Literary Terms

  1. Action
  2. Ad Hominem
  3. Adage
  4. Adventure
  5. Allegory
  6. Alliteration
  7. Allusion
  8. Alter Ego
  9. Ambiguity
  10. Amplification
  11. Anachronism
  12. Anagram
  13. Analogy
  14. Anaphora
  15. Anecdote
  16. Antagonist
  17. Anthimeria
  18. Anthropomorphism
  19. Antithesis
  20. Antonomasia
  21. Aphorism
  22. Aphorismus
  23. Apologia
  24. Apologue
  25. Aporia
  26. Aposiopesis
  27. Appositive
  28. Archaism
  29. Archetype
  30. Argument
  31. Assonance
  32. Asyndeton
  33. Autobiography
  34. Bathos
  35. Burlesque
  36. Buzzword
  37. Cacophony
  38. Caesura
  39. Catharsis
  40. Character
  41. Chiasmus
  42. Chronicle
  43. Circumlocution
  44. Cliché
  45. Cliffhanger
  46. Climax
  47. Coherence
  48. Comedy
  49. Connotation
  50. Consonance
  51. Contrast
  52. Conundrum
  53. Denotation
  54. Denouement
  55. Deus ex machina
  56. Diacope
  57. Dialogue
  58. Diction
  59. Doppelganger
  60. Double Entendre
  61. Drama
  62. Dystopia
  63. Ellipsis
  64. Enjambment
  65. Enthymeme
  66. Epigram
  67. Epiphany
  68. Epistrophe
  69. Epitaph
  70. Epithet
  71. Eponym
  72. Equivocation
  73. Essay
  74. Etymology
  75. Euphemism
  76. Excursus
  77. Exemplum
  78. Exposition
  79. Extended Metaphor
  80. Fable
  81. Fairy Tale
  82. Fantasy
  83. Farce
  84. Figures of Speech
  85. Flashback
  86. Folklore
  87. Foreshadowing
  88. Genre
  89. Haiku
  90. Hamartia
  91. Homage
  92. Homophone
  93. Horror
  94. Hyperbaton
  95. Hyperbole
  96. Idiom
  97. Imagery
  98. Inference
  99. Innuendo
  100. Intertextuality
  101. Invective
  102. Irony
  103. Jargon
  104. Juxtaposition
  105. Kairos
  106. Limerick
  107. Lingo
  108. Literary Device
  109. Litotes
  110. Malapropism
  111. Maxim
  112. Metanoia
  113. Metaphor
  114. Metonymy
  115. Mnemonic
  116. Monologue
  117. Montage
  118. Motif
  119. Motto
  120. Mystery
  121. Narrative
  122. Nemesis
  123. Neologism
  124. Ode
  125. Onomatopoeia
  126. Oxymoron
  127. Palindrome
  128. Parable
  129. Paradox
  130. Parallelism
  131. Paraphrase
  132. Parody
  133. Pastiche
  134. Pathetic Fallacy
  135. Peripeteia
  136. Persona
  137. Personification
  138. Plagiarism
  139. Platitude
  140. Pleonasm
  141. Plot
  142. Poetry
  143. Polemic
  144. Polyptoton
  145. Polysyndeton
  146. Prologue
  147. Propaganda
  148. Prose
  149. Protagonist
  150. Proverb
  151. Pseudonym
  152. Pun
  153. Quest
  154. Rebus
  155. Red Herring
  156. Repetition
  157. Resolution
  158. Rhetoric
  159. Rhetorical Device
  160. Rhetorical Question
  161. Riddle
  162. Romance
  163. Sarcasm
  164. Sardonic
  165. Satire
  166. Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
  167. Setting
  168. Simile
  169. Soliloquy
  170. Sonnet
  171. Stanza
  172. Stereotype
  173. Style
  174. Subtext
  175. Surrealism
  176. Symbol
  177. Synecdoche
  178. Synonym
  179. Synopsis
  180. Tautology
  181. Theme
  182. Thesis
  183. Thriller
  184. Tone
  185. Trope
  186. Turning Point
  187. Understatement
  188. Utopia
  189. Verisimilitude
  190. Vernacular
  191. Vignette
  192. Villain
  193. Wit
  194. Zeugma

Philosophical Terms for Lawyer

Indian Law Encyclopedia

 Some basic vocabularies have been collected here, which a lawyer should know for mastering the art of argument.

  • Agency: the capacity for humans to make choices and to impose those choices on the world.
  • A posteriori: where knowledge is possible only subsequent, or posterior, to certain sense experiences, in addition to the use of reason (empirical).
  • A priori: where knowledge is possible independently of, or prior to, any experience, and requires only the use of reason (non-empirical).
  • Axiom: a proposition that is not proved or demonstrated but considered to be self-evident and taken for granted.
  • Causality: the law that states that each cause has a specific effect, and that this effect is dependent on the initial identities of the agents involved.
  • Consciousness: the faculty which perceives and identifies things that exist, and the relationship between oneself and one’s environment.
  • Contingency: the status of facts that are not logically necessarily true or false (the possibility of something happening or not happening).
  • Deductive Reasoning: reasoning that proceeds from general principles or premises to derive particular information (what follows necessarily from given premises).
  • Dialectic: the exchange of arguments and counter-arguments, respectively advocating propositions (theses) and counter-propositions (antitheses), in arriving at a conclusion (synthesis).
  • Emergence: the way complex systems and patterns arise (emerge) out of a multiplicity of relatively simple interactions.
  • Entity: something that has a distinct and separate existence, although not necessarily a material existence.
  • Essence: the attributes that make an object or substance what it fundamentally is, and that it has necessarily.
  • Existence: the state or fact of existing or being (the continuance in being or life).
  • Fallacy: any sort of mistake in reasoning or inference (essentially, anything that causes an argument to go wrong).
  • Formal Language: an organized set of symbols which can be precisely defined in terms of just the shapes and locations of those symbols, without any reference to any meanings or interpretations.
  • Forms (Platonic Forms): the universal concepts or ideas which make all of the phenomenal world intelligible (the essences of objects, rather than their physical forms or appearances).
  • Freehought: the general philosophical viewpoint that holds that beliefs should be formed on the basis of science and logic, and should not be influenced by emotion, authority, tradition, or dogma.
  • Free Will: the capacity of rational agents to choose a course of action from among various alternatives.
  • Hermeneutics: the study of theories of the interpretation and understanding of texts (often the Bible).
  • Hylomorphism: the theory which conceptually identifies substance as matter and form, such that substances are conceived as forms inhering in matter.
  • Identity: whatever makes an entity definable and recognizable, in terms of possessing a set of qualities or characteristics that distinguish it from entities of a different type (essentially, whatever makes something the same or different).
  • Inductive Reasoning: reasoning that proceeds from particular information to derive general principles (arriving at a reliable generalization from observations).
  • Infinite Regress: a causal relationship transmitted through an indefinite number of terms in a series, with no term that begins the causal chain (going back through a chain forever).
  • Instantiation: the representation of an idea in the form of an instance or example of it.
  • Law of Non-Contradiction: the basic law of logic which states that it is not possible for something to be and not be at the same time.
  • Monad: an unextended, indivisible and indestructible entity that is the basic constituent of physical reality.
  • Natural Language: a language that is spoken, written, or signed by humans for general-purpose communication (ordinary language as opposed to formal or constructed languages).
  • Normative: indicative of how things should or ought to be (as opposed to positive or descriptive).
  • Noumenon: the intellectual conception of a thing as it is in itself, not as it is known through perception (c.f. Phenomenon).
  • Object: a thing, an entity or a being, that can have properties and bear relations to other objects. They are usually types of particulars, but there can also be abstract objects.
  • Ontology: the study of conceptions of reality, existence and the nature of being.
  • Paradox: a statement or sentiment that is seemingly contradictory or opposed to common sense, and yet is perhaps true in fact, or a statement that is actually self-contradictory (and therefore false) even though it appears true.
  • Particular: a concrete individual object which cannot be copied without introducing new distinct particulars.
  • Phenomenon: a thing as it appears to be, as constructed by the mind and perceived by the senses (c.f. Noumenon).
  • Predicate: that which is affirmed or denied concerning the subject of a proposition (i.e. how we describe the subject of a proposition). The predicate is one of the two main constituents of a sentence (the other being the subject), containing the verb and its complements.
  • Premise: one of the propositions in a deductive argument. Essentially, it is a claim that is a reason for, or objection against, some other claim.
  • Property: an attribute or abstraction characterizing an object, but distinct from the object which possesses it.
  • Proposition: the content or meaning of an assertion or declarative sentence, which is capable of being either true or false.
  • Qualia: properties of sensory experiences, or the nebulous concept of “the way things seem to us”.
  • Scientific Method: the collection of data through observation and experimentation, and the formulation and testing of hypotheses.
  • Social Contract: that idea people give up some rights to a government and/or other authority in forming nations in order to jointly preserve or maintain social order and security.
  • Society: a collection or grouping of individuals with some shared interactions and common interests.
  • Substance: the unchanging essence of a thing, that exists by itself, and which has attributes and modes which, however, may change.
  • Syllogism: a logical argument in which one proposition (the conclusion) is inferred from two others (the premises) of a certain form.
  • Tabula Rasa: the idea that individual human beings are born with no innate mental content, but their knowledge is built up gradually from their experiences and sensory perceptions of the outside world (literally, “blank slate“).
  • Teleology: the belief that events occur with a natural purpose or design, or in order to achieve some specific goal.
  • Theodicy: an attempt to reconcile the existence of evil or suffering in the world with the belief in an omniscient, omnipotent and benevolent God.
  • Theology: the study of the nature of God and religious truth, which seeks to justify or support religious claims.
  • Theorem: a statement which has been proven to be true by a rigorous argument.
  • Universal: a property of an object, which can exist in more than one place at the same time (e.g. the quality of “redness”).
  • Virtue: the moral excellence of a person, or any trait valued as being good.
  • Zeitgeist: the intellectual and cultural climate of an era (literally, “the spirit of the age“).

Glossary Indian Evidence Act

Indian Law Encyclopedia


  5. ALIBI
  22. COURT
  27. DOUBT
  42. FACTS
  55. JUDGE
  58. MOTIVE
  61. ONUS
  63. POLICE
  71. PROOF
  72. PROVED
  75. RECORD
  85. TRIAL


American Basic Legal Terms

KEYWORDS:-Legal glossary-Dictionary-

American law


Acquittal-A jury verdict that a criminal defendant is not guilty, or the finding of a judge that the evidence is insufficient to support a conviction. Discharge from the Criminal charge.

Active judge-A judge in the full-time service of the court. Compare to a senior judge.

Administrative Office of the United States Courts (AO) -The federal agency responsible for collecting court statistics, administering the federal courts’ budget, and performing many other administrative and programmatic functions, under the direction and supervision of the Judicial Conference of the United States.

Admissible-A term used to describe a legal evidence that may be considered by a jury or judge in civil and criminal cases. A non-admissible evidence is not evidence for court.

Adversary proceeding-A lawsuit arising in or related to a bankruptcy case that begins by filing a complaint with the court, that is, a “trial” that takes place within the context of a bankruptcy case.

Affidavit-A written statement made under oath.

Affirmed -In the practice of the court of appeals, it means that the court of appeals has concluded that the lower court decision is correct and will stand as rendered by the lower court.

Alternate juror-A juror selected in the same manner as a regular juror who hears all the evidence but does not help decide the case unless called on to replace a regular juror.

Alternative dispute resolution (ADR)-A procedure for settling a dispute outside the courtroom. Most forms of ADR are not binding, and involve referral of the case to a neutral party such as an arbitrator or mediator.

Amicus curiae-Latin for “friend of the court.” A senior advocate appointed for assisting the court.

Answer-The formal written statement by a defendant in a civil case that responds to a complaint(Plaint), articulating the grounds for defense.

Appeal-A request made after a trial by a party that has lost on one or more issues that a higher court review the decision to determine if it was correct.

Appellant -The party who appeals a district court’s decision, usually seeking reversal of that decision.

Appellate-About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgment of a lower court (trial court) or tribunal. For example, the U.S. circuit courts of appeals review the decisions of the U.S. district courts.

Appellee-The party who opposes an appellant’s appeal, and who seeks to persuade the appeals court to affirm the district court’s decision.

Arraignment -A proceeding in which a criminal defendant is brought into court, told of the charges in an indictment or information, and asked to plead guilty or not guilty.

Article III judge -A federal judge who is appointed for life, during “good behavior,” under Article III of the Constitution. Article III judges are nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate.

Assets -Property of all kinds, including real and personal, tangible and intangible.

Assume -An agreement to continue performing duties under a contract or lease.

Automatic stay-An injunction that automatically stops lawsuits, foreclosures, garnishments, and most collection activities against the debtor the moment a bankruptcy petition is filed.


The release, prior to trial, of a person accused of a crime, under specified conditions designed to assure that person’s appearance in court when required. Also can refer to the amount of bond money posted as a financial condition of pretrial release.

A legal procedure for dealing with debt problems of individuals and businesses; specifically, a case filed under one of the chapters of title 11 of the United States Code (the Bankruptcy Code).

Bankruptcy administrator
An officer of the Judiciary serving in the judicial districts of Alabama and North Carolina who, like the United States trustee, is responsible for supervising the administration of bankruptcy cases, estates, and trustees; monitoring plans and disclosure statements; monitoring creditors’ committees; monitoring fee applications; and performing other statutory duties.

Bankruptcy code
The informal name for title 11 of the United States Code (11 U.S.C. §§ 101-1330), the federal bankruptcy law.

  • Chapter 11-A reorganization bankruptcy, usually involving a corporation or partnership. A Chapter 11 debtor usually proposes a plan of reorganization to keep its business alive and pay creditors over time. Individuals or people in business can also seek relief in Chapter 11.
  • Chapter 12-The chapter of the Bankruptcy Code providing for adjustment of debts of a “family farmer” or “family fisherman,” as the terms are defined in the Bankruptcy Code.
  • Chapter 13-The chapter of the Bankruptcy Code providing for the adjustment of debts of an individual with regular income, often referred to as a “wage-earner” plan. Chapter 13 allows a debtor to keep property and use his or her disposable income to pay debts over time, usually three to five years.
  • Chapter 13 trustee-A person appointed to administer a Chapter 13 case. A Chapter 13 trustee’s responsibilities are similar to those of a Chapter 7 trustee; however, a Chapter 13 trustee has the additional responsibilities of overseeing the debtor’s plan, receiving payments from debtors, and disbursing plan payments to creditors.
  • Chapter 15-The chapter of the Bankruptcy Code dealing with cases of cross-border insolvency.
  • Chapter 7-The chapter of the Bankruptcy Code providing for “liquidation,” that is, the sale of a debtor’s nonexempt property and the distribution of the proceeds to creditors. In order to be eligible for Chapter 7, the debtor must satisfy a “means test.” The court will evaluate the debtor’s income and expenses to determine if the debtor may proceed under Chapter 7.
  • Chapter 7 trustee-A person appointed in a Chapter 7 case to represent the interests of the bankruptcy estate and the creditors. The trustee’s responsibilities include reviewing the debtor’s petition and schedules, liquidating the property of the estate, and making distributions to creditors. The trustee may also bring actions against creditors or the debtor to recover property of the bankruptcy estate.
  • Chapter 9-The chapter of the Bankruptcy Code providing for reorganization of municipalities (which includes cities and towns, as well as villages, counties, taxing districts, municipal utilities, and school districts).

Bankruptcy court
The bankruptcy judges in regular active service in each district; a unit of the district court.

Bankruptcy estate
All interests of the debtor in property at the time of the bankruptcy filing. The estate technically becomes the temporary legal owner of all of the debtor’s property.

Bankruptcy judge
A judicial officer of the United States district court who is the court official with decision-making power over federal bankruptcy cases.

Bankruptcy petition
A formal request for the protection of the federal bankruptcy laws. (There is an official form for bankruptcy petitions.)

Bankruptcy trustee
A private individual or corporation appointed in all Chapter 7 and Chapter 13 cases to represent the interests of the bankruptcy estate and the debtor’s creditors.

Bench trial
A trial without a jury, in which the judge serves as the fact-finder.

A written statement submitted in a trial or appellate proceeding that explains one side’s legal and factual arguments.

Burden of proof
The duty to prove disputed facts. In civil cases, a plaintiff generally has the burden of proving his or her case. In criminal cases, the government has the burden of proving the defendant’s guilt. (See standard of proof.)

Business bankruptcy
A bankruptcy case in which the debtor is a business or an individual involved in business and the debts are for business purposes.


Capital offense-A crime punishable by death sentence.

Case file-A complete collection of every document filed in court in a case.

Case law-The law as established in previous court decisions. A synonym for legal precedent. Similar to common law, which springs from tradition and judicial decisions.

Caseload-The number of cases handled by a judge or a court.

Cause of action-A legal claim or a bundle of facts which became the basis of the complaint

Chambers-The offices of a judge and his or her staff.

Chief judge-The judge who has primary responsibility for the administration of a court; chief judges are determined by seniority

Claim-A creditor’s assertion of a right to payment from a debtor or the debtor’s property.

Class action suit-A lawsuit in which one or more members of a large group, or class, of individuals or other entities sue on behalf of the entire class. The district court must find that the claims of the class members contain questions of law or fact in common before the lawsuit can proceed as a class action.

Clerk of court-The court officer who oversees administrative functions, especially managing the flow of cases through the court. The clerk’s office is often called a court’s central nervous system.

Collateral-Property that is promised as security for the satisfaction of a debt.

Common law-The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States, which relies on the articulation of legal principles in a historical succession of judicial decisions. Common law principles can be changed by legislation.

Community service-A special condition the court imposes that requires an individual to work – without pay – for a civic or nonprofit organization.

Complaint-A written statement that begins a civil lawsuit, in which the plaintiff details the claims against the defendant.

Concurrent sentence-Prison terms for two or more offenses to be served at the same time, rather than one after the other. Example: Two five-year sentences and one three-year sentence, if served concurrently, result in a maximum of five years behind bars.

Confirmation-Approval of a plan of reorganization by a bankruptcy judge.

Consecutive sentence-Prison terms for two or more offenses to be served one after the other. Example: Two five-year sentences and one three-year sentence, if served consecutively, result in a maximum of 13 years behind bars.

Consumer bankruptcy-A bankruptcy case filed to reduce or eliminate debts that are primarily consumer debts.

Consumer debts-Debts incurred for personal, as opposed to business, needs.

Contingent claim-A claim that may be owed by the debtor under certain circumstances, e.g., where the debtor is a cosigner on another person’s loan and that person fails to pay.

Contract-An agreement between two or more people that creates a legal obligation to do or not to do a particular thing.

Conviction-A judgment of guilt against a criminal defendant.

Counsel-Legal advice; a term also used to refer to the lawyers in a case.

Count-An allegation in an indictment or information, charging a defendant with a crime. An indictment or information may contain allegations that the defendant committed more than one crime. Each allegation is referred to as a count.

Court-Government entity authorized to resolve legal disputes. Judges sometimes use “court” to refer to themselves in the third person, as in “the court has read the briefs.”

Court reporter- person who makes a word-for-word record of what is said in court, generally by using a stenographic machine, shorthand or audio recording, and then produces a transcript of the proceedings upon request.

Credit counseling-It refers to two events in individual bankruptcy cases: (1) the “individual or group briefing” from a nonprofit budget and credit counseling agency that individual debtors must attend prior to filing under any chapter of the Bankruptcy Code; and (2) the “instructional course in personal financial management” in chapters 7 and 13 that an individual debtor must complete before a discharge is entered. There are exceptions to both requirements for certain categories of debtors, exigent circumstances, or if the U.S. trustee or bankruptcy administrator have determined that there are insufficient approved credit counseling agencies available to provide the necessary counseling.

Creditor-A person to whom or business to which the debtor owes money or that claims to be owed money by the debtor.

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Damages-Money that a defendant pays a plaintiff in a civil case if the plaintiff has won. Damages may be compensatory (for loss or injury) or punitive (to punish and deter future misconduct).

De facto-Latin, meaning “in fact” or “actually.” Something that exists in fact but not as a matter of law.

De jure-Latin, meaning “in law.” Something that exists by operation of law.

De novo-Latin, meaning “anew.” A trial de novo is a completely new trial. Appellate review de novo implies no deference to the trial judge’s ruling.

Debtor-A person who has filed a petition for relief under the Bankruptcy Code.

Debtor’s plan-A debtor’s detailed description of how the debtor proposes to pay creditors’ claims over a fixed period of time.

Declaratory judgment-A judge’s statement about someone’s rights. For example, a plaintiff may seek a declaratory judgment that a particular statute, as written, violates some constitutional right.

Default judgment-A judgment awarding a plaintiff the relief sought in the complaint because the defendant has failed to appear in court or otherwise respond to the complaint.

Defendant-In a civil case, the person or organization against whom the plaintiff brings suit; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.

Deposition-An oral statement made before an officer authorized by law to administer oaths. Such statements are often taken to examine potential witnesses, to obtain discovery, or to be used later in trial. See discovery.

Discharge-A release of a debtor from personal liability for certain dischargeable debts. Notable exceptions to dischargeability are taxes and student loans. A discharge releases a debtor from personal liability for certain debts known as dischargeable debts and prevents the creditors owed those debts from taking any action against the debtor or the debtor’s property to collect the debts. The discharge also prohibits creditors from communicating with the debtor regarding the debt, including through telephone calls, letters, and personal contact.

Dischargeable debt-A debt for which the Bankruptcy Code allows the debtor’s personal liability to be eliminated.

Disclosure statement-A written document prepared by the chapter 11 debtor or other plan proponent that is designed to provide “adequate information” to creditors to enable them to evaluate the chapter 11 plan of reorganization.

Discovery-Procedures used to obtain disclosure of evidence before trial.

Dismissal with prejudice-Court action that prevents an identical lawsuit from being filed later.

Dismissal without prejudice-Court action that allows the later filing.

Disposable income-Income not reasonably necessary for the maintenance or support of the debtor or dependents. If the debtor operates a business, disposable income is defined as those amounts over and above what is necessary for the payment of ordinary operating expenses.

Docket-A log containing the complete history of each case in the form of brief chronological entries summarizing the court proceedings.

Due process-In criminal law, the constitutional guarantee that a defendant will receive a fair and impartial trial. In civil law, the legal rights of someone who confronts an adverse action threatening liberty or property.


En banc -French, meaning “on the bench.” All judges of an appellate court sitting together to hear a case, as opposed to the routine disposition by panels of three judges. In the Ninth Circuit, an en banc panel consists of 11 randomly selected judges.

Equitable-Pertaining to civil suits in “equity” rather than in “law.” In English legal history, the courts of “law” could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy (see damages). A separate court of “equity” could order someone to do something or to cease to do something (e.g., injunction). In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in “law” cases but not in “equity” cases.

Equity-The value of a debtor’s interest in property that remains after liens and other creditors’ interests are considered. (Example: If a house valued at $60,000 is subject to a $30,000 mortgage, there is $30,000 of equity.)

Evidence- An Information or fact presented in oral testimony or in written documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case in favor of one side or the other.

Ex parte-A proceeding brought before a court by one party only, without notice to or challenge by the other side.

Exclusionary rule-Doctrine that says evidence obtained in violation of a criminal defendant’s constitutional or statutory rights is not admissible at trial.

Exculpatory evidence-Evidence indicating that a defendant did not commit the crime.

  • Inculpatory evidence-Evidence indicating that a defendant did commit the crime.

Executory contracts-Contracts or leases under which both parties to the agreement have duties remaining to be performed. If a contract or lease is executory, a debtor may assume it (keep the contract) or reject it (terminate the contract).

Exempt assets-Property that a debtor is allowed to retain, free from the claims of creditors who do not have liens on the property.

Exemptions or exempt property-Certain property owned by an individual debtor that the Bankruptcy Code or applicable state law permits the debtor to keep from unsecured creditors. For example, in some states the debtor may be able to exempt all or a portion of the equity in the debtor’s primary residence (homestead exemption), or some or all “tools of the trade” used by the debtor to make a living (i.e., auto tools for an auto mechanic or dental tools for a dentist). The availability and amount of property the debtor may exempt depends on the state the debtor lives in.


Face sheet filing-A bankruptcy case filed either without schedules or with incomplete schedules listing few creditors and debts. (Face sheet filings are often made for the purpose of delaying an eviction or foreclosure

Family farmer-An individual, individual and spouse, corporation, or partnership engaged in a farming operation that meets certain debt limits and other statutory criteria for filing a petition under Chapter 12.

Federal public defender-An attorney employed by the federal courts on a full-time basis to provide legal defense to defendants who are unable to afford counsel. The judiciary administers the federal defender program pursuant to the Criminal Justice Act.

Federal public defender organization-As provided for in the Criminal Justice Act, an organization established within a federal judicial circuit to represent criminal defendants who cannot afford an adequate defense. Each organization is supervised by a federal public defender appointed by the court of appeals for the circuit.

Federal question jurisdiction-Jurisdiction given to federal courts in cases involving the interpretation and application of the U.S. Constitution, acts of Congress, and treaties.

Felony-A serious crime, usually punishable by at least one year in prison.

File-To place a paper in the official custody of the clerk of court to enter into the files or records of a case.

Fraudulent transfer-A transfer of a debtor’s property made with intent to defraud or for which the debtor receives less than the transferred property’s value.

Fresh start-The characterization of a debtor’s status after bankruptcy, i.e., free of most debts. (Giving debtors a fresh start is one purpose of the Bankruptcy Code.)


Grand jury-A body of 16-23 citizens who listen to evidence of criminal allegations, which is presented by the prosecutors, and determine whether there is probable cause to believe an individual committed an offense.


Habeas corpus -Latin, meaning “you have the body.” A writ of habeas corpus generally is a judicial order forcing law enforcement authorities to produce a prisoner they are holding, and to justify the prisoner’s continued confinement. Federal judges receive petitions for a writ of habeas corpus from state prison inmates who say their state prosecutions violated federally protected rights in some way.

Hearsay-Evidence presented by a witness who did not see or hear the incident in question but heard about it from someone else. With some exceptions, hearsay generally is not admissible as evidence at trial

Home confinement-A special condition the court imposes that requires an individual to remain at home except for certain approved activities such as work and medical appointments. Home confinement may include the use of electronic monitoring equipment – a transmitter attached to the wrist or the ankle – to help ensure that the person stays at home as required.

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Impeachment-1. The process of calling a witness’s testimony into doubt. For example, if the attorney can show that the witness may have fabricated portions of his testimony, the witness is said to be “impeached;” 2. The constitutional process whereby the House of Representatives may “impeach” (accuse of misconduct) high officers of the federal government, who are then tried by the Senate.

In camera -Latin, meaning in a judge’s chambers. Often means outside the presence of a jury and the public. In private.

In forma pauperis -“In the manner of a pauper.” Permission given by the court to a person to file a case without payment of the required court fees because the person cannot pay them.

Indictment-The formal charge issued by a grand jury stating that there is enough evidence that the defendant committed the crime to justify having a trial; it is used primarily for felonies. See also information.

Information- formal accusation by a government attorney that the defendant committed a misdemeanor.

Injunction-A court order preventing one or more named parties from taking some action. A preliminary injunction often is issued to allow fact-finding, so a judge can determine whether a permanent injunction is justified.

Insider (of corporate debtor)-A director, officer, or person in control of the debtor; a partnership in which the debtor is a general partner; a general partner of the debtor; or a relative of a general partner, director, officer, or person in control of the debtor.

Insider (of individual debtor)-Any relative of the debtor or of a general partner of the debtor; partnership inwhich the debtor is a general partner; general partner of the debtor; or corporation of which the debtor is a director, officer, or person in control.

Interrogatories-A form of discovery consisting of written questions to be answered in writing and under oath.

Issue-1. The disputed point between parties in a lawsuit; 2. To send out officially, as in a court issuing an order.


Joint administration-A court-approved mechanism under which two or more cases can be administered together. (Assuming no conflicts of interest, these separate businesses or individuals can pool their resources, hire the same professionals, etc.)

Joint petition-One bankruptcy petition filed by a husband and wife together.

Judge-An official of the Judicial branch with authority to decide lawsuits brought before courts. Used generically, the term judge may also refer to all judicial officers, including Supreme Court justices.

Judgeship-The position of judge. By statute, Congress authorizes the number of judgeships for each district and appellate court.

Judgment-The official decision of a court finally resolving the dispute between the parties to the lawsuit.

Judicial Conference of the United States-The policy-making entity for the federal court system. A 27-judge body whose presiding officer is the Chief Justice of the United States.

Jurisdiction-The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a certain type of case. It also is used as a synonym for venue, meaning the geographic area over which the court has territorial jurisdiction to decide cases.

Jurisprudence-The study of law and the structure of the legal system

Jury-The group of persons selected to hear the evidence in a trial and render a verdict on matters of fact. See also grand jury.

Jury instructions-A judge’s directions to the jury before it begins deliberations regarding the factual questions it must answer and the legal rules that it must apply.


Lawsuit-A legal action started by a plaintiff against a defendant based on a complaint that the defendant failed to perform a legal duty which resulted in harm to the plaintiff.

Lien-A charge on specific property that is designed to secure payment of a debt or performance of an obligation. A debtor may still be responsible for a lien after a discharge.

Liquidated claim-A creditor’s claim for a fixed amount of money.

Liquidation-The sale of a debtor’s property with the proceeds to be used for the benefit of creditors.

Litigation-A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.


Magistrate judge-A judicial officer of a district court who conducts initial proceedings in criminal cases, decides criminal misdemeanor cases, conducts many pretrial civil and criminal matters on behalf of district judges, and decides civil cases with the consent of the parties.

Means test-Section 707(b)(2) of the Bankruptcy Code applies a “means test” to determine whether an individual debtor’s chapter 7 filing is presumed to be an abuse of the Bankruptcy Code requiring dismissal or conversion of the case (generally to chapter 13). Abuse is presumed if the debtor’s aggregate current monthly income (see definition above) over 5 years, net of certain statutorily allowed expenses is more than (i) $10,000, or (ii) 25% of the debtor’s nonpriority unsecured debt, as long as that amount is at least $6,000. The debtor may rebut a presumption of abuse only by a showing of special circumstances that justify additional expenses or adjustments of current monthly income.

Mental health treatment-Special condition the court imposes to require an individual to undergo evaluation and treatment for a mental disorder. Treatment may include psychiatric, psychological, and sex offense-specific evaluations, inpatient or outpatient counseling, and medication.

Misdemeanor- An offense punishable by one year of imprisonment or less. It is also called felony.

Mistrial-An invalid trial, caused by fundamental error. When a mistrial is declared, the trial must start again with the selection of a new jury.

Moot-Not subject to a court ruling because the controversy has not actually arisen, or has ended

Motion-A request by a litigant to a judge for a decision on an issue relating to the case.

Motion in Limine-A pretrial motion requesting the court to prohibit the other side from presenting, or even referring to, evidence on matters said to be so highly prejudicial that no steps taken by the judge can prevent the jury from being unduly influenced.

Motion to lift the automatic stay-A request by a creditor to allow the creditor to take action against the debtor or the debtor’s property that would otherwise be prohibited by the automatic stay.


No-asset case-A Chapter 7 case in which there are no assets available to satisfy any portion of the creditors’ unsecured claims.

Nolo contendere-No contest. A plea of nolo contendere has the same effect as a plea of guilty, as far as the criminal sentence is concerned, but may not be considered as an admission of guilt for any other purpose.

Nondischargeable debt-A debt that cannot be eliminated in bankruptcy. Examples include a home mortgage, debts for alimony or child support, certain taxes, debts for most government funded or guaranteed educational loans or benefit overpayments, debts arising from death or personal injury caused by driving while intoxicated or under the influence of drugs, and debts for restitution or a criminal fine included in a sentence on the debtor’s conviction of a crime. Some debts, such as debts for money or property obtained by false pretenses and debts for fraud or defalcation while acting in a fiduciary capacity may be declared nondischargeable only if a creditor timely files and prevails in a nondischargeability action.

Nonexempt assets-Property of a debtor that can be liquidated to satisfy claims of creditors.


Objection to dischargeability -A trustee’s or creditor’s objection to the debtor being released from personal liability for certain dischargeable debts. Common reasons include allegations that the debt to be discharged was incurred by false pretenses or that debt arose because of the debtor’s fraud while acting as a fiduciary.

Objection to exemptions-A trustee’s or creditor’s objection to the debtor’s attempt to claim certain property as exempt from liquidation by the trustee to creditors.

Opinion-A judge’s written explanation of the decision of the court. Because a case may be heard by three or more judges in the court of appeals, the opinion in appellate decisions can take several forms. If all the judges completely agree on the result, one judge will write the opinion for all. If all the judges do not agree, the formal decision will be based upon the view of the majority, and one member of the majority will write the opinion. The judges who did not agree with the majority may write separately in dissenting or concurring opinions to present their views. A dissenting opinion disagrees with the majority opinion because of the reasoning and/or the principles of law the majority used to decide the case. A concurring opinion agrees with the decision of the majority opinion, but offers further comment or clarification or even an entirely different reason for reaching the same result. Only the majority opinion can serve as binding precedent in future cases. See also precedent.

Oral argument-An opportunity for lawyers to summarize their position before the court and also to answer the judges’ questions.

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Panel-1. In appellate cases, a group of judges (usually three) assigned to decide the case; 2. In the jury selection process, the group of potential jurors; 3. The list of attorneys who are both available and qualified to serve as court-appointed counsel for criminal defendants who cannot afford their own counsel.

Parole-The release of a prison inmate – granted by the U.S. Parole Commission – after the inmate has completed part of his or her sentence in a federal prison. When the parolee is released to the community, he or she is placed under the supervision of a U.S. probation officer.

The Sentencing Reform Act of 1984 abolished parole in favor of a determinate sentencing system in which the sentence is set by sentencing guidelines. Now, without the option of parole, the term of imprisonment the court imposes is the actual time the person spends in prison.

Party in interest-A party who has standing to be heard by the court in a matter to be decided in the bankruptcy case. The debtor, U.S. trustee or bankruptcy administrator, case trustee, and creditors are parties in interest for most matters.

Per curiam-Latin, meaning “for the court.” In appellate courts, often refers to an unsigned opinion.

Peremptory challenge-A district court may grant each side in a civil or criminal trial the right to exclude a certain number of prospective jurors without cause or giving a reason.

Petit jury (or trial jury)-A group of citizens who hear the evidence presented by both sides at trial and determine the facts in dispute. Federal criminal juries consist of 12 persons. Federal civil juries consist of at least six persons.

Petition-The document that initiates the filing of a bankruptcy proceeding, setting forth basic information regarding the debtor, including name, address, chapter under which the case is filed, and estimated amount of assets and liabilities.

Petition preparer-A business not authorized to practice law that prepares bankruptcy petitions.

Petty offense-A federal misdemeanor punishable by six months or less in prison.

Plaintiff-A person or business that files a formal complaint with the court.

Plan-A debtor’s detailed description of how the debtor proposes to pay creditors’ claims over a fixed period of time.

Plea-In a criminal case, the defendant’s statement pleading “guilty” or “not guilty” in answer to the charges. See also nolo contendere.

Pleadings-Written statements filed with the court that describe a party’s legal or factual assertions about the case.

Postpetition transfer-A transfer of the debtor’s property made after the commencement of the case.

Prebankruptcy planning-The arrangement (or rearrangement) of a debtor’s property to allow the debtor to take maximum advantage of exemptions. (Prebankruptcy planning typically includes converting nonexempt assets into exempt assets.)

Precedent-A court decision in an earlier case with facts and legal issues similar to a dispute currently before a court. Judges will generally “follow precedent” – meaning that they use the principles established in earlier cases to decide new cases that have similar facts and raise similar legal issues. A judge will disregard precedent if a party can show that the earlier case was wrongly decided, or that it differed in some significant way from the current case.

Preferential debt payment-A debt payment made to a creditor in the 90-day period before a debtor files bankruptcy (or within one year if the creditor was an insider) that gives the creditor more than the creditor would receive in the debtor’s chapter 7 case.

Presentence report-A report prepared by a court’s probation officer, after a person has been convicted of an offense, summarizing for the court the background information needed to determine the appropriate sentence.

Pretrial conference-A meeting of the judge and lawyers to plan the trial, to discuss which matters should be presented to the jury, to review proposed evidence and witnesses, and to set a trial schedule. Typically, the judge and the parties also discuss the possibility of settlement of the case.

Pretrial services-A function of the federal courts that takes place at the very start of the criminal justice process – after a person has been arrested and charged with a federal crime and before he or she goes to trial. Pretrial services officers focus on investigating the backgrounds of these persons to help the court determine whether to release or detain them while they await trial. The decision is based on whether these individuals are likely to flee or pose a threat to the community. If the court orders release, a pretrial services officer supervises the person in the community until he or she returns to court.

Priority-The Bankruptcy Code’s statutory ranking of unsecured claims that determines the order in which unsecured claims will be paid if there is not enough money to pay all unsecured claims in full.

Priority claim-An unsecured claim that is entitled to be paid ahead of other unsecured claims that are not entitled to priority status. Priority refers to the order in which these unsecured claims are to be paid.

Pro per-A slang expression sometimes used to refer to a pro se litigant. It is a corruption of the Latin phrase “in propria persona.”

Pro se-Representing oneself. Serving as one’s own lawyer.

Pro tem-Temporary. Example – Pro tem speaker .

Probation -Sentencing option in the federal courts. With probation, instead of sending an individual to prison, the court releases the person to the community and orders him or her to complete a period of supervision monitored by a U.S. probation officer and to abide by certain conditions.

Probation officer -Officers of the probation office of a court. Probation officer duties include conducting presentence investigations, preparing presentence reports on convicted defendants, and supervising released defendants.

Procedure-The rules for conducting a lawsuit; there are rules of civil procedure, criminal procedure, evidence, bankruptcy, and appellate procedure.

Proof of claim-A written statement describing the reason a debtor owes a creditor money, which typically sets forth the amount of money owed. (There is an official form for this purpose.)

Property of the estate-All legal or equitable interests of the debtor in property as of the commencement of the case.

Prosecute-To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government


Reaffirmation agreement-An agreement by a debtor to continue paying a dischargeable debt after the bankruptcy, usually for the purpose of keeping collateral or mortgaged property that would otherwise be subject to repossession.

Record-A written account of the proceedings in a case, including all pleadings, evidence, and exhibits submitted in the course of the case.

Redemption-A procedure in a Chapter 7 case whereby a debtor removes a secured creditor’s lien on collateral by paying the creditor the value of the property. The debtor may then retain the property.

Remand-Send back. Remanding back a case

Reverse-The act of a court setting aside the decision of a lower court. A reversal is often accompanied by a remand to the lower court for further proceedings.


Sanction-A penalty or other type of enforcement used to bring about compliance with the law or with rules and regulations.

Schedules-Lists submitted by the debtor along with the petition (or shortly thereafter) showing the debtor’s assets, liabilities, and other financial information. (There are official forms a debtor must use.)

Secured creditor-A secured creditor is an individual or business that holds a claim against the debtor that is secured by a lien on property of the estate. The property subject to the lien is the secured creditor’s collateral.

Secured debt-Debt backed by a mortgage, pledge of collateral, or other lien; debt for which the creditor has the right to pursue specific pledged property upon default. Examples include home mortgages, auto loans and tax liens.

Senior judge-A federal judge who, after attaining the requisite age and length of judicial experience, takes senior status, thus creating a vacancy among a court’s active judges. A senior judge retains the judicial office and may cut back his or her workload by as much as 75 percent, but many opt to keep a larger caseload.

Sentence-The punishment ordered by a court for a defendant convicted of a crime.

Sentencing guidelines-A set of rules and principles established by the United States Sentencing Commission that trial judges use to determine the sentence for a convicted defendant.

Sequester-To separate. Sometimes juries are sequestered from outside influences during their deliberations.

Service of process-The delivery of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.

Settlement-Parties to a lawsuit resolve their dispute without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in at least partial satisfaction of the other party’s claims, but usually do not include the admission of fault.

Small business case-A special type of chapter 11 case in which there is no creditors’ committee (or the creditors’ committee is deemed inactive by the court) and in which the debtor is subject to more oversight by the U.S. trustee than other chapter 11 debtors. The Bankruptcy Code contains certain provisions designed to reduce the time a small business debtor is in bankruptcy.

Standard of proof-Degree of proof required. In criminal cases, prosecutors must prove a defendant’s guilt “beyond a reasonable doubt.” The majority of civil lawsuits require proof “by a preponderance of the evidence” (50 percent plus), but in some the standard is higher and requires “clear and convincing” proof.

Statement of financial affairs-A series of questions the debtor must answer in writing concerning sources of income, transfers of property, lawsuits by creditors, etc. (There is an official form a debtor must use.)

Statement of intention-A declaration made by a chapter 7 debtor concerning plans for dealing with consumer debts that are secured by property of the estate.

Statute-A law passed by a legislature.

Statute of limitations-The time within which a lawsuit must be filed or a criminal prosecution begun. The deadline can vary, depending on the type of civil case or the crime charged.

Sua sponte-Latin, meaning “of its own will.” Often refers to a court taking an action in a case without being asked to do so by either side.

Subordination-The act or process by which a person’s rights or claims are ranked below those of others.

Subpoena-A command, issued under a court’s authority, to a witness to appear and give testimony.

Subpoena duces tecum-A command to a witness to appear and produce documents.


Temporary restraining order-Similar to a preliminary injunction, it is a judge’s short-term order forbidding certain actions until a full hearing can be conducted. Often referred to as a TRO.

Testimony-Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.

Toll-See statute of limitations.

Tort-A civil, not criminal, wrong. A negligent or intentional injury against a person or property, with the exception of breach of contract.

Transcript-A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial, or during some other formal conversation, such as a hearing or oral deposition

Transfer-Any mode or means by which a debtor disposes of or parts with his/her property.

Trustee-The representative of the bankruptcy estate who exercises statutory powers, principally for the benefit of the unsecured creditors, under the general supervision of the court and the direct supervision of the U.S. trustee or bankruptcy administrator. The trustee is a private individual or corporation appointed in all chapter 7, chapter 12, and chapter 13 cases and some chapter 11 cases. The trustee’s responsibilities include reviewing the debtor’s petition and schedules and bringing actions against creditors or the debtor to recover property of the bankruptcy estate. In chapter 7, the trustee liquidates property of the estate, and makes distributions to creditors. Trustees in chapter 12 and 13 have similar duties to a chapter 7 trustee and the additional responsibilities of overseeing the debtor’s plan, receiving payments from debtors, and disbursing plan payments to creditors.

Typing service-A business not authorized to practice law that prepares bankruptcy petitions.


U.S. attorney-A lawyer appointed by the President in each judicial district to prosecute and defend cases for the federal government. The U.S. Attorney employs a staff of Assistant U.S. Attorneys who appear as the government’s attorneys in individual cases.

U.S. trustee-An officer of the U.S. Department of Justice responsible for supervising the administration of bankruptcy cases, estates, and trustees; monitoring plans and disclosure statements; monitoring creditors’ committees; monitoring fee applications; and performing other statutory duties.

Undersecured claim-A debt secured by property that is worth less than the amount of the debt.

Undue hardship-The most widely used test for evaluating undue hardship in the dischargeability of a student loan includes three conditions: (1) the debtor cannot maintain – based on current income and expenses – a minimal standard of living if forced to repay the loans; (2) there are indications that the state of affairs is likely to persist for a significant portion of the repayment period; and (3) the debtor made good faith efforts to repay the loans.

Unlawful detainer action-A lawsuit brought by a landlord against a tenant to evict the tenant from rental property – usually for nonpayment of rent.

Unliquidated claim-A claim for which a specific value has not been determined.

Unscheduled debt-A debt that should have been listed by the debtor in the schedules filed with the court but was not. (Depending on the circumstances, an unscheduled debt may or may not be discharged.)

Unsecured claim-A claim or debt for which a creditor holds no special assurance of payment, such as a mortgage or lien; a debt for which credit was extended based solely upon the creditor’s assessment of the debtor’s future ability to pay.

Uphold-The appellate court agrees with the lower court decision and allows it to stand. See affirmed.


Venue-The geographic area in which a court has jurisdiction. A change of venue is a change or transfer of a case from one judicial district to another.

Verdict-The decision of a trial jury or a judge that determines the guilt or innocence of a criminal defendant, or that determines the final outcome of a civil case.

Voir dire-Jury selection process of questioning prospective jurors, to ascertain their qualifications and determine any basis for challenge.

Voluntary transfer-A transfer of a debtor’s property with the debtor’s consent.


Wage garnishment-A nonbankruptcy legal proceeding whereby a plaintiff or creditor seeks to subject to his or her claim the future wages of a debtor. In other words, the creditor seeks to have part of the debtor’s future wages paid to the creditor for a debt owed to the creditor.

Warrant-Court authorization, most often for law enforcement officers, to conduct a search or make an arrest.

Witness-A person called upon by either side in a lawsuit to give testimony before the court or jury.

Writ-A written court order directing a person to take, or refrain from taking, a certain act.

Writ of certiorari-An order issued by the U.S. Supreme Court directing the lower court to transmit records for a case which it will hear on appeal.

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Sanskrit words used in Ramayana of Valmiki [PART 1]




च ca तु tu न na स sa ते te इव iva हि hi मे me तस्य tasya तं taṃ तदा tadā ततः tataḥ ततो tato त्वं tvaṃ तद् tad दृष्ट्वा dṛṣṭvā मम mama वा vā तत्र tatra तथा tathā यथा yathā श्रुत्वा śrutvā एव eva अपि api अब्रवीत् abravīt मया mayā सह saha चैव caiva इति iti सर्वे sarve किं kiṃ इदं idaṃ सा sā एवम् evam मां māṃ राजा rājā तव tava आस āsa तम् tam तां tāṃ उवाच uvāca त्वया tvayā अहं ahaṃ चापि cāpi वाक्यं vākyaṃ नाम nāma रामो rāmo ततस् tatas रामं rāmaṃ एवं evaṃ तेन tena राम rāma तत् tat ह्य् hy रामस्य rāmasya त्व् tv रामः rāmaḥ यदि yadi त्वां tvāṃ ह ha अथ atha वाक्यम् vākyam पुनः punaḥ वचनं vacanaṃ वै vai एष eṣa कृत्वा kṛtvā राघवः rāghavaḥ पुनर् punar चित् cit वचः vacaḥ ददर्श dadarśa यद् yad तान् tān इत्य् ity सो so चिद् cid तौ tau त्वम् tvam कथं kathaṃ उक्त्वा uktvā सीता sītā अद्य adya सर्वं sarvaṃ अहम् aham माम् mām राघव rāghava अर्हसि arhasi तेषां teṣāṃ ऽपि ‘pi महात्मनः mahātmanaḥ
रणे raṇe ये ye सीतां sītāṃ तस्मिन् tasmin भविष्यति bhaviṣyati यत्र yatra इदम् idam यत् yat वने vane रामेण rāmeṇa तच् tac गत्वा gatvā ऽहं ‘haṃ रावणः rāvaṇaḥ धर्मात्मा dharmātmā महातेजा mahātejā स्म sma राजन् rājan यो yo महाबलः mahābalaḥ जगाम jagāma एतद् etad रावणं rāvaṇaṃ सर्वान् sarvān बभूव babhūva इह iha पुरा purā श्रीमान् śrīmān वचनम् vacanam वीर vīra के ke रावणो rāvaṇo लक्ष्मणं lakṣmaṇaṃ रावणस्य rāvaṇasya कर्म karma ऽयं ‘yaṃ नः naḥ प्रति prati ताम् tām भूमौ bhūmau येन yena आसाद्य āsādya कश् kaś वनम् vanam वनं vanaṃ गतः gataḥ क्व kva लक्ष्मण lakṣmaṇa महत् mahat लक्ष्मणः lakṣmaṇaḥ सौम्य saumya पश्य paśya राज्यं rājyaṃ अयं ayaṃ रामम् rāmam वीर्यवान् vīryavān हनूमान् hanūmān लङ्कां laṅkāṃ महात्मना mahātmanā नित्यं nityaṃ
रक्षसां rakṣasāṃ किम् kim बलं balaṃ मा mā कृतं kṛtaṃ ऽस्मि ‘smi त्वाम् tvām अस्य asya लोके loke सहसा sahasā वानराः vānarāḥ पश्यामि paśyāmi समरे samare भवान् bhavān सर्वम् sarvam उक्तस् uktas यस्य yasya भवेत् bhavet महान् mahān पितुर् pitur शीघ्रं śīghraṃ स्वयम् svayam काले kāle युधि yudhi को ko महद् mahad पिता pitā समन्ततः samantataḥ भरतं bharataṃ प्राप्य prāpya प्रत्युवाच pratyuvāca सीतया sītayā तात tāta उभौ ubhau युद्धे yuddhe कार्यं kāryaṃ संशयः saṃśayaḥ क्षिप्रं kṣipraṃ महाबाहो mahābāho भरतः bharataḥ चकार cakāra महता mahatā नु nu वैदेहीं vaidehīṃ भद्रं bhadraṃ राक्षसाः rākṣasāḥ सुग्रीवो sugrīvo छ्रुत्वा chrutvā घोरं ghoraṃ तथैव tathaiva यः yaḥ आदाय ādāya भ्रात्रा bhrātrā राघवं rāghavaṃ वैदेही vaidehī भ्राता bhrātā भुवि bhuvi तन् tan उत्तमम् uttamam इच्छामि icchāmi मयि mayi सौमित्रे saumitre हत्वा hatvā पुरीं purīṃ पूर्वं pūrvaṃ सर्वा sarvā
देवि devi हनुमान् hanumān राघवस्य rāghavasya सुग्रीवं sugrīvaṃ विना vinā एतत् etat काकुत्स्थ kākutstha अप्य् apy अत्र atra साधु sādhu तेजसा tejasā वैदेह्या vaidehyā कुरु kuru राघवम् rāghavam राघवो rāghavo विभीषणः vibhīṣaṇaḥ या yā भ्रातरं bhrātaraṃ कृतम् kṛtam राक्षसः rākṣasaḥ राक्षसं rākṣasaṃ राक्षसानां rākṣasānāṃ एते ete लक्ष्मणो lakṣmaṇo पुत्रो putro सुग्रीवः sugrīvaḥ मध्ये madhye संयुगे saṃyuge तस्मात् tasmāt खलु khalu महायशाः mahāyaśāḥ सदा sadā वृतः vṛtaḥ चन cana ददौ dadau क्षिप्रम् kṣipram अब्रवीद् abravīd बलम् balam भरतो bharato क्रुद्धो kruddho महातेजाः mahātejāḥ नो no सार्धं sārdhaṃ वानरः vānaraḥ लक्ष्मणेन lakṣmaṇena मन्ये manye नूनं nūnaṃ आगतः āgataḥ मैथिली maithilī प्रविवेश praviveśa तानि tāni वाली vālī वानराणां vānarāṇāṃ समीक्ष्य samīkṣya सर्वतः sarvataḥ तस्माद् tasmād कर्तुम् kartum कौसल्या kausalyā ऽथ ‘tha यस् yas कस्य kasya रामस् rāmas ऽभवत् ‘bhavat दृश्यते dṛśyate जग्राह jagrāha महात्मा mahātmā शरैः śaraiḥ त्वयि tvayi भव bhava कपिः kapiḥ लङ्का laṅkā पितरं pitaraṃ रघुनन्दन raghunandana वापि vāpi ययौ yayau गमिष्यामि gamiṣyāmi
पपात papāta पुत्रं putraṃ राक्षसान् rākṣasān रथं rathaṃ सः saḥ तद्वचनं tadvacanaṃ तैर् tair विश्वामित्रो viśvāmitro अनुत्तमम् anuttamam इमं imaṃ नास्ति nāsti ताव् tāv वीरो vīro भयं bhayaṃ गच्छ gaccha वीरः vīraḥ आत्मनः ātmanaḥ चाप्य् cāpy गृहीत्वा gṛhītvā रामे rāme सर्वेषां sarveṣāṃ भूत्वा bhūtvā देवी devī रामलक्ष्मणौ rāmalakṣmaṇau सीताम् sītām वयं vayaṃ ऽयम् ‘yam असि asi भार्या bhāryā चिन् cin महाकपिः mahākapiḥ मारुतात्मजः mārutātmajaḥ प्लवंगमाः plavaṃgamāḥ राक्षसा rākṣasā तपसा tapasā वरः varaḥ भृशम् bhṛśam इच्छसि icchasi महाबलम् mahābalam सर्वशः sarvaśaḥ युद्धं yuddhaṃ आस्थाय āsthāya निशाचरः niśācaraḥ परं paraṃ रूपं rūpaṃ वानरान् vānarān यन् yan भगवान् bhagavān धीमतः dhīmataḥ यद्य् yady अस्मिन् asmin धनुर् dhanur दिव्यं divyaṃ एषा eṣā इयं iyaṃ पुरी purī राजानं rājānaṃ स्थितः sthitaḥ वेगेन vegena यदा yadā प्राञ्जलिर् prāñjalir समासाद्य samāsādya सीते sīte शृणु śṛṇu उक्तो ukto बहुभिर् bahubhir महाबलाः mahābalāḥ निशम्य niśamya परुषं paruṣaṃ प्रेक्ष्य prekṣya राक्षसाधिपः rākṣasādhipaḥ अर्हति arhati भयम् bhayam दुःखं duḥkhaṃ कच्चित् kaccit रावणेन rāvaṇena शीघ्रम् śīghram त्यक्त्वा tyaktvā युक्तं yuktaṃ भर्ता bhartā भर्तारं bhartāraṃ मैथिलीम् maithilīm प्रियं priyaṃ तेषाम् teṣām उक्ता uktā वीरौ vīrau दिशः diśaḥ गतो gato ऽहम् ‘ham लक्ष्मणस्य lakṣmaṇasya प्रभुः prabhuḥ
प्रगृह्य pragṛhya प्राप्तं prāptaṃ रामाय rāmāya ऽसि ‘si तैः taiḥ आह āha अस्त्रं astraṃ अयोध्यां ayodhyāṃ भ्रातरौ bhrātarau चास्य cāsya इमां imāṃ जीवितं jīvitaṃ ज्ञात्वा jñātvā कैकेयी kaikeyī पित्रा pitrā पुत्र putra शरैर् śarair ऽसौ ‘sau सुखम् sukham सुखं sukhaṃ स्याद् syād वयम् vayam भवेद् bhaved दृष्टा dṛṣṭā ऽद्य ‘dya हरयो harayo कदा kadā लक्ष्मणम् lakṣmaṇam महाबाहुर् mahābāhur नैव naiva राज्ञो rājño ऽस्य ‘sya दिष्ट्या diṣṭyā गते gate लङ्काम् laṅkām मैथिलीं maithilīṃ मनसा manasā निहतं nihataṃ परमं paramaṃ प्रविश्य praviśya प्रियम् priyam सहस्रशः sahasraśaḥ स्वयं svayaṃ देवाः devāḥ द्रष्टुम् draṣṭum सर्वथा sarvathā सत्यं satyaṃ शिरसा śirasā वानरा vānarā बली balī चक्रे cakre धनुः dhanuḥ धर्मेण dharmeṇa किल kila कृता kṛtā रथम् ratham संख्ये saṃkhye तावद् tāvad तया tayā अस्ति asti भृशं bhṛśaṃ दश daśa द्रष्टुं draṣṭuṃ मुहुर् muhur प्राप्तो prāpto ताः tāḥ आगतम् āgatam अथाब्रवीत् athābravīt भगवन् bhagavan धर्मं dharmaṃ दिशम् diśam दिशो diśo हा hā का kā काकुत्स्थः kākutsthaḥ कामं kāmaṃ
महामुनिः mahāmuniḥ माता mātā मुहूर्तं muhūrtaṃ मुमोच mumoca पुरस्कृत्य puraskṛtya सर्वाणि sarvāṇi स्त्रियः striyaḥ सुतः sutaḥ उपागमत् upāgamat वचो vaco विभीषणम् vibhīṣaṇam वो vo अभिवाद्य abhivādya भूयः bhūyaḥ धर्मम् dharmam गृह्य gṛhya हनूमन्तं hanūmantaṃ हतं hataṃ जनकात्मजा janakātmajā जीवितम् jīvitam कथम् katham केन kena महात्मनाम् mahātmanām पापं pāpaṃ पितुः pituḥ प्रभो prabho पुत्रः putraḥ राज्यम् rājyam राक्षसी rākṣasī शक्यं śakyaṃ सौमित्रिर् saumitrir तेजस्वी tejasvī उक्तः uktaḥ वर्तते vartate चिक्षेप cikṣepa चिन्तयाम् cintayām पथि pathi प्राणान् prāṇān ऽप्य् ‘py सैन्यं sainyaṃ सर्वैर् sarvair वः vaḥ वरम् varam आगम्य āgamya ऽब्रवीत् ‘bravīt दशरथो daśaratho एतस्मिन्न् etasminn महात्मानं mahātmānaṃ नदीम् nadīm नरश्रेष्ठ naraśreṣṭha परिष्वज्य pariṣvajya प्रतिगृह्य pratigṛhya पुरीम् purīm पूर्वम् pūrvam रघुनन्दनः raghunandanaḥ रक्षसा rakṣasā तस्याः tasyāḥ वाचा vācā विज्ञाय vijñāya भ्रातुर् bhrātur गता gatā कुशलं kuśalaṃ
मनः manaḥ राजानम् rājānam राक्षसैः rākṣasaiḥ सर्वाः sarvāḥ ऽस्तु ‘stu विशेषतः viśeṣataḥ अनेन anena बुद्धिर् buddhir चतुर्दश caturdaśa चिच्छेद ciccheda कर्तुं kartuṃ कृताञ्जलिः kṛtāñjaliḥ लोकेषु lokeṣu महाबाहुः mahābāhuḥ निपपात nipapāta पुरुषर्षभ puruṣarṣabha राक्षसेन्द्रस्य rākṣasendrasya सहस्राणि sahasrāṇi स्थितम् sthitam सुग्रीवेण sugrīveṇa उद्यम्य udyamya वरं varaṃ अद्यैव adyaiva आहवे āhave देव deva एको eko एनं enaṃ हतो hato जघान jaghāna जनकात्मजाम् janakātmajām महीतले mahītale नात्र nātra प्रतापवान् pratāpavān रक्षसः rakṣasaḥ रावणम् rāvaṇam सदृशं sadṛśaṃ शरान् śarān सर्वतो sarvato शुभम् śubham सुग्रीवस्य sugrīvasya तस्थौ tasthau तस्या tasyā विद्यते vidyate अहो aho अन्ये anye आत्मानं ātmānaṃ बाणैर् bāṇair बुद्ध्या buddhyā चेदम् cedam देशं deśaṃ जग्मुर् jagmur करिष्यामि kariṣyāmi किमर्थं kimarthaṃ कृतः kṛtaḥ लोकान् lokān ननाद nanāda राक्षसैर् rākṣasair समेत्य sametya समुद्रस्य samudrasya तासां tāsāṃ तूर्णं tūrṇaṃ वैदेहि vaidehi यच् yac अन्तरे antare बलवान् balavān ब्रूहि brūhi धर्मज्ञ dharmajña जानकी jānakī कच्चिद् kaccid क्रुद्धः kruddhaḥ कुम्भकर्णो kumbhakarṇo कुरुष्व kuruṣva मुहुः muhuḥ प्रीतो prīto रक्षसाम् rakṣasām सागरं sāgaraṃ श्रिया śriyā स्वं svaṃ
वानरैः vānaraiḥ अब्रुवन् abruvan अरिंदम ariṃdama आरुरोह āruroha अयम् ayam बहु bahu भरतस्य bharatasya भार्यां bhāryāṃ भूयो bhūyo दत्त्वा dattvā धर्मे dharme धि dhi हन्तुं hantuṃ हतः hataḥ हितं hitaṃ इतो ito कर्मणा karmaṇā कार्यम् kāryam परंतप paraṃtapa रोचते rocate शरणं śaraṇaṃ तयोर् tayor तिष्ठ tiṣṭha तिष्ठति tiṣṭhati उक्तं uktaṃ उपचक्रमे upacakrame वक्तुम् vaktum बभूवुर् babhūvur ब्रह्मन् brahman ऽब्रवीद् ‘bravīd एतच् etac गतिः gatiḥ हते hate कैकेय्या kaikeyyā राज्ये rājye साध्व् sādhv सर्व sarva तेषु teṣu त्रिषु triṣu वीर्यं vīryaṃ यानि yāni अलं alaṃ ब्रुवाणं bruvāṇaṃ चक्रुर् cakrur दशग्रीवः daśagrīvaḥ दशग्रीवो daśagrīvo दुरात्मनः durātmanaḥ एतन् etan काकुत्स्थं kākutsthaṃ लोकस्य lokasya मुहूर्तम् muhūrtam पर्वतः parvataḥ पतितं patitaṃ राक्षसेश्वरः rākṣaseśvaraḥ सागरम् sāgaram सततं satataṃ सुमहान् sumahān सुतम् sutam स्यात् syāt ता tā उपस्थितम् upasthitam वसिष्ठो vasiṣṭho विविधानि vividhāni आसीद् āsīd बभौ babhau भर्तुर् bhartur भवति bhavati दत्तं dattaṃ हृदयं hṛdayaṃ इमे ime कच्चिन् kaccin कालो kālo कृते kṛte कुले kule लक्ष्मणश् lakṣmaṇaś मूर्ध्नि mūrdhni निहत्य nihatya निशाचराः niśācarāḥ पृथिवीं pṛthivīṃ राज्ञा rājñā सहलक्ष्मणः sahalakṣmaṇaḥ ऽस्ति ‘sti सुग्रीवम् sugrīvam वर vara वत्स vatsa विद्धि viddhi यावत् yāvat भीमं bhīmaṃ देवा devā गन्तुम् gantum हृष्टा hṛṣṭā जाम्बवान् jāmbavān कर्तव्यं kartavyaṃ कौसल्यां kausalyāṃ क्रियतां kriyatāṃ महीपतिः mahīpatiḥ पादौ pādau शतं śataṃ ऽस्मिन् ‘smin
सुग्रीव sugrīva तावत् tāvat वालिनं vālinaṃ विश्वामित्रं viśvāmitraṃ विविधान् vividhān आजगाम ājagāma बहवो bahavo चरणौ caraṇau गच्छति gacchati घोरा ghorā हरीन् harīn हृता hṛtā जनः janaḥ कालेन kālena महात्मानो mahātmāno मातरं mātaraṃ परंतपः paraṃtapaḥ पुत्रम् putram राज्ञः rājñaḥ रक्षांसि rakṣāṃsi राक्षसो rākṣaso रतः rataḥ रावण rāvaṇa रुधिरं rudhiraṃ समागम्य samāgamya संक्रुद्धो saṃkruddho शुभं śubhaṃ सुमहद् sumahad सुराः surāḥ तस्यां tasyāṃ वानरैर् vānarair विवेश viveśa यं yaṃ आस्थितः āsthitaḥ बाहुभ्यां bāhubhyāṃ बुद्धिं buddhiṃ देशम् deśam दुःखम् duḥkham गतिं gatiṃ इमाम् imām कः kaḥ काकुत्स्थो kākutstho कं kaṃ खल्व् khalv महातपाः mahātapāḥ मैथिलि maithili प्रययौ prayayau राघवौ rāghavau सर्वभूतानां sarvabhūtānāṃ सौमित्रिं saumitriṃ शोकेन śokena सुता sutā तांस् tāṃs तपः tapaḥ तथेत्य् tathety वशम् vaśam व्यक्तं vyaktaṃ यशस्विनी yaśasvinī आश्रमं āśramaṃ आश्रित्य āśritya अवश्यं avaśyaṃ चान्ये cānye दिशं diśaṃ कुम्भकर्णं kumbhakarṇaṃ नदीं nadīṃ नाहं nāhaṃ फलानि phalāni प्रतिजग्राह pratijagrāha पृथिव्यां pṛthivyāṃ पुष्पकं puṣpakaṃ रामश् rāmaś रम्यं ramyaṃ रूपम् rūpam श्रूयते śrūyate शुभे śubhe शुश्राव śuśrāva स्वेन svena तस्मिंस् tasmiṃs वक्ष्यामि vakṣyāmi वनानि vanāni अङ्गदं aṅgadaṃ आपतन्तं āpatantaṃ आसीत् āsīt ब्रह्मा brahmā चिरं ciraṃ ददृशुर् dadṛśur दुःखेन duḥkhena कन्या kanyā करिष्यति kariṣyati लेभे lebhe मनो mano परम् param पुनस् punas शक्रो śakro सेना senā सीताया sītāyā स्थिताः sthitāḥ शुशुभे śuśubhe तान्य् tāny तरसा tarasā तस्मै tasmai अद्भुतम् adbhutam आश्रमम् āśramam बहून् bahūn बलेन balena भूतानि bhūtāni चात्र cātra ददृशे dadṛśe दक्षिणां dakṣiṇāṃ देवानां devānāṃ धर्मः dharmaḥ हृदि hṛdi इच्छति icchati जहि jahi कालस्य kālasya महाराज mahārāja महीं mahīṃ
मुनिपुंगवः munipuṃgavaḥ नित्यम् nityam प्रजाः prajāḥ ऋषिः ṛṣiḥ श्रूयतां śrūyatāṃ स्वस्ति svasti तयोः tayoḥ उपागम्य upāgamya उत्पपात utpapāta उत्सृज्य utsṛjya वानर vānara वसिष्ठं vasiṣṭhaṃ विपुलं vipulaṃ वीरं vīraṃ अब्रवीच् abravīc अग्रतः agrataḥ आरुह्य āruhya अतिक्रम्य atikramya अयोध्यायां ayodhyāyāṃ बहुधा bahudhā भद्रे bhadre दशरथः daśarathaḥ दातुम् dātum धर्मो dharmo धीमता dhīmatā दृश्यन्ते dṛśyante गमिष्यसि gamiṣyasi गतिर् gatir हनूमन्तम् hanūmantam हरियूथपाः hariyūthapāḥ इन्द्रजित् indrajit जानामि jānāmi जीवति jīvati कालं kālaṃ कुरुते kurute लङ्कायां laṅkāyāṃ मानुषं mānuṣaṃ मेदिनीम् medinīm नरव्याघ्र naravyāghra निहतो nihato पावकः pāvakaḥ फलं phalaṃ प्राह prāha राघवेण rāghaveṇa ऋषीणां ṛṣīṇāṃ शक्या śakyā समाहिताः samāhitāḥ सत्यम् satyam सीतायाः sītāyāḥ सुदारुणम् sudāruṇam शूरो śūro स्वम् svam तपस् tapas तत्त्वतः tattvataḥ तूर्णम् tūrṇam उत्सहे utsahe वर्षाणि varṣāṇi विश्रुतः viśrutaḥ यावद् yāvad अन्योन्यं anyonyaṃ अर्थं arthaṃ असौ asau बहुभिः bahubhiḥ भरतस् bharatas भर्तारम् bhartāram भाषितं bhāṣitaṃ भित्त्वा bhittvā चक्षुषा cakṣuṣā दशग्रीवं daśagrīvaṃ दशरथात्मजः daśarathātmajaḥ दिवं divaṃ एकं ekaṃ गमिष्यति gamiṣyati गतम् gatam गतिम् gatim गिरा girā हितम् hitam हृष्टाः hṛṣṭāḥ इदानीं idānīṃ करुणं karuṇaṃ किष्किन्धां kiṣkindhāṃ कुम्भकर्णस्य kumbhakarṇasya महाद्युतिः mahādyutiḥ महारथः mahārathaḥ नापि nāpi पाणिना pāṇinā प्रभाते prabhāte प्रदक्षिणम् pradakṣiṇam
प्रणम्य praṇamya पुरे pure रक्षो rakṣo सागरे sāgare संप्रेक्ष्य saṃprekṣya शत्रुघ्नो śatrughno सूतं sūtaṃ उवाचेदं uvācedaṃ वक्त्रं vaktraṃ विललाप vilalāpa विसृज्य visṛjya विविधैर् vividhair वृत्तं vṛttaṃ यश् yaś यथान्यायं yathānyāyaṃ अङ्गदो aṅgado बलात् balāt भवनं bhavanaṃ भविष्यसि bhaviṣyasi भ्रातुः bhrātuḥ ददृशुस् dadṛśus दशाननः daśānanaḥ धरणीतले dharaṇītale दीनो dīno इतः itaḥ जगत् jagat मधुरं madhuraṃ महाबल mahābala मही mahī नामतः nāmataḥ नाम्ना nāmnā परमर्षयः paramarṣayaḥ परित्यज्य parityajya प्रभृति prabhṛti प्रविष्टो praviṣṭo प्रीतिर् prītir पुत्रान् putrān राक्षस rākṣasa राक्षसास् rākṣasās राक्षस्यो rākṣasyo रराज rarāja सचिवैः sacivaiḥ सप्त sapta सार्धम् sārdham सर्वेषु sarveṣu सतां satāṃ सती satī सौमित्रिणा saumitriṇā तस्यास् tasyās ऊचुः ūcuḥ वधं vadhaṃ वनौकसः vanaukasaḥ वासवः vāsavaḥ वायुर् vāyur विहाय vihāya विमानं vimānaṃ वीरा vīrā विष्णुर् viṣṇur व्यसनं vyasanaṃ यथासुखम् yathāsukham आज्ञाय ājñāya आशु āśu आसुर् āsur बाढम् bāḍham भविष्यन्ति bhaviṣyanti भूतानां bhūtānāṃ चापं cāpaṃ दशरथस्य daśarathasya दीना dīnā गताः gatāḥ गृहं gṛhaṃ हृष्टो hṛṣṭo कामरूपिणः kāmarūpiṇaḥ लोकानां lokānāṃ महर्षयः maharṣayaḥ महतीं mahatīṃ मतिः matiḥ मुनिः muniḥ निशाचर niśācara निशितैः niśitaiḥ नृपः nṛpaḥ पर्वतम् parvatam रम्या ramyā रम्यां ramyāṃ शब्देन śabdena शनैः śanaiḥ स्थिता sthitā स्वां svāṃ ताभ्यां tābhyāṃ उत्तरं uttaraṃ यथाविधि yathāvidhi अस्या asyā भर्तुः bhartuḥ भवता bhavatā ददृशुः dadṛśuḥ देशे deśe दिवि divi हनुमता hanumatā हनूमतः hanūmataḥ हरिभिर् haribhir जातो jāto क्रोधाद् krodhād मन्त्रिभिः mantribhiḥ मन्त्रिणः mantriṇaḥ मुदा mudā न्यवेदयत् nyavedayat पतिता patitā फलम् phalam प्रदक्षिणं pradakṣiṇaṃ प्रसादं prasādaṃ प्रिया priyā पृष्ठतः pṛṣṭhataḥ पृष्ठतो pṛṣṭhato राघवे rāghave साक्षाद् sākṣād समाहितः samāhitaḥ श्रुतम् śrutam शूलं śūlaṃ तैस् tais तस्मिन्न् tasminn तथेति tatheti तीव्रं tīvraṃ ऽत्र ‘tra उत्थाय utthāya वानरं vānaraṃ वानरर्षभाः vānararṣabhāḥ विधिवत् vidhivat वृक्षान् vṛkṣān वृतम् vṛtam यशस्विनीम् yaśasvinīm युक्तो yukto आमन्त्र्य āmantrya आरोप्य āropya अस्माकं asmākaṃ अस्तु astu अतो ato अवेक्ष्य avekṣya भरतेन bharatena भाति bhāti भवतु bhavatu चिच् cic दीनं dīnaṃ द्वौ dvau गिरेः gireḥ
हन्तुम् hantum इमौ imau इवाम्बरम् ivāmbaram जनाः janāḥ जनस्थाने janasthāne महामुनिम् mahāmunim महायशः mahāyaśaḥ मारुतः mārutaḥ मतिं matiṃ मुहूर्तेन muhūrtena नगरीं nagarīṃ नराधिपः narādhipaḥ निपेतुर् nipetur नित्यशः nityaśaḥ पप्रच्छ papraccha प्राञ्जलिः prāñjaliḥ पूजां pūjāṃ पुत्रस् putras रक्षः rakṣaḥ राक्षसाधिपम् rākṣasādhipam राक्षसेन्द्रो rākṣasendro रथे rathe समागताः samāgatāḥ संग्रामे saṃgrāme सर्वांस् sarvāṃs शेते śete श्रोतुम् śrotum श्रुतं śrutaṃ स्थितं sthitaṃ शुभाम् śubhām शूरः śūraḥ सुसमाहितः susamāhitaḥ वासं vāsaṃ वृतो vṛto ययुः yayuḥ आगता āgatā आनय ānaya अन्योन्यम् anyonyam अर्हथ arhatha आसीन् āsīn बद्ध्वा baddhvā बहवः bahavaḥ बाहू bāhū चाहं cāhaṃ चैनं cainaṃ चित्रं citraṃ ददामि dadāmi दारुणं dāruṇaṃ ध्रुवम् dhruvam दिवम् divam दिव्यम् divyam द्रक्ष्यसि drakṣyasi दुर्धर्षो durdharṣo एकेन ekena एषां eṣāṃ एषो eṣo एतान् etān एतौ etau घोरैर् ghorair गुणैर् guṇair हनूमता hanūmatā हरीणां harīṇāṃ हित्वा hitvā इहागतः ihāgataḥ जीवितुम् jīvitum ज्येष्ठो jyeṣṭho क्रोधात् krodhāt कृत्स्नं kṛtsnaṃ क्षमं kṣamaṃ क्षितौ kṣitau महावने mahāvane मन्यसे manyase मृत्युर् mṛtyur नरः naraḥ नराः narāḥ नरशार्दूल naraśārdūla पञ्च pañca परस्परम् parasparam परवीरहा paravīrahā पतिः patiḥ पतिं patiṃ प्रजा prajā प्रकाशते prakāśate प्रतिभाति pratibhāti प्रीतिं prītiṃ पुरं puraṃ राघवाय rāghavāya राक्षसेन्द्रेण rākṣasendreṇa रात्रौ rātrau रात्रिं rātriṃ रावणिः rāvaṇiḥ ऋषिं ṛṣiṃ सहितो sahito शक्तिर् śaktir स्थातुं sthātuṃ सुमहत् sumahat स्वागतं svāgataṃ तांश् tāṃś तपस्विनी tapasvinī तपो tapo तारा tārā तास् tās ततश् tataś तत्रैव tatraiva तीक्ष्णैर् tīkṣṇair त्रीन् trīn तुमुलं tumulaṃ त्वरितं tvaritaṃ वैदेहीम् vaidehīm
वनेषु vaneṣu वशे vaśe ववर्ष vavarṣa विव्याध vivyādha युक्तः yuktaḥ यूथपः yūthapaḥ अप्रियम् apriyam अरिंदमः ariṃdamaḥ आत्मानम् ātmānam अतुलं atulaṃ अत्यर्थं atyarthaṃ बाणैः bāṇaiḥ भरते bharate भार्यया bhāryayā भाषितम् bhāṣitam बिभेद bibheda दण्डकारण्ये daṇḍakāraṇye दर्शनं darśanaṃ धर्मवित् dharmavit ध्रुवं dhruvaṃ दीप्तं dīptaṃ द्रक्ष्यामि drakṣyāmi द्रुमाः drumāḥ गङ्गां gaṅgāṃ गृहे gṛhe हरिः hariḥ हतम् hatam हृष्टः hṛṣṭaḥ ईदृशम् īdṛśam जनकस्य janakasya कदनं kadanaṃ कैकेयीं kaikeyīṃ करिष्यसि kariṣyasi क्रोधम् krodham क्रोधमूर्छितः krodhamūrchitaḥ कृतो kṛto मेने mene मुखम् mukham मुनिं muniṃ नेह neha निहते nihate नृप nṛpa न्व् nv परिघं parighaṃ पार्श्वे pārśve पश्यसि paśyasi प्राणैर् prāṇair प्रतिज्ञां pratijñāṃ प्रत्यभाषत pratyabhāṣata राक्षसस्य rākṣasasya रक्षिता rakṣitā रामेति rāmeti रम्ये ramye रूपेण rūpeṇa शैलं śailaṃ समीपं samīpaṃ समुद्रं samudraṃ समुत्पत्य samutpatya शतशो śataśo सत्यपराक्रमः satyaparākramaḥ सौमित्रिम् saumitrim स्थानं sthānaṃ स्वर्गं svargaṃ तस्मान् tasmān तेनैव tenaiva तीरे tīre ऊचुर् ūcur उत्पाट्य utpāṭya वधे vadhe वपुषा vapuṣā वसति vasati वेश्म veśma विमले vimale विश्वकर्मणा viśvakarmaṇā यशः yaśaḥ योजनानां yojanānāṃ आभरणानि ābharaṇāni अभूत् abhūt अब्रवीन् abravīn आजघान ājaghāna आलोक्य ālokya आससाद āsasāda आत्मवान् ātmavān बलाद् balād भामिनि bhāmini भीरु bhīru चाब्रवीत् cābravīt दर्शनम् darśanam दशरथं daśarathaṃ देवं devaṃ देवान् devān धनं dhanaṃ दीर्घम् dīrgham दिवाकरः divākaraḥ द्रुमान् drumān दुर्गं durgaṃ द्वे dve गवां gavāṃ घोरम् ghoram हन्ति hanti इक्ष्वाकूणां ikṣvākūṇāṃ जीवन् jīvan कालः kālaḥ काञ्चनं kāñcanaṃ कारणं kāraṇaṃ कथाः kathāḥ खरः kharaḥ कृतवान् kṛtavān कुलं kulaṃ लक्ष्मणस् lakṣmaṇas महच् mahac महास्वनम् mahāsvanam मुखं mukhaṃ नीलं nīlaṃ नीलो nīlo निरीक्ष्य nirīkṣya नृपम् nṛpam पारं pāraṃ परमप्रीतो paramaprīto परया parayā पावकम् pāvakam पितामहः pitāmahaḥ प्रहसन् prahasan प्रश्रितं praśritaṃ प्रथमं prathamaṃ
प्रेषयाम् preṣayām प्रीतः prītaḥ पुरंदरः puraṃdaraḥ पुत्रौ putrau रथेन rathena शब्दो śabdo सहिताः sahitāḥ संध्याम् saṃdhyām सन्ति santi शराः śarāḥ शरम् śaram सरितां saritāṃ सर्वभूतानि sarvabhūtāni सर्वां sarvāṃ शोभते śobhate स्थितो sthito सुग्रीवे sugrīve शूराः śūrāḥ सुरासुरैः surāsuraiḥ त्रयः trayaḥ त्रिभिर् tribhir त्रिदिवं tridivaṃ वाक्यैर् vākyair वानरर्षभः vānararṣabhaḥ यज्ञं yajñaṃ यां yāṃ यावन् yāvan युक्ता yuktā अभिदुद्राव abhidudrāva आचचक्षे ācacakṣe आगताः āgatāḥ अग्निं agniṃ अनाथवत् anāthavat अनृतं anṛtaṃ आश्रितः āśritaḥ अथो atho आवृत्य āvṛtya बाणान् bāṇān भूत् bhūt भूयस् bhūyas ब्रुवति bruvati चचार cacāra चापम् cāpam देवतानां devatānāṃ देवीं devīṃ देवो devo देव्या devyā धर्मभृतां dharmabhṛtāṃ दीप्तम् dīptam दूरम् dūram दुरात्मना durātmanā एतावद् etāvad गन्तुं gantuṃ हरयः harayaḥ हताः hatāḥ जलम् jalam ज्येष्ठं jyeṣṭhaṃ कपिकुञ्जरः kapikuñjaraḥ कपिर् kapir कर्ता kartā काश् kāś खम् kham क्रुद्धं kruddhaṃ कुर्याद् kuryād महानादं mahānādaṃ मतिम् matim मत्कृते matkṛte मातुर् mātur मायया māyayā मेदिनी medinī मुनयः munayaḥ मुनिपुंगव munipuṃgava मुनिर् munir नगरी nagarī ननु nanu नरर्षभ nararṣabha निर्जगाम nirjagāma नूनम् nūnam परिगृह्य parigṛhya पातयाम् pātayām पितामहम् pitāmaham प्रहस्तं prahastaṃ प्रहृष्टा prahṛṣṭā प्रजापतिः prajāpatiḥ प्राप्ते prāpte प्रीत्या prītyā प्रियां priyāṃ पुनश् punaś पुरुषव्याघ्र puruṣavyāghra रक्षोभिर् rakṣobhir रणमूर्धनि raṇamūrdhani
रत्नानि ratnāni रावणात्मजः rāvaṇātmajaḥ सलक्ष्मणः salakṣmaṇaḥ सलक्ष्मणम् salakṣmaṇam संहृष्टा saṃhṛṣṭā संजज्ञे saṃjajñe सन् san शरैस् śarais सरांसि sarāṃsi शरीरं śarīraṃ सर्वैः sarvaiḥ सर्वस्य sarvasya सेनां senāṃ शोकं śokaṃ श्रेष्ठो śreṣṭho श्रुतः śrutaḥ शुचिः śuciḥ शुश्रुवे śuśruve सुव्रत suvrata स्यान् syān उद्दिश्य uddiśya वक्तुं vaktuṃ वाक्यविशारदः vākyaviśāradaḥ वसिष्ठेन vasiṣṭhena विचचार vicacāra विश्वामित्रम् viśvāmitram यस्मिन् yasmin अभवत् abhavat अभिगम्य abhigamya अकरोत् akarot बाणेन bāṇena भरद्वाजो bharadvājo भरतश् bharataś भविष्यामि bhaviṣyāmi भयात् bhayāt भूमिं bhūmiṃ ऽभ्यभाषत ‘bhyabhāṣata बुद्धिमान् buddhimān चक्रुः cakruḥ दण्डकान् daṇḍakān दीनां dīnāṃ दिशश् diśaś दृष्ट्वैव dṛṣṭvaiva द्रुतम् drutam दुष्करं duṣkaraṃ द्विजः dvijaḥ द्विजाः dvijāḥ गिरौ girau गिरिम् girim हनूमांश् hanūmāṃś हरीश्वरः harīśvaraḥ हिमवान् himavān हुताशनम् hutāśanam जहार jahāra जले jale जनपदे janapade जनयाम् janayām कामम् kāmam खरस्य kharasya कृताञ्जलिर् kṛtāñjalir कुर्वन् kurvan मधुरां madhurāṃ महाभागा mahābhāgā महाहवे mahāhave महति mahati मारुतिः mārutiḥ मतिर् matir मात्रा mātrā मूलानि mūlāni निमित्तानि nimittāni निशाम् niśām पन्थानम् panthānam पापम् pāpam पार्थिव pārthiva पश्यन्ति paśyanti प्रहसन्न् prahasann प्रवर्तते pravartate पृथिवी pṛthivī पुमान् pumān पुरुषर्षभः puruṣarṣabhaḥ
राजंस् rājaṃs रमते ramate रथः rathaḥ रुदती rudatī सगन्धर्वाः sagandharvāḥ सागरः sāgaraḥ सागरस्य sāgarasya सहिता sahitā सखा sakhā शक्तिं śaktiṃ समन्तात् samantāt संचिन्त्य saṃcintya संज्ञां saṃjñāṃ संयति saṃyati शनैर् śanair शरीरे śarīre शासनम् śāsanam शासनात् śāsanāt सिद्धाश् siddhāś शिरो śiro श्रियम् śriyam शुभा śubhā सुखी sukhī सुराणां surāṇāṃ शूर्पणखा śūrpaṇakhā सुतं sutaṃ उपागतः upāgataḥ उत्तरम् uttaram वालिना vālinā वालिनम् vālinam वेगवान् vegavān विदित्वा viditvā यस्मात् yasmāt यथागतम् yathāgatam युद्धम् yuddham आददे ādade अधिकं adhikaṃ आकाशे ākāśe अन्तरं antaraṃ आसीनं āsīnaṃ अस्तं astaṃ बभञ्ज babhañja बभाषे babhāṣe बले bale ऽभवद् ‘bhavad भविता bhavitā भयाद् bhayād ब्रह्मणा brahmaṇā बुद्धिः buddhiḥ बुद्ध्वा buddhvā चचाल cacāla चतुर्भिः caturbhiḥ दैवं daivaṃ दर्शयाम् darśayām दशरथस् daśarathas दत्ता dattā धिग् dhig धीमान् dhīmān दिव्यां divyāṃ दृष्टः dṛṣṭaḥ दृष्टं dṛṣṭaṃ दृष्टो dṛṣṭo दुरासदम् durāsadam एष्यति eṣyati गदया gadayā गगनं gaganaṃ गमनं gamanaṃ गमने gamane गङ्गा gaṅgā घोरान् ghorān गृध्रं gṛdhraṃ गुणान् guṇān हरियूथपः hariyūthapaḥ हृदये hṛdaye इहैव ihaiva इतीव itīva जाम्बवन्तं jāmbavantaṃ ज्वलन्तम् jvalantam कैकेयि kaikeyi काकुत्स्थम् kākutstham कथितं kathitaṃ कुम्भकर्णः kumbhakarṇaḥ लब्ध्वा labdhvā लक्ष्यते lakṣyate लोकं lokaṃ
महाबाहुं mahābāhuṃ महाबलौ mahābalau महामुने mahāmune महार्हाणि mahārhāṇi महातेजास् mahātejās महात्मानः mahātmānaḥ मन्त्रिणो mantriṇo नादं nādaṃ नदी nadī निर्मितं nirmitaṃ न्यवेदयन् nyavedayan ओजसा ojasā पादुके pāduke पराक्रमम् parākramam पार्थिवः pārthivaḥ पश्चिमां paścimāṃ पतिम् patim प्राणांस् prāṇāṃs प्रियाम् priyām प्रोवाच provāca राघवस् rāghavas रजनीं rajanīṃ रावणस् rāvaṇas ऋते ṛte शक्रस्य śakrasya शक्यम् śakyam सलिलं salilaṃ समन्ताद् samantād समर्थो samartho समीपे samīpe संपरिष्वज्य saṃpariṣvajya शंस śaṃsa शरं śaraṃ सर्वत्र sarvatra शिरस्य् śirasy ऽस्म्य् ‘smy श्रूयताम् śrūyatām स्त्रीणां strīṇāṃ सुमित्रा sumitrā तेपे tepe त्रैलोक्यं trailokyaṃ ऊर्ध्वं ūrdhvaṃ वधार्थं vadhārthaṃ वधाय vadhāya वैरं vairaṃ वाक्येन vākyena वनौकसाम् vanaukasām वाप्य् vāpy वर्षसहस्राणि varṣasahasrāṇi वायुः vāyuḥ विदितं viditaṃ विशालाक्षि viśālākṣi वृथा vṛthā व्याहृतं vyāhṛtaṃ यस्माद् yasmād याति yāti येषां yeṣāṃ युद्धाय yuddhāya अभाषत abhāṣata अध्वानं adhvānaṃ अग्रतो agrato आख्यातं ākhyātaṃ अङ्गदः aṅgadaḥ अङ्गदस्य aṅgadasya अन्यथा anyathā अरिंदमम् ariṃdamam अस्माद् asmād अस्माकम् asmākam अशोकवनिकां aśokavanikāṃ आयान्तं āyāntaṃ आयतम् āyatam
अयोध्याम् ayodhyām बहूनि bahūni बाला bālā बलीयसा balīyasā भक्षिता bhakṣitā भामिनी bhāminī भवन्तः bhavantaḥ भीमविक्रमः bhīmavikramaḥ ब्रवीमि bravīmi चाहम् cāham चक्रिरे cakrire चतुरो caturo चेद् ced चिरम् ciram दत्तम् dattam देवैर् devair देवताः devatāḥ धरण्यां dharaṇyāṃ धर्मज्ञः dharmajñaḥ द्रक्ष्यन्ति drakṣyanti दूराद् dūrād दुष्टात्मा duṣṭātmā एनम् enam गगने gagane गतं gataṃ गात्रेषु gātreṣu गवाक्षो gavākṣo हर्षम् harṣam हर्षेण harṣeṇa हता hatā जातः jātaḥ जायते jāyate कैकेयीम् kaikeyīm कालम् kālam कर्मणः karmaṇaḥ कार्या kāryā कथां kathāṃ क्रोधेन krodhena क्रुद्धा kruddhā क्षमा kṣamā लभते labhate लोका lokā लोकांस् lokāṃs महाप्राज्ञ mahāprājña महती mahatī महेन्द्रस्य mahendrasya महोदरः mahodaraḥ मह्यं mahyaṃ ममापि mamāpi मानद mānada मासान् māsān माया māyā मुहूर्ते muhūrte मूलं mūlaṃ नगरं nagaraṃ नरा narā निक्षिप्य nikṣipya नीलः nīlaḥ निर्ययौ niryayau निवेशनम् niveśanam नृपात्मज nṛpātmaja ऽनुमते ‘numate परमा paramā परमां paramāṃ पर्वतं parvataṃ पर्यवारयन् paryavārayan पश्यन् paśyan पत्नी patnī प्लवगर्षभाः plavagarṣabhāḥ प्रददौ pradadau प्रदास्यामि pradāsyāmi प्रहर्षम् praharṣam प्रहस्तो prahasto प्रहस्य prahasya प्रतिज्ञा pratijñā प्रत्यदृश्यत pratyadṛśyata प्रविष्टा praviṣṭā प्रियः priyaḥ पृष्ट्वा pṛṣṭvā पूर्णे pūrṇe राजेन्द्र rājendra राक्षसानाम् rākṣasānām राक्षसराजस्य rākṣasarājasya राक्षसेश्वर rākṣaseśvara रणाजिरे raṇājire सहस्रं sahasraṃ सख्यं sakhyaṃ शक्यो śakyo संक्रुद्धः saṃkruddhaḥ साम्प्रतम् sāmpratam शत्रुघ्न śatrughna शेषं śeṣaṃ शिखरं śikharaṃ शितैः śitaiḥ शितैर् śitair श्रेष्ठः śreṣṭhaḥ शुभां śubhāṃ सुग्रीवस् sugrīvas सुमाली sumālī शूरा śūrā सुरैर् surair सुराणाम् surāṇām सुतो suto तरस्विनाम् tarasvinām तस्यैव tasyaiva तीरम् tīram त्वय्य् tvayy उच्यते ucyate उग्रं ugraṃ वदनं vadanaṃ वधम् vadham वधिष्यामि vadhiṣyāmi वरारोहे varārohe वरुणालयम् varuṇālayam वरुणस्य varuṇasya वसुधा vasudhā वसुंधरा vasuṃdharā वेगं vegaṃ विभीषण vibhīṣaṇa विजने vijane विमलं vimalaṃ विनेदुर् vinedur विस्मयं vismayaṃ विष्णुना viṣṇunā व्याजहार vyājahāra यमसादनम् yamasādanam यथैव yathaiva यत्नं yatnaṃ
युक्तम् yuktam अभवद् abhavad आगच्छ āgaccha आगतं āgataṃ आकाशम् ākāśam अनुस्मरन् anusmaran अपरे apare अपूजयन् apūjayan अस्मि asmi आश्रमे āśrame आत्मनश् ātmanaś आत्मनो ātmano अवस्थितम् avasthitam बहुविधं bahuvidhaṃ भवन्ति bhavanti भवन्तो bhavanto भीमकर्मणाम् bhīmakarmaṇām ऽभिवाद्य ‘bhivādya भ्रातृभिः bhrātṛbhiḥ भूमिर् bhūmir भूतं bhūtaṃ ब्राह्मणा brāhmaṇā ब्रुवन् bruvan दशरथात्मजम् daśarathātmajam देशः deśaḥ धारयन् dhārayan दीप्यमानं dīpyamānaṃ दिवसे divase दुःखार्ता duḥkhārtā दुर्मतिः durmatiḥ दुष्कृतं duṣkṛtaṃ एकम् ekam गच्छन्तं gacchantaṃ गन्धमादनः gandhamādanaḥ गताम् gatām गतौ gatau गात्राणि gātrāṇi गिरिं giriṃ गोदावरीं godāvarīṃ गुहः guhaḥ गुरुः guruḥ हयैः hayaiḥ हीना hīnā जग्मुः jagmuḥ जज्ञे jajñe जानासि jānāsi जानीषे jānīṣe जाता jātā ज्येष्ठा jyeṣṭhā कन्यां kanyāṃ करिष्ये kariṣye कार्यस्य kāryasya कस् kas कस्माद् kasmād कथयाम् kathayām केवलं kevalaṃ खरं kharaṃ क्रियताम् kriyatām कृपणं kṛpaṇaṃ कुतो kuto लक्ष्मणे lakṣmaṇe लक्ष्म्या lakṣmyā मधुवनं madhuvanaṃ महर्षिभिः maharṣibhiḥ महात्मने mahātmane महावीर्यो mahāvīryo मन्दं mandaṃ मिथ्या mithyā मुनेः muneḥ मुनिना muninā मुनिश्रेष्ठ muniśreṣṭha नरेन्द्रस्य narendrasya
नारी nārī निलयं nilayaṃ पादपाः pādapāḥ पद्भ्यां padbhyāṃ पराक्रमः parākramaḥ परपुरंजयः parapuraṃjayaḥ पार्थिवम् pārthivam पश्याम्य् paśyāmy पतितो patito पितुस् pitus प्रभावेन prabhāvena प्रतिज्ञाय pratijñāya पुत्रस्य putrasya पुत्रेण putreṇa राजानो rājāno राक्षसेन्द्रः rākṣasendraḥ राक्षसेन्द्रम् rākṣasendram रसातलम् rasātalam शब्दं śabdaṃ सदृशो sadṛśo शैलस्य śailasya सखे sakhe शक्तो śakto समं samaṃ संधाय saṃdhāya सशरं saśaraṃ शत्रुघ्नं śatrughnaṃ शत्रून् śatrūn शत्रुनिबर्हणः śatrunibarhaṇaḥ सौमित्रिः saumitriḥ शयानं śayānaṃ स्नेहाद् snehād शोभने śobhane शोकम् śokam शोणितम् śoṇitam स्थिते sthite शुभैः śubhaiḥ सुकृतं sukṛtaṃ सुमन्त्रं sumantraṃ सुमित्रां sumitrāṃ सूत sūta स्वतेजसा svatejasā ताञ् tāñ तेजो tejo तीक्ष्णैः tīkṣṇaiḥ त्रयो trayo त्वरितो tvarito त्वत्कृते tvatkṛte त्यज tyaja उक्तास् uktās उपागतम् upāgatam उत्तिष्ठ uttiṣṭha वचस् vacas वधिष्यति vadhiṣyati वैदेह्याः vaidehyāḥ वाल्मीकिर् vālmīkir वानरपुंगवाः vānarapuṃgavāḥ वाणीं vāṇīṃ वसुंधराम् vasuṃdharām ववौ vavau विभो vibho विचित्राणि vicitrāṇi विधीयताम् vidhīyatām विकृतं vikṛtaṃ विनाशाय vināśāya वीर्यम् vīryam व्यजायत vyajāyata व्यथिता vyathitā व्यवस्थितः vyavasthitaḥ यदृच्छया yadṛcchayā यम् yam यान्य् yāny यशस्विनम् yaśasvinam यस्यार्यो yasyāryo यतो yato ययुर् yayur अभ्यधावत abhyadhāvata आचक्ष्व ācakṣva अदृश्यत adṛśyata अगमत् agamat
अग्रे agre आकाशं ākāśaṃ आख्यातुम् ākhyātum आलम्ब्य ālambya अनन्तरम् anantaram अन्तःपुरं antaḥpuraṃ अरिंदमौ ariṃdamau आर्यं āryaṃ अस्मान् asmān अस्मिन्न् asminn अथोवाच athovāca आविश्य āviśya बभूवुः babhūvuḥ बाष्पं bāṣpaṃ बत bata भक्त्या bhaktyā भरत bharata भरतम् bharatam भार्याम् bhāryām भीमविक्रमाः bhīmavikramāḥ भुजाभ्यां bhujābhyāṃ भुङ्क्ष्व bhuṅkṣva भूतले bhūtale भूय bhūya बिलं bilaṃ चैनम् cainam चायं cāyaṃ छित्त्वा chittvā चिन्तां cintāṃ चोभौ cobhau दैवतं daivataṃ दक्षिणं dakṣiṇaṃ दशग्रीवस् daśagrīvas देशो deśo देवास् devās धिक् dhik दीनः dīnaḥ दिव्या divyā दीयताम् dīyatām दुःखतरं duḥkhataraṃ दुःखितः duḥkhitaḥ दूतो dūto द्वारम् dvāram एतानि etāni एतेन etena गम्यतां gamyatāṃ गन्धर्वा gandharvā गङ्गाम् gaṅgām गिरिः giriḥ गृहाण gṛhāṇa गुणाः guṇāḥ गुणैः guṇaiḥ हयान् hayān हिते hite ईदृशं īdṛśaṃ जग्मुस् jagmus जित्वा jitvā ज्ञातुम् jñātum कानने kānane कपिम् kapim कर्तव्यो kartavyo खरश् kharaś कीर्तिं kīrtiṃ कीर्तिर् kīrtir क्षमम् kṣamam कुशली kuśalī लक्ष्मणाग्रजः lakṣmaṇāgrajaḥ ललाटे lalāṭe लङ्काया laṅkāyā लोकाः lokāḥ लोमहर्षणम् lomaharṣaṇam महाभाग mahābhāga
महाप्राज्ञः mahāprājñaḥ महाराजो mahārājo महात्मानौ mahātmānau महावेगो mahāvego महीम् mahīm महीपतिम् mahīpatim माल्यानि mālyāni मार्गम् mārgam मारीचो mārīco मासं māsaṃ मतिमान् matimān नाद्य nādya नाहम् nāham नराधिपम् narādhipam नय naya नयने nayane निबोध nibodha निहता nihatā निहतः nihataḥ निपातितः nipātitaḥ निशाचरैः niśācaraiḥ निशाचरम् niśācaram निश्चित्य niścitya निष्पपात niṣpapāta परां parāṃ पार्श्वतः pārśvataḥ पतिर् patir पत्नीं patnīṃ पौरुषं pauruṣaṃ प्लवंगम plavaṃgama प्रभया prabhayā प्रजानां prajānāṃ प्रकृत्या prakṛtyā प्राप्ता prāptā प्राप्तः prāptaḥ प्राप्तकालं prāptakālaṃ प्राप्तम् prāptam प्रत्युवाचेदं pratyuvācedaṃ प्रवेक्ष्यामि pravekṣyāmi पुण्यं puṇyaṃ राजञ् rājañ रजनी rajanī राजपुत्र rājaputra
रात्र्यां rātryāṃ रावणिं rāvaṇiṃ रोमहर्षणम् romaharṣaṇam रोषात् roṣāt रुदन् rudan रुरोद ruroda शैलान् śailān शक्रः śakraḥ शक्तः śaktaḥ शक्ताः śaktāḥ समागतः samāgataḥ समास्थाय samāsthāya समाश्वास्य samāśvāsya समो samo संप्रति saṃprati समुद्रम् samudram सनातनः sanātanaḥ शरभो śarabho शर्वरी śarvarī सर्वेषाम् sarveṣām शशाक śaśāka शशंस śaśaṃsa शाश्वतम् śāśvatam शतसहस्राणि śatasahasrāṇi शतयोजनम् śatayojanam शत्रुं śatruṃ सायकैः sāyakaiḥ शयने śayane शिलाः śilāḥ शोकः śokaḥ शोको śoko श्रियं śriyaṃ श्वः śvaḥ स्वर्गे svarge ताडयाम् tāḍayām तप tapa तपश् tapaś तापसं tāpasaṃ तापसान् tāpasān ताश् tāś तत्त्वम् tattvam तवैव tavaiva तेजः tejaḥ तिष्ठन्ति tiṣṭhanti तोयदः toyadaḥ ऊचुश् ūcuś उद्धृत्य uddhṛtya उपेत्य upetya उत्पत्य utpatya उत्थाप्य utthāpya वाचः vācaḥ वधो vadho वक्ष्यति vakṣyati वानरास् vānarās वानराश् vānarāś वासः vāsaḥ वसिष्ठस्य vasiṣṭhasya विदितात्मनः viditātmanaḥ वीक्ष्य vīkṣya विप्रियं vipriyaṃ विपुलां vipulāṃ वीराः vīrāḥ व्रज vraja वृक्षैर् vṛkṣair व्यादिदेश vyādideśa य ya यज्ञस्य yajñasya यान्ति yānti यथाकामं yathākāmaṃ यौवराज्ये yauvarājye अभयं abhayaṃ अभिचक्राम abhicakrāma आहुर् āhur आख्याहि ākhyāhi अन्नम् annam अन्या anyā अन्यैश् anyaiś अपश्यन् apaśyan अपातयत् apātayat अपत्यं apatyaṃ आप्लुत्य āplutya अर्थे arthe आशां āśāṃ अतीव atīva अवतीर्य avatīrya आयम्य āyamya अयोध्या ayodhyā बहुशो bahuśo बलैः balaiḥ बलवता balavatā बालो bālo भग्ना bhagnā भान्ति bhānti भवद्भिः bhavadbhiḥ भवतां bhavatāṃ भवितुम् bhavitum भीता bhītā ब्रह्मलोकं brahmalokaṃ
ब्राह्मम् brāhmam चैष caiṣa चैतद् caitad चरितं caritaṃ चासि cāsi चात्मनः cātmanaḥ चेति ceti चिन्तयित्वा cintayitvā चिराय cirāya चित्रकूटस्य citrakūṭasya दण्डकारण्यं daṇḍakāraṇyaṃ दशाननम् daśānanam दाशरथिः dāśarathiḥ दत्तो datto धनुषा dhanuṣā धर्मज्ञो dharmajño धर्मसंहितम् dharmasaṃhitam दीनम् dīnam दृढव्रतः dṛḍhavrataḥ दृश्य dṛśya दुःखिता duḥkhitā दुःखितो duḥkhito दुर्मते durmate द्वारि dvāri द्विपः dvipaḥ द्वितीयं dvitīyaṃ एनां enāṃ गच्छन्ति gacchanti गदां gadāṃ गजो gajo घोरदर्शनाः ghoradarśanāḥ गृहम् gṛham गुहाम् guhām गुहो guho गुरोः guroḥ हनुमन् hanuman हर्षं harṣaṃ इच्छाम्य् icchāmy इदानीम् idānīm इतस् itas इवाम्बरे ivāmbare इवानलम् ivānalam जलं jalaṃ जनको janako जननी jananī जनस्थानं janasthānaṃ जटायुर् jaṭāyur जितेन्द्रियः jitendriyaḥ ज्वलन्तं jvalantaṃ कच्चिच् kaccic कैकेय्याः kaikeyyāḥ काकुत्स्थे kākutsthe कालाग्निर् kālāgnir कार्ये kārye खड्गं khaḍgaṃ खरो kharo खे khe कुलम् kulam कुलस्य kulasya कुमारौ kumārau कुर्वन्ति kurvanti लक्ष्मणाय lakṣmaṇāya महाबलैः mahābalaiḥ महागिरिम् mahāgirim महाकपिम् mahākapim महान्ति mahānti महार्णवम् mahārṇavam महावीर्यं mahāvīryaṃ माल्यवान् mālyavān मरणं maraṇaṃ मत्वा matvā मृगः mṛgaḥ मुमोह mumoha मूर्ध्ना mūrdhnā मुष्टिना muṣṭinā नगराणि nagarāṇi नैवं naivaṃ नर्मदा narmadā नव nava नेतुम् netum निधनं nidhanaṃ निशितं niśitaṃ निस्वनः nisvanaḥ निवेशने niveśane नियतो niyato न्यपतद् nyapatad पादपान् pādapān पञ्चत्वम् pañcatvam परे pare परिवार्य parivārya परिवृतो parivṛto पर्वणि parvaṇi पश्यति paśyati पतितां patitāṃ पीत्वा pītvā प्राञ्जलिं prāñjaliṃ प्राप्तौ prāptau प्रस्थितं prasthitaṃ प्रीतिम् prītim पृथिवीम् pṛthivīm पूजयाम् pūjayām पुरम् puram पुरतः purataḥ पुरुषा puruṣā पुरुषं puruṣaṃ पुष्पाणि puṣpāṇi पुत्रा putrā पुत्रक putraka पुत्रसहस्राणि putrasahasrāṇi रजनीचराः rajanīcarāḥ राजपुत्रौ rājaputrau रक्षां rakṣāṃ राक्षसपुंगवः rākṣasapuṃgavaḥ राक्षसाश् rākṣasāś राक्षसौ rākṣasau राक्षसीनां rākṣasīnāṃ रामेणाक्लिष्टकर्मणा rāmeṇākliṣṭakarmaṇā रौद्रं raudraṃ रावणश् rāvaṇaś रिपोः ripoḥ ऋषयो ṛṣayo सहलक्ष्मणम् sahalakṣmaṇam सहस्राक्षं sahasrākṣaṃ सहितौ sahitau समः samaḥ समपद्यत samapadyata संगताः saṃgatāḥ संनिधौ saṃnidhau संप्राप्तो saṃprāpto संतापं saṃtāpaṃ समुपचक्रमे samupacakrame समुत्थाय samutthāya सारथिः sārathiḥ सर्वास् sarvās ससैन्यो sasainyo ससर्ज sasarja शतक्रतुः śatakratuḥ शत्रुघ्नः śatrughnaḥ शेषे śeṣe शिरः śiraḥ स्मृतः smṛtaḥ स्नात्वा snātvā
श्रेयो śreyo श्रीमाञ् śrīmāñ स्थाप्य sthāpya सुदुःखितः suduḥkhitaḥ सुग्रीवश् sugrīvaś शुकसारणौ śukasāraṇau सुमन्त्रः sumantraḥ सूर्यो sūryo सुसंक्रुद्धो susaṃkruddho सुषेणं suṣeṇaṃ सुस्राव susrāva सुश्रोणि suśroṇi सुतान् sutān स्वयम्भूर् svayambhūr तैश् taiś तमः tamaḥ तपस्विनः tapasvinaḥ तपस्विनीम् tapasvinīm तपोधनम् tapodhanam तस्थुः tasthuḥ तथापरे tathāpare तेष्व् teṣv त्रयाणाम् trayāṇām त्रिशिरा triśirā तुभ्यं tubhyaṃ उष्य uṣya वाचं vācaṃ वक्तव्यं vaktavyaṃ वनचारिणः vanacāriṇaḥ वरारोहा varārohā वर्धते vardhate वस vasa वसन् vasan वसिष्ठः vasiṣṭhaḥ वासो vāso वसुधां vasudhāṃ ववन्दे vavande वायुना vāyunā विधवा vidhavā विजयं vijayaṃ विक्रमेण vikrameṇa विलपन् vilapan वीरैर् vīrair वीर्येण vīryeṇa विषादं viṣādaṃ वृद्धान् vṛddhān वृक्षैः vṛkṣaiḥ व्यवर्धत vyavardhata यमस्य yamasya यशश् yaśaś यथावत् yathāvat यथावृत्तं yathāvṛttaṃ योद्धुं yoddhuṃ योषितः yoṣitaḥ यूयं yūyaṃ अभ्येत्य abhyetya अब्रवील् abravīl अधर्मो adharmo आलयम् ālayam अनिन्दिता aninditā अनिन्दिताम् aninditām अनुत्तमाम् anuttamām अन्यः anyaḥ अन्यं anyaṃ आपतन्तीं āpatantīṃ आरेभे ārebhe अर्घ्यं arghyaṃ आर्य ārya अस्त्व् astv आश्वास्य āśvāsya अस्यां asyāṃ अथाब्रवीद् athābravīd आविध्य āvidhya अव्ययम् avyayam बलस्य balasya भग्नं bhagnaṃ भजस्व bhajasva भक्षयन् bhakṣayan भास्करः bhāskaraḥ ऽभवन् ‘bhavan भवत्य् bhavaty भुजौ bhujau भुक्त्वा bhuktvā बुध्यते budhyate चेदं cedaṃ चेत् cet छिन्नं chinnaṃ चिन्ता cintā दैवतैः daivataiḥ दक्षिणम् dakṣiṇam दण्डकावनम् daṇḍakāvanam दर्शय darśaya
देवः devaḥ देवानाम् devānām देवता devatā धनुषो dhanuṣo धन्वी dhanvī धर्मश् dharmaś धर्मतः dharmataḥ दीप्ततेजसं dīptatejasaṃ दोषं doṣaṃ द्रक्ष्यसे drakṣyase द्रक्ष्यथ drakṣyatha दृढं dṛḍhaṃ दुहिता duhitā दुःखाद् duḥkhād दुर्धर्षा durdharṣā दुर्धर्षं durdharṣaṃ दूता dūtā द्वाभ्यां dvābhyāṃ द्विगुणं dviguṇaṃ एकः ekaḥ एतां etāṃ गच्छन् gacchan गृहाणि gṛhāṇi गुहां guhāṃ गुरुणा guruṇā गुरुर् gurur हरिपुंगव haripuṃgava हरिपुंगवः haripuṃgavaḥ हरिर् harir हरिश्रेष्ठ hariśreṣṭha इष्ट्वा iṣṭvā इवाकाशे ivākāśe इवान्तकः ivāntakaḥ जघ्नुर् jaghnur जज्वाल jajvāla जानकीम् jānakīm जनम् janam जानाति jānāti जपतां japatāṃ जयतां jayatāṃ जीविते jīvite काकुत्स्थौ kākutsthau कामः kāmaḥ कांश् kāṃś कपिं kapiṃ कारणम् kāraṇam कारयाम् kārayām करोति karoti कथयस्व kathayasva खरस् kharas कृताः kṛtāḥ कृथाः kṛthāḥ कृत्यम् kṛtyam कृत्यं kṛtyaṃ क्रुद्धस् kruddhas क्रुद्धस्य kruddhasya क्रूरं krūraṃ क्षयं kṣayaṃ कुम्भकर्णम् kumbhakarṇam कुपितो kupito कुतः kutaḥ लघुविक्रमः laghuvikramaḥ लोन्ग् long मधूनि madhūni मधुरया madhurayā महाबलान् mahābalān महाभागं mahābhāgaṃ महाभागां mahābhāgāṃ
महामतिः mahāmatiḥ महाञ् mahāñ महापार्श्वो mahāpārśvo महारथम् mahāratham महात्मभिः mahātmabhiḥ महावीर्यः mahāvīryaḥ महोदधिम् mahodadhim मांसानि māṃsāni मनस्विनः manasvinaḥ मन्थरा mantharā मन्त्रिभिर् mantribhir मन्यते manyate मन्युर् manyur मार्गं mārgaṃ मारीचं mārīcaṃ मत्तः mattaḥ मत्तो matto मृगम् mṛgam मृगो mṛgo मृत्युं mṛtyuṃ मुखेन mukhena नैनं nainaṃ नैतद् naitad निगृह्य nigṛhya निमेषान्तरमात्रेण nimeṣāntaramātreṇa निर्बिभेद nirbibheda निर्जिता nirjitā निश्चयं niścayaṃ निशितैर् niśitair न्यवर्तत nyavartata पन्था panthā परा parā परमया paramayā परस्परं parasparaṃ परित्यक्ता parityaktā परिवारितः parivāritaḥ परो paro पर्वतोपमम् parvatopamam पश्चाद् paścād पश्चात् paścāt पश्यतु paśyatu पश्येयं paśyeyaṃ पवनात्मजः pavanātmajaḥ पितृपैतामहं pitṛpaitāmahaṃ प्लवंगमैः plavaṃgamaiḥ प्रकाशन्ते prakāśante प्राणिनां prāṇināṃ
प्रणिपत्य praṇipatya प्राप्ताः prāptāḥ प्रस्थाप्य prasthāpya प्रतिगृह्णीष्व pratigṛhṇīṣva प्रतिपूज्य pratipūjya प्रविष्टः praviṣṭaḥ प्रविष्टं praviṣṭaṃ प्रेत्य pretya पृथक् pṛthak पृथिव्याम् pṛthivyām पुरस्तात् purastāt पुरोहितम् purohitam पुरुषः puruṣaḥ पुष्पैर् puṣpair राज्ञस् rājñas राक्षसीभिर् rākṣasībhir रम्याणि ramyāṇi रथान् rathān रिपुः ripuḥ ऋषीन् ṛṣīn सभार्यः sabhāryaḥ सद्यः sadyaḥ सहस्राक्षो sahasrākṣo सकामा sakāmā शक्ष्यामि śakṣyāmi समाः samāḥ समरेष्व् samareṣv समतिक्रम्य samatikramya संदिश्य saṃdiśya संहृष्टो saṃhṛṣṭo संप्राप्तः saṃprāptaḥ संश्रुत्य saṃśrutya समुद्रे samudre समुद्यम्य samudyamya समुत्पाट्य samutpāṭya सम्यग् samyag शङ्के śaṅke शरा śarā सरः saraḥ शरः śaraḥ सारथे sārathe शरवर्षेण śaravarṣeṇa सर्वभूतहिते sarvabhūtahite सर्वरक्षसाम् sarvarakṣasām सर्वासु sarvāsu शासनं śāsanaṃ षष्टिः ṣaṣṭiḥ शत्रुघ्नम् śatrughnam शत्रुघ्नस्य śatrughnasya शत्रुर् śatrur 




 REF : Electricity Act

Under Section 62 of the Electricity Act, the Commission has power to  fixe the tariff rate. The word ‘tariff’ has not been defined in the Act. Tariff means a schedule of 55 standard/prices or charges provided to the category or categories for procurement by licensee from generating company, wholesale or bulk or retail/various categories of consumers. After taking into consideration the factors in Section 61(1)(a) to (i), the State Commission determined the tariff rate for various categories including Solar Power PV project and the same is applied uniformly throughout the State.

When the said tariff rate as determined by the Tariff Order (2010) is incorporated in the PPA between the parties, it is a matter of contract between the parties. In my view, respondent No.1 is bound by the terms and conditions of PPA entered into between respondent No.1 and the appellant by mutual consent and that the State Commission was not right in exercising its inherent jurisdiction by extending the first control period beyond its due date and thereby substituting its view in the PPA, which is essentially a matter of contract between the parties.

[Gujarat Urja Vikas Nigam Ltd. Vs. Solar Semiconductor Power Company (India) Pvt. Ltd. and Others[SC 2017]

Decree under CPC

Decree” means the formal expression of an adjudication which, so far as regards the Court expressing it, conclusively determines the rights of the parties with regard to all or any of the matters in controversy in the suit and may be either preliminary or final. It shall be deemed to include the rejection of a plaint and the determination of any question within section 144, but shall not include–
(a) any adjudication from which an appeal lies an appeal from an order, or
(b) any order of dismissal for default.

Explanation: A decree is preliminary when further proceedings have to be taken before the suit can be completely disposed of. It is final when such adjudication completely disposes of the suit. It may be partly preliminary and partly final;