sweet liquid found in flowers
  1141. nectar – sweet liquid made by flowers
  1142. negative number – any number less than zero
  1143. neighbors – people who live near one another
  1144. nervous – restless or tense
  1145. nettle – stinging hairs
  1146. neutral – taking neither side
  1147. new – not old
  1148. nip – pinch
  1149. noise – loud sounds
  1150. nonchalant – unconcerned
  1151. nonfiction – prose works based on facts
  1152. nonviolence – absence of violence
  1153. noticeable – easily seen
  1154. noun – person, place, or thing
  1155. nourish – keep alive and healthy
  1156. nourish – to feed
  1157. nucleus – center of a cell
  1158. nutrients – substances that provide nourishment
  1159. obeisance – deference or homage
  1160. obliquely – with a change of direction
  1161. obscurity – lack of clearness or visibility
  1162. obsequious – fawning
  1163. obsequious – groveling
  1164. obsequious – servile and flattering
  1165. obstinate – stubborn
  1166. occupation – person’s job
  1167. ocean – body of salt water
  1168. odious – extremely unlikable
  1169. offensive – act of attacking
  1170. ominous – portending evil or harm
  1171. omnivorous – eating anything
  1172. online – connected to a computer network
  1173. online – connected to a computer network
  1174. opaque – not able to be seen through
  1175. opportunitie – chance to do something
  1176. opportunities – chances to do something
  1177. opposite numbers – negative and positive of a number
  1178. oppression – cruel and unfair treatment
  1179. oppression – force or subjugation
  1180. opulent – luxuriant
  1181. oration – formal speech
  1182. orator – public speaker
  1183. orbit – planet’s path around a sun
  1184. orchestrate – organize
  1185. ore – mineral containing a useful substance
  1186. organelles – tiny organs
  1187. originated – came into being
  1188. orotund – full in sound
  1189. orphanage – place for homeless children
  1190. oscillate – swing from side to side
  1191. ostentatious – very showy display
  1192. Otiose- Pointless
  1193. oust – force out
  1194. output – the final document
  1195. overcome – conquer
  1196. pacific – peaceful
  1197. package – box used for delivery
  1198. pagoda – tall Asian shrine
  1199. paintings – pictures not drawn with pen or pencil
  1200. Pal- buddy / chum
  1201. palette – thin board for mixing paints
  1202. pall – cover for a coffin
  1203. pallid – faint in color
  1204. pallid – pale
  1205. palpable – able to be handled
  1206. palpitate – tremble
  1207. pandemonium – chaos
  1208. panoply – striking array
  1209. pantomime – acting with gestures
  1210. pantry – closet where food is kept
  1211. papoose – Native American baby
  1212. paradoxical – full of contradictions
  1213. parch – dry
  1214. Parliament – British legislature
  1215. parson – clergyman
  1216. particular – specific or exact
  1217. particularly – distinct or different
  1218. partition – divider
  1219. partition – something that divides
  1220. passerby – person who is moving by
  1221. pasture – grassy field for farm animals
  1222. patchwork – many small pieces sewn together
  1223. patent – obvious
  1224. patience – waiting calmly and quietly
  1225. patriotism – love of country
  1226. patriots – loyal to one’s nation
  1227. patrol – check for trouble
  1228. patrol – secure an area
  1229. pause – short stop
  1230. pause – stop for a short time
  1231. PC – personal computer
  1232. peak – pointed summit of a mountain
  1233. peculiar – odd
  1234. peculiar – unique
  1235. PEE ( PISS)- URINATE(N)
  1236. peering – looking in a searching way
  1237. peevish – contrary
  1238. peg – wooden nail
  1239. pelt – strike successively
  1240. penalty – punishment
  1241. penetrate – pierce
  1242. peon – menial worker
  1243. people – persons
  1244. percent – number compared to one hundred
  1245. perfect – just right
  1246. perfidy – treachery
  1247. performance – musical or theatrical presentation
  1248. perilous – full of dangers
  1249. peripatetic – traveling on foot
  1250. permeate – penetrate
  1251. pernicious – wicked
  1252. perpetuate – cause to be continued
  1253. perpetuate – cause to continue
  1254. perplexed – puzzled
  1255. perplexingly – with confusion or hesitancy
  1256. persecution – affliction
  1257. perseverance – continuing in spite of difficulties
  1258. persistent – unrelenting
  1259. personification – giving human characteristics
  1260. perusal – casual reading
  1261. perverse – opposite of right
  1262. pestilent – very harmful
  1263. petition – request
  1264. petitions – signed requests for
  1265. petrify – paralyze with fear
  1266. petulant – impatient
  1267. phantasm – ghost
  1268. phonetics – study of the sounds of language
  1269. photosynthesis – compound produced through light
  1270. physiological – workings of the body
  1271. piece – part of a whole
  1272. piety – religious devotion
  1273. pinnacle – highest point
  1274. pint – 2 cups
  1275. piquant – spicy
  1276. pique – arouse
  1277. pith – sponge-like inside of flower
  1278. pity – sympathy or sorrow
  1279. placid – calm
  1280. placid – peaceful
  1281. plague – easily spread disease causing deaths
  1282. plains – flat land
  1283. planets – larger bodies that orbit a star
  1284. play – to have fun
  1285. plot – mark points on a graph
  1286. ploy – devious action
  1287. pluck – daring
  1288. pluck – pick by pulling off
  1289. plump – chubby
  1290. plutonian – like the underworld
  1291. ply – address someone urgently
  1292. ply – provide insistently
  1293. pneumonia – disease of the lungs
  1294. poacher – one that kills animals illegally
  1295. poem – writing in verse
  1296. poignant – touching
  1297. pointed – definite meaning
  1298. poised – balanced
  1299. politician – person who runs for a political office
  1300. pollen – fine powder from flowers
  1301. pollutant – a poison
  1302. polygon – closed figure with three or more sides
  1303. Polymorphous-Having or occurring in several distinct forms
  1304. pompous – vain or stuck up
  1305. ponderous – unyielding
  1306. pony – small horse
  1307. populated – filled with inhabitants
  1308. populations – certain living things in a certain place
  1309. port – computer connection hardware
  1310. portmanteau – suitcase
  1311. positive number – any number greater than zero
  1312. postcards – cards mailed without an envelope
  1313. pouch – fold of skin like a bag
  1314. poultry – birds raised for food
  1315. pound – 16 ounces
  1316. pounded – hit hard repeatedly
  1317. practice – training by repeating
  1318. pragmatic – practical
  1319. precarious – based on uncertain premises
  1320. precipice – steep cliff
  1321. precipitate – cause to happen
  1322. predicament – situation that is hard to get out of
  1323. presents – gifts
  1324. preserve – maintain
  1325. priest – religious leader
  1326. principal – amount borrowed in a loan
  1327. principal – highest in importance
  1328. printout – document printed on paper
  1329. privileges – special rights
  1330. privy – outhouse
  1331. proceeded – went forward
  1332. produce – to make
  1333. produce – to make
  1334. product – answer to a multiplication problem
  1335. production – process of making something
  1336. production – process of making something
  1337. professional – specially trained
  1338. profound – marked by intellectual depth
  1339. program – plan
  1340. progress – moving forward
  1341. projectile – object thrown or shot
  1342. proofreading – finding mistake or errors in your copy
  1343. propeller – rotating blades
  1344. proper fraction – fraction whose numerator is less than its denominator
  1345. properties – things that can be described about an object
  1346. property – piece of land
  1347. pros – advantages
  1348. prose – anything not poetry
  1349. prospect – possibility
  1350. prospecting – looking for gold
  1351. prosperous – having success
  1352. protect – guard
  1353. protegee – guided by someone
  1354. proton – positive part of atom inside nucleus
  1355. proud – feeling good about yourself
  1356. province – territorial district
  1357. provisions – supplies of food
  1358. prowls – roams quietly
  1359. pseudonym – pen name
  1360. psyche – having to do with the soul
  1361. psychic – supernatural forces
  1362. publicity – bringing something to the public’s attention
  1363. pugnacious – belligerent
  1364. pulsation – rhythmic beating
  1365. punctuality – promptness
  1366. purchase – to buy something
  1367. quadrant – section of the coordinate plane
  1368. quaff – drink heartily
  1369. quaff – to drink heartily
  1370. quality – degree of excellence
  1371. quandary – perplexity
  1372. quarrel – angry dispute
  1373. quarrel – argument
  1374. quart – 2 pints
  1375. quarter – soldier’s housing
  1376. quartet – four musicians who perform together
  1377. quotient – answer to a division problem
  1378. radiate – to send out
  1379. radiation – method of transmitting or spreading something
  1380. rafters – beams that support
  1381. raging – moving with violent force
  1382. rainforest – forest with abundant rainfall
  1383. ramble – to go on and on
  1384. rambles – going on and on
  1385. rampart – defense against attack
  1386. rancor – bitter
  1387. random – determined by chance
  1388. range – chain of mountains
  1389. ransack – messy search
  1390. rant – emotional speech
  1391. rapids – fast moving part of a river
  1392. rapturous – ecstatic
  1393. ratio – comparison of one number to another
  1394. ravage – devastate
  1395. Re -verberation – reechoed sound
  1396. real – not imagined
  1397. realistic – showing things as they are
  1398. realized – understood completely
  1399. reboot – restart
  1400. rebuke – to reprimand
  1401. recall – to remember
  1402. recede – move back
  1403. recede – to move away
  1404. reciprocate – to return
  1405. recital – musical performance
  1406. recite – to repeat from memory
  1407. reckon – compute or calculate
  1408. recoil – shrink back
  1409. record – permanent evidence
  1410. recovery – return to being well
  1411. recruit – person who has recently joined
  1412. rectify – to set right
  1413. reef – ridge that lies near the surface of a sea
  1414. refrained – kept from doing something
  1415. refuge – shelter
  1416. regime – government in power
  1417. regress – move backward
  1418. rehabilitate – restore to good health
  1419. reins – controlling
  1420. relatives – people in the same family
  1421. released – set free
  1422. reliability – honoring commitments
  1423. reliable – dependable
  1424. reluctant – holding back
  1425. remarkable – amazing
  1426. remedies – cures
  1427. remember – to keep in memory
  1428. remonstrance – protest
  1429. remorse – torturing sense of guilt
  1430. rendering – drawing
  1431. renew – make new
  1432. rent – money paid for use of property
  1433. repealed – taken back
  1434. repent – feel sorry for
  1435. replied – answered
  1436. replied – answered
  1437. represent – acting for someone else
  1438. repugnance – distaste
  1439. reputation – how the public views a person
  1440. request – ask for
  1441. rescue – save from danger
  1442. rescue – save from harm
  1443. resemble – to look like
  1444. reservoirs – storage place for liquid
  1445. reside – to live
  1446. residential – used for homes
  1447. resign – give up deliberately
  1448. resist – go against
  1449. resolute – determined
  1450. resolutions – personal goals
  1451. respect – regard highly
  1452. respiration – breathing
  1453. resplendent – splendid
  1454. responsible – being the cause of something
  1455. restoration – act of bringing back
  1456. retaliate – to pay back
  1457. retard – to make slow
  1458. retch – vomit
  1459. retinue – body of assistants
  1460. retreat – withdrawal
  1461. retrospective – contemplating
  1462. revived – returned to life
  1463. revolutionary – radical change
  1464. ridiculous – foolish and comical
  1465. rights – irrevocable freedoms
  1466. rivulets – small streams
  1467. robust – strong
  1468. rodents – animals such as mice
  1469. rodeo – riding and roping contest
  1470. rogue – dishonest person
  1471. role – an assumed character
  1472. rotates – turns in a circle
  1473. rouse – awake
  1474. rout – to cause to flee
  1475. ruckus – noisy disturbance
  1476. rudimentary – basic
  1477. rue – feel regret
  1478. ruse – trick
  1479. ruse – trickery
  1480. ruts – grooves in the ground
  1481. sacrifice – giving up of something
  1482. sagacity – intelligence
  1483. sage – wise and respected person
  1484. salinity – saltiness
  1485. salutary – beneficial
  1486. sanctimonious – self-righteous
  1487. sanction – permit
  1488. sanctuary – protection
  1489. sanguine – color of blood
  1490. sarcastically – in a mocking tone
  1491. satchel – small bag
  1492. satisfied – having no doubts
  1493. savory – tasty
  1494. say – to speak
  1495. scales – series of musical tones
  1496. scanner – device that copies an image
  1497. scare – make afraid
  1498. scenario – rough script
  1499. scenery – stage backgrounds
  1500. scheme – plan in a deceitful way
  1501. school pride – satisfaction in your school’s achievements
  1502. scintillate – reflect brightly
  1503. scoff – express mocking contempt
  1504. score – account
  1505. scour – search extensively
  1506. scratched – scraped
  1507. scroll – to move through text or graphics
  1508. scrutinize – look at very carefully
  1509. scullery – room next to kitchen
  1510. sculpted – carved by an artist
  1511. sea – body of salt water
  1512. season – part of the year
  1513. secure – safe
  1514. seethe – bubble or boil
  1515. seismograph – instrument for measuring earthquake vibrations
  1516. self-control – mastering one’s actions
  1517. self-respect – positive opinion of oneself
  1518. semi-dormant – half asleep
  1519. seminar- conference where specific topic discussed
  1520. sensation – feeling
  1521. sentinel – guard
  1522. serene – calm
  1523. serialize – present one part of a story at a time
  1524. setting – where a story takes place
  1525. settlers – pioneers in a new area
  1526. several – quite a few
  1527. severe – strict
  1528. shadow – area of darkness
  1529. shamming – pretending
  1530. shard – fragment of a brittle substance
  1531. shear – cut wool off a sheep
  1532. sheepish – embarrassed
  1533. shimmer – glimmer
  1534. shinny – to climb
  1535. Shit ( dung)
  1536. shiver – shake
  1537. shoes – coverings for the feet
  1538. short – not long or tall
  1539. shoulder – part of the body below the neck
  1540. shove – push
  1541. shower – brief fall of rain
  1542. shrieked – screamed
  1543. sibling – brother or sister
  1544. sighed – long sad breath
  1545. signature – written name of person
  1546. silhouette – figure seen against a light background
  1547. silly – ridiculous
  1548. silo – storage tower
  1549. simmer – stew gently
  1550. simper smile in a silly manner
  1551. simplify – reduce completely
  1552. sinewy – stringy
  1553. singularly – uniquely
  1554. sinister – wicked
  1555. skeins – loosely coiled yarn
  1556. skeptical – attitude of doubt
  1557. skillets – frying pans
  1558. slather – a great amount
  1559. slender – thin
  1560. slimy – covered with filth
  1561. slog – hit hard
  1562. slough – swamp
  1563. sloughs – places of deep mud
  1564. slowly – not fast
  1565. sly – sneaky or clever
  1566. smite – strike hard
  1567. smoldering – burning and smoking with little flame
  1568. smooth – even and unwrinkled
  1569. smudge – smear or blur
  1570. smuggling – illegally transporting goods
  1571. snare – trap
  1572. soar – fly very high
  1573. soberly – seriously
  1574. soft – not hard
  1575. software – computer programs
  1576. software – set of programmed instructions
  1577. solar system – the Sun and the planets
  1578. solemnize – honor or remember
  1579. somberly – sadly
  1580. sometimes – not always
  1581. source – origin
  1582. source – point of origin
  1583. spade – digging tool
  1584. spare – extra
  1585. spare – to keep from harming
  1586. sparkling – gleaming or shining
  1587. spasmodically – abruptly
  1588. special – very important
  1589. spectacle – eye-catching
  1590. spectators – persons watching an event
  1591. specter – ghost
  1592. sponsor – one who supports
  1593. sportsmanship – winning or losing positively
  1594. spread – to stretch out
  1595. sprinkling – spreading or scattering
  1596. sprint – race covering a short distance
  1597. spy – to see without being seen
  1598. square root – any number times itself
  1599. squaw – American Indian woman
  1600. squawk – shrill or harsh sound
  1601. squeeze – press between something
  1602. stage fright – fear of performing
  1603. staid – great dignity
  1604. stalk – approach an stealthily
  1605. stalk – follow without being seen
  1606. start – to begin
  1607. static – radio noises
  1608. stationing – assigning a certain spot
  1609. stealthy – sneaky
  1610. stenography – short hand writing
  1611. stifle – hold back
  1612. stirrups – rings that a horse rider’s feet fit in
  1613. stockade – high, strong fence
  1614. stoic – unemotional
  1615. stomach – where food is digested in the body
  1616. straddle t – o sit with one leg on each side
  1617. stragglers – those lagging behind
  1618. strait – narrow passage of water
  1619. strange – unusual
  1620. stratosphere – atmosphere that contains ozone
  1621. stretching – spreading out
  1622. stringent – severe
  1623. strong – powerful
  1624. struggle – difficult task
  1625. strut – walk proudly
  1626. stubborn – unwilling to change
  1627. stunned – shocked
  1628. stupefy – stun
  1629. sturdy – strong
  1630. style – manner of doing something
  1631. stymie – stump
  1632. suavity – graceful politeness
  1633. subcontinent – large landmass
  1634. subside – sink to a lower level
  1635. substitution – put in place of
  1636. succeed – complete
  1637. success – achievement
  1638. succinct – concise
  1639. succumb – yield
  1640. suffocate – to die from lack of air
  1641. suffocate – to die from not breathing
  1642. sullen – depressed
  1643. sultry – hot
  1644. summoned – being called
  1645. sumptuous – lavish
  1646. sumptuous – splendid
  1647. sunset – time when the sun disappears
  1648. superficial – not deep
  1649. supersede – to make obsolete
  1650. supervise – to watch over
  1651. supply – furnish what is needed
  1652. supply – to give what is needed
  1653. supposition – assumption
  1654. surcease – to come to an end
  1655. sure – positive
  1656. surmount – overcome an obstacle
  1657. surplus – excess amount
  1658. surround – shut in on all sides
  1659. surroundings – place around something
  1660. survival the act of staying alive
  1661. suspense – anxiety
  1662. sustain – support
  1663. swallow – transporting food from the mouth to the stomach
  1664. swamp – low, wet lands
  1665. symbiosis – beneficial relationship
  1666. symbol – something that represents something else
  1667. symphony – long piece of music in four parts
  1668. synthetic – man-made with chemicals
  1669. talent – something someone can do well
  1670. talent – special natural ability
  1671. talking – speaking
  1672. tame – gentle and meek
  1673. taproot – root that grows downward
  1674. tariff – tax on imported goods
  1675. taunt – insult
  1676. taunt – reproach with insults
  1677. taunt – to tease
  1678. taxes – money paid to the government
  1679. teak – tropical wood used in furniture
  1680. technique – special way to do something
  1681. tedious – repetitive
  1682. teeter – to rock
  1683. telescope – instrument that magnifies distant objects
  1684. temple – place of worship
  1685. tempo – speed of music
  1686. tend – to take care of
  1687. termagant – quarrelsome
  1688. terrestrial – of the earth
  1689. territory – land ruled by a nation
  1690. texture – feel of the surface of an object
  1691. their – belonging to them
  1692. theory – explanation backed by testing
  1693. thicket – thick growth of plants
  1694. this – thing being mentioned
  1695. thorn – sharp sticker on a plant
  1696. thought – idea
  1697. threshold – entrance
  1698. throaty – sound uttered low and rasping
  1699. through – into and out of
  1700. thunder – loud noise in a storm
  1701. tide – the rise and fall of the sea level
  1702. timidity – state of shyness
  1703. timorous – fearful
  1704. timorous – timid
  1705. titanium – lightweight metal
  1706. toady – flatterer
  1707. toehold – slight advantage
  1708. tolerance – permitting something
  1709. tolerate – allow
  1710. ton – 2,000 pounds
  1711. tone – quality of sound
  1712. topographic – map that shows the relief of the land
  1713. torpor – state of being inactive
  1714. torrent – very heavy fall of rain
  1715. touch – physical contact
  1716. tough – rugged
  1717. tour – a trip visiting places
  1718. tout – publicize
  1719. trait – characteristic
  1720. trance – dreamlike state
  1721. tranquil – calm
  1722. tranquility – calmness
  1723. tranquility – calmness
  1724. transfixed – motionless
  1725. transient – passing quckly
  1726. transient – passing with time
  1727. transient – temporary
  1728. translation – something changed to another language
  1729. transmission – sending a message
  1730. transparent – allowing light through
  1731. trappings – articles of dress
  1732. trauma – disturbing event
  1733. travesty – humorous imitation
  1734. treason – betraying one’s government
  1735. treaty – agreement
  1736. trees – large, woody plants
  1737. tributary – river that empties into a larger river
  1738. tributary – small stream
  1739. tricky – sly
  1740. trifle – something of little value
  1741. trivial – insignificant
  1742. trojan horse – hidden instructions inside a computer program
  1743. trough – lowest point of a wave
  1744. troupe – company or group
  1745. truce – temporary halt in fighting
  1746. truncate – to shorten
  1747. trunk – long snout
  1748. trustworthy – responsible
  1749. tsunami – destructive tidal wave
  1750. tumbleweeds – dead rolling plants
  1751. tunic – loose cloak
  1752. turbulence – violent atmospheric condition
  1753. turbulent – wildly irregular motion
  1754. turn – to move in a different direction
  1755. tussle – cuffle
  1756. tutorial – program of instruction
  1757. twilight – time immediately after sunset
  1758. typography – appearance of a printed page
  1759. ultimatum – final offer
  1760. umbrella – hand-held canopy
  1761. unable – cannot do
  1762. unanimity – complete agreement
  1763. underground – below the earth ‘s surface
  1764. underground – below the earth’s surface
  1765. undulate – move as if in waves
  1766. unfurled – unfolded
  1767. unhealthy – not well
  1768. universe – everything that exists
  1769. unpack – to take things out
  1770. unprecedented – never before seen
  1771. unraveling – becoming undone
  1772. unscathed – wholly unharmed
  1773. unseen – not visible
  1774. unsociable – unfriendly
  1775. untidy – messy
  1776. untied – not fastened
  1777. upload – to transfer data from a computer
  1778. uproar – noisy confusion
  1779. utensil – implement
  1780. utensils – tools used in cooking
  1781. vacant – not occupied
  1782. vague – not distinct
  1783. valley – low land between hills
  1784. valor – bravery
  1785. vanity – excessive pride
  1786. variable – letter that represents a number
  1787. vaunt – brag about
  1788. vegetation – plant life
  1789. vehemently – violently
  1790. vein – long deposit of underground metal
  1791. velocity – speed
  1792. vendetta – destructive feud
  1793. venture – proceed in face of danger
  1794. verge – border
  1795. verge – edge
  1796. vermin – animal pests
  1797. vessels – ships
  1798. vestige – sign
  1799. veterinarian – doctor that takes care of animals
  1800. vetoed – rejected by authority
  1801. vex – trouble
  1802. viable – practicable
  1803. vicar – a parish priest(CHRISTIAN)
  1804. Vicar – preacher or priest
  1805. vicinity – near
  1806. victim – person who has been hurt
  1807. victim – someone who is injured
  1808. view – what can be seen
  1809. vigil – determined watchfulness
  1810. vigorous – lively
  1811. village – small town
  1812. vindictive – revengeful
  1813. violated – failed to follow
  1814. virago – quarrelsome woman
  1815. virtue – moral excellence
  1816. visualize – to form a mental picture
  1817. vitality – energetic
  1818. vitiate – weaken
  1819. vivacious – lively
  1820. vivacious – lively
  1821. vivid – intense
  1822. vivid – lively
  1823. vocal – spoken
  1824. vociferous – crying out loudly
  1825. void – emptiness
  1826. volcano – opening in the Earth
  1827. volume – relative amount
  1828. volunteer person who freely gives time
  1829. voracious – eating a lot
  1830. waders – waterproof boots
  1831. wan – unnaturally pale
  1832. wandering – traveling from place to place
  1833. wane – to become less
  1834. wanted – desired
  1835. waterfall – steep drop from a high place
  1836. wavering – moving back and forth
  1837. way – certain path
  1838. waylay – ambush
  1839. weather – outside conditions
  1840. weave – to interlace
  1841. weaving – winding in and out
  1842. web site – a location on the world wide web
  1843. weigh – to measure weight
  1844. weight – measure of the force
  1845. wetlands – land saturated with water
  1846. whet – sharpen by rubbing
  1847. whimsical – impulsive
  1848. whinnies – horse sound
  1849. whole – complete or entire
  1850. wigwam – Indian tent
  1851. wiles – tricks
  1852. wimple – cloth covering over the head
  1853. wisdom – accumulated learning
  1854. withhold – restrain
  1855. without – not having
  1856. wizened – old
  1857. women – female humans
  1858. wondered c – urious about something
  1859. wondrous – marvelous
  1860. word processing – text data
  1861. word processor – application that outputs text data
  1862. word wrap – automatic movement of a word to the next line
  1863. work ethic – positive attitude towards work
  1864. wreak – inflict punishment upon
  1865. wrench – twist or pull
  1866. wrest – obtain by pulling
  1867. wrinkle – crooked fold
  1868. WYSIWYG – word-processing system
  1869. yard – 3 feet
  1870. yawn – expression of tiredness
  1871. yield – amount produced
  1872. yield – produce
  1873. Zing-Oomph-dynamism of personality

Kaushal Kishore Awasthi Vs. Balwant Singh Thakur & ANR [SC 2017 December]

KEYWORDS:-Professional misconduct-Advocate- Bar Council of India (BCI)

It is very clear from the provisions of Section 35 that punishment can be awarded to an Advocate if he is found guilty of professional or other misconduct. Rule 22 is the relevant Rule in the instant case which proscribes an Advocate from directly or indirectly making a bid for or purchase either in his own name or in other’s name for his own benefit or for the benefit of any other person any property sold in the execution of a decree or order in any suit, appeal or other proceedings in which he was in any way professionally engaged. Admittedly, in the instant case, the complainant was selling the property to the intending buyer which was an arrangement between them unconnected with any legal proceedings. Continue reading