Tag Archives: Hindu Law

Hindu Code Bill

A Hindu Code Bill  was introduced by Br. B.R. Ambedkar in the Constituent Assembly on 11th April, 1947. Ambedkar moved in the different direction from the main task.  His Hindu Code Bill covered with the

i) right to property,

ii) order of succession to the property,

iii) maintenance, marriage, divorce adoption, minority and guardianship.

The Bill was moved for referring to the Select Committee on 9th April, 1948.

On 21 July, 2948, Dr. Rajendra Prasad gave expression to his objection to Hindu Code Bill.

The Bill was re-introduced in Parliament on 17 September 1951. The Prime-Minister  withdrew his support to the Hindu Code Bill. Jawaharlal Nehru bowed down to the Hindu orthodoxy. In utter disgust Dr. Ambedkar resigned from the Cabinet on 11 October 1951.

Addressing a meeting of women (300) in Bombay on 24 November 1951 Dr. Ambedkar stated that the Hindu Code Bill would improve the condition of women and give them more rights and requested them to support the Bill and vote for candidates who would bring real democracy in the country. He regretted that some Congressmen were against the Bill, trying to delay it some way or other. [Source Material On Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar and The Movement of Untouchables, Vol. 1. p. 390]

Manusmriti, The Laws of Manu [English]

Read the Text in Sanskrit


1. The great sages[ Maharshi] approached Manu, who was seated with a meditative mind, and, having duly worshipped him, spoke as follows:
2. ‘O, divine one, to declare to us precisely and in due order the sacred Laws[Dharma] of each of the (four chief) Varnas and of the intermediate ones.
3. ‘For thou, O Lord, alone knowest the purport, (i.e.) the rites, and the knowledge of the soul, (taught) in this whole ordinance of the Self-existent (Svayambhu), which is unknowable and unfathomable.’
4. He, whose power is measureless, being thus asked by the high-minded great sages, duly honoured them, and answered, ‘Listen!’
5. This (universe) existed in the shape of Darkness, unperceived, destitute of distinctive marks, unattainable by reasoning, unknowable, wholly immersed, as it were, in deep sleep.
6. Then the divine Self-existent (Svayambhu, himself) indiscernible, (but) making (all) this, the great elements and the rest, discernible, appeared with irresistible (creative) power, dispelling the darkness.
7. He who can be perceived by the inner organ (alone), who is subtile, indiscernible, and eternal[Sanatana], who contains all created beings and is inconceivable, shone forth of his own (will).
8. He, desiring to produce beings of many kinds from his own body, first with a thought created the waters, and placed his seed in them.
9. That (seed) became a golden egg, in brilliancy equal to the sun; in that (egg) he himself was born as Brahman, the progenitor of the whole world.
10. The waters are called narah, (for) the waters are, indeed, the offspring of Nara; as they were his first residence (ayana), he thence is named Narayana.
11. From that (first) cause, which is indiscernible, eternal, and both real and unreal, was produced that male (Purusha), who is famed in this world (under the appellation of) Brahman.
12. The Divine One resided in that egg during a whole year, then he himself by his thought (alone) divided it into two halves;
13. And out of those two halves he formed heaven and earth, between them the middle sphere, the eight points of the horizon, and the eternal abode of the waters.
14. From himself (Atmanah) he also drew forth the mind, which is both real and unreal, likewise from the mind egoism, which possesses the function of self-consciousness (and is) lordly;
15. Moreover, the great one, the soul, and all (products) affected by the three qualities, and, in their order, the five organs which perceive the objects of sensation.
16. But, joining minute particles even of those six, which possess measureless power, with particles of himself, he created all beings.
17. Because those six (kinds of) minute particles, which form the (creator’s) frame, enter (a-sri) these (creatures), therefore the wise call his frame sarira, (the body.)
18. That the great elements enter, together with their functions and the mind, through its minute parts the framer of all beings, the imperishable one.
19. But from minute body (-framing) particles of these seven very powerful Purushas springs this (world), the perishable from the imperishable.
20. Among them each succeeding (element) acquires the quality of the preceding one, and whatever place (in the sequence) each of them occupies, even so many qualities it is declared to possess.
21. But in the beginning he assigned their several names, actions, and conditions to all (created beings), even according to the words of the Veda.
22. He, the Lord, also created the class of the gods, who are endowed with life, and whose nature is action; and the subtile class of the Sadhyas, and the eternal sacrifice [Yagna].
23. But from fire, wind, and the sun he drew forth the threefold eternal Veda, called Rik, Yagus, and Saman, for the due performance of the sacrifice [Yagna].
24. Time and the divisions of time, the lunar mansions and the planets, the rivers, the oceans, the mountains, plains, and uneven ground.
25. Austerity, speech, pleasure, desire, and anger, this whole creation he likewise produced, as he desired to call these beings into existence.
26. Moreover, in order to distinguish actions, he separated merit from demerit, and he caused the creatures to be affected by the pairs (of opposites), such as pain and pleasure.
27. But with the minute perishable particles of the five (elements) which have been mentioned, this whole (world) is framed in due order.
28. But to whatever course of action the Lord at first appointed each (kind of beings), that alone it has spontaneously adopted in each succeeding creation.
29. Whatever he assigned to each at the (first) creation, noxiousness or harmlessness, gentleness or ferocity, virtue or sin, truth or falsehood, that clung (afterwards) spontaneously to it.
30. As at the change of the seasons each season of its own accord assumes its distinctive marks, even so corporeal beings (resume in new births) their (appointed) course of action.
31. But for the sake of the prosperity of the worlds he caused the Brahmana, the Kshatriya, the Vaisya, and the Sudra to proceed from his mouth, his arms, his thighs, and his feet.
32. Dividing his own body, the Lord became half male and half female; with that (female) he produced Viraz.
33. But know me, O most holy among the twice-born, to be the creator of this whole (world), whom that male, Viraz, himself produced, having performed austerities.
34. Then I, desiring to produce created beings, performed very difficult austerities, and (thereby) called into existence ten great sages, lords of created beings,
35. Mariki, Atri, Angiras, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu, Praketas, Vasishtha, Bhrigu, and Narada.
36. They created seven other Manus possessing great brilliancy, gods and classes of gods and great sages of measureless power,
37. Yakshas (the servants of Kubera, the demons called) Rakshasas and Pisakas, Gandharvas (or musicians of the gods), Apsarases (the dancers of the gods), Asuras, (the snake-deities called) Nagas and Sarpas, (the bird-deities called) Suparnas and the several classes of the manes,
38. Lightnings, thunderbolts and clouds, imperfect (rohita) and perfect rainbows, falling meteors, supernatural noises, comets, and heavenly lights of many kinds,
39 (Horse-faced) Kinnaras, monkeys, fishes, birds of many kinds, cattle, deer, men, and carnivorous beasts with two rows of teeth,
40. Small and large worms and beetles, moths, lice, flies, bugs, all stinging and biting insects and the several kinds of immovable things.
41. Thus was this whole (creation), both the immovable and the movable, produced by those high-minded ones by means of austerities and at my command, (each being) according to (the results of) its actions.
42. But whatever act is stated (to belong) to (each of) those creatures here below, that I will truly declare to you, as well as their order in respect to birth.
43. Cattle, deer, carnivorous beasts with two rows of teeth, Rakshasas, Pisakas, and men are born from the womb.
44. From eggs are born birds, snakes, crocodiles, fishes, tortoises, as well as similar terrestrial and aquatic (animals).
45. From hot moisture spring stinging and biting insects, lice, flies, bugs, and all other (creatures) of that kind which are produced by heat.
46. All plants, propagated by seed or by slips, grow from shoots; annual plants (are those) which, bearing many flowers and fruits, perish after the ripening of their fruit;
47. (Those trees) which bear fruit without flowers are called vanaspati (lords of the forest); but those which bear both flowers and fruit are called vriksha.
48. But the various plants with many stalks, growing from one or several roots, the different kinds of grasses, the climbing plants and the creepers spring all from seed or from slips.
49. These (plants) which are surrounded by multiform Darkness, the result of their acts (in former existences), possess internal consciousness and experience pleasure and pain.
50. The (various) conditions in this always terrible and constantly changing circle of births and deaths to which created beings are subject, are stated to begin with (that of) Brahman, and to end with (that of) these (just mentioned immovable creatures).
51. When he whose power is incomprehensible, had thus produced the universe and men, he disappeared in himself, repeatedly suppressing one period by means of the other.
52. When that divine one wakes, then this world stirs; when he slumbers tranquilly, then the universe sinks to sleep.
53. But when he reposes in calm sleep, the corporeal beings whose nature is action, desist from their actions and mind becomes inert.
54. When they are absorbed all at once in that great soul, then he who is the soul of all beings sweetly slumbers, free from all care and occupation.
55. When this (soul) has entered darkness, it remains for a long time united with the organs (of sensation), but performs not its functions; it then leaves the corporeal frame.
56. When, being clothed with minute particles (only), it enters into vegetable or animal seed, it then assumes, united (with the fine body), a (new) corporeal frame.
57. Thus he, the imperishable one, by (alternately) waking and slumbering, incessantly revivifies and destroys this whole movable and immovable (creation).
58. But he having composed these Institutes (of the sacred law), himself taught them, according to the rule, to me alone in the beginning; next I (taught them) to Mariki and the other sages.
59. Bhrigu, here, will fully recite to you these Institutes; for that sage learned the whole in its entirety from me.
60. Then that great sage Bhrigu, being thus addressed by Manu, spoke, pleased in his heart, to all the sages, ‘Listen!’
61. Six other high-minded, very powerful Manus, who belong to the race of this Manu, the descendant of the Self-existent (Svayambhu), and who have severally produced created beings,
62. (Are) Svarokisha, Auttami, Tamasa, Raivata, Kakshusha, possessing great lustre, and the son of Vivasvat.
63. These seven very glorious Manus, the first among whom is Svayambhuva, produced and protected this whole movable and immovable (creation), each during the period (allotted to him).
64. Eighteen nimeshas (twinklings of the eye, are one kashtha), thirty kashthas one kala, thirty kalas one muhurta, and as many (muhurtas) one day and night.
65. The sun divides days and nights, both human and divine, the night (being intended) for the repose of created beings and the day for exertion.
66. A month is a day and a night of the manes, but the division is according to fortnights. The dark (fortnight) is their day for active exertion, the bright (fortnight) their night for sleep.
67. A year is a day and a night of the gods; their division is (as follows): the half year during which the sun progresses to the north will be the day, that during which it goes southwards the night.
68. But hear now the brief (description of) the duration of a night and a day of Brahman and of the several ages (of the world, yuga) according to their order.
69. They declare that the Krita age (consists of) four thousand years (of the gods); the twilight preceding it consists of as many hundreds, and the twilight following it of the same number.
70. In the other three ages with their twilights preceding and following, the thousands and hundreds are diminished by one (in each).
71. These twelve thousand (years) which thus have been just mentioned as the total of four (human) ages, are called one age of the gods.
72. But know that the sum of one thousand ages of the gods (makes) one day of Brahman, and that his night has the same length.
73. Those (only, who) know that the holy day of Brahman, indeed, ends after (the completion of) one thousand ages (of the gods) and that his night lasts as long, (are really) men acquainted with (the length of) days and nights.
74. At the end of that day and night he who was asleep, awakes and, after awaking, creates mind, which is both real and unreal.
75. Mind, impelled by (Brahman’s) desire to create, performs the work of creation by modifying itself, thence ether is produced; they declare that sound is the quality of the latter.
76. But from ether, modifying itself, springs the pure, powerful wind, the vehicle of all perfumes; that is held to possess the quality of touch.
77. Next from wind modifying itself, proceeds the brilliant light, which illuminates and dispels darkness; that is declared to possess the quality of colour;
78. And from light, modifying itself, (is produced) water, possessing the quality of taste, from water earth which has the quality of smell; such is the creation in the beginning.
79. The before-mentioned age of the gods, (or) twelve thousand (of their years), being multiplied by seventy-one, (constitutes what) is here named the period of a Manu (Manvantara).
80. The Manvantaras, the creations and destructions (of the world, are) numberless; sporting, as it were, Brahman repeats this again and again.
81. In the Krita age Dharma is four-footed and entire, and (so is) Truth; nor does any gain accrue to men by unrighteousness.
82. In the other (three ages), by reason of (unjust) gains (agama), Dharma is deprived successively of one foot, and through (the prevalence of) theft, falsehood, and fraud the merit (gained by men) is diminished by one fourth (in each).
83. (Men are) free from disease, accomplish all their aims, and live four hundred years in the Krita age, but in the Treta and (in each of) the succeeding (ages) their life is lessened by one quarter.
84. The life of mortals, mentioned in the Veda, the desired results of sacrificial rites and the (supernatural) power of embodied (spirits) are fruits proportioned among men according to (the character of) the age.
85. One set of duties (is prescribed) for men in the Krita age, different ones in the Treta and in the Dvapara, and (again) another (set) in the Kali, in a proportion as (those) ages decrease in length.
86. In the Krita age the chief (virtue) is declared to be (the performance of) austerities, in the Treta (divine) knowledge, in the Dvapara (the performance of) sacrifice [Yagna]s, in the Kali liberality alone.
87. But in order to protect this universe He, the most resplendent one, assigned separate (duties and) occupations to those who sprang from his mouth, arms, thighs, and feet.
88. To Brahmanas he assigned teaching and studying (the Veda), sacrificing for their own benefit and for others, giving and accepting (of alms).
89. The Kshatriya he commanded to protect the people, to bestow gifts, to offer sacrifice [Yagna]s, to study (the Veda), and to abstain from attaching himself to sensual pleasures;
90. The Vaisya to tend cattle, to bestow gifts, to offer sacrifice [Yagna]s, to study (the Veda), to trade, to lend money, and to cultivate land.
91. One occupation only the lord prescribed to the Sudra, is the service for three Varnas.
92. Man is stated to be purer above the navel (than below); hence the Self-existent (Svayambhu) has declared the purest (part) of him (to be) his mouth.
93. As the Brahmana sprang from (Brahman’s) mouth, as he was the first-born, and as he possesses the Veda, he is by right the lord of this whole creation.
94. For the Self-existent (Svayambhu), having performed austerities, produced him first from his own mouth, in order that the offerings might be conveyed to the gods and manes and that this universe might be preserved.
95. What created being can surpass him, through whose mouth the gods continually consume the sacrificial viands and the manes the offerings to the dead?
96. Of created beings the most excellent are said to be those which are animated; of the animated, those which subsist by intelligence; of the intelligent, mankind; and of men, the Brahmanas;
97. Of Brahmanas, those learned (in the Veda); of the learned, those who recognise (the necessity and the manner of performing the prescribed duties); of those who possess this knowledge, those who perform them; of the performers, those who know the Brahman.
98. The very birth of a Brahmana is an eternal incarnation of the sacred law; for he is born to (fulfil) the sacred law, and becomes one with Brahman.
99. A Brahmana, coming into existence, is born as the highest on earth, the lord of all created beings, for the protection of the treasury of the law.
100. Whatever exists in the world is, the property of the Brahmana; on account of the excellence of his origin The Brahmana is, indeed, entitled to all.
101. The Brahmana eats but his own food, wears but his own apparel, bestows but his own in alms; other mortals subsist through the benevolence of the Brahmana.
102. In order to clearly settle his duties those of the other (Varnas) according to their order, wise Manu sprung from the Self-existent, composed these Institutes (of the sacred Law).
103. A learned Brahmana must carefully study them, and he must duly instruct his pupils in them, but nobody else (shall do it).
104. A Brahmana who studies these Institutes (and) faithfully fulfils the duties (prescribed therein), is never tainted by sins, arising from thoughts, words, or deeds.
105. He sanctifies any company (which he may enter), seven ancestors and seven descendants, and he alone deserves (to possess) this whole earth.
106. (To study) this (work) is the best means of securing welfare, it increases understanding, it procures fame and long life, it (leads to) supreme bliss.
107. In this (work) the sacred law has been fully stated as well as the good and bad qualities of (human) actions and the immemorial rule of conduct, (to be followed) by all the four Varnas (varna).
108. The rule of conduct is transcendent law, whether it be taught in the revealed texts or in the sacred tradition; hence a twice-born [Dwija]man who possesses regard for himself, should be always careful to (follow) it.
109. A Brahmana who departs from the rule of conduct, does not reap the fruit of the Veda, but he who duly follows it, will obtain the full reward.
110. The sages who saw that the sacred law is thus grounded on the rule of conduct, have taken good conduct to be the most excellent root of all austerity.
111. The creation of the universe, the rule of the sacraments, the ordinances of student [Brahmachari]ship, and the respectful behaviour (towards Gurus), the most excellent rule of bathing (on return from the teacher [acharya]’s house),
112. (The law of) marriage and the description of the (various) marriage-rites, the regulations for the great sacrifice [Yagna]s and the eternal rule of the funeral sacrifice [Yagna]s,
113. The description of the modes of (gaining) subsistence and the duties of a Snataka, (the rules regarding) lawful and forbidden food, the purification of men and of things,
114. The Laws[Dharma] concerning women, (the law) of hermits, (the manner of gaining) final emancipation and (of) renouncing the world, the whole duty of a king and the manner of deciding Laws[Dharma]uits,
115. The rules for the examination of witnesses, the Laws[Dharma] concerning husband and wife, the law of (inheritance and) division, (the law concerning) gambling and the removal of (men nocuous like) thorns,
116. (The law concerning) the behaviour of Vaisyas and Sudras, the origin of the mixed Varnas, the law for all Varnas in times of distress and the law of penances,
117. The threefold course of transmigrations, the result of (good or bad) actions, (the manner of attaining) supreme bliss and the examination of the good and bad qualities of actions,
118. The primeval Laws[Dharma] of countries, of Varnas (Jati), of families, and the rules concerning heretics and companies (of traders and the like)- (all that) Manu has declared in these Institutes.
119. As Manu, in reply to my questions, formerly promulgated these Institutes[शास्त्रं], even so learn ye also the (whole work) from me.


1. Learn that sacred law which is followed by men learned (in the Veda) and assented to in their hearts by the virtuous, who are ever exempt from hatred and inordinate affection.
2. To act solely from a desire for rewards is not laudable, yet an exemption from that desire is not (to be found) in this (world): for on (that) desire is grounded the study of the Veda and the performance of the actions, prescribed by the Veda.
3. The desire (for rewards), indeed, has its root in the conception that an act can yield them, and in consequence of (that) conception sacrifice [Yagna]s are performed; vows and the Laws[Dharma] prescribing restraints are all stated to be kept through the idea that they will bear fruit.
4. Not a single act here (below) appears ever to be done by a man free from desire; for whatever (man) does, it is (the result of) the impulse of desire.
5. He who persists in discharging these (prescribed duties) in the right manner, reaches the deathless state and even in this (life) obtains (the fulfilment of) all the desires that he may have conceived.
6. The whole Veda is the (first) source of the sacred law, next the tradition and the virtuous conduct of those who know the (Veda further), also the customs of holy men, and (finally) self-satisfaction.
7. Whatever law has been ordained for any (person) by Manu, that has been fully declared in the Veda: for that (sage was) omniscient.
8. But a learned man after fully scrutinising all this with the eye of knowledge, should, in accordance with the authority of the revealed texts, be intent on (the performance of) his duties.
9. For that man who obeys the law prescribed in the revealed texts and in the sacred tradition, gains fame in this (world) and after death unsurpassable bliss.
10. But by Sruti (revelation) is meant the Veda, and by Smriti (tradition) the Institutes of the sacred law: those two must not be called into question in any matter, since from those two the sacred law shone forth.
11. Every twice-born [Dwija]man, who, relying on the Institutes of dialectics, treats with contempt those two sources (of the law), must be cast out by the virtuous, as an atheist and a scorner of the Veda.
12. The Veda, the sacred tradition, the customs of virtuous men, and one’s own pleasure, they declare to be visibly the fourfold means of defining the sacred law.
13. The knowledge of the sacred law is prescribed for those who are not given to the acquisition of wealth and to the gratification of their desires; to those who seek the knowledge of the sacred law the supreme authority is the revelation (Sruti).
14. But when two sacred texts (Sruti) are conflicting, both are held to be law; for both are pronounced by the wise (to be) valid law.
15. (Thus) the (Agnihotra) sacrifice [Yagna] may be (optionally) performed, at any time after the sun has risen, before he has risen, or when neither sun nor stars are visible; that (is declared) by Vedic texts.
16. Know that he for whom (the performance of) the ceremonies beginning with the rite of impregnation (Garbhadhana) and ending with the funeral rite (Antyeshti) is prescribed, while sacred formulas are being recited, is entitled (to study) these Institutes, but no other man whatsoever.
17. That land, created by the gods, which lies between the two divine rivers Sarasvati and Drishadvati, the (sages) call Brahmavarta.
18. The custom handed down in regular succession (since time immemorial) among the (four chief) Varnas (varna) and the mixed (races) of that country, is called the conduct of virtuous men.
19. The plain of the Kurus, the (country of the) Matsyas, Pankalas, and Surasenakas, these (form), indeed, the country of the Brahmarshis (Brahmanical sages, which ranks) immediately after Brahmavarta.
20. From a Brahmana, born in that country, let all men on earth learn their several usages.
21. That (country) which (lies) between the Himavat and the Vindhya (mountains) to the east of Prayaga and to the west of Vinasana (the place where the river Sarasvati disappears) is called Madhyadesa (the central region).
22. But (the tract) between those two mountains (just mentioned), which (extends) as far as the eastern and the western oceans, the wise call Aryavarta (the country of the Aryans).
23. That land where the black antelope naturally roams, one must know to be fit for the performance of sacrifice [Yagna]s; (the tract) different from that (is) the country of the Mlekkhas (barbarians).
24. Let twice-born [Dwija]men seek to dwell in those (above-mentioned reagions); but a Sudra, distressed for subsistence, may reside anywhere.
25. Thus has the origin of the sacred law been succinctly described to you and the origin of this universe; learn (now) the duties of the Varnas.
26. With holy rites, prescribed by the Veda, must the ceremony on conception and other sacraments be performed for twice-born [Dwija]men, which sanctify the body and purify (from sin) in this (life) and after death.
27. By burnt oblations during (the mother’s) pregnancy, by the Gatakarman (the ceremony after birth), the Kauda (tonsure), and the Maungibandhana (the tying of the sacred girdle of Munga grass) is the taint, derived from both parents, removed from twice-born [Dwija]men.
28. By the study of the Veda, by vows, by burnt oblations, by (the recitation of) sacred texts, by the (acquisition of the) threefold sacred science, by offering (to the gods, Rishis, and manes), by (the procreation of) sons, by the great sacrifice [Yagna]s, and by (Srauta) rites this (human) body is made fit for (union with) Brahman.
29. Before the navel-string is cut, the Gatakarman (birth-rite) must be performed for a male (child); and while sacred formulas are being recited, he must be fed with gold, honey, and butter.
30. But let (the father perform or) cause to be performed the Namadheya (the rite of naming the child), on the tenth or twelfth (day after birth), or on a lucky lunar day, in a lucky muhurta, under an auspicious constellation.
31. Let (the first part of) a Brahmana’s name (denote something) auspicious, a Kshatriya’s be connected with power, and a Vaisya’s with wealth, but a Sudra’s express something connected with service.
32. (The second part of) a Brahmana’s (name) shall be (a word) implying happiness, of a Kshatriya’s (a word) implying protection, of a Vaisya’s (a term) expressive of thriving, and of a Sudra’s (an expression) denoting service.
33. The names of women should be easy to pronounce, not imply anything dreadful, possess a plain meaning, be pleasing and auspicious, end in long vowels, and contain a word of benediction.
34. In the fourth month the Nishkramana (the first leaving of the house) of the child should be performed, in the sixth month the Annaprasana (first feeding with rice), and optionally (any other) auspicious ceremony required by (the custom of) the family.
35. According to the teaching of the revealed texts, the Kudakarman (tonsure) must be performed, for the sake of spiritual merit, by all twice-born [Dwija]men in the first or third year.
36. In the eighth year after conception, one should perform the initiation (upanayana) of a Brahmana, in the eleventh after conception (that) of a Kshatriya, but in the twelfth that of a Vaisya.
37. (The initiation) of a Brahmana who desires proficiency in sacred learning should take place in the fifth (year after conception), (that) of a Kshatriya who wishes to become powerful in the sixth, (and that) of a Vaisya who longs for (success in his) business in the eighth.
38. The (time for the) Savitri (initiation) of a Brahmana does not pass until the completion of the sixteenth year (after conception), of a Kshatriya until the completion of the twenty-second, and of a Vaisya until the completion of the twenty-fourth.
39. After those (periods men of) these three (Varnas) who have not received the sacrament at the proper time, become Vratyas (outcasts), excluded from the Savitri (initiation) and despised by the Aryans.
40. With such men, if they have not been purified according to the rule, let no Brahmana ever, even in times of distress, form a connexion either through the Veda or by marriage.
41. Let student [Brahmachari]s, according to the order (of their Varnas), wear (as upper dresses) the skins of black antelopes, spotted deer, and he-goats, and (lower garments) made of hemp, flax or wool.
42. The girdle of a Brahmana shall consist of a of a triple cord of Munga grass, smooth and soft; (that) of a Kshatriya, of a bowstring, made of Murva fibres; (that) of a Vaisya, of hempen threads.
43. If Munga grass (and so forth) be not procurable, (the girdles) may be made of Kusa, Asmantaka, and Balbaga (fibres), with a single threefold knot, or with three or five (knots according to the custom of the family).
44. The sacrificial string of a Brahmana shall be made of cotton, (shall be) twisted to the right, (and consist) of three threads, that of a Kshatriya of hempen threads, (and) that of a Vaisya of woollen threads.
45. A Brahmana shall (carry), according to the sacred law, a staff of Bilva or Palasa; a Kshatriya, of Vata or Khadira; (and) a Vaisya, of Pilu or Udumbara.
46. The staff of a Brahmana shall be made of such length as to reach the end of his hair; that of a Kshatriya, to reach his forehead;
(and) that of a Vaisya, to reach (the tip of his) nose.
47. Let all the staves be straight, without a blemish, handsome to look at, not likely to terrify men, with their bark perfect, unhurt by fire.
48. Having taken a staff according to his choice, having worshipped the sun and walked round the fire, turning his right hand towards it, (the student [Brahmachari]) should beg alms according to the prescribed rule.
49. An initiated Brahmana should beg, beginning (his request with the word) lady (bhavati); a Kshatriya, placing (the word) lady in the middle, but a Vaisya, placing it at the end (of the formula).
50. Let him first beg food of his mother, or of his sister, or of his own maternal aunt, or of (some other) female who will not disgrace him (by a refusal).
51. Having collected as much food as is required (from several persons), and having announced it without guile to his teacher [acharya], let him eat, turning his face towards the east, and having purified himself by sipping water.
52. (His meal will procure) long life, if he eats facing the east; fame, if he turns to the south; prosperity, if he turns to the west; truthfulness, if he faces the east.
53. Let a twice-born [Dwija]man always eat his food with concentrated mind, after performing an ablution; and after he has eaten, let him duly cleanse himself with water and sprinkle the cavities (of his head).
54. Let him always worship his food, and eat it without contempt; when he sees it, let him rejoice, show a pleased face, and pray that he may always obtain it.
55. Food, that is always worshipped, gives strength and manly vigour; but eaten irreverently, it destroys them both.
56. Let him not give to any man what he leaves, and beware of eating between (the two meal-times); let him not over-eat himself, nor go anywhere without having purified himself (after his meal).
57. Excessive eating is prejudicial to health, to fame, and to (bliss in) heaven; it prevents (the acquisition of) spiritual merit, and is odious among men; one ought, for these reasons, to avoid it carefully.
58. Let a Brahmana always sip water out of the part of the hand (tirtha) sacred to Brahman, or out of that sacred to Ka (Pragapati), or out of (that) sacred to the gods, never out of that sacred to the manes.
59. They call (the part) at the root of the thumb the tirtha sacred to Brahman, that at the root of the (little) finger (the tirtha) sacred to Ka (Pragapati), (that) at the tips (of the fingers, the tirtha) sacred to the gods, and that below (between the index and the thumb, the tirtha) sacred to the manes.
60. Let him first sip water thrice; next twice wipe his mouth; and, lastly, touch with water the cavities (of the head), (the seat of) the soul and the head.
61. He who knows the sacred law and seeks purity shall always perform the rite of sipping with water neither hot nor frothy, with the (prescribed) tirtha, in a lonely place, and turning to the east or to the north.
62. A Brahmana is purified by water that reaches his heart, a Kshatriya by water reaching his throat, a Vaisya by water taken into his mouth, (and) a Sudra by water touched with the extremity (of his lips).
63. A twice-born [Dwija]man is called upavitin when his right arm is raised (and the sacrificial string or the dress, passed under it, rests on the left shoulder); (when his) left (arm) is raised (and the string, or the dress, passed under it, rests on the right shoulder, he is called) prakinavitin; and nivitin when it hangs down (straight) from the neck.
64. His girdle, the skin (which serves as his upper garment), his staff, his sacrificial thread, (and) his water-pot he must throw into water, when they have been damaged, and take others, reciting sacred formulas.
65. (The ceremony called) Kesanta (clipping the hair) is ordained for a Brahmana in the sixteenth year (from conception); for a Kshatriya, in the twenty-second; and for a Vaisya, two (years) later than that.
66. This whole series (of ceremonies) must be performed for females (also), in order to sanctify the body, at the proper time and in the proper order, but without (the recitation of) sacred texts.
67. The nuptial ceremony is stated to be the Vedic sacrament for women (and to be equal to the initiation), serving the husband (equivalent to) the residence in (the house of the) teacher [acharya], and the household duties (the same) as the (daily) worship of the sacred fire.
68. Thus has been described the rule for the initiation of the twice-born, which indicates a (new) birth, and sanctifies; learn (now) to what duties they must afterwards apply themselves.
69. Having performed the (rite of) initiation, the teacher [acharya] must first instruct the (pupil) in (the rules of) personal purification, of conduct, of the fire-worship, and of the twilight devotions.
70. But (a student [Brahmachari]) who is about to begin the Study (of the Veda), shall receive instruction, after he has sipped water in accordance with the Institutes (of the sacred law), has made the Brahmangali, (has put on) a clean dress, and has brought his organs under due control.
71. At the beginning and at the end of (a lesson in the) Veda he must always clasp both the feet of his teacher [acharya], (and) he must study, joining his hands; that is called the Brahmangali (joining the palms for the sake of the Veda).
72. With crossed hands he must clasp (the feet) of the teacher [acharya], and touch the left (foot) with his left (hand), the right (foot) with his right (hand).
73. But to him who is about to begin studying, the teacher [acharya] always unwearied, must say: Ho, recite! He shall leave off (when the teacher [acharya] says): Let a stoppage take place!
74. Let him always pronounce the syllable Om at the beginning and at the end of (a lesson in) the Veda; (for) unless the syllable Om precede (the lesson) will slip away (from him), and unless it follow it will fade away.
75. Seated on (blades of Kusa grass) with their points to the east, purified by Pavitras (blades of Kusa grass), and sanctified by three suppressions of the breath (Pranayama), he is worthy (to pronounce) the syllable Om.
76. Pragapati (the lord of creatures) milked out (as it were) from the three Vedas the sounds A, U, and M, and (the Vyahritis) Bhuh, Bhuvah, Svah.
77. Moreover from the three Vedas Pragapati, who dwells in the highest heaven (Parameshthin), milked out (as it were) that Rik-verse, sacred to Savitri (Savitri), which begins with the word tad, one foot from each.
78. A Brahmana, learned in the Veda, who recites during both twilights that syllable and that (verse), preceded by the Vyahritis, gains the (whole) merit which (the recitation of) the Vedas confers.
79. A twice-born [Dwija]man who (daily) repeats those three one thousand times outside (the village), will be freed after a month even from great guilt, as a snake from its slough.
80. The Brahmana, the Kshatriya, and the Vaisya who neglect (the recitation of) that Rik-verse and the timely (performance of the) rites (prescribed for) them, will be blamed among virtuous men.
81. Know that the three imperishable Mahavyahritis, preceded by the syllable Om, and (followed) by the three-footed Savitri are the portal of the Veda and the gate leading (to union with) Brahman.
82. He who daily recites that (verse), untired, during three years, will enter (after death) the highest Brahman, move as free as air, and assume an ethereal form.
83. The monosyllable (Om) is the highest Brahman, (three) suppressions of the breath are the best (form of) austerity, but nothing surpasses the Savitri truthfulness is better than silence.
84. All rites ordained in the Veda, burnt oblations and (other) sacrifice [Yagna]s, pass away; but know that the syllable (Om) is imperishable, and (it is) Brahman, (and) the Lord of creatures (Pragapati).
85. An offering, consisting of muttered prayers, is ten times more efficacious than a sacrifice [Yagna] performed according to the rules (of the Veda); a (prayer) which is inaudible (to others) surpasses it a hundred times, and the mental (recitation of sacred texts) a thousand times.
86. The four Pakayagnas and those sacrifice [Yagna]s which are enjoined by the rules (of the Veda) are all together not equal in value to a sixteenth part of the sacrifice [Yagna] consisting of muttered prayers.
87. But, undoubtedly, a Brahmana reaches the highest goal by muttering prayers only; (whether) he perform other (rites) or neglect them, he who befriends (all creatures) is declared (to be) a (true) Brahmana.
88. A wise man should strive to restrain his organs which run wild among alluring sensual objects, like a charioteer his horses.
89. Those eleven organs which former sages have named, I will properly (and) precisely enumerate in due order,
90. (Viz.) the ear, the skin, the eyes, the tongue, and the nose as the fifth, the anus, the organ of generation, hands and feet, and the (organ of) speech, named as the tenth.
91. Five of them, the ear and the rest according to their order, they call organs of sense, and five of them, the anus and the rest, organs of action.
92. Know that the internal organ (manas) is the eleventh, which by its quality belongs to both (sets); when that has been subdued, both those sets of five have been conquered.
93. Through the attachment of his organs (to sensual pleasure) a man doubtlessly will incur guilt; but if he keep them under complete control, he will obtain success (in gaining all his aims).
94. Desire is never extinguished by the enjoyment of desired objects; it only grows stronger like a fire (fed) with clarified butter.
95. If one man should obtain all those (sensual enjoyments) and another should renounce them all, the renunciation of all pleasure is far better than the attainment of them.
96. Those (organs) which are strongly attached to sensual pleasures, cannot so effectually be restrained by abstinence (from enjoyments) as by a constant (pursuit of true) knowledge.
97. Neither (the study of) the Vedas, nor liberality, nor sacrifice [Yagna]s, nor any (self-imposed) restraint, nor austerities, ever procure the attainment (of rewards) to a man whose heart is contaminated (by sensuality).
98. That man may be considered to have (really) subdued his organs, who on hearing and touching and seeing, on tasting and smelling (anything) neither rejoices nor repines.
99. But when one among all the organs slips away (from control), thereby (man’s) wisdom slips away from him, even as the water (flows) through the one (open) foot of a (water-carrier’s) skin.
100. If he keeps all the (ten) organs as well as the mind in subjection, he may gain all his aims, without reducing his body by (the practice) of Yoga.
101. Let him stand during the morning twilight, muttering the Savitri until the sun appears, but (let him recite it), seated, in the evening until the constellations can be seen distinctly.
102. He who stands during the morning twilight muttering (the Savitri), removes the guilt contracted during the (previous) night; but he who (recites it), seated, in the evening, destroys the sin he committed during the day.
103. But he who does not (worship) standing in the morning, nor sitting in the evening, shall be excluded, just like a Sudra, from all the duties and rights of an Aryan.
104. He who (desires to) perform the ceremony (of the) daily (recitation), may even recite the Savitri near water, retiring into the forest, controlling his organs and concentrating his mind.
105. Both when (one studies) the supplementary treatises of the Veda, and when (one recites) the daily portion of the Veda, no regard need be paid to forbidden days, likewise when (one repeats) the sacred texts required for a burnt oblation.
106. There are no forbidden days for the daily recitation, since that is declared to be a Brahmasattra (an everlasting sacrifice [Yagna] offered to Brahman); at that the Veda takes the place of the burnt oblations, and it is meritorious (even), when (natural phenomena, requiring) a cessation of the Veda-study, take the place of the exclamation Vashat.
107. For him who, being pure and controlling his organs, during a year daily recites the Veda according to the rule, that (daily recitation) will ever cause sweet and sour milk, clarified butter and honey to flow.
108. Let an Aryan who has been initiated, (daily) offer fuel in the sacred fire, beg food, sleep on the ground and do what is beneficial to this teacher [acharya], until (he performs the ceremony of) Samavartana (on returning home).
109. According to the sacred law the (following) ten (persons, viz.) the teacher [acharya]’s son, one who desires to do service, one who imparts knowledge, one who is intent on fulfilling the law, one who is pure, a person connected by marriage or friendship, one who possesses (mental) ability, one who makes presents of money, one who is honest, and a relative, may be instructed (in the Veda).
110. Unless one be asked, one must not explain (anything) to anybody, nor (must one answer) a person who asks improperly; let a wise man, though he knows (the answer), behave among men as (if he were) an idiot.
111. Of the two persons, him who illegally explains (anything), and him who illegally asks (a question), one (or both) will die or incur (the other’s) enmity.
112. Where merit and wealth are not (obtained by teaching) nor (at least) due obedience, in such (soil) sacred knowledge must not be sown, just as good seed (must) not (be thrown) on barren land.
113. Even in times of dire distress a teacher [acharya] of the Veda should rather die with his knowledge than sow it in barren soil.
114. Sacred Learning approached a Brahmana and said to him: ‘I am thy treasure, preserve me, deliver me not to a scorner; so (preserved) I shall become supremely strong.’
115. ‘But deliver me, as to the keeper of thy treasure, to a Brahmana whom thou shalt know to be pure, of subdued senses, chaste and attentive.’
116. But he who acquires without permission the Veda from one who recites it, incurs the guilt of stealing the Veda, and shall sink into hell.
117. (A student [Brahmachari]) shall first reverentially salute that (teacher [acharya]) from whom he receives (knowledge), referring to worldly affairs, to the Veda, or to the Brahman.
118. A Brahmana who completely governs himself, though he know the Savitri only, is better than he who knows the three Vedas, (but) does not control himself, eats all (sorts of) food, and sells all (sorts of goods).
119. One must not sit down on a couch or seat which a superior occupies; and he who occupies a couch or seat shall rise to meet a (superior), and (afterwards) salute him.
120. For the vital airs of a young man mount upwards to leave his body when an elder approaches; but by rising to meet him and saluting he recovers them.
121. He who habitually salutes and constantly pays reverence to the aged obtains an increase of four (things), (viz.) length of life, knowledge, fame, (and) strength.
122. After the (word of) salutation, a Brahmana who greets an elder must pronounce his name, saying, ‘I am N. N.’
123. To those (persons) who, when a name is pronounced, do not understand (the meaning of) the salutation, a wise man should say, ‘It is I;’ and (he should address) in the same manner all women.
124. In saluting he should pronounce after his name the word bhoh; for the sages have declared that the nature of bhoh is the same as that of (all proper) names.
125. A Brahmana should thus be saluted in return, ‘May’st thou be long-lived, O gentle one!’ and the vowel ‘a’ must be added at the end of the name (of the person addressed), the syllable preceding it being drawn out to the length of three moras.
126. A Brahmana who does not know the form of returning a salutation, must not be saluted by a learned man; as a Sudra, even so is he.
127. Let him ask a Brahmana, on meeting him, after (his health, with the word) kusala, a Kshatriya (with the word) anamaya, a Vaisya (with the word) kshema, and a Sudra (with the word) anarogya.
128. He who has been initiated (to perform a Srauta sacrifice [Yagna]) must not be addressed by his name, even though he be a younger man; he who knows the sacred law must use in speaking to such (a man the particle) bhoh and (the pronoun) bhavat (your worship).
129. But to a female who is the wife of another man, and not a blood-relation, he must say, ‘Lady’ (bhavati) or ‘Beloved sister!’
130. To his maternal and paternal uncles, fathers-in-law, officiating priests, (and other) venerable persons, he must say, ‘I am N. N.,’ and rise (to meet them), even though they be younger (than himself).
131. A maternal aunt, the wife of a maternal uncle, a mother-in-law, and a paternal aunt must be honoured like the wife of one’s teacher [acharya]; they are equal to the wife of one’s teacher [acharya].
132. (The feet of the) wife of one’s brother, if she be of the same Varna (varna), must be clasped every day; but (the feet of) wives of (other) paternal and maternal relatives need only be embraced on one’s return from a journey.
133. Towards a sister of one’s father and of one’s mother, and towards one’s own elder sister, one must behave as towards one’s mother; (but) the mother is more venerable than they.
134. Fellow-citizens are called friends (and equals though one be) ten years (older than the other), men practising (the same) fine art (though one be) five years (older than the other), Srotriyas (though) three years (intervene between their ages), but blood-relations only (if the) difference of age be very small.
135. Know that a Brahmana of ten years and Kshatriya of a hundred years stand to each other in the relation of father and son; but between those two the Brahmana is the father.
136. Wealth, kindred, age, (the due performance of) rites, and, fifthly, sacred learning are titles to respect; but each later-named (cause) is more weighty (than the preceding ones).
137. Whatever man of the three (highest) Varnas possesses most of those five, both in number and degree, that man is worthy of honour among them; and (so is) also a Sudra who has entered the tenth (decade of his life).
138. Way must be made for a man in a carriage, for one who is above ninety years old, for one diseased, for the carrier of a burden, for a woman, for a Snataka, for the king, and for a bridegroom.
139. Among all those, if they meet (at one time), a Snataka and the king must be (most) honoured; and if the king and a Snataka (meet), the latter receives respect from the king.
140. They call that Brahmana who initiates a pupil and teaches him the Veda together with the Kalpa and the Rahasyas, the teacher [acharya] (akarya, of the latter).
141. But he who for his livelihood teaches a portion only of the Veda, or also the Angas of the Veda, is called the sub-teacher [acharya] (upadhyaya).
142. That Brahmana, who performs in accordance with the rules (of the Veda) the rites, the Garbhadhana (conception-rite), and so forth, and gives food (to the child), is called the Guru (the venerable one).
143. He who, being (duly) chosen (for the purpose), performs the Agnyadheya, the Pakayagnas, (and) the (Srauta) sacrifice [Yagna]s, such as the Agnishtoma (for another man), is called (his) officiating priest.
144. That (man) who truthfully fills both his ears with the Veda, (the pupil) shall consider as his father and mother; he must never offend him.
145. The teacher [acharya] (akarya) is ten times more venerable than a sub-teacher [acharya] (upadhyaya), the father a hundred times more than the teacher [acharya], but the mother a thousand times more than the father.
146. Of him who gives natural birth and him who gives (the knowledge of) the Veda, the giver of the Veda is the more venerable father; for the birth for the sake of the Veda (ensures) eternal (rewards) both in this (life) and after death.
147. Let him consider that (he received) a (mere animal) existence, when his parents begat him through mutual affection, and when he was born from the womb (of his mother).
148. But that birth which a teacher [acharya] acquainted with the whole Veda, in accordance with the law, procures for him through the Savitri, is real, exempt from age and death.
149. (The pupil) must know that that man also who benefits him by (instruction in) the Veda, be it little or much, is called in these (Institutes) his Guru, in consequence of that benefit (conferred by instruction in) the Veda.
150. That Brahmana who is the giver of the birth for the sake of the Veda and the teacher [acharya] of the prescribed duties becomes by law the father of an aged man, even though he himself be a child.
151. Young Kavi, the son of Angiras, taught his (relatives who were old enough to be) fathers, and, as he excelled them in (sacred) knowledge, he called them ‘Little sons.’
152. They, moved with resentment, asked the gods concerning that matter, and the gods, having assembled, answered, ‘The child has addressed you properly.’
153. ‘For (a man) destitute of (sacred) knowledge is indeed a child, and he who teaches him the Veda is his father; for (the sages) have always said “child” to an ignorant man, and “father” to a teacher [acharya] of the Veda.’
154. Neither through years, nor through white (hairs), nor through wealth, nor through (powerful) kinsmen (comes greatness). The sages have made this law, ‘He who has learnt the Veda together with the Angas (Anukana) is (considered) great by us.’
155. The seniority of Brahmanas is from (sacred) knowledge, that of Kshatriyas from valour, that of Vaisyas from wealth in grain (and other goods), but that of Sudras alone from age.
156. A man is not therefore (considered) venerable because his head is gray; him who, though young, has learned the Veda, the gods consider to be venerable.
157. As an elephant made of wood, as an antelope made of leather, such is an unlearned Brahmana; those three have nothing but the names (of their kind).
158. As a eunuch is unproductive with women, as a cow with a cow is unprolific, and as a gift made to an ignorant man yields no reward, even so is a Brahmana useless, who (does) not (know) the Rikas.
159. Created beings must be instructed in (what concerns) their welfare without giving them pain, and sweet and gentle speech must be used by (a teacher [acharya]) who desires (to abide by) the sacred law.
160. He, forsooth, whose speech and thoughts are pure and ever perfectly guarded, gains the whole reward which is conferred by the Vedanta.
161. Let him not, even though in pain, (speak words) cutting (others) to the quick; let him not injure others in thought or deed; let him not utter speeches which make (others) afraid of him, since that will prevent him from gaining heaven.
162. A Brahmana should always fear homage as if it were poison; and constantly desire (to suffer) scorn as (he would long for) nectar.
163. For he who is scorned (nevertheless may) sleep with an easy mind, awake with an easy mind, and with an easy mind walk here among men; but the scorner utterly perishes.
164. A twice-born [Dwija]man who has been sanctified by the (employment of) the means, (described above) in due order, shall gradually and cumulatively perform the various austerities prescribed for (those who) study the Veda.
165. An Aryan must study the whole Veda together with the Rahasyas, performing at the same time various kinds of austerities and the vows prescribed by the rules (of the Veda).
166. Let a Brahmana who desires to perform austerities, constantly repeat the Veda; for the study of the Veda is declared (to be) in this world the highest austerity for a Brahmana.
167. Verily, that twice-born [Dwija]man performs the highest austerity up to the extremities of his nails, who, though wearing a garland, daily recites the Veda in private to the utmost of his ability.
168. A twice-born [Dwija]man who, not having studied the Veda, applies himself to other worldly study, soon falls, even while living, to the condition of a Sudra and his descendants (after him).
169. According to the injunction of the revealed texts the first birth of an Aryan is from (his natural) mother, the second (happens) on the tying of the girdle of Munga grass, and the third on the initiation to (the performance of) a (Srauta) sacrifice [Yagna].
170. Among those (three) the birth which is symbolised by the investiture with the girdle of Munga grass, is his birth for the sake of the Veda; they declare that in that (birth) the Sivitri (verse) is his mother and the teacher [acharya] his father.
171. They call the teacher [acharya] (the pupil’s) father because he gives the Veda; for nobody can perform a (sacred) rite before the investiture with the girdle of Munga grass.
172. (He who has not been initiated) should not pronounce (any) Vedic text excepting (those required for) the performance of funeral rites, since he is on a level with a Sudra before his birth from the Veda.
173. The (student [Brahmachari]) who has been initiated must be instructed in the performance of the vows, and gradually learn the Veda, observing the prescribed rules.
174. Whatever dress of skin, sacred thread, girdle, staff, and lower garment are prescribed for a (student [Brahmachari] at the initiation), the like (must again be used) at the (performance of the) vows.
175. But a student [Brahmachari] who resides with his teacher [acharya] must observe the following restrictive rules, duly controlling all his organs, in order to increase his spiritual merit.
176. Every day, having bathed, and being purified, he must offer libations of water to the gods, sages and manes, worship (the images of) the gods, and place fuel on (the sacred fire).
177. Let him abstain from honey, meat, perfumes, garlands, substances (used for) flavouring (food), women, all substances turned acid, and from doing injury to living creatures.
178. From anointing (his body), applying collyrium to his eyes, from the use of shoes and of an umbrella (or parasol), from (sensual) desire, anger, covetousness, dancing, singing, and playing (musical instruments),
179. From gambling, idle disputes, backbiting, and lying, from looking at and touching women, and from hurting others.
180. Let him always sleep alone, let him never waste his manhood; for he who voluntarily wastes his manhood, breaks his vow.
181. A twice-born [Dwija]student [Brahmachari], who has involuntarily wasted his manly strength during sleep, must bathe, worship the sun, and afterwards thrice mutter the Rik-verse (which begins), ‘Again let my strength return to me.’
182. Let him fetch a pot full of water, flowers, cowdung, earth, and Kusa grass, as much as may be required (by his teacher [acharya]), and daily go to beg food.
183. A student [Brahmachari], being pure, shall daily bring food from the houses of men who are not deficient in (the knowledge of) the Veda and in (performing) sacrifice [Yagna]s, and who are famous for (following their lawful) occupations.
184. Let him not beg from the relatives of his teacher [acharya], nor from his own or his mother’s blood-relations; but if there are no houses belonging to strangers, let him go to one of those named above, taking the last-named first;
185. Or, if there are no (virtuous men of the kind) mentioned above, he may go to each (house in the) village, being pure and remaining silent; but let him avoid Abhisastas (those accused of mortal sin).
186. Having brought sacred fuel from a distance, let him place it anywhere but on the ground, and let him, unwearied, make with it burnt oblations to the sacred fire, both evening and morning.
187. He who, without being sick, neglects during seven (successive) days to go out begging, and to offer fuel in the sacred fire, shall perform the penance of an Avakirnin (one who has broken his vow).
188. He who performs the vow (of student [Brahmachari]ship) shall constantly subsist on alms, (but) not eat the food of one (person only); the subsistence of a student [Brahmachari] on begged food is declared to be equal (in merit) to fasting.
189. At his pleasure he may eat, when invited, the food of one man at (a rite) in honour of the gods, observing (however the conditions on his vow, or at a (funeral meal) in honor of the manes, behaving (however) like a hermit.
190. This duty is prescribed by the wise for a Brahmana only; but no such duty is ordained for a Kshatriya and a Vaisya.
191. Both when ordered by his teacher [acharya], and without a (special) command, (a student [Brahmachari]) shall always exert himself in studying (the Veda), and in doing what is serviceable to his teacher [acharya].
192. Controlling his body, his speech, his organs (of sense), and his mind, let him stand with joined hands, looking at the face of his teacher [acharya].
193. Let him always keep his right arm uncovered, behave decently and keep his body well covered, and when he is addressed (with the words), ‘Be seated,’ he shall sit down, facing his teacher [acharya].
194. In the presence of his teacher [acharya] let him always eat less, wear a less valuable dress and ornaments (than the former), and let him rise earlier (from his bed), and go to rest later.
195. Let him not answer or converse with (his teacher [acharya]), reclining on a bed, nor sitting, nor eating, nor standing, nor with an averted face.
196. Let him do (that), standing up, if (his teacher [acharya]) is seated, advancing towards him when he stands, going to meet him if he advances, and running after him when he runs;
197. Going (round) to face (the teacher [acharya]), if his face is averted, approaching him if he stands at a distance, but bending towards him if he lies on a bed, and if he stands in a lower place.
198. When his teacher [acharya] is nigh, let his bed or seat be low; but within sight of his teacher [acharya] he shall not sit carelessly at ease.
199. Let him not pronounce the mere name of his teacher [acharya] (without adding an honorific title) behind his back even, and let him not mimic his gait, speech, and deportment.
200. Wherever (people) justly censure or falsely defame his teacher [acharya], there he must cover his ears or depart thence to another place.
201. By censuring (his teacher [acharya]), though justly, he will become (in his next birth) an ass, by falsely defaming him, a dog; he who lives on his teacher [acharya]’s substance, will become a worm, and he who is envious (of his merit), a (larger) insect.
202. He must not serve the (teacher [acharya] by the intervention of another) while he himself stands aloof, nor when he (himself) is angry, nor when a woman is near; if he is seated in a carriage or on a (raised) seat, he must descend and afterwards salute his (teacher [acharya]).
203. Let him not sit with his teacher [acharya], to the leeward or to the windward (of him); nor let him say anything which his teacher [acharya] cannot hear.
204. He may sit with his teacher [acharya] in a carriage drawn by oxen, horses, or camels, on a terrace, on a bed of grass or leaves, on a mat, on a rock, on a wooden bench, or in a boat.
205. If his teacher [acharya]’s teacher [acharya] is near, let him behave (towards him) as towards his own teacher [acharya]; but let him, unless he has received permission from his teacher [acharya], not salute venerable persons of his own (family).
206. This is likewise (ordained as) his constant behaviour towards (other) instructors in science, towards his relatives (to whom honour is due), towards all who may restrain him from sin, or may give him salutary advice.
207. Towards his betters let him always behave as towards his teacher [acharya], likewise towards sons of his teacher [acharya], born by wives of equal Varna, and towards the teacher [acharya]’s relatives both on the side of the father and of the mother.
208. The son of the teacher [acharya] who imparts instruction (in his father’s stead), whether younger or of equal age, or a student [Brahmachari] of (the science of) sacrifice [Yagna]s (or of other Angas), deserves the same honour as the teacher [acharya].
209. A student [Brahmachari] must not shampoo the limbs of his teacher [acharya]’s son, nor assist him in bathing, nor eat the fragments of his food, nor wash his feet.
210. The wives of the teacher [acharya], who belong to the same Varna, must be treated as respectfully as the teacher [acharya]; but those who belong to a different Varna, must be honoured by rising and salutation.
211. Let him not perform for a wife of his teacher [acharya] (the offices of) anointing her, assisting her in the bath, shampooing her limbs, or arranging her hair.
212. (A pupil) who is full twenty years old, and knows what is becoming and unbecoming, shall not salute a young wife of his teacher [acharya] (by touching) her feet.
213. It is the nature of women to seduce men in this (world); for that reason the wise are never unguarded in (the company of) females.
214. For women are able to lead astray in (this) world not only a fool, but even a learned man, and (to make) him a slave of desire and anger.
215. One should not sit in a lonely place with one’s mother, sister, or daughter; for the senses are so powerful, and master even a learned man can indulge in sin.
216. But at his pleasure a young student [Brahmachari] may prostrate himself on the ground before the young wife of a teacher [acharya], in accordance with the rule, and say, ‘I, N. N., (worship thee, O lady).’
217. On returning from a journey he must clasp the feet of his teacher [acharya]’s wife and daily salute her (in the manner just mentioned), remembering the duty of the virtuous.
218. As the man who digs with a spade (into the ground) obtains water, even so an obedient (pupil) obtains the knowledge which lies (hidden) in his teacher [acharya].
219. A (student [Brahmachari]) may either shave his head, or wear his hair in braids, or braid one lock on the crown of his head; the sun must never set or rise while he (lies asleep) in the village.
220. If the sun should rise or set while he is sleeping, be it (that he offended) intentionally or unintentionally, he shall fast during the (next) day, muttering (the Savitri).
221. For he who lies (sleeping), while the sun sets or rises, and does not perform (that) penance, is tainted by great guilt.
222. Purified by sipping water, he shall daily worship during both twilights[Usha] with a concentrated mind in a pure place, muttering the prescribed text according to the rule.
223. If a woman or a man of low Varna perform anything (leading to) happiness, let him diligently practise it, as well as (any other permitted act) in which his heart finds pleasure.
224. (Some declare that) the chief good consists in (the acquisition of) spiritual merit and wealth, (others place it) in (the gratification of) desire and (the acquisition of) wealth, (others) in (the acquisition of) spiritual merit alone, and (others say that the acquisition of) wealth alone is the chief good here (below); but the (correct) decision is that it consists of the aggregate of (those) three.
225. The teacher [acharya], the father, the mother, and an elder brother must not be treated with disrespect, especially by a Brahmana, though one be grievously offended (by them).
226. The teacher [acharya] is the image of Brahman, the father the image of Pragipati (the lord of created beings), the mother the image of the earth, and an (elder) full brother the image of oneself.
227. That trouble (and pain) which the parents undergo on the birth of (their) children, cannot be compensated even in a hundred years.
228. Let him always do what is agreeable to those (two) and always (what may please) his teacher [acharya]; when those three are pleased, he obtains all (those rewards which) austerities (yield).
229. Obedience towards those three is declared to be the best (form of) austerity; let him not perform other meritorious acts without their permission.
230. For they are declared to be the three worlds, they the three (principal) orders, they the three Vedas, and they the three sacred fires.
231. The father, forsooth, is stated to be the Garhapatya fire, the mother the Dakshinagni, but the teacher [acharya] the Ahavaniya fire; this triad of fires is most venerable.
232. He who neglects not those three, (even after he has become) a householder, will conquer the three worlds and, radiant in body like a god, he will enjoy bliss in heaven.
233. By honouring his mother he gains this (nether) world, by honouring his father the middle sphere, but by obedience to his teacher [acharya] the world of Brahman.
234. All duties have been fulfilled by him who honours those three; but to him who honours them not, all rites remain fruitless.
235. As long as those three live, so long let him not (independently) perform any other (meritorious acts); let him always serve them, rejoicing (to do what is) agreeable and beneficial (to them).
236. He shall inform them of everything that with their consent he may perform in thought, word, or deed for the sake of the next world.
237. By (honouring) these three all that ought to be done by man, is accomplished; that is clearly the highest duty, every other (act) is a subordinate duty.
238. He who possesses faith may receive pure learning even from a man of lower Varna, the highest law even from the lowest, and an excellent wife even from a base family.
239. Even from poison nectar may be taken, even from a child good advice, even from a foe (a lesson in) good conduct, and even from an impure (substance) gold.
240. Excellent wives, learning, (the knowledge of) the law, (the rules of) purity, good advice, and various arts may be acquired from anybody.
241. It is prescribed that in times of distress (a student [Brahmachari]) may learn (the Veda) from one who is not a Brahmana; and that he shall walk behind and serve (such a) teacher [acharya], as long as the instruction lasts.
242. He who desires incomparable bliss (in heaven) shall not dwell during his whole life in (the house of) a non-Brahmanical teacher [acharya], nor with a Brahmana who does not know the whole Veda and the Angas.
243. But if (a student [Brahmachari]) desires to pass his whole life in the teacher [acharya]’s house, he must diligently serve him, until he is freed from this body.
244. A Brahmana who serves his teacher [acharya] till the dissolution of his body, reaches forthwith the eternal mansion of Brahman.
245. He who knows the sacred law must not present any gift to his teacher [acharya] before (the Samavartana); but when, with the permission of his teacher [acharya], he is about to take the (final) bath, let him procure (a present) for the venerable man according to his ability,
246. (Viz.) a field, gold, a cow, a horse, a parasol and shoes, a seat, grain, (even) vegetables, (and thus) give pleasure to his teacher [acharya].
247. (A perpetual student [Brahmachari]) must, if his teacher [acharya] dies, serve his son (provided he be) endowed with good qualities, or his widow, or his Sapinda, in the same manner as the teacher [acharya].
248. Should none of these be alive, he must serve the sacred fire, standing (by day) and sitting (during the night), and thus finish his life.
249. A Brahmana who thus passes his life as a student [Brahmachari] without breaking his vow, reaches (after death) the highest abode and will not be born again in this world.


1. The vow (of studying) the three Vedas under a teacher [acharya] must be kept for thirty-six years, or for half that time, or for a quarter, or until the (student [Brahmachari]) has perfectly learnt them.
2. (A student [Brahmachari]) who has studied in due order the three Vedas, or two, or even one only, without breaking the (rules of) student [Brahmachari]ship, shall enter the order of householders.
3. He who is famous for (the strict performance of) his duties and has received his heritage, the Veda, from his father, shall be honoured, sitting on a couch and adorned with a garland, with (the present of) a cow (and the honey-mixture).
4. Having bathed, with the permission of his teacher [acharya], and performed according to the rule the Samavartana (the rite on returning home), a twice-born [Dwija]man shall marry a wife of equal Varna who is endowed with auspicious (bodily) marks.
5. A damsel who is neither a Sapinda on the mother’s side, nor belongs to the same family on the father’s side, is recommended to twice-born [Dwija]men for wedlock and conjugal union.
6. In connecting himself with a wife, let him carefully avoid the ten following families, be they ever so great, or rich in kine, horses, sheep, grain, or (other) property,
7. (Viz.) one which neglects the sacred rites, one in which no male children (are born), one in which the Veda is not studied, one (the members of) which have thick hair on the body, those which are subject to hemorrhoids, phthisis, weakness of digestion, epilepsy, or white or black leprosy.
8. Let him not marry a maiden (with) reddish (hair), nor one who has a redundant member, nor one who is sickly, nor one either with no hair (on the body) or too much, nor one who is garrulous or has red (eyes),
9. Nor one named after a constellation, a tree, or a river, nor one bearing the name of a low Varna, or of a mountain, nor one named after a bird, a snake, or a slave, nor one whose name inspires terror.
10. Let him wed a female free from bodily defects, who has an agreeable name, the (graceful) gait of a Hamsa or of an elephant, a moderate (quantity of) hair on the body and on the head, small teeth, and soft limbs.
11. But a prudent man should not marry (a maiden) who has no brother, nor one whose father is not known, through fear lest (in the former case she be made) an appointed daughter (and in the latter) lest (he should commit) sin.
12. For the first marriage of twice-born [Dwija]men (wives) of equal Varna are recommended; but for those who through desire proceed (to marry again) the following females, (chosen) according to the (direct) order (of the Varnas), are most approved.
13. It is declared that a Sudra woman alone (can be) the wife of a Sudra, she and one of his own Varna (the wives) of a Vaisya, those two and one of his own Varna (the wives) of a Kshatriya, those three and one of his own Varna (the wives) of a Brahmana.
14. A Sudra woman is not mentioned even in any (ancient) story as the (first) wife of a Brahmana or of a Kshatriya, though they lived in the (greatest) distress.
15. Twice-born [Dwija]men who, in their folly, wed wives of the low (Sudra) Varna, soon degrade their families and their children to the state of Sudras.
16. According to Atri and to (Gautama) the son of Utathya, he who weds a Sudra woman becomes an outcast, according to Saunaka on the birth of a son, and according to Bhrigu he who has (male) offspring from a (Sudra female, alone).
17. A Brahmana who takes a Sudra wife to his bed, will (after death) sink into hell; if he begets a child by her, he will lose the rank of a Brahmana.
18. The manes and the gods will not eat the (offerings) of that man who performs the rites in honour of the gods, of the manes, and of guests chiefly with a (Sudra wife’s) assistance, and such (a man) will not go to heaven.
19. For him who drinks the moisture of a Sudra’s lips, who is tainted by her breath, and who begets a son on her, no expiation is prescribed.
20. Now listen to (the) brief (description of) the following eight marriage-rites used by the four Varnas (varna) which partly secure benefits and partly produce evil both in this life and after death.
21. (They are) the rite of Brahman (Brahma), that of the gods (Daiva), that of the Rishis (Arsha), that of Pragapati (Pragapatya), that of the Asuras (Asura), that of the Gandharvas (Gandharva), that of the Rhashasas (Rakshasa), and that of the Pisakas (Paisaka).
22. Which is lawful for each Varna (varna) and which are the virtues or faults of each (rite), all this I will declare to you, as well as their good and evil results with respect to the offspring.
23. One may know that the first six according to the order (followed above) are lawful for a Brahmana, the four last for a Kshatriya, and the same four, excepting the Rakshasa rite, for a Vaisya and a Sudra.
24. The sages state that the first four are approved (in the case) of a Brahmana, one, the Rakshasa (rite in the case) of a Kshatriya, and the Asura (marriage in that) of a Vaisya and of a Sudra.
25. But in these (Institutes of the sacred law) three of the five (last) are declared to be lawful and two unlawful; the Paisaka and the Asura (rites) must never be used.
26. For Kshatriyas those before-mentioned two rites, the Gandharva and the Rakshasa, whether separate or mixed, are permitted by the sacred tradition.
27. The gift of a daughter, after decking her (with costly garments) and honouring (her by presents of jewels), to a man learned in the Veda and of good conduct, whom (the father) himself invites, is called the Brahma rite.
28. The gift of a daughter who has been decked with ornaments, to a priest who duly officiates at a sacrifice [Yagna], during the course of its performance, they call the Daiva rite.
29. When (the father) gives away his daughter according to the rule, after receiving from the bridegroom, for (the fulfilment of) the sacred law, a cow and a bull or two pairs, that is named the Arsha rite.
30. The gift of a daughter (by her father) after he has addressed (the couple) with the text, ‘May both of you perform together your duties,’ and has shown honour (to the bridegroom), is called in the Smriti the Pragapatya rite.
31. When (the bridegroom) receives a maiden, after having given as much wealth as he can afford, to the kinsmen and to the bride herself, according to his own will, that is called the Asura rite.
32. The voluntary union of a maiden and her lover one must know (to be) the Gandharva rite, which springs from desire and has sexual intercourse for its purpose.
33. The forcible abduction of a maiden from her home, while she cries out and weeps, after (her kinsmen) have been slain or wounded and (their houses) broken open, is called the Rakshasa rite.
34. When (a man) by stealth seduces a girl who is sleeping, intoxicated, or disordered in intellect, that is the eighth, the most base and sinful rite of the Pisakas.
35. The gift of daughters among Brahmanas is most approved, (if it is preceded) by (a libation of) water; but in the case of other Varnas (it may be performed) by (the expression of) mutual consent.
36. Listen now to me, ye Brahmanas, while I fully declare what quality has been ascribed by Manu to each of these marriage-rites.
37. The son of a wife wedded according to the Brahma rite, if he performs meritorious acts, liberates from sin ten ancestors, ten descendants and himself as the twenty-first.
38. The son born of a wife, wedded according to the Daiva rite, likewise (saves) seven ancestors and seven descendants, the son of a wife married by the Arsha rite three (in the ascending and descending lines), and the son of a wife married by the rite of Ka (Pragapati) six (in either line).
39. From the four marriages, (enumerated) successively, which begin with the Brahma rite spring sons, radiant with knowledge of the Veda and honoured by the Sishtas (good men).
40. Endowded with the qualities of beauty and goodness, possessing wealth and fame, obtaining as many enjoyments as they desire and being most righteous, they will live a hundred years.
41. But from the remaining (four) blamable marriages spring sons who are cruel and speakers of untruth, who hate the Veda and the sacred law.
42. In the blameless marriages blameless children are born to men, in blamable (marriages) blamable (offspring); one should therefore avoid the blamable (forms of marriage).
43. The ceremony of joining the hands is prescribed for (marriages with) women of equal Varna (varna); know that the following rule (applies) to weddings with females of a different Varna (varna).
44. On marrying a man of a higher Varna a Kshatriya bride must take hold of an arrow, a Vaisya bride of a goad, and a Sudra female of the hem of the (bridegroom’s) garment.
45. Let (the husband) approach his wife in due season, being constantly satisfied with her (alone); he may also, being intent on pleasing her, approach her with a desire for conjugal union (on any day) excepting the Parvans.
46. Sixteen (days and) nights (in each month), including four days which differ from the rest and are censured by the virtuous, (are called) the natural season of women.
47. But among these the first four, the eleventh and the thirteenth are (declared to be) forbidden; the remaining nights are recommended.
48. On the even nights sons are conceived and daughters on the uneven ones; hence a man who desires to have sons should approach his wife in due season on the even (nights).
49. A male child is produced by a greater quantity of male seed, a female child by the prevalence of the female; if (both are) equal, a hermaphrodite or a boy and a girl; if (both are) weak or deficient in quantity, a failure of conception (results).
50. He who avoids women on the six forbidden nights and on eight others, is (equal in chastity to) a student [Brahmachari], in whichever order he may live.
51. No father who knows (the law) must take even the smallest gratuity for his daughter; for a man who, through avarice, takes a gratuity, is a seller of his offspring.
52. But those (male) relations who, in their folly, live on the separate property of women, (e.g. appropriate) the beasts of burden, carriages, and clothes of women, commit sin and will sink into hell.
53. Some call the cow and the bull (given) at an Arsha wedding ‘a gratuity;’ (but) that is wrong, since (the acceptance of) a fee, be it small or great, is a sale (of the daughter).
54. When the relatives do not appropriate (for their use) the gratuity (given), it is not a sale; (in that case) the (gift) is only a token of respect and of kindness towards the maidens.
55. Women must be honoured and adorned by their fathers, brothers, husbands, and brothers-in-law, who desire (their own) welfare.
56. Where women are honoured, there the gods are pleased; but where they are not honoured, no sacred rite yields rewards.
57. Where the female relations live in grief, the family soon wholly perishes; but that family where they are not unhappy ever prospers.
58. The houses on which female relations, not being duly honoured, pronounce a curse, perish completely, as if destroyed by magic.
59. Hence men who seek (their own) welfare, should always honour women on holidays and festivals with (gifts of) ornaments, clothes, and (dainty) food.
60. In that family, where the husband is pleased with his wife and the wife with her husband, happiness will assuredly be lasting.
61. For if the wife is not radiant with beauty, she will not attract her husband; but if she has no attractions for him, no children will be born.
62. If the wife is radiant with beauty, the whole house is bright; but if she is destitute of beauty, all will appear dismal.
63. By low marriages, by omitting (the performance of) sacred rites, by neglecting the study of the Veda, and by irreverence towards Brahmanas, (great) families sink low.
64. By (practising) handicrafts, by pecuniary transactions, by (begetting) children on Sudra females only, by (trading in) cows, horses, and carriages, by (the pursuit of) agriculture and by taking service under a king,
65. By sacrificing for men unworthy to offer sacrifice [Yagna]s and by denying (the future rewards for good) works, families, deficient in the (knowledge of the) Veda, quickly perish.
66. But families that are rich in the knowledge of the Veda, though possessing little wealth, are numbered among the great, and acquire great fame.
67. With the sacred fire, kindled at the wedding, a householder shall perform according to the law the domestic ceremonies and the five (great) sacrifice [Yagna]s, and (with that) he shall daily cook his food.
68. A householder has five slaughter-houses (as it were, viz.) the hearth, the grinding-stone, the broom, the pestle and mortar, the water-vessel, by using which he is bound (with the fetters of sin).
69. In order to successively expiate (the offences committed by means) of all these (five) the great sages have prescribed for householders the daily (performance of the five) great sacrifice [Yagna]s.
70. Teaching (and studying) is the sacrifice [Yagna] (offered) to Brahman, the (offerings of water and food called) Tarpana the sacrifice [Yagna] to the manes, the burnt oblation the sacrifice [Yagna] offered to the gods, the Bali offering that offered to the Bhutas, and the hospitable reception of guests the offering to men.
71. He who neglects not these five great sacrifice [Yagna]s, while he is able (to perform them), is not tainted by the sins (committed) in the five places of slaughter, though he constantly lives in the (order of) house (-holders).
72. But he who does not feed these five, the gods, his guests, those whom he is bound to maintain, the manes, and himself, lives not, though he breathes.
73. They call (these) five sacrifice [Yagna]s also, Ahuta, Huta, Prahuta, Brahmya-huta, and Prasita.
74. Ahuta (not offered in the fire) is the muttering (of Vedic texts), Huta the burnt oblation (offered to the gods), Prahuta (offered by scattering it on the ground) the Bali offering given to the Bhutas, Brahmya-huta (offered in the digestive fire of Brahmanas), the respectful reception of Brahmana (guests), and Prasita (eaten) the (daily oblation to the manes, called) Tarpana.
75. Let (every man) in this (second order, at least) daily apply himself to the private recitation of the Veda, and also to the performance of the offering to the gods; for he who is diligent in the performance of sacrifice [Yagna]s, supports both the movable and the immovable creation.
76. An oblation duly thrown into the fire, reaches the sun; from the sun comes rain, from rain food, therefrom the living creatures (derive their subsistence).
77. As all living creatures subsist by receiving support from air, even so (the members of) all orders subsist by receiving support from the householder.
78. Because men of the three (other) orders are daily supported by the householder with (gifts of) sacred knowledge and food, therefore (the order of) householders is the most excellent order.
79. (The duties of) this order, which cannot be practised by men with weak organs, must be carefully observed by him who desires imperishable (bliss in) heaven, and constant happiness in this (life).
80. The sages, the manes, the gods, the Bhutas, and guests ask the householders (for offerings and gifts); hence he who knows (the law), must give to them (what is due to each).
81. Let him worship, according to the rule, the sages by the private recitation of the Veda, the gods by burnt oblations, the manes by funeral offerings (Sraddha), men by (gifts of) food, and the Bhutas by the Bali offering.
82. Let him daily perform a funeral sacrifice [Yagna] with food, or with water, or also with milk, roots, and fruits, and (thus) please the manes.
83. Let him feed even one Brahmana in honour of the manes at (the Sraddha), which belongs to the five great sacrifice [Yagna]s; but let him not feed on that (occasion) any Brahmana on account of the Vaisvadeva offering.
84. A Brahmana shall offer according to the rule (of his Grihya-sutra a portion) of the cooked food destined for the Vaisvadeva in the sacred domestic fire to the following deities:
85. First to Agni, and (next) to Soma, then to both these gods conjointly, further to all the gods (Visve Devah), and (then) to Dhanvantari,
86. Further to Kuhu (the goddess of the new-moon day), to Anumati (the goddess of the full-moon day), to Pragapati (the lord of creatures), to heaven and earth conjointly, and finally to Agni Svishtakrit (the fire which performs the sacrifice [Yagna] well).
87. After having thus duly offered the sacrificial food, let him throw Bali offerings in all directions of the compass, proceeding (from the east) to the south, to Indra, Yama, Varuna, and Soma, as well as to the servants (of these deities).
88. Saying, ‘(Adoration) to the Maruts,’ he shall scatter (some food) near the door, and (some) in water, saying, ‘(Adoration to the waters;’ he shall throw (some) on the pestle and the mortar, speaking thus, ‘(Adoration) to the trees.’
89. Near the head (of the bed) he shall make an offering to Sri (fortune), and near the foot (of his bed) to Bhadrakali; in the centre of the house let him place a Bali for Brahman and for Vastoshpati (the lord of the dwelling) conjointly.
90. Let him throw up into the air a Bali for all the gods, and (in the day-time one) for the goblins roaming about by day, (and in the evening one) for the goblins that walk at night.
91. In the upper story let him offer a Bali to Sarvatmabhuti; but let him throw what remains (from these offerings) in a southerly direction for the manes.
92. Let him gently place on the ground (some food) for dogs, outcasts, Kandalas (Svapak), those afflicted with diseases that are punishments of former sins, crows, and insects.
93. That Brahmana who thus daily honours all beings, goes, endowed with a resplendent body, by a straight road to the highest dwelling-place (i.e. Brahman).
94. Having performed this Bali offering, he shall first feed his guest and, according to the rule, give alms to an ascetic (and) to a student [Brahmachari].
95. A twice-born [Dwija]householder gains, by giving alms, the same reward for his meritorious act which (a student [Brahmachari]) obtains for presenting, in accordance with the rule, a cow to his teacher [acharya].
96. Let him give, in accordance with the rule, to a Brahmana who knows the true meaning of the Veda, even (a small portion of food as) alms, or a pot full of water, having garnished (the food with seasoning, or the pot with flowers and fruit).
97. The oblations to gods and manes, made by men ignorant (of the law of gifts), are lost, if the givers in their folly present (shares of them) to Brahmanas who are mere ashes.
98. An offering made in the mouth-fire of Brahmanas rich in sacred learning and austerities, saves from misfortune and from great guilt.
99. But let him offer, in accordance with the rule, to a guest who has come (of his own accord) a seat and water, as well as food, garnished (with seasoning), according to his ability.
100. A Brahmana who stays unhonoured (in the house), takes away (with him) all the spiritual merit even of a man who subsists by gleaning ears of corn, or offers oblations in five fires.
101. Grass, room (for resting), water, and fourthly a kind word; these (things) never fail in the houses of good men.
102. But a Brahmana who stays one night only is declared to be a guest (atithi); for because he stays (sthita) not long (anityam), he is called atithi (a guest).
103. One must not consider as a guest a Brahmana who dwells in the same village, nor one who seeks his livelihood by social intercourse, even though he has come to a house where (there is) a wife, and where sacred fires (are kept).
104. Those foolish householders who constantly seek (to live on) the food of others, become, in consequence of that (baseness), after death the cattle of those who give them food.
105. A guest who is sent by the (setting) sun in the evening, must not be driven away by a householder; whether he have come at (supper-) time or at an inopportune moment, he must not stay in the house without entertainment.
106. Let him not eat any (dainty) food which he does not offer to his guest; the hospitable reception of guests procures wealth, fame, long life, and heavenly bliss.
107. Let him offer (to his guests) seats, rooms, beds, attendance on departure and honour (while they stay), to the most distinguished in the best form, to the lower ones in a lower form, to equals in an equal manner.
108. But if another guest comes after the Vaisvadeva offering has been finished, (the householder) must give him food according to his ability, (but) not repeat the Bali offering.
109. A Brahmana shall not name his family and (Vedic) gotra in order to obtain a meal; for he who boasts of them for the sake of a meal, is called by the wise a foul feeder (vantasin).
110. But a Kshatriya (who comes) to the house of a Brahmana is not called a guest (atithi), nor a Vaisya, nor a Sudra, nor a personal friend, nor a relative, nor the teacher [acharya].
111. But if a Kshatriya comes to the house of a Brahmana in the manner of a guest, (the house-holder) may feed him according to his desire, after the above-mentioned Brahmanas have eaten.
112. Even a Vaisya and a Sudra who have approached his house in the manner of guests, he may allow to eat with his servants, showing (thereby) his compassionate disposition.
113. Even to others, personal friends and so forth, who have come to his house out of affection, he may give food, garnished (with seasoning) according to his ability, (at the same time) with his wife.
114. Without hesitation he may give food, even before his guests, to the following persons, (viz.) to newly-married women, to infants, to the sick, and to pregnant women.
115. But the foolish man who eats first without having given food to these (persons) does, while he crams, not know that (after death) he himself will be devoured by dogs and vultures.
116. After the Brahmanas, the kinsmen, and the servants have dined, the householder and his wife may afterwards eat what remains.
117. Having honoured the gods, the sages, men, the manes, and the guardian deities of the house, the householder shall eat afterwards what remains.
118. He who prepares food for himself (alone), eats nothing but sin; for it is ordained that the food which remains after (the performance of) the sacrifice [Yagna]s shall be the meal of virtuous men.
119. Let him honour with the honey-mixture a king, an officiating priest, a Snataka, the teacher [acharya], a son-in-law, a father-in-law, and a maternal uncle, (if they come) again after a full year (has elapsed since their last visit).
120. A king and a Srotriya, who come on the performance of a sacrifice [Yagna], must be honoured with the honey-mixture, but not if no sacrifice [Yagna] is being performed; that is a settled rule.
121. But the wife shall offer in the evening (a portion) of the dressed food as a Bali-oblation, without (the recitation of) sacred formulas; for that (rite which is called the) Vaisvadeva is prescribed both for the morning and the evening.
122. After performing the Pitriyagna, a Brahmana who keeps a sacred fire shall offer, month by month, on the new-moon day, the funeral sacrifice [Yagna] (Sraddha, called) Pindanvaharyaka.
123. The wise call the monthly funeral offering to the manes Anvaharya (to be offered after the cakes), and that must be carefully performed with the approved (sorts of) flesh (mentioned below).
124. I will fully declare what and how many (Brahmanas) must be fed on that (occasion), who must be avoided, and on what kinds of food (they shall dine).
125. One must feed two (Brahmanas) at the offering to the gods, and three at the offering to the manes, or one only on either occasion; even a very wealthy man shall not be anxious (to entertain) a large company.
126. A large company destroys these five (advantages) the respectful treatment (of the invited, the propriety of) place and time, purity and (the selection of) virtuous Brahmana (guests); he therefore shall not seek (to entertain) a large company.
127. Famed is this rite for the dead, called (the sacrifice [Yagna] sacred to the manes (and performed) on the new-moon day; if a man is diligent in (performing) that, (the reward of) the rite for the dead, which is performed according to Smarta rules, reaches him constantly.
128. Oblations to the gods and manes must be presented by the givers to a Srotriya alone; what is given to such a most worthy Brahmana yields great reward.
129. Let him feed even one learned man at (the sacrifice [Yagna]) to the gods, and one at (the sacrifice [Yagna]) to the manes; (thus) he will gain a rich reward, not (if he entertains) many who are unacquainted with the Veda.
130. Let him make inquiries even regarding the remote (ancestors of) a Brahmana who has studied an entire (recension of the) Veda;
(if descended from a virtuous race) such a man is a worthy recipient of gifts (consisting) of food offered to the gods or to the manes, he is declared (to procure as great rewards as) a guest (atithi).
131. Though a million of men, unaquainted with the Rikas, were to dine at a (funeral sacrifice [Yagna]), yet a single man, learned in the Veda, who is satisfied (with his entertainment), is worth them all as far as the (production of) spiritual merit (is concerned).
132. Food sacred to the manes or to the gods must be given to a man distinguished by sacred knowledge; for hands, smeared with blood, cannot be cleansed with blood.
133. As many mouthfuls as an ignorant man swallows at a sacrifice [Yagna] to the gods or to the manes, so many red-hot spikes, spears, and iron balls must (the giver of the repast) swallow after death.
134. Some Brahmanas are devoted to (the pursuit of) knowledge, and others to (the performance of) austerities; some to austerities and to the recitation of the Veda, and others to (the performance of) sacred rites.
135. Oblations to the manes ought to be carefully presented to those devoted to knowledge, but offerings to the gods, in accordance with the reason (of the sacred law), to (men of) all the four (above-mentioned classes).
136. If there is a father ignorant of the sacred texts whose son has learned one whole recension of the Veda and the Angas, and a son ignorant of the sacred texts whose father knows an entire recension of the Veda and the Angas,
137. Know that he whose father knows the Veda, is the more venerable one (of the two); yet the other one is worthy of honour, because respect is due to the Veda (which he has learned).
138. Let him not entertain a personal friend at a funeral sacrifice [Yagna]; he may gain his affection by (other) valuable gifts; let him feed at a Sraddha a Brahmana whom he considers neither as a foe nor as a friend.
139. He who performs funeral sacrifice [Yagna]s and offerings to the gods chiefly for the sake of (gaining) friends, reaps after death no reward for Sraddhas and sacrifice [Yagna]s.
140. That meanest among twice-born [Dwija]men who in his folly contracts friendships through a funeral sacrifice [Yagna], loses heaven, because he performed a Sraddha for the sake of friendship.
141. A gift (of food) by twice-born [Dwija]men, consumed with (friends and relatives), is said to be offered to the Pisakas; it remains in this (world) alone like a blind cow in one stable.
142. As a husbandman reaps no harvest when he has sown the seed in barren soil, even so the giver of sacrificial food gains no reward if he presented it to a man unacquainted with the Rikas.
143. But a present made in accordance with the rules to a learned man, makes the giver and the recipient partakers of rewards both in this (life) and after death.
144. (If no learned Brahmana be at hand), he may rather honour a (virtuous) friend than an enemy, though the latter may be qualified (by learning and so forth); for sacrificial food, eaten by a foe, bears no reward after death.
145. Let him (take) pains (to) feed at a Sraddha an adherent of the Rig-veda who has studied one entire (recension of that) Veda, or a follower of the Yagur-veda who has finished one Sakha, or a singer of Samans who (likewise) has completed (the study of an entire recension).
146. If one of these three dines, duly honoured, at a funeral sacrifice [Yagna], the ancestors of him (who gives the feast), as far as the seventh person, will be satisfied for a very long time.
147. This is the chief rule (to be followed) in offering sacrifice [Yagna]s to the gods and manes; know that the virtuous always observe the following subsidiary rule.
148. One may also entertain (on such occasions) one’s maternal grandfather, a maternal uncle, a sister’s son, a father-in-law, one’s teacher [acharya], a daughter’s son, a daughter’s husband, a cognate kinsman, one’s own officiating priest or a man for whom one offers sacrifice [Yagna]s.
149. For a rite sacred to the gods, he who knows the law will not make (too close) inquiries regarding an (invited) Brahmana; but when one performs a ceremony in honour of the manes, one must carefully examine (the qualities and parentage of the guest).
150. Manu has declared that those Brahmanas who are thieves, outcasts, eunuchs, or atheists are unworthy (to partake) of oblations to the gods and manes.
151. Let him not entertain at a Sraddha one who wears his hair in braids (a student [Brahmachari]), one who has not studied (the Veda), one afflicted with a skin-disease, a gambler, nor those who sacrifice [Yagna] for a multitude (of sacrifice [Yagna]rs).
152. Physicians, temple-priests, sellers of meat, and those who subsist by shop-keeping must be avoided at sacrifice [Yagna]s offered to the gods and to the manes.
153. A paid servant of a village or of a king, man with deformed nails or black teeth, one who opposes his teacher [acharya], one who has forsaken the sacred fire, and a usurer;
154. One suffering from consumption, one who subsists by tending cattle, a younger brother who marries or kindles the sacred fire before the elder, one who neglects the five great sacrifice [Yagna]s, an enemy of the Brahmana race, an elder brother who marries or kindles the sacred fire after the younger, and one who belongs to a company or corporation,
155. An actor or singer, one who has broken the vow of student [Brahmachari]ship, one whose (only or first) wife is a Sudra female, the son of a remarried woman, a one-eyed man, and he in whose house a paramour of his wife (resides);
156. He who teaches for a stipulated fee and he who is taught on that condition, he who instructs Sudra pupils and he whose teacher [acharya] is a Sudra, he who speaks rudely, the son of an adulteress, and the son of a widow,
157. He who forsakes his mother, his father, or a teacher [acharya] without a (sufficient) reason, he who has contracted an alliance with outcasts either through the Veda or through a marriage,
158. An incendiary, a prisoner, he who eats the food given by the son of an adulteress, a seller of Soma, he who undertakes voyages by sea, a bard, an oil-man, a suborner to perjury,
159. He who wrangles or goes to law with his father, the keeper of a gambling-house, a drunkard, he who is afflicted with a disease (in punishment of former) crimes, he who is accused of a mortal sin, a hypocrite, a seller of substances used for flavouring food,
160. A maker of bows and of arrows, he who lasciviously dallies with a brother’s widow, the betrayer of a friend, one who subsists by gambling, he who learns (the Veda) from his son,
161. An epileptic man, who suffers from scrofulous swellings of the glands, one afflicted with white leprosy, an informer, a madman, a blind man, and he who cavils at the Veda must (all) be avoided.
162. A trainer of elephants, oxen, horses, or camels, he who subsists by astrology, a bird-fancier, and he who teaches the use of arms,
163. He who diverts water-courses, and he who delights in obstructing them, an architect, a messenger, and he who plants trees (for money),
164. A breeder of sporting-dogs, a falconer, one who defiles maidens, he who delights in injuring living creatures, he who gains his subsistence from Sudras, and he who offers sacrifice [Yagna]s to the Ganas,
165. He who does not follow the rule of conduct, a (man destitute of energy like a) eunuch, one who constantly asks (for favours), he who lives by agriculture, a club-footed man, and he who is censured by virtuous men,
166. A shepherd, a keeper of buffaloes, the husband of a remarried woman, and a carrier of dead bodies, (all these) must be carefully avoided.
167. A Brahmana who knows (the sacred law) should shun at (sacrifice [Yagna]s) both (to the gods and to the manes) these lowest of twice-born [Dwija]men, whose conduct is reprehensible, and who are unworthy (to sit) in the company (at a repast).
168. As a fire of dry grass is (unable to consume the offerings and is quickly) extinguished, even so (is it with) an unlearned Brahmana; sacrificial food must not be given to him, since it (would be) offered in ashes.
169. I will fully declare what result the giver obtains after death, if he gives food, destined for the gods or manes, to a man who is unworthy to sit in the company.
170. The Rakshasas, indeed, consume (the food) eaten by Brahmanas who have not fulfilled the vow of student [Brahmachari]ship, by a Parivettri and so forth, and by other men not admissible into the company.
171. He must be considered as a Parivettri who marries or begins the performance of the Agnihotra before his elder brother, but the latter as a Parivitti.
172. The elder brother who marries after the younger, the younger brother who marries before the elder, the female with whom such a marriage is contracted, he who gives her away, and the sacrificing priest, as the fifth, all fall into hell.
173. He who lasciviously dallies with the widow of a deceased brother, though she be appointed (to bear a child by him) in accordance with the sacred law, must be known to be a Didhishupati.
174. Two (kinds of) sons, a Kunda and a Golaka, are born by wives of other men; (he who is born) while the husband lives, will be a Kunda, and (he who is begotten) after the husband’s death, a Golaka.
175. But those two creatures, who are born of wives of other men, cause to the giver the loss (of the rewards), both in this life and after death, for the food sacred to gods or manes which has been given (to them).
176. The foolish giver (of a funeral repast) does not reap the reward for as many worthy guests as a man, inadmissible into company, can look on while they are feeding.
177. A blind man by his presence causes to the giver (of the feast) the loss of the reward for ninety (guests), a one-eyed man for sixty, one who suffers from white leprosy for a hundred, and one punished by a (terrible) disease for a thousand.
178. The giver (of a Sraddha) loses the reward, due for such a non-sacrificial gift, for as many Brahmanas as a (guest) who sacrifice [Yagna]s for Sudras may touch (during the meal) with his limbs.
179. And if a Brahmana, though learned in the Veda, accepts through covetousness a gift from such (a man), he will quickly perish, like a vessel of unburnt clay in water.
180 (Food) given to a seller of Soma becomes ordure, (that given) to a physician pus and blood, but (that presented) to a temple-priest is lost, and (that given) to a usurer finds no place (in the world of the gods).
181. What has been given to a Brahmana who lives by trade that is not (useful) in this world and the next, and (a present) to a Brahmana born of a remarried woman (resembles) an oblation thrown into ashes.
182. But the wise declare that the food which (is offered) to other unholy, inadmissible men, enumerated above, (is turned into) adipose secretions, blood, flesh, marrow, and bone.
183. Now hear by what chief of twice-born [Dwija]men a company defiled by (the presence of) unworthy (guests) is purified, and the full (description of) the Brahmanas who sanctify a company.
184. Those men must be considered as the sanctifiers of a company who are most learned in all the Vedas and in all the Angas, and who are the descendants of Srotriyas.
185. A Trinakiketa, one who keeps five sacred fires, a Trisuparna, one who is versed in the six Angas, the son of a woman married according to the Brahma rite, one who sings the Gyeshthasaman,
186. One who knows the meaning of the Veda, and he who expounds it, a student [Brahmachari], one who has given a thousand (cows), and a centenarian must be considered as Brahmanas who sanctify a company.
187. On the day before the Sraddha-rite is performed, or on the day when it takes place, let him invite with due respect at least three Brahmanas, such as have been mentioned above.
188. A Brahmana who has been invited to a (rite) in honour of the manes shall always control himself and not recite the Veda, and he who performs the Sraddha (must act in the same manner).
189. For the manes attend the invited Brahmanas, follow them (when they walk) like the wind, and sit near them when they are seated.
190. But a Brahmana who, being duly invited to a rite in honour of the gods or of the manes, in any way breaks (the appointment), becomes guilty (of a crime), and (in his next birth) a hog.
191. But he who, being invited to a Sraddha, dallies with a Sudra woman, takes upon himself all the sins which the giver (of the feast) committed.
192. The manes are primeval deities, free from anger, careful of purity, ever chaste, averse from strife, and endowed with great virtues.
193. Now learn fully from whom all these (manes derive) their origin, and with what ceremonies they ought to be worshipped.
194. The (various) classes of the manes are declared to be the sons of all those sages, Mariki and the rest, who are children of Manu, the son of Hiranyagarbha.
195. The Somasads, the sons of Virag, are stated to be the manes of the Sadhyas, and the Agnishvattas, the children of Mariki, are famous in the world (as the manes) of the gods.
196. The Barhishads, born of Atri, are recorded to be (the manes) of the Daityas, Danavas, Yakshas, Gandharvas, Snake-deities,
Rakshasas, Suparnas, and a Kimnaras,
197. The Somapas those of the Brahmanas, the Havirbhugs those of the Kshatriyas, the Agyapas those of the Vaisyas, but the Sukalins those of the Sudras.
198. The Somapas are the sons of Kavi (Bhrigu), the Havishmats the children of Angiras, the Agyapas the offspring of Pulastya, but the Sukalins (the issue) of Vasishtha.
199. One should know that (other classes), the Agnidagdhas, the Anagnidagdhas, the Kavyas, the Barhishads, the Agnishvattas, and the Saumyas, are (the manes) of the Brahmanas alone.
200. But know also that there exist in this (world) countless sons and grandsons of those chief classes of manes which have been enumerated.
201. From the sages sprang the manes, from the manes the gods and the Danavas, but from the gods the whole world, both the movable and the immovable in due order.
202. Even water offered with faith (to the manes) in vessels made of silver or adorned with silver, produces endless (bliss).
203. For twice-born [Dwija]men the rite in honour of the manes is more important than the rite in honour of the gods; for the offering to the gods which precedes (the Sraddhas), has been declared to be a means of fortifying (the latter).
204. Let him first invite a (Brahmana) in honour of the gods as a protection for the (offering to the manes); for the Rakshasas destroy a funeral sacrifice [Yagna] which is left without such a protection.
205. Let him make (the Sraddha) begin and end with (a rite) in honour of the gods; it shall not begin and end with a (rite) to the manes; for he who makes it begin and end with a (rite) in honour of the manes, soon perishes together with his progeny.
206. Let him smear a pure and secluded place with cowdung, and carefully make it sloping towards the south.
207. The manes are always pleased with offerings made in open, naturally pure places, on the banks of rivers, and in secluded spots.
208. The (sacrifice [Yagna]r) shall make the (invited) Brahmanas, who have duly performed their ablutions, sit down on separate, prepared seats, on which blades of Kusa grass have been placed.
209. Having placed those blameless Brahmanas on their seats, he shall honour them with fragrant garlands and perfumes, beginning with (those who are invited in honour of) the gods.
210. Having presented to them water, sesamum grains, and blades of Kusa grass, the Brahmana (sacrifice [Yagna]r) shall offer (oblations) in the sacred fire, after having received permission (to do so) from (all) the Brahmana (guests) conjointly.
211. Having first, according to the rule, performed, as a means of protecting (the Sraddha), oblations to Agni, to Soma, and to Yama, let him afterwards satisfy the manes by a gift of sacrificial food.
212. But if no (sacred) fire (is available), he shall place (the offerings) into the hand of a Brahmana; for Brahmanas who know the sacred texts declare, ‘What fire is, even such is a Brahmana.’
213. They (also) call those first of twice-born [Dwija]men the ancient deities of the funeral sacrifice [Yagna], free from anger, easily pleased, employed in making men prosper.
214. After he has performed (the oblations) in the fire, (and) the whole series of ceremonies in such a manner that they end in the south, let him sprinkle water with his right hand on the spot (where the cakes are to be placed).
215. But having made three cakes out of the remainder of that sacrificial food, he must, concentrating his mind and turning towards the south, place them on (Kusa grass) exactly in the same manner in which (he poured out the libations of) water.
216. Having offered those cakes according to the (prescribed) rule, being pure, let him wipe the same hand with (the roots of) those blades of Kusa grass for the sake of the (three ancestors) who partake of the wipings (lepa).
217. Having (next) sipped water, turned round (towards the north), and thrice slowly suppressed his breath, (the sacrifice [Yagna]r) who knows the sacred texts shall worship (the guardian deities of) the six seasons and the manes.
218. Let him gently pour out the remainder of the water near the cakes, and, with fixed attention, smell those cakes, in the order in which they were placed (on the ground).
219. But taking successively very small portions from the cakes, he shall make those seated Brahmana eat them, in accordance with the rule, before (their dinner).
220. But if the (sacrifice [Yagna]r’s) father is living, he must offer (the cakes) to three remoter (ancestors); or he may also feed his father at the funeral sacrifice [Yagna] as (one of the) Brahmana (guests).
221. But he whose father is dead, while his grandfather lives, shall, after pronouncing his father’s name, mention (that of) his great-grandfather.
222. Manu has declared that either the grandfather may eat at that Sraddha (as a guest), or (the grandson) having received permission, may perform it, as he desires.
223. Having poured water mixed with sesamum, in which a blade of Kusa grass has been placed, into the hands of the (guests), he shall give (to each) that (above-mentioned) portion of the cake, saying, ‘To those, Svadha!’
224. But carrying (the vessel) filled with food with both hands, the (sacrifice [Yagna]r) himself shall gently place it before the Brahmanas, meditating on the manes.
225. The malevolent Asuras forcibly snatch away that food which is brought without being held with both hands.
226. Let him, being pure and attentive, carefully place on the ground the seasoning (for the rice), such as broths and pot herbs, sweet and sour milk, and honey,
227. (As well as) various (kinds of) hard food which require mastication, and of soft food, roots, fruits, savoury meat, and fragrant drinks.
228. All this he shall present (to his guests), being pure and attentive, successively invite them to partake of each (dish), proclaiming its qualities.
229. Let him on no account drop a tear, become angry or utter an untruth, nor let him touch the food with his foot nor violently shake it.
230. A tear sends the (food) to the Pretas, anger to his enemies, a falsehood to the dogs, contact with his foot to the Rakshasas, a shaking to the sinners.
231. Whatever may please the Brahmanas, let him give without grudging it; let him give riddles from the Veda, for that is agreeable to the manes.
232. At a (sacrifice [Yagna] in honour) of the manes, he must let (his guests) hear the Veda, the Institutes of the sacred law, legends, tales, Puranas, and Khilas.
233. Himself being delighted, let him give delight to the Brahmanas, cause them to partake gradually and slowly (of each dish), and repeatedly invite (them to eat) by (offering) the food and (praising) its qualities.
234. Let him eagerly entertain at a funeral sacrifice [Yagna] a daughter’s son, though he be a student [Brahmachari], and let him place a Nepal blanket on the on the seat (of each guest), scattering sesamum grains on the ground.
235. There are three means of sanctification, (to be used) at a Sraddha, a daughter’s son, a Nepal blanket, and sesamum grains; and they recommend three (other things) for it, cleanliness, suppression of anger, and absence of haste.
236. All the food must be very hot, and the (guests) shall eat in silence; (even though) asked by the giver (of the feast), the Brahmanas shall not proclaim the qualities of the sacrificial food.
237. As long as the food remains warm, as long as they eat in silence, as long as the qualities of the food are not proclaimed, so long the manes partake (of it).
238. What (a guest) eats, covering his head, what he eats with his face turned towards the south, what he eats with sandals on (his feet), that the Rakshasas consume.
239. A Kandala, a village pig, a cock, a dog, a menstruating woman, and a eunuch must not look at the Brahmanas while they eat.
240. What (any of) these sees at a burnt-oblation, at a (solemn) gift, at a dinner (given to Brahmanas), or at any rite in honour of the gods and manes, that produces not the intended result.
241. A boar makes (the rite) useless by inhaling the smell (of the offerings), a cock by the air of his wings, a dog by throwing his eye (on them), a low-Varna man by touching (them).
242. If a lame man, a one-eyed man, one deficient in a limb, or one with a redundant limb, be even the servant of the performer (of the Sraddha), he must be removed from that place (where the Sraddha is held).
243. To a Brahmana (householder), or to an ascetic who comes for food, he may, with the permission of (his) Brahmana (guests), show honour according to his ability.
244. Let him mix all the kinds of food together, sprinkle them with water and put them, scattering them (on Kusa grass), down on the ground in front of (his guests), when they have finished their meal.
245. The remnant (in the dishes), and the portion scattered on Kusa grass, shall be the share of deceased (children) who received not the sacrament (of cremation) and of those who (unjustly) forsook noble wives.
246. They declare the fragments which have fallen on the ground at a (Sraddha) to the manes, to be the share of honest, dutiful servants.
247. But before the performance of the Sapindikarana, one must feed at the funeral sacrifice [Yagna] in honour of a (recently-) deceased Aryan (one Brahmana) without (making an offering) to the gods, and give one cake only.
248. But after the Sapindikarana of the (deceased father) has been performed according to the sacred law, the sons must offer the cakes with those ceremonies, (described above.)
249. The foolish man who, after having eaten a Sraddha (-dinner), gives the leavings to a Sudra, falls headlong into the Kalasutra hell.
250. If the partaker of a Sraddha (-dinner) enters on the same day the bed of a Sudra female, the manes of his (ancestors) will lie during that month in her ordure.
251. Having addressed the question, ‘Have you dined well?’ (to his guests), let him give water for sipping to them who are satisfied, and dismiss them, after they have sipped water, (with the words) ‘Rest either (here or at home)!’
252. The Brahmana (guests) shall then answer him, ‘Let there be Svadha;’ for at all rites in honour of the manes the word Svadha is the highest benison.
253. Next let him inform (his guests) who have finished their meal, of the food which remains; with the permission of the Brahmanas let him dispose (of that), as they may direct.
254. At a (Sraddha) in honour of the manes one must use (in asking of the guests if they are satisfied, the word) svaditam; at a Goshthi-sraddha, (the word) susrutam; at a Vriddhi-sraddha, (the word) sampannam; and at (a rite) in honour of the gods, (the word) rukitam.
255. The afternoon, Kusa grass, the due preparation of the dwelling, sesamum grains, liberality, the careful preparation of the food, and (the company of) distinguished Brahmanas are true riches at all funeral sacrifice [Yagna]s.
256. Know that Kusa grass, purificatory (texts), the morning, sacrificial viands of all kinds, and those means of purification, mentioned above, are blessings at a sacrifice [Yagna] to the gods.
257. The food eaten by hermits in the forest, milk, Soma-juice, meat which is not prepared (with spices), and salt unprepared by art, are called, on account of their nature, sacrificial food.
258. Having dismissed the (invited) Brahmanas, let him, with a concentrated mind, silent and pure, look towards the south and ask these blessings of the manes:
259. ‘May liberal men abound with us! May (our knowledge of) the Vedas and (our) progeny increase! May faith not forsake us! May we have much to give (to the needy)!’
260. Having thus offered (the cakes), let him, after (the prayer), cause a cow, a Brahmana, a goat, or the sacred fire to consume those cakes, or let him throw them into water.
261. Some make the offering of the cakes after (the dinner); some cause (them) to be eaten by birds or throw them into fire or into water.
262. The (sacrifice [Yagna]r’s) first wife, who is faithful and intent on the worship of the manes, may eat the middle-most cake, (if she be) desirous of bearing a son.
263. (Thus) she will bring forth a son who will be long-lived, famous, intelligent, rich, the father of numerous offspring, endowed with (the quality of) goodness, and righteous.
264. Having washed his hands and sipped water, let him prepare (food) for his paternal relations and, after giving it to them with due respect, let him feed his maternal relatives also.
265. But the remnants shall be left (where they lie) until the Brahmanas have been dismissed; afterwards he shall perform the (daily) domestic Bali-offering; that is a settled (rule of the) sacred law.
266. I will now fully declare what kind of sacrificial food, given to the manes according to the rule, will serve for a long time or for eternity.
267. The ancestors of men are satisfied for one month with sesamum grains, rice, barley, masha beans, water, roots, and fruits, which have been given according to the prescribed rule,
268. Two months with fish, three months with the meat of gazelles, four with mutton, and five indeed with the flesh of birds,
269. Six months with the flesh of kids, seven with that of spotted deer, eight with that of the black antelope, but nine with that of the (deer called) Ruru,
270. Ten months they are satisfied with the meat of boars and buffaloes, but eleven months indeed with that of hares and tortoises,
271. One year with cow-milk and milk-rice; from the flesh of a long-eared white he-goat their satisfaction endures twelve years.
272. The (vegetable called) Kalasaka, (the fish called) Mahasalka, the flesh of a rhinoceros and that of a red goat, and all kinds of food eaten by hermits in the forest serve for an endless time.
273. Whatever (food), mixed with honey, one gives on the thirteenth lunar day in the rainy season under the asterism of Maghah, that also procures endless (satisfaction).
274. ‘May such a man (the manes say) be born in our family who will give us milk-rice, with honey and clarified butter, on the thirteenth lunar day (of the month of Bhadrapada) and (in the afternoon) when the shadow of an elephant falls towards the east.’
275. Whatever (a man), full of faith, duly gives according to the prescribed rule, that becomes in the other world a perpetual and imperishable (gratification) for the manes.
276. The days of the dark half of the month, beginning with the tenth, but excepting the fourteenth, are recommended for a funeral sacrifice [Yagna]; (it is) not thus (with) the others.
277. He who performs it on the even (lunar) days and under the even constellations, gains (the fulfilment of) all his wishes; he who honours the manes on odd (lunar days) and under odd (constellations), obtains distinguished offspring.
278. As the second half of the month is preferable to the first half, even so the afternoon is better for (the performance of) a funeral sacrifice [Yagna] than the forenoon.
279. Let him, untired, duly perform the (rites) in honour of the manes in accordance with the prescribed rule, passing the sacred thread over the right shoulder, proceeding from the left to the right (and) holding Kusa grass in his hands, up to the end (of the ceremony).
280. Let him not perform a funeral sacrifice [Yagna] at night, because the (night) is declared to belong to the Rakshasas, nor in the twilight, nor when the sun has just risen.
281. Let him offer here below a funeral sacrifice [Yagna], according to the rule given above, (at least) thrice a year, in winter, in summer, and in the rainy season, but that which is included among the five great sacrifice [Yagna]s, every day.
282. The burnt-oblation, offered at a sacrifice [Yagna] to the manes, must not be made in a common fire; a Brahmana who keeps a sacred fire (shall) not (perform) a funeral sacrifice [Yagna] except on the new-moon day.
283. Even when a Brahmana, after bathing, satisfies the manes with water, he obtains thereby the whole reward for the performance of the (daily) Sraddha.
284. They call (the manes of) fathers Vasus, (those of) grandfathers Rudras, and (those of) great-grandfathers Adityas; thus (speaks) the eternal Veda.
285. Let him daily partake of the vighasa and daily eat amrita (ambrosia); but vighasa is what remains from the meal (of Brahmana guests) and the remainder of a sacrifice [Yagna] (is called) amrita.
286. Thus all the ordinances relating to the five (daily great) sacrifice [Yagna]s have been declared to you; hear now the law for the manner of living fit for Brahmanas.


1. Having dwelt with a teacher [acharya] during the fourth part of (a man’s) life, a Brahmana shall live during the second quarter (of his existence) in his house, after he has wedded a wife.
2. A Brahmana must seek a means of subsistence which either causes no, or at least little pain (to others), and live (by that) except in times of distress.
3. For the purpose of gaining bare subsistence, let him accumulate property by (following those) irreproachable occupations (which are prescribed for) his (Varna), without (unduly) fatiguing his body.
4. He may subsist by Rita (truth), and Amrita (ambrosia), or by Mrita (death) and by Pramrita (what causes many deaths); or even by (the mode) called Satyanrita (a mixture of truth and falsehood), but never by Svavritti (a dog’s mode of life).
5. By Rita shall be understood the gleaning of corn; by Amrita, what is given unasked; by Mrita, food obtained by begging and agriculture is declared to be Pramrita.
6. But trade and (money-lending) are Satyanrita, even by that one may subsist. Service is called Svavritti; therefore one should avoid it.
7. He may either possess enough to fill a granary, or a store filling a grain-jar; or he may collect what suffices for three days, or make no provision for the morrow.
8. Moreover, among these four Brahmana householders, each later-(named) must be considered more distinguished, and through his virtue to have conquered the world more completely.
9. One of these follows six occupations, another subsists by three, one by two, but the fourth lives by the Brahmasattra.
10. He who maintains himself by picking up grains and ears of corn, must be always intent on (the performance of) the Agnihotra, and constantly offer those Ishtis only, which are prescribed for the days of the conjunction and opposition (of the moon), and for the solstices.
11. Let him never, for the sake of subsistence, follow the ways of the world; let him live the pure, straightforward, honest life of a Brahmana.
12. He who desires happiness must strive after a perfectly contented disposition and control himself; for happiness has contentment for its root, the root of unhappiness is the contrary (disposition).
13. A Brahmana, who is a Snataka and subsists by one of the (above-mentioned) modes of life, must discharge the (following) duties which secure heavenly bliss, long life, and fame.
14. Let him, untired, perform daily the rites prescribed for him in the Veda; for he who performs those according to his ability, attains to the highest state.
15. Whether he be rich or even in distress, let him not seek wealth through pursuits to which men cleave, nor by forbidden occupations, nor (let him accept presents) from any (giver whosoever he may be).
16. Let him not, out of desire (for enjoyments), attach himself to any sensual pleasures, and let him carefully obviate an excessive attachment to them, by (reflecting on their worthlessness in) his heart.
17. Let him avoid all (means of acquiring) wealth which impede the study of the Veda; (let him maintain himself) anyhow, but study, because that (devotion to the Veda-study secures) the realisation of his aims.
18. Let him walk here (on earth), bringing his dress, speech, and thoughts to a conformity with his age, his occupation, his wealth, his sacred learning, and his race.
19. Let him daily pore over those Institutes of science which soon give increase of wisdom, those which teach the acquisition of wealth, those which are beneficial (for other worldly concerns), and likewise over the Nigamas which explain the Veda.
20. For the more a man completely studies the Institutes of science, the more he fully understands (them), and his great learning shines brightly.
21. Let him never, if he is able (to perform them), neglect the sacrifice [Yagna]s to the sages, to the gods, to the Bhutas, to men, and to the manes.
22. Some men who know the ordinances for sacrificial rites, always offer these great sacrifice [Yagna]s in their organs (of sensation), without any (external) effort.
23. Knowing that the (performance of the) sacrifice [Yagna] in their speech and their breath yields imperishable (rewards), some always offer their breath in their speech, and their speech in their breath.
24. Other Brahmanas, seeing with the eye of knowledge that the performance of those rites has knowledge for its root, always perform them through knowledge alone.
25. A Brahmana shall always offer the Agnihotra at the beginning or at the end of the day and of the night, and the Darsa and Paurnamasa (Ishtis) at the end of each half-month,
26. When the old grain has been consumed the (Agrayana) Ishti with new grain, at the end of the (three) seasons the (Katurmasya-) sacrifice [Yagna]s, at the solstices an animal (sacrifice [Yagna]), at the end of the year Soma-offerings.
27. A Brahmana, who keeps sacred fires, shall, if he desires to live long, not eat new grain or meat, without having offered the (Agrayana) Ishti with new grain and an animal-(sacrifice [Yagna]).
28. For his fires, not being worshipped by offerings of new grain and of an animal, seek to devour his vital spirits, (because they are) greedy for new grain and flesh.
29. No guest must stay in his house without being honoured, according to his ability, with a seat, food, a couch, water, or roots and fruits.
30. Let him not honour, even by a greeting, heretics, men who follow forbidden occupations, men who live like cats, rogues, logicians, (arguing against the Veda,) and those who live like herons.
31. Those who have become Snatakas after studying the Veda, or after completing their vows, (and) householders, who are Srotriyas, one must worship by (gifts of food) sacred to gods and manes, but one must avoid those who are different.
32. A householder must give (as much food) as he is able (to spare) to those who do not cook for themselves, and to all beings one must distribute (food) without detriment (to one’s own interest).
33. A Snataka who pines with hunger, may beg wealth of a king, of one for whom he sacrifice [Yagna]s, and of a pupil, but not of others; that is a settled rule.
34. A Snataka who is able (to procure food) shall never waste himself with hunger, nor shall he wear old or dirty clothes, if he possesses property.
35. Keeping his hair, nails, and beard clipped, subduing his passions by austerities, wearing white garments and (keeping himself) pure, he shall be always engaged in studying the Veda and (such acts as are) conducive to his welfare.
36. He shall carry a staff of bamboo, a pot full of water, a sacred string, a bundle of Kusa grass, and (wear) two bright golden ear-rings.
37. Let him never look at the sun, when he sets or rises, is eclipsed or reflected in water, or stands in the middle of the sky.
38. Let him not step over a rope to which a calf is tied, let him not run when it rains, and let him not look at his own image in water; that is a settled rule.
39. Let him pass by (a mound of) earth, a cow, an idol, a Brahmana, clarified butter, honey, a crossway, and well-known trees, turning his right hand towards them.
40. Let him, though mad with desire, not approach his wife when her courses appear; nor let him sleep with her in the same bed.
41. For the wisdom, the energy, the strength, the sight, and the vitality of a man who approaches a woman covered with menstrual excretions, utterly perish.
42. If he avoids her, while she is in that condition, his wisdom, energy, strength, sight, and vitality will increase.
43. Let him not eat in the company of his wife, nor look at her, while she eats, sneezes, yawns, or sits at her ease.
44. A Brahmana who desires energy must not look at (a woman) who applies collyrium to her eyes, has anointed or uncovered herself or brings forth (a child).
45. Let him not eat, dressed with one garment only; let him not bathe naked; let him not void urine on a road, on ashes, or in a cow-pen,
46. Nor on ploughed land, in water, on an altar of bricks, on a mountain, on the ruins of a temple, nor ever on an ant-hill,
47. Nor in holes inhabited by living creatures, nor while he walks or stands, nor on reaching the bank of a river, nor on the top of a mountain.
48. Let him never void faeces or urine, facing the wind, or a fire, or looking towards a Brahmana, the sun, water, or cows.
49. He may ease himself, having covered (the ground) with sticks, clods, leaves, grass, and the like, restraining his speech, (keeping himself) pure, wrapping up his body, and covering his head.
50. Let him void faeces and urine, in the daytime turning to the north, at night turning towards the south, during the two twilights in the same (position) as by day.
51. In the shade or in darkness a Brahmana may, both by day and at night, do it, assuming any position he pleases; likewise when his life is in danger.
52. The intellect of (a man) who voids urine against a fire, the sun, the moon, in water, against a Brahmana, a cow, or the wind, perishes.
53. Let him not blow a fire with his mouth; let him not look at a naked woman; let him not throw any impure substance into the fire, and let him not warm his feet at it.
54. Let him not place (fire) under (a bed or the like); nor step over it, nor place it (when he sleeps) at the foot-(end of his bed); let him not torment living creatures.
55. Let him not eat, nor travel, nor sleep during the twilight; let him not scratch the ground; let him not take off his garland.
56. Let him not throw urine or faeces into the water, nor saliva, nor (clothes) defiled by impure substances, nor any other (impurity), nor blood, nor poisonous things.
57. Let him not sleep alone in a deserted dwelling; let him not wake (a superior) who is sleeping; let him not converse with a menstruating woman; nor let him go to a sacrifice [Yagna], if he is not chosen (to be officiating priest).
58. Let him keep his right arm uncovered in a place where a sacred fire is kept, in a cow-pen, in the presence of Brahmanas, during the private recitation of the Veda, and at meals.
59. Let him not interrupt a cow who is suckling (her calf), nor tell anybody of it. A wise man, if he sees a rainbow in the sky, must not point it out to anybody.
60. Let him not dwell in a village where the sacred law is not obeyed, nor (stay) long where diseases are endemic; let him not go alone on a journey, nor reside long on a mountain.
61. Let him not dwell in a country where the rulers are Sudras, nor in one which is surrounded by unrighteous men, nor in one which has become subject to heretics, nor in one swarming with men of the lowest Varnas.
62. Let him not eat anything from which the oil has been extracted; let him not be a glutton; let him not eat very early (in the morning), nor very late (in the evening), nor (take any food) in the evening, if he has eaten (his fill) in the morning.
63. Let him not exert himself without a purpose; let him not drink water out of his joined palms; let him not eat food (placed) in his lap; let him not show (idle) curiosity.
64. Let him not dance, nor sing, nor play musical instruments, nor slap (his limbs), nor grind his teeth, nor let him make uncouth noises, though he be in a passion.
65. Let him never wash his feet in a vessel of white brass; let him not eat out of a broken (earthen) dish, nor out of one that (to judge) from its appearance (is) defiled.
66. Let him not use shoes, garments, a sacred string, ornaments, a garland, or a water-vessel which have been used by others.
67. Let him not travel with untrained beasts of burden, nor with (animals) that are tormented by hunger or disease, or whose horns, eyes, and hoofs have been injured, or whose tails have been disfigured.
68. Let him always travel with (beasts) which are well broken in, swift, endowed with lucky marks, and perfect in colour and form, without urging them much with the goad.
69. The morning sun, the smoke rising from a (burning) corpse, and a broken seat must be avoided. Let him not clip his nails or hair, and not tear his nails with his teeth.
70. Let him not crush earth or clods, nor tear off grass with his nails; let him not do anything that is useless or will have disagreeable results in the future.
71. A man who crushes clods, tears off grass, or bites his nails, goes soon to perdition, likewise an informer and he who neglects (the rules of) purification.
72. Let him not wrangle; let him not wear a garland over (his hair). To ride on the back of cows (or of oxen) is anyhow a blamable act.
73. Let him not enter a walled village or house except by the gate, and by night let him keep at a long distance from the roots of trees.
74. Let him never play with dice, nor himself take off his shoes; let him not eat, lying on a bed, nor what has been placed in his hand or on a seat.
75. Let him not eat after sunset any (food) containing sesamum grains; let him never sleep naked, nor go anywhere unpurified (after meals).
76. Let him eat while his feet are (yet) wet (from the ablution), but let him not go to bed with wet feet. He who eats while his feet are (still) wet, will attain long life.
77. Let him never enter a place, difficult of access, which is impervious to his eye; let him not look at urine or ordure, nor cross a river (swimming) with his arms.
78. Let him not step on hair, ashes, bones, potsherds, cotton-seed or chaff, if he desires long life.
79. Let him not stay together with outcasts, nor with Kandalas, nor with Pukkasas, nor with fools, nor with overbearing men, nor with low-Varna men, nor with Antyavasayins.
80. Let him not give to a Sudra advice, nor the remnants (of his meal), nor food offered to the gods; nor let him explain the sacred law (to such a man), nor impose (upon him) a penance.
81. For he who explains the sacred law (to a Sudra) or dictates to him a penance, will sink together with that (man) into the hell (called) Asamvrita.
82. Let him not scratch his head with both hands joined; let him not touch it while he is impure, nor bathe without (submerging) it.
83. Let him avoid (in anger) to lay hold of (his own or other men’s) hair, or to strike (himself or others) on the head. When he has bathed (submerging) his head, he shall not touch any of his limbs with oil.
84. Let him not accept presents from a king who is not descended from the Kshatriya race, nor from butchers, oil-manufacturers, and publicans, nor from those who subsist by the gain of prostitutes.
85. One oil-press is as (bad) as ten slaughter-houses, one tavern as (bad as) ten oil-presses, one brothel as (bad as) ten taverns, one king as (bad as) ten brothels.
86. A king is declared to be equal (in wickedness) to a butcher who keeps a hundred thousand slaughter-houses; to accept presents from him is a terrible (crime).
87. He who accepts presents from an avaricious king who acts contrary to the Institutes (of the sacred law), will go in succession to the following twenty-one hells:
88. Tamisra, Andhatamisra, Maharaurava, Raurava, the Kalasutra hell, Mahanaraka,
89. Samgivana, Mahaviki, Tapana, Sampratapana, Samghata, Sakakola, Kudmala, Putimrittika,
90. Lohasanku, Rigisha, Pathin, the (flaming) river, Salmala, Asipatravana, and Lohakaraka.
91. Learned Brahmanas, who know that, who study the Veda and desire bliss after death, do not accept presents from a king.
92. Let him wake in the muhurta, sacred to Brahman, and think of (the acquisition of) spiritual merit and wealth, of the bodily fatigue arising therefrom, and of the true meaning of the Veda.
93. When he has risen, has relieved the necessities of nature and carefully purified himself, let him stand during the morning twilight, muttering for a long time (the Gayatri), and at the proper time (he must similarly perform) the evening (devotion).
94. By prolonging the twilight devotions, the sages obtained long life, wisdom, honour, fame, and excellence in Vedic knowledge.
95. Having performed the Upakarman according to the prescribed rule on (the full moon of the month) Sravana, or on that of Praushthapada (Bhadrapada), a Brahmana shall diligently study the Vedas during four months and a half.
96. When the Pushya-day (of the month Pausha), or the first day of the bright half of Magha has come, a Brahmana shall perform in the forenoon the Utsargana of the Vedas.
97. Having performed the Utsarga outside (the village), as the Institutes (of the sacred law) prescribe, he shall stop reading during two days and the intervening night, or during that day (of the Utsarga) and (the following) night.
98. Afterwards he shall diligently recite the Vedas during the bright (halves of the months), and duly study all the Angas of the Vedas during the dark fortnights.
99. Let him not recite (the texts) indistinctly, nor in the presence of Sudras; nor let him, if in the latter part of the night he is tired with reciting the Veda, go again to sleep.
100. According to the rule declared above, let him recite the daily (portion of the) Mantras, and a zealous Brahmana, (who is) not in distress, (shall study) the Brahmana and the Mantrasamhita.
101. Let him who studies always avoid (reading) on the following occasions when the Veda-study is forbidden, and (let) him who teaches pupils according to the prescribed rule (do it likewise).
102. Those who know the (rules of) recitation declare that in the rainy season the Veda-study must be stopped on these two (occasions), when the wind is audible at night, and when it whirls up the dust in the day-time.
103. Manu has stated, that when lightning, thunder, and rain (are observed together), or when large fiery meteors fall on all sides, the recitation must be interrupted until the same hour (on the next day, counting from the occurrence of the event).
104. When one perceives these (phenomena) all together (in the twilight), after the sacred fires have been made to blaze (for the performance of the Agnihotra), then one must know the recitation of the Veda to be forbidden, and also when clouds appear out of season.
105. On (the occasion of) a preternatural sound from the sky, (of) an earthquake, and when the lights of heaven are surrounded by a halo, let him know that (the Veda-study must be) stopped until the same hour (on the next day), even if (these phenomena happen) in the (rainy) season.
106. But when lightning and the roar of thunder (are observed) after the sacred fires have been made to blaze, the stoppage shall last as long as the light (of the sun or of the stars is visible); if the remaining (above-named phenomenon, rain, occurs, the reading shall cease), both in the day-time and at night.
107. For those who wish to acquire exceedingiy great merit, a continual interruption of the Veda-study (is prescribed) in villages and in towns, and (the Veda-study must) always (cease) when any kind of foul smell (is perceptible).
108. In a village where a corpse lies, in the presence of a (man who lives as unrighteously as a) Sudra, while (the sound of) weeping (is heard), and in a crowd of men the (recitation of the Veda must be) stopped.
109. In water, during the middle part of the night, while he voids excrements, or is impure, and after he has partaken of a funeral dinner, a man must not even think in his heart (of the sacred texts).
110. A learned Brahmana shall not recite the Veda during three days, when he has accepted an invitation to a (funeral rite) in honour of one ancestor (ekoddishta), or when the king has become impure through a birth or death in his family (sutaka), or when Rahu by an eclipse makes the moon impure.
111. As long as the smell and the stains of the (food given) in honour of one ancestor remain on the body of a learned Brahmana, so long he must not recite the Veda.
112. While lying on a bed, while his feet are raised (on a bench), while he sits on his hams with a cloth tied round his knees, let him not study, nor when he has eaten meat or food given by a person impure on account of a birth or a death,
113. Nor during a fog, nor while the sound of arrows is audible, nor during both the twilights, nor on the new-moon day, nor on the fourteenth and the eighth (days of each half-month), nor on the full-moon day.
114. The new-moon day destroys the teacher [acharya], the fourteenth (day) the pupil, the eighth and the full-moon days (destroy all remembrance of) the Veda; let him therefore avoid (reading on) those (days).
115. A Brahmana shall not recite (the Veda) during a dust-storm, nor while the sky is preternaturally red, nor while jackals howl, nor while the barking of dogs, the braying of donkeys, or the grunting of camels (is heard), nor while (he is seated) in a company.
116. Let him not study near a burial-ground, nor near a village, nor in a cow-pen, nor dressed in a garment which he wore during conjugal intercourse, nor after receiving a present at a funeral sacrifice [Yagna].
117. Be it an animal or a thing inanimate, whatever be the (gift) at a Sraddha, let him not, having just accepted it, recite the Veda; for the hand of a Brahmana is his mouth.
118. When the village has been beset by robbers, and when an alarm has been raised by fire, let him know that (the Veda-study must be) interrupted until the same hour (on the next day), and on (the occurrence of) all portents.
119. On (the occasion of) the Upakarman and (of) the Vedotsarga an omission (of the Veda-study) for three days has been prescribed, but on the Ashtakas and on the last nights of the seasons for a day and a night.
120. Let him not recite the Veda on horseback, nor on a tree, nor on an elephant, nor in a boat (or ship), nor on a donkey, nor on camel, nor standing on barren ground, nor riding in a carriage,
121. Nor during a verbal altercation, nor during a mutual assault, nor in a camp, nor during a battle, nor when he has just eaten, nor during an indigestion, nor after vomiting, nor with sour eructations,
122. Nor without receiving permission from a guest (who stays in his house), nor while the wind blows vehemently, nor while blood flows from his body, nor when he is wounded by a weapon.
123. Let him never recite the Rig-veda or the Yagur-veda while the Saman (melodies) are heard; (let him stop all Veda-study for a day and a night) after finishing a Veda or after reciting an Aranyaka.
124. The Rig-veda is declared to be sacred to the gods, the Yagur-veda sacred to men, and the Sama-veda sacred to the manes; hence the sound of the latter is impure (as it were).
125. Knowing this, the learned daily repeat first in due order the essence of the three (Vedas) and afterwards the (text of the) Veda.
126. Know that (the Veda-study must be) interrupted for a day and a night, when cattle, a frog, a cat, a dog, a snake, an ichneumon, or a rat pass between (the teacher [acharya] and his pupil).
127. Let a twice-born [Dwija]man always carefully interrupt the Veda-study on two (occasions, viz.) when the place where he recites is impure, and when he himself is unpurified.
128. A twice-born [Dwija]man who is a Snataka shall remain chaste on the new-moon day, on the eighth (lunar day of each half-month), on the full-moon day, and on the fourteenth, even (if they fall) in the period (proper for conjugal intercourse).
129. Let him not bathe (immediately) after a meal, nor when he is sick, nor in the middle of the night, nor frequently dressed in all his garments, nor in a pool which he does not perfectly know.
130. Let him not intentionally step on the shadow of (images of) the gods, of a Guru, of a king, of a Snataka, of his teacher [acharya], of a reddish-brown animal, or of one who has been initiated to the performance of a Srauta sacrifice [Yagna] (Dikshita).
131. At midday and at midnight, after partaking of meat at a funeral dinner, and in the two twilights let him not stay long on a cross-road.
132. Let him not step intentionally on things used for cleansing the body, on water used for a bath, on urine or ordure, on blood, on mucus, and on anything spat out or vomited.
133. Let him not show particular attention to an enemy, to the friend of an enemy, to a wicked man, to a thief, or to the wife of another man.
134. For in this world there is nothing so detrimental to long life as criminal conversation with another man’s wife.
135. Let him who desires prosperity, indeed, never despise a Kshatriya, a snake, and a learned Brahmana, be they ever so feeble.
136. Because these three, when treated with disrespect, may utterly destroy him; hence a wise man must never despise them.
137. Let him not despise himself on account of former failures; until death let him seek fortune, nor despair of gaining it.
138. Let him say what is true, let him say what is pleasing, let him utter no disagreeable truth, and let him utter no agreeable falsehood; that is the eternal law.
139. (What is) well, let him call well, or let him say ‘well’ only; let him not engage in a useless enmity or dispute with anybody.
140. Let him not journey too early in the morning, nor too late in the evening, nor just during the midday (heat), nor with an unknown (companion), nor alone, nor with Sudras.
141. Let him not insult those who have redundant limbs or are deficient in limbs, nor those destitute of knowledge, nor very aged men, nor those who have no beauty or wealth, nor those who are of low birth.
142. A Brahmana who is impure must not touch with his hand a cow, a Brahmana, or fire; nor, being in good health, let him look at the luminaries in the sky, while he is impure.
143. If he has touched these, while impure, let him always sprinkle with his hand water on the organs of sensation, all his limbs, and the navel.
144. Except when sick he must not touch the cavities (of the body) without a reason, and he must avoid (to touch) the hair on the secret (parts).
145. Let him eagerly follow the (customs which are) auspicious and the rule of good conduct, be careful of purity, and control all his organs, let him mutter (prayers) and, untired, daily offer oblations in the fire.
146. No calamity happens to those who eagerly follow auspicious customs and the rule of good conduct, to those who are always careful of purity, and to those who mutter (sacred texts) and offer burnt-oblations.
147. Let him, without tiring, daily mutter the Veda at the proper time; for they declare that to be one’s highest duty; (all) other (observances) are called secondary duties.
148. By daily reciting the Veda, by (the observance of the rules of) purification, by (practising) austerities, and by doing no injury to created beings, one (obtains the faculty of) remembering former births.
149. He who, recollecting his former existences, again recites the Veda, gains endless bliss by the continual study of the Veda.
150. Let him always offer on the Parva-days oblations to Savitri and such as avert evil omens, and on the Ashtakas and Anvashtakas let him constantly worship the manes.
151. Far from his dwelling let him remove urine (and ordure), far (let him remove) the water used for washing his feet, and far the remnants of food and the water from his bath.
152. Early in the morning only let him void faeces, decorate (his body), bathe, clean his teeth, apply collyrium to his eyes, and worship the gods.
153. But on the Parva-days let him go to visit the (images of the) gods, and virtuous Brahmanas, and the ruler (of the country), for the sake of protection, as well as his Gurus.
154. Let him reverentially salute venerable men (who visit him), give them his own seat, let him sit near them with joined hands and, when they leave, (accompany them), walking behind them.
155. Let him, untired, follow the conduct of virtuous men, connected with his occupations, which has been fully declared in the revealed texts and in the sacred tradition (Smriti) and is the root of the sacred law.
156. Through virtuous conduct he obtains long life, through virtuous conduct desirable offspring, through virtuous conduct imperishable wealth; virtuous conduct destroys (the effect of) inauspicious marks.
157. For a man of bad conduct is blamed among people, constantly suffers misfortunes, is afflicted with diseases, and short-lived.
158. A man who follows the conduct of the virtuous, has faith and is free from envy, lives a hundred years, though he be entirely destitute of auspicious marks.
159. Let him carefully avoid all undertakings (the success of) which depends on others; but let him eagerly pursue that (the accomplishment of) which depends on himself.
160. Everything that depends on others (gives) pain, everything that depends on oneself (gives) pleasure; know that this is the short definition of pleasure and pain.
161. When the performance of an act gladdens his heart, let him perform it with diligence; but let him avoid the opposite.
162. Let him never offend the teacher [acharya] who initiated him, nor him who explained the Veda, nor his father and mother, nor (any other) Guru, nor cows, nor Brahmanas, nor any men performing austerities.
163. Let him avoid atheism, cavilling at the Vedas, contempt of the gods, hatred, want of modesty, pride, anger, and harshness.
164. Let him, when angry, not raise a stick against another man, nor strike (anybody) except a son or a pupil; those two he may beat in order to correct them.
165. A twice-born [Dwija]man who has merely threatened a Brahmana with the intention of (doing him) a corporal injury, will wander about for a hundred years in the Tamisra hell.
166. Having intentionally struck him in anger, even with a blade of grass, he will be born during twenty-one existences in the wombs (of such beings where men are born in punishment of their) sins.
167. A man who in his folly caused blood to flow from the body of a Brahmana who does not attack him, will suffer after death exceedingly great pain.
168. As many particles of dust as the blood takes up from the ground, during so many years the spiller of the blood will be devoured by other (animals) in the next world.
169. A wise man should therefore never threaten a Brahmana, nor strike him even with a blade of grass, nor cause his blood to flow.
170. Neither a man who (lives) unrighteously, nor he who (acquires) wealth (by telling) falsehoods, nor he who always delights in doing injury, ever attain happiness in this world.
171. Let him, though suffering in consequence of his righteousness, never turn his heart to unrighteousness; for he will see the speedy overthrow of unrighteous, wicked men.
172. Unrighteousness, practised in this world, does not at once produce its fruit, like a cow; but, advancing slowly, it cuts off the roots of him who committed it.
173. If (the punishment falls) not on (the offender) himself, (it falls) on his sons, if not on the sons, (at least) on his grandsons; but an iniquity (once) committed, never fails to produce fruit to him who wrought it.
174. He prospers for a while through unrighteousness, then he gains great good fortune, next he conquers his enemies, but (at last) he perishes (branch and) root.
175. Let him always delight in truthfulness, (obedience to) the sacred law, conduct worthy of an Aryan, and purity; let him chastise his pupils according to the sacred law; let him keep his speech, his arms, and his belly under control.
176. Let him avoid (the acquisition of) wealth and (the gratification of his) desires, if they are opposed to the sacred law, and even lawful acts which may cause pain in the future or are offensive to men.
177. Let him not be uselessly active with his hands and feet, or with his eyes, nor crooked (in his ways), nor talk idly, nor injure others by deeds or even think of it.
178. Let him walk in that path of holy men which his fathers and his grandfathers followed; while he walks in that, he will not suffer harm.
179. With an officiating or a domestic priest, with a teacher [acharya], with a maternal uncle, a guest and a dependant, with infants, aged and sick men, with learned men, with his paternal relatives, connexions by marriage and maternal relatives,
180. With his father and his mother, with female relatives, with a brother, with his son and his wife, with his daughter and with his slaves, let him not have quarrels.
181. If he avoids quarrels with these persons, he will be freed from all sins, and by suppressing (all) such (quarrels) a householder conquers all the following worlds.
182. The teacher [acharya] is the lord of the world of Brahman, the father has power over the world of the Lord of created beings (Pragapati), a guest rules over the world of Indra, and the priests over the world of the gods.
183. The female relatives (have power) over the world of the Apsarases, the maternal relatives over that of the Visve Devas, the connexions by marriage over that of the waters, the mother and the maternal uncle over the earth.
184. Infants, aged, poor and sick men must be considered as rulers of the middle sphere, the eldest brother as equal to one’s father, one’s wife and one’s son as one’s own body,
185. One’s slaves as one’s shadow, one’s daughter as the highest object of tenderness; hence if one is offended by (any one of) these, one must bear it without resentment.
186. Though (by his learning and sanctity) he may be entitled to accept presents, let him not attach himself (too much) to that (habit); for through his accepting (many) presents the divine light in him is soon extinguished.
187. Without a full knowledge of the rules, prescribed by the sacred law for the acceptance of presents, a wise man should not take anything, even though he may pine with hunger.
188. But an ignorant (man) who accepts gold, land, a horse, a cow, food, a dress, sesamum-grains, (or) clarified butter, is reduced to ashes like (a piece of) wood.
189. Gold and food destroy his longevity, land and a cow his body, a horse his eye (sight), a garment his skin, clarified butter his energy, sesamum-grains his offspring.
190. A Brahmana who neither performs austerities nor studies the Veda, yet delights in accepting gifts, sinks with the (donor into hell), just as (he who attempts to cross over in) a boat made of stone (is submerged) in the water.
191. Hence an ignorant (man) should be afraid of accepting any presents; for by reason of a very small (gift) even a fool sinks (into hell) as a cow into a morass.
192. (A man) who knows the law should not offer even water to a Brahmana who acts like a cat, nor to a Brahmana who acts like a heron, nor to one who is unacquainted with the Veda.
193. For property, though earned in accordance with prescribed rules, which is given to these three (persons), causes in the next world misery both to the giver and to the recipient.
194. As he who (attempts to) cross water in a boat of stone sinks (to the bottom), even so an ignorant donor and an ignorant donee sink low.
195. (A man) who, ever covetous, displays the flag of virtue, (who is) a hypocrite, a deceiver of the people, intent on doing injury, (and) a detractor (from the merits) of all men, one must know to be one who acts like a cat.
196. That Brahmana, who with downcast look, of a cruel disposition, is solely intent on attaining his own ends, dishonest and falsely gentle, is one who acts like a heron.
197. Those Brahmanas who act like herons, and those who display the characteristics of cats, fall in consequence of that wicked mode of acting into (the hell called) Andhatamisra.
198. When he has committed a sin, let him not perform a penance under the pretence (that the act is intended to gain) spiritual merit, (thus) hiding his sin under (the pretext of) a vow and deceiving women and Sudras.
199. Such Brahmanas are reprehended after death and in this (life) by those who expound the Veda, and a vow, performed under a false pretence, goes to the Rakshasas.
200. He who, without being a student [Brahmachari], gains his livelihood by (wearing) the dress of a student [Brahmachari], takes upon himself the guilt of (all) student [Brahmachari]s and is born again in the womb of an animal.
201. Let him never bathe in tanks belonging to other men; if he bathes (in such a one), he is tainted by a portion of the guilt of him who made the tank.
202. He who uses without permission a carriage, a bed, a seat, a well, a garden or a house belonging to an (other man), takes upon himself one fourth of (the owner’s) guilt.
203. Let him always bathe in rivers, in ponds, dug by the gods (themselves), in lakes, and in waterholes or springs.
204. A wise man should constantly discharge the paramount duties (called yama), but not always the minor ones (called niyama); for he who does not discharge the former, while he obeys the latter alone, becomes an outcast.
205. A Brahmana must never eat (a dinner given) at a sacrifice [Yagna] that is offered by one who is not a Srotriya, by one who sacrifice [Yagna]s for a multitude of men, by a woman, or by a eunuch.
206. When those persons offer sacrificial viands in the fire, it is unlucky for holy (men) it displeases the gods; let him therefore avoid it.
207. Let him never eat (food given) by intoxicated, angry, or sick (men), nor that in which hair or insects are found, nor what has been touched intentionally with the foot,
208. Nor that at which the slayer of a learned Brahmana has looked, nor that which has been touched by a menstruating woman, nor that which has been pecked at by birds or touched by a dog,
209. Nor food at which a cow has smelt, nor particularly that which has been offered by an invitation to all comers, nor that (given) by a multitude or by harlots, nor that which is declared to be had by a learned (man),
210. Nor the food (given) by a thief, a musician, a carpenter, a usurer, one who has been initiated (for the performance of a Srauta sacrifice [Yagna]), a miser, one bound with fetters,
211. By one accused of a mortal sin (Abhisasta), a hermaphrodite, an unchaste woman, or a hypocrite, nor (any sweet thing) that has turned sour, nor what has been kept a whole night, nor (the food) of a Sudra, nor the leavings (of another man),
212. Nor (the food given) by a physician, a hunter, a cruel man, one who eats the fragments (of another’s meal), nor the food of an Ugra, nor that prepared for a woman in childbed, nor that (given at a dinner) where (a guest rises) prematurely (and) sips water, nor that (given by a woman) whose ten days of impurity have not elapsed,
213. Nor (food) given without due respect, nor (that which contains) meat eaten for no sacred purpose, nor (that given) by a female who has no male (relatives), nor the food of an enemy, nor that (given) by the lord of a town, nor that (given) by outcasts, nor that on which anybody has sneezed;
214. Nor the food (given) by an informer, by one who habitually tells falsehoods, or by one who sells (the rewards for) sacrifice [Yagna]s, nor the food (given) by an actor, a tailor, or an ungrateful (man),
215. By a blacksmith, a Nishada, a stage-player, a goldsmith, a basket-maker, or a dealer in weapons,
216. By trainers of hunting dogs, publicans, a washerman, a dyer, a pitiless (man), and a man in whose house (lives) a paramour (of his wife),
217. Nor (the food given) by those who knowingly bear with paramours (of their wives), and by those who in all matters are ruled by women, nor food (given by men) whose ten days of impurity on account of a death have not passed, nor that which is unpalatable.
218. The food of a king impairs his vigour, the food of a Sudra his excellence in sacred learning, the food of a goldsmith his longevity, that of a leather-cutter his fame;
219. The food of an artisan destroys his offspring, that of a washerman his (bodily) strength; the food of a multitude and of harlots excludes him from (the higher) worlds.
220. The food of a physician (is as vile as) pus, that of an unchaste woman (equal to) semen, that of a usurer (as vile as) ordure, and that of a dealer in weapons (as bad as) dirt.
221. The food of those other persons who have been successively enumerated as such whose food must not be eaten, the wise declare (to be as impure as) skin, bones, and hair.
222. If he has unwittingly eaten the food of one of those, (he must) fast for three days; if he has eaten it intentionally, or (has swallowed) semen, ordure, or urine, he must perform a Krikkhra penance.
223. A Brahmana who knows (the law) must not eat cooked food (given) by a Sudra who performs no Sraddhas; but, on failure of (other) means of subsistence, he may accept raw (grain), sufficient for one night (and day).
224. The gods, having considered (the respective merits) of a niggardly Srotriya and of a liberal usurer, declared the food of both to be equal (in quality).
225. The Lord of created beings (Pragapati) came and spake to them, ‘Do not make that equal, which is unequal. The food of that liberal (usurer) is purified by faith; (that of the) of the) other (man) is defiled by a want of faith.’
226. Let him, without tiring, always offer sacrifice [Yagna]s and perform works of charity with faith; for offerings and charitable works made with faith and with lawfully-earned money, (procure) endless rewards.
227. Let him always practise, according to his ability, with a cheerful heart, the duty of liberality, both by sacrifice [Yagna]s and by charitable works, if he finds a worthy recipient (for his gifts.)
228. If he is asked, let him always give something, be it ever so little, without grudging; for a worthy recipient will (perhaps) be found who saves him from all (guilt).
229. A giver of water obtains the satisfaction (of his hunger and thirst), a giver of food imperishable happiness, a giver of sesamum desirable offspring, a giver of a lamp a most excellent eyesight.
230. A giver of land obtains land, a giver of gold long life, a giver of a house most excellent mansions, a giver of silver (rupya) exquisite beauty (rupa),
231. A giver of a garment a place in the world of the moon, a giver of a horse (asva) a place in the world of the Asvins, a giver of a draught-ox great good fortune, a giver of a cow the world of the sun;
232. A giver of a carriage or of a bed a wife, a giver of protection supreme dominion, a giver of grain eternal bliss, a giver of the Veda (brahman) union with Brahman;
233. The gift of the Veda surpasses all other gifts, water, food, cows, land, clothes, sesamum, gold, and clarified butter.
234. For whatever purpose (a man) bestows any gift, for that same purpose he receives (in his next birth) with due honour its (reward).
235. Both he who respectfully receives (a gift), and he who respectfully bestows it, go to heaven; in the contrary case (they both fall) into hell.
236. Let him not be proud of his austerities; let him not utter a falsehood after he has offered a sacrifice [Yagna]; let him not speak ill of Brahmanas, though he be tormented (by them); when he has bestowed (a gift), let him not boast of it.
237. By falsehood a sacrifice [Yagna] becomes vain, by self-complacency (the reward for) austerities is lost, longevity by speaking evil of Brahmanas, and (the reward of) a gift by boasting.
238. Giving no pain to any creature, let him slowly accumulate spiritual merit, for the sake (of acquiring) a companion to the next world, just as the white ant (gradually raises its) hill.
239. For in the next world neither father, nor mother, nor wife, nor sons, nor relations stay to be his companions; spiritual merit alone remains (with him).
240. Single is each being born; single it dies; single it enjoys (the reward of its) virtue; single (it suffers the punishment of its) sin.
241. Leaving the dead body on the ground like a log of wood, or a clod of earth, the relatives depart with averted faces; but spiritual merit follows the (soul).
242. Let him therefore always slowly accumulate spiritual merit, in order (that it may be his) companion (after death); for with merit as his companion he will traverse a gloom difficult to traverse.
243. (That companion) speedily conducts the man who is devoted to duty and effaces his sins by austerities, to the next world, radiant and clothed with an ethereal body.
244. Let him, who desires to raise his race, ever form connexions with the most excellent (men), and shun all low ones.
245. A Brahmana who always connects himself with the most excellent (ones), and shuns all inferior ones, (himself) becomes most distinguished; by an opposite conduct he becomes a Sudra.
246. He who is persevering, gentle, (and) patient, shuns the company of men of cruel conduct, and does no injury (to living creatures), gains, if he constantly lives in that manner, by controlling his organs and by liberality, heavenly bliss.
247. He may accept from any (man), fuel, water, roots, fruit, food offered without asking, and honey, likewise a gift (which consists in) a promise of protection.
248. The Lord of created beings (Pragapati) has declared that alms freely offered and brought (by the giver himself) may be accepted even from a sinful man, provided (the gift) had not been (asked for or) promised beforehand.
249. During fifteen years the manes do not eat (the food) of that man who disdains a (freely-offered gift), nor does the fire carry his offerings (to the gods).
250. A couch, a house, Kusa grass, perfumes, water, flowers, jewels, sour milk, grain, fish, sweet milk, meat, and vegetables let him not reject, (if they are voluntarily offered.)
251. He who desires to relieve his Gurus and those whom he is bound to maintain, or wishes to honour the gods and guests, may accept (gifts) from anybody; but he must not satisfy his (own hunger) with such (presents).
252. But if his Gurus are dead, or if he lives separate from them in (another) house, let him, when he seeks a subsistence, accept (presents) from good men alone.
253. His labourer in tillage, a friend of his family, his cow-herd, his slave, and his barber are, among Sudras, those whose food he may eat, likewise (a poor man) who offers himself (to be his slave).
254. As his character is, as the work is which he desires to perform, and as the manner is in which he means to serve, even so (a voluntary slave) must offer himself.
255. He who describes himself to virtuous (men), in a manner contrary to truth, is the most sinful (wretch) in this world; he is a thief who makes away with his own self.
256. All things (have their nature) determined by speech; speech is their root, and from speech they proceed; but he who is dishonest with respect to speech, is dishonest in everything.
257. When he has paid, according to the law, his debts to the great sages, to the manes, and to the gods, let him make over everything to his son and dwell (in his house), not caring for any worldly concerns.
258. Alone let him constantly meditate in solitude on that which is salutary for his soul; for he who meditates in solitude attains supreme bliss.
259. Thus have been declared the means by which a Brahmana householder must always subsist, and the summary of the ordinances for a Snataka, which cause an increase of holiness and are praiseworthy.
260. A Brahmana who, being learned in the lore of the Vedas, conducts himself in this manner and daily destroys his sins, will be exalted in Brahman’s world.


1. The sages, having heard the duties of a Snataka thus declared, spoke to great-souled Bhrigu, who sprang from fire:
2. ‘How can Death have power over Brahmanas who know the sacred science, the Veda, (and) who fulfil their duties as they have been explained (by thee), O Lord? ‘
3. Righteous Bhrigu, the son of Manu, (thus) answered the great sages: ‘Hear, (in punishment) of what faults Death seeks to shorten the lives of Brahmanas!’
4. ‘Through neglect of the Veda-study, through deviation from the rule of conduct, through remissness (in the fulfilment of duties), and through faults (committed by eating forbidden) food, Death becomes eager to shorten the lives of Brahmanas.’
5. Garlic, leeks and onions, mushrooms and (all plants), springing from impure (substances), are unfit to be eaten by twice-born [Dwija]men.
6. One should carefully avoid red exudations from trees and (juices) flowing from incisions, the Selu (fruit), and the thickened milk of a cow (which she gives after calving).
7. Rice boiled with sesamum, wheat mixed with butter, milk and sugar, milk-rice and flour-cakes which are not prepared for a sacrifice [Yagna], meat which has not been sprinkled with water while sacred texts were recited, food offered to the gods and sacrificial viands,
8. The milk of a cow (or other female animal) within ten days after her calving, that of camels, of one-hoofed animals, of sheep, of a cow in heat, or of one that has no calf with her,
9. (The milk) of all wild animals excepting buffalo-cows, that of women, and all (substances turned) sour must be avoided.
10. Among (things turned) sour, sour milk, and all (food) prepared of it may be eaten, likewise what is extracted from pure flowers, roots, and fruit.
11. Let him avoid all carnivorous birds and those living in villages, and one-hoofed animals which are not specially permitted (to be eaten), and the Tittibha (Parra Jacana),
12. The sparrow, the Plava, the Hamsa, the Brahmani duck, the village-cock, the Sarasa crane, the Raggudala, the woodpecker, the parrot, and the starling,
13. Those which feed striking with their beaks, web-footed birds, the Koyashti, those which scratch with their toes, those which dive and live on fish, meat from a slaughter-house and dried meat,
14. The Baka and the Balaka crane, the raven, the Khangaritaka, (animals) that eat fish, village-pigs, and all kinds of fishes.
15. He who eats the flesh of any (animal) is called the eater of the flesh of that (particular creature), he who eats fish is an eater of every (kind of) flesh; let him therefore avoid fish.
16. (But the fish called) Pathina and (that called) Rohita may be eaten, if used for offerings to the gods or to the manes; (one may eat) likewise Ragivas, Simhatundas, and Sasalkas on all (occasions).
17. Let him not eat solitary or unknown beasts and birds, though they may fall under (the categories of) eatable (creatures), nor any five-toed (animals).
18. The porcupine, the hedgehog, the iguana, the rhinoceros, the tortoise, and the hare they declare to be eatable; likewise those (domestic animals) that have teeth in one jaw only, excepting camels.
19. A twice-born [Dwija]man who knowingly eats mushrooms, a village-pig, garlic, a village-cock, onions, or leeks, will become an outcast.
20. He who unwittingly partakes of (any of) these six, shall perform a Samtapana (Krikkhra) or the lunar penance (Kandrayana) of ascetics; in case (he who has eaten) any other (kind of forbidden food) he shall fast for one day (and a night ).
21. Once a year a Brahmana must perform a Krikkhra penance, in order to atone for unintentionally eating (forbidden food) but for intentionally (eating forbidden food he must perform the penances prescribed) specially.
22. Beasts and birds recommended (for consumption) may be slain by Brahmanas for sacrifice [Yagna]s, and in order to feed those whom they are bound to maintain; for Agastya did this of old.
23. For in ancient (times) the sacrificial cakes were (made of the flesh) of eatable beasts and birds at the sacrifice [Yagna]s offered by Brahmanas and Kshatriyas.
24. All lawful hard or soft food may be eaten, though stale, (after having been) mixed with fatty (substances), and so may the remains of sacrificial viands.
25. But all preparations of barley and wheat, as well as preparations of milk, may be eaten by twice-born [Dwija]men without being mixed with fatty (substances), though they may have stood for a long time.
26. Thus has the food, allowed and forbidden to twice-born [Dwija]men, been fully described; I will now propound the rules for eating and avoiding meat.
27. One may eat meat when it has been sprinkled with water, while Mantras were recited, when Brahmanas desire (one’s doing it), when one is engaged (in the performance of a rite) according to the law, and when one’s life is in danger.
28. The Lord of creatures (Pragapati) created this whole (world to be) the sustenance of the vital spirit; both the immovable and the movable (creation is) the food of the vital spirit.
29. What is destitute of motion is the food of those endowed with locomotion; (animals) without fangs (are the food) of those with fangs, those without hands of those who possess hands, and the timid of the bold.
30. The eater who daily even devours those destined to be his food, commits no sin; for the creator himself created both the eaters and those who are to be eaten (for those special purposes).
31. ‘The consumption of meat (is befitting) for sacrifice [Yagna]s,’ that is declared to be a rule made by the gods; but to persist (in using it) on other (occasions) is said to be a proceeding worthy of Rakshasas.
32. He who eats meat, when he honours the gods and manes, commits no sin, whether he has bought it, or himself has killed (the animal), or has received it as a present from others.
33. A twice-born [Dwija]man who knows the law, must not eat meat except in conformity with the law; for if he has eaten it unlawfully, he will, unable to save himself, be eaten after death by his (victims).
34. After death the guilt of one who slays deer for gain is not as (great) as that of him who eats meat for no (sacred) purpose.
35. But a man who, being duly engaged (to officiate or to dine at a sacred rite), refuses to eat meat, becomes after death an animal during twenty-one existences.
36. A Brahmana must never eat (the flesh of animals unhallowed by Mantras; but, obedient to the primeval law, he may eat it, consecrated with Vedic texts.
37. If he has a strong desire (for meat) he may make an animal of clarified butter or one of flour, (and eat that); but let him never seek to destroy an animal without a (lawful) reason.
38. As many hairs as the slain beast has, so often indeed will he who killed it without a (lawful) reason suffer a violent death in future births.
39. Svayambhu (the Self-existent) himself created animals for the sake of sacrifice [Yagna]s; sacrifice [Yagna]s (have been instituted) for the good of this whole (world); hence the slaughtering (of beasts) for sacrifice [Yagna]s is not slaughtering (in the ordinary sense of the word).
40. Herbs, trees, cattle, birds, and (other) animals that have been destroyed for sacrifice [Yagna]s, receive (being reborn) higher existences.
41. On offering the honey-mixture (to a guest), at a sacrifice [Yagna] and at the rites in honour of the manes, but on these occasions only, may an animal be slain; that (rule) Manu proclaimed.
42. A twice-born [Dwija]man who, knowing the true meaning of the Veda, slays an animal for these purposes, causes both himself and the animal to enter a most blessed state.
43. A twice-born [Dwija]man of virtuous disposition, whether he dwells in (his own) house, with a teacher [acharya], or in the forest, must never, even in times of distress, cause an injury (to any creature) which is not sanctioned by the Veda.
44. Know that the injury to moving creatures and to those destitute of motion, which the Veda has prescribed for certain occasions, is no injury at all; for the sacred law shone forth from the Veda.
45. He who injures innoxious beings from a wish to (give) himself pleasure, never finds happiness, neither living nor dead.
46. He who does not seek to cause the sufferings of bonds and death to living creatures, (but) desires the good of all (beings), obtains endless bliss.
47. He who does not injure any (creature), attains without an effort what he thinks of, what he undertakes, and what he fixes his mind on.
48. Meat can never be obtained without injury to living creatures, and injury to sentient beings is detrimental to (the attainment of) heavenly bliss; let him therefore shun (the use of) meat.
49. Having well considered the (disgusting) origin of flesh and the (cruelty of) fettering and slaying corporeal beings, let him entirely abstain from eating flesh.
50. He who, disregarding the rule (given above), does not eat meat like a Pisaka, becomes dear to men, and will not be tormented by diseases.
51. He who permits (the slaughter of an animal), he who cuts it up, he who kills it, he who buys or sells (meat), he who cooks it, he who serves it up, and he who eats it, (must all be considered as) the slayers (of the animal).
52. There is no greater sinner than that (man) who, though not worshipping the gods or the manes, seeks to increase (the bulk of) his own flesh by the flesh of other (beings).
53. He who during a hundred years annually offers a horse-sacrifice [Yagna], and he who entirely abstains from meat, obtain the same reward for their meritorious (conduct).
54. By subsisting on pure fruit and roots, and by eating food fit for ascetics (in the forest), one does not gain (so great) a reward as by entirely avoiding (the use of) flesh.
55. ‘Me he (mam sah)’ will devour in the next (world), whose flesh I eat in this (life); the wise declare this (to be) the real meaning of the word ‘flesh’ (mamsah).
56. There is no sin in eating meat, in (drinking) spirituous liquor, and in carnal intercourse, for that is the natural way of created beings, but abstention brings great rewards.
57. I will now in due order explain the purification for the dead and the purification of things as they are prescribed for the four Varnas (varna).
58. When (a child) dies that has teethed, or that before teething has received (the sacrament of) the tonsure (Kudakarana) or (of the initiation), all relatives (become) impure, and on the birth (of a child) the same (rule) is prescribed.
59. It is ordained (that) among Sapindas the impurity on account of a death (shall last) ten days, (or) until the bones have been collected, (or) three days or one day only.
60. But the Sapinda-relationship ceases with the seventh person (in the ascending and descending lines), the Samanodaka-relationship when the (common) origin and the (existence of a common family)-name are no (longer) known.
61. As this impurity on account of a death is prescribed for (all) Sapindas, even so it shall be (held) on a birth by those who desire to be absolutely pure.
62. (Or while) the impurity on account of a death is common to all (Sapindas), that caused by a birth (falls) on the parents alone; (or) it shall fall on the mother alone, and the father shall become pure by bathing;
63. But a man, having spent his strength, is purified merely by bathing; after begetting a child (on a remarried female), he shall retain the impurity during three days.
64. Those who have touched a corpse are purified after one day and night (added to) three periods of three days; those who give libations of water, after three days.
65. A pupil who performs the Pitrimedha for his deceased teacher [acharya], becomes also pure after ten days, just like those who carry the corpse out (to the burial-ground).
66. (A woman) is purified on a miscarriage in as many (days and) nights as months (elapsed after conception), and a menstruating female becomes pure by bathing after the menstrual secretion has ceased (to flow).
67. (On the death) of children whose tonsure (Kudakarman) has not been performed, the (Sapindas) are declared to become pure in one (day and) night; (on the death) of those who have received the tonsure (but not the initiation, the law) ordains (that) the purification (takes place) after three days.
68. A child that has died before the completion of its second year, the relatives shall carry out (of the village), decked (with flowers, and bury it) in pure ground, without collecting the bones (afterwards).
69. Such (a child) shall not be burnt with fire, and no libations of water shall be offered to it; leaving it like a (log of) wood in the forest, (the relatives) shall remain impure during three days only.
70. The relatives shall not offer libations to (a child) that has not reached the third year; but if it had teeth, or the ceremony of naming it (Namakarman) had been performed, (the offering of water is) optional.
71. If a fellow-student [Brahmachari] has died, the Smriti prescribes an impurity of one day; on a birth the purification of the Samanodakas is declared (to take place) after three (days and) nights.
72. (On the death) of females (betrothed but) not married (the bridegroom and his) relatives are purified after three days, and the paternal relatives become pure according to the same rule.
73. Let (mourners) eat food without factitious salt, bathe during three days, abstain from meat, and sleep separate on the ground.
74. The above rule regarding impurity on account of a death has been prescribed (for cases where the kinsmen live) near (the deceased); (Sapinda) kinsmen and (Samanodaka) relatives must know the following rule (to refer to cases where deceased lived) at a distance (from them).
75. He who may hear that (a relative) residing in a distant country has died, before ten (days after his death have elapsed), shall be impure for the remainder of the period of ten (days and) nights only.
76. If the ten days have passed, he shall be impure during three (days and) nights; but if a year has elapsed (since the occurrence of the death), he becomes pure merely by bathing.
77. A man who hears of a (Sapinda) relative’s death, or of the birth of a son after the ten days (of impurity have passed), becomes pure by bathing, dressed in his garments.
78. If an infant (that has not teethed), or a (grownup relative who is) not a Sapinda, die in a distant country, one becomes at once pure after bathing in one’s clothes.
79. If within the ten days (of impurity) another birth or death happens, a Brahmana shall remain impure only until the (first) period of ten days has expired.
80. They declare that, when the teacher [acharya] (akarya) has died, the impurity (lasts) three days; if the (teacher [acharya]’s) son or wife (is dead, it lasts) a day and a night; that is a settled (rule).
81. For a Srotriya who resides with (him out of affection), a man shall be impure for three days; for a maternal uncle, a pupil, an officiating priest, or a maternal relative, for one night together with the preceding and following days.
82. If the king in whose realm he resides is dead, (he shall be impure) as long as the light (of the sun or stars shines), but for (an intimate friend) who is not a Srotriya (the impurity lasts) for a whole day, likewise for a Guru who knows the Veda and the Angas.
83. A Brahmana shall be pure after ten days, a Kshatriya after twelve, a Vaisya after fifteen, and a Sudra is purified after a month.
84. Let him not (unnecessarily) lengthen the period of impurity, nor interrupt the rites to be performed with the sacred fires; for he who performs that (Agnihotra) rite will not be impure, though (he be) a (Sapinda) relative.
85. When he has touched a Kandala, a menstruating woman, an outcast, a woman in childbed, a corpse, or one who has touched a (corpse), he becomes pure by bathing.
86. He who has purified himself by sipping water shall, on seeing any impure (thing or person), always mutter the sacred texts, addressed to Surya, and the Pavamani (verses).
87. A Brahmana who has touched a human bone to which fat adheres, becomes pure by bathing; if it be free from fat, by sipping water and by touching (afterwards) a cow or looking at the sun.
88. He who has undertaken the performance of a vow shall not pour out libations (to the dead) until the vow has been completed; but when he has offered water after its completion, he becomes pure in three days only.
89. Libations of water shall not be offered to those who (neglect the prescribed rites and may be said to) have been born in vain, to those born in consequence of an illegal mixture of the Varnas, to those who are ascetics (of heretical sects), and to those who have committed suicide,
90. To women who have joined a heretical sect, who through lust live (with many men), who have caused an abortion, have killed their husbands, or drink spirituous liquor.
91. A student [Brahmachari] does not break his vow by carrying out (to the place of cremation) his own dead teacher [acharya] (akarya), sub-teacher [acharya] (upadhyaya), father, mother, or Guru.
92. Let him carry out a dead Sudra by the southern gate of the town, but (the corpses of) twice-born [Dwija]men, as is proper, by the western, northern, or eastern (gates).
93. The taint of impurity does not fall on kings, and those engaged in the performance of a vow, or of a Sattra; for the (first are) seated on the throne of Indra, and the (last two are) ever pure like Brahman.
94. For a king, on the throne of magnanimity, immediate purification is prescribed, and the reason for that is that he is seated (there) for the protection of (his) subjects.
95. (The same rule applies to the kinsmen) of those who have fallen in a riot or a battle, (of those who have been killed) by lightning or by the king, and (of those who perished fighting) for cows and Brahmanas, and to those whom the king wishes (to be pure).
96. A king is an incarnation of the eight guardian deities of the world, the Moon, the Fire, the Sun, the Wind, Indra, the Lords of wealth and water (Kubera and Varuna), and Yama.
97. Because the king is pervaded by those lords of the world, no impurity is ordained for him; for purity and impurity of mortals is caused and removed by (those) lords of the world.
98. By him who is slain in battle with brandished weapons according to the law of the Kshatriyas, a (Srauta) sacrifice [Yagna] is instantly completed, and so is the period of impurity (caused by his death); that is a settled rule.
99. (At the end of the period of impurity) a Brahmana who has performed the necessary rites, becomes pure by touching water, a Kshatriya by touching the animal on which he rides, and his weapons, a Vaisya by touching his goad or the nose-string (of his oxen), a Sudra by touching his staff.
100. Thus the purification (required) on (the death of) Sapindas has been explained to you, O best of twice-born [Dwija]men; hear now the manner in which men are purified on the death of any (relative who is) not a Sapinda.
101. A Brahmana, having carried out a dead Brahmana who is not a Sapinda, as (if he were) a (near) relative, or a near relative of his mother, becomes pure after three days;
102. But if he eats the food of the (Sapindas of the deceased), he is purified in ten days, (but) in one day, if he does not eat their food nor dwells in their house.
103. Having voluntarily followed a corpse, whether (that of) a paternal kinsman or (of) a stranger, he becomes pure by bathing, dressed in his clothes, by touching fire and eating clarified butter.
104. Let him not allow a dead Brahmana to be carried out by a Sudra, while men of the same Varna are at hand; for that burnt-offering which is defiled by a Sudra’s touch is detrimental to (the deceased’s passage to) heaven.
105. The knowledge (of Brahman) austerities, fire, (holy) food, earth, (restraint of) the internal organ, water, smearing (with cowdung), the wind, sacred rites, the sun, and time are the purifiers of corporeal (beings).
106. Among all modes of purification, purity in (the acquisition of) wealth is declared to be the best; for he is pure who gains wealth with clean hands, not he who purifies himself with earth and water.
107. The learned are purified by a forgiving disposition, those who have committed forbidden actions by liberality, secret sinners by muttering (sacred texts), and those who best know the Veda by austerities.
108. By earth and water is purified what ought to be made pure, a river by its current, a woman whose thoughts have been impure by the menstrual secretion, a Brahmana by abandoning the world (samnyasa).
109. The body is cleansed by water, the internal organ is purified by truthfulness, the individual soul by sacred learning and austerities, the intellect by (true) knowledge.
110. Thus the precise rules for the purification of the body have been declared to you; hear now the decision (of the law) regarding the purification of the various (inanimate) things.
111. The wise ordain that all (objects) made of metal, gems, and anything made of stone are to be cleansed with ashes, earth, and water.
112. A golden vessel which shows no stains, becomes pure with water alone, likewise what is produced in water (as shells and coral), what is made of stone, and a silver (vessel) not enchased.
113. From the union of water and fire arose the glittering gold and silver; those two, therefore, are best purified by (the elements) from which they sprang.
114. Copper, iron, brass, pewter, tin, and lead must be cleansed, as may be suitable (for each particular case), by alkaline (substances), acids or water.
115. The purification prescribed for all (sorts of) liquids is by passing two blades of Kusa grass through them, for solid things by sprinkling (them with water), for (objects) made of wood by planing them.
116. At sacrifice [Yagna]s the purification of (the Soma cups called) Kamasas and Grahas, and of (other) sacrificial vessels (takes place) by rubbing (them) with the hand, and (afterwards) rinsing (them with water).
117. The Karu and (the spoons called) Sruk and Sruva must be cleaned with hot water, likewise (the wooden sword, called) Sphya, the winnowing-basket (Surpa), the cart (for bringing the grain), the pestle and the mortar.
118. The manner of purifying large quantities of grain and of cloth is to sprinkle them with water; but the purification of small quantities is prescribed (to take place) by washing them.
119. Skins and (objects) made of split cane must be cleaned like clothes; vegetables, roots, and fruit like grain;
120. Silk and woollen stuffs with alkaline earth; blankets with pounded Arishta (fruit); Amsupattas with Bel fruit; linen cloth with (a paste of) yellow mustard.
121. A man who knows (the law) must purify conch-shells, horn, bone and ivory, like linen cloth, or with a mixture of cow’s urine and water.
122. Grass, wood, and straw become pure by being sprinkled (with water), a house by sweeping and smearing (it with cowdung or whitewash), an earthen (vessel) by a second burning.
123. An earthen vessel which has been defiled by spirituous liquor, urine, ordure, saliva, pus or blood cannot be purified by another burning.
124. Land is purified by (the following) five (modes, viz.) by sweeping, by smearing (it with cowdung), by sprinkling (it with cows’ urine or milk), by scraping, and by cows staying (on it during a day and night).
125. (Food) which has been pecked at by birds, smelt at by cows, touched (with the foot), sneezed on, or defiled by hair or insects, becomes pure by scattering earth (over it).
126. As long as the (foul) smell does not leave an (object) defiled by impure substances, and the stain caused by them (does not disappear), so long must earth and water be applied in cleansing (inanimate) things.
127. The gods declared three things (to be) pure to Brahmanas, that (on which) no (taint is) visible, what has been washed with water, and what has been commended (as pure) by the word (of a Brahmana).
128. Water, sufficient (in quantity) in order to slake the thirst of a cow, possessing the (proper) smell, colour, and taste, and unmixed with impure substances, is pure, if it is collected on (pure) ground.
129. The hand of an artisan is always pure, so is (every vendible commodity) exposed for sale in the market, and food obtained by begging which a student [Brahmachari] holds (in his hand) is always fit for use; that is a settled rule.
130. The mouth of a woman is always pure, likewise a bird when he causes a fruit to fall; a calf is pure on the flowing of the milk, and a dog when he catches a deer.
131. Manu has declared that the flesh (of an animal) killed by dogs is pure, likewise (that) of a (beast) slain by carnivorous (animals) or by men of low Varna (Dasyu), such as Kandalas.
132. All those cavities (of the body) which lie above the navel are pure, (but) those which are below the navel are impure, as well as excretions that fall from the body.
133. Flies, drops of water, a shadow, a cow, a horse, the rays of the sun, dust, earth, the wind, and fire one must know to be pure to the touch.
134. In order to cleanse (the organs) by which urine and faeces are ejected, earth and water must be used, as they may be required, likewise in removing the (remaining ones among) twelve impurities of the body.
135. Oily exudations, semen, blood, (the fatty substance of the) brain, urine, faeces, the mucus of the nose, ear-wax, phlegm, tears, the rheum of the eyes, and sweat are the twelve impurities of human (bodies).
136. He who desires to be pure, must clean the organ by one (application of) earth, the anus by (applying earth) three (times), the (left) hand alone by (applying it) ten (times), and both (hands) by (applying it) seven (times).
137. Such is the purification ordained for householders; (it shall be) double for student [Brahmachari]s, treble for hermits, but quadruple for ascetics.
138. When he has voided urine or faeces, let him, after sipping water, sprinkle the cavities, likewise when he is going to recite the Veda, and always before he takes food.
139. Let him who desires bodily purity first sip water three times, and then twice wipe his mouth; but a woman and a Sudra (shall perform each act) once (only).
140. Sudras who live according to the law, shall each month shave (their heads); their mode of purification (shall be) the same as that of Vaisyas, and their food the fragments of an Aryan’s meal.
141. Drops (of water) from the mouth which do not fall on a limb, do not make (a man) impure, nor the hair of the moustache entering the mouth, nor what adheres to the teeth.
142. Drops which trickle on the feet of him who offers water for sipping to others, must be considered as equal to (water collected on the ground; they render him not impure.
143. He who, while carrying anything in any manner, is touched by an impure (person or thing), shall become pure, if he performs an ablution, without putting down that object.
144. He who has vomited or purged shall bathe, and afterwards eat clarified butter; but if (the attack comes on) after he has eaten, let him only sip water; bathing is prescribed for him who has had intercourse with a woman.
145. Though he may be (already) pure, let him sip water after sleeping, sneezing, eating, spitting, telling untruths, and drinking water, likewise when he is going to study the Veda.
146. Thus the rules of personal purification for men of all Varnas, and those for cleaning (inanimate) things, have been fully declared to you: hear now the duties of women.
147. By a girl, by a young woman, or even by an aged one, nothing must be done independently, even in her own house.
148. In childhood a female must be subject to her father, in youth to her husband, when her lord is dead to her sons; a woman must never be independent.
149. She must not seek to separate herself from her father, husband, or sons; by leaving them she would make both (her own and her husband’s) families contemptible.
150. She must always be cheerful, clever in (the management of her) household affairs, careful in cleaning her utensils, and economical in expenditure.
151. Him to whom her father may give her, or her brother with the father’s permission, she shall obey as long as he lives, and when he is dead, she must not insult (his memory).
152. For the sake of procuring good fortune to (brides), the recitation of benedictory texts (svastyayana), and the sacrifice [Yagna] to the Lord of creatures (Pragapati) are used at weddings; (but) the betrothal (by the father or guardian) is the cause of (the husband’s) dominion (over his wife).
153. The husband who wedded her with sacred texts, always gives happiness to his wife, both in season and out of season, in this world and in the next.
154. Though destitute of virtue, or seeking pleasure (elsewhere), or devoid of good qualities, (yet) a husband must be constantly worshipped as a god by a faithful wife.
155. No sacrifice [Yagna], no vow, no fast must be performed by women apart (from their husbands); if a wife obeys her husband, she will for that (reason alone) be exalted in heaven.
156. A faithful wife, who desires to dwell (after death) with her husband, must never do anything that might displease him who took her hand, whether he be alive or dead.
157. At her pleasure let her emaciate her body by (living on) pure flowers, roots, and fruit; but she must never even mention the name of another man after her husband has died.
158. Until death let her be patient (of hardships), self-controlled, and chaste, and strive (to fulfil) that most excellent duty which (is prescribed) for wives who have one husband only.
159. Many thousands of Brahmanas who were chaste from their youth, have gone to heaven without continuing their race.
160. A virtuous wife who after the death of her husband constantly remains chaste, reaches heaven, though she have no son, just like those chaste men.
161. But a woman who from a desire to have offspring violates her duty towards her (deceased) husband, brings on herself disgrace in this world, and loses her place with her husband (in heaven).
162. Offspring begotten by another man is here not (considered lawful), nor (does offspring begotten) on another man’s wife (belong to the begetter), nor is a second husband anywhere prescribed for virtuous women.
163. She who cohabits with a man of higher Varna, forsaking her own husband who belongs to a lower one, will become contemptible in this world, and is called a remarried woman (parapurva).
164. By violating her duty towards her husband, a wife is disgraced in this world, (after death) she enters the womb of a jackal, and is tormented by diseases (the punishment of) her sin.
165. She who, controlling her thoughts, words, and deeds, never slights her lord, resides (after death) with her husband (in heaven), and is called a virtuous (wife).
166. In reward of such conduct, a female who controls her thoughts, speech, and actions, gains in this (life) highest renown, and in the next (world) a place near her husband.
167. A twice-born [Dwija]man, versed in the sacred law, shall burn a wife of equal Varna who conducts herself thus and dies before him, with (the sacred fires used for) the Agnihotra, and with the sacrificial implements.
168. Having thus, at the funeral, given the sacred fires to his wife who dies before him, he may marry again, and again kindle (the fires).
169. (Living) according to the (preceding) rules, he must never neglect the five (great) sacrifice [Yagna]s, and, having taken a wife, he must dwell in (his own) house during the second period of his life.


1. A twice-born [Dwija]Snataka, who has thus lived according to the law in the order of householders, may, taking a firm resolution and keeping his organs in subjection, dwell in the forest, duly (observing the rules given below).
2. When a householder sees his (skin) wrinkled, and (his hair) white, and. the sons of his sons, then he may resort to the forest.
3. Abandoning all food raised by cultivation, and all his belongings, he may depart into the forest, either committing his wife to his sons, or accompanied by her.
4. Taking with him the sacred fire and the implements required for domestic (sacrifice [Yagna]s), he may go forth from the village into the forest and reside there, duly controlling his senses.
5. Let him offer those five great sacrifice [Yagna]s according to the rule, with various kinds of pure food fit for ascetics, or with herbs, roots, and fruit.
6. Let him wear a skin or a tattered garment; let him bathe in the evening or in the morning; and let him always wear (his hair in) braids, the hair on his body, his beard, and his nails (being unclipped).
7. Let him perform the Bali-offering with such food as he eats, and give alms according to his ability; let him honour those who come to his hermitage with alms consisting of water, roots, and fruit.
8. Let him be always industrious in privately reciting the Veda; let him be patient of hardships, friendly (towards all), of collected mind, ever liberal and never a receiver of gifts, and compassionate towards all living creatures.
9. Let him offer, according to the law, the Agnihotra with three sacred fires, never omitting the new-moon and full-moon sacrifice [Yagna]s at the proper time.
10. Let him also offer the Nakshatreshti, the Agrayana, and the Katurmasya (sacrifice [Yagna]s), as well as the Turayana and likewise the Dakshayana, in due order.
11. With pure grains, fit for ascetics, which grow in spring and in autumn, and which he himself has collected, let him severally prepare the sacrificial cakes (purodasa) and the boiled messes (karu), as the law directs.
12. Having offered those most pure sacrificial viands, consisting of the produce of the forest, he may use the remainder for himself, (mixed with) salt prepared by himself.
13. Let him eat vegetables that grow on dry land or in water, flowers, roots, and fruits, the productions of pure trees, and oils extracted from forest-fruits.
14. Let him avoid honey, flesh, and mushrooms growing on the ground (or elsewhere, the vegetables called) Bhustrina, and Sigruka, and the Sleshmantaka fruit.
15. Let him throw away in the month of Asvina the food of ascetics, which he formerly collected, likewise his worn-out clothes and his vegetables, roots, and fruit.
16. Let him not eat anything (grown on) ploughed (land), though it may have been thrown away by somebody, nor roots and fruit grown in a village, though (he may be) tormented (by hunger).
17. He may eat either what has been cooked with fire, or what has been ripened by time; he either may use a stone for grinding, or his teeth may be his mortar.
18. He may either at once (after his daily meal) cleanse (his vessel for collecting food), or lay up a store sufficient for a month, or gather what suffices for six months or for a year.
19. Having collected food according to his ability, he may either eat at night (only), or in the day-time (only), or at every fourth meal-time, or at every eighth.
20. Or he may live according to the rule of the lunar penance (Kandrayana, daily diminishing the quantity of his food) in the bright (half of the month) and (increasing it) in the dark (half); or he may eat on the last days of each fortnight, once (a day only), boiled barley-gruel.
21. Or he may constantly subsist on flowers, roots, and fruit alone, which have been ripened by time and have fallen spontaneously, following the rule of the (Institutes) of Vikhanas.
22. Let him either roll about on the ground, or stand during the day on tiptoe, (or) let him alternately stand and sit down; going at the Savanas (at sunrise, at midday, and at sunset) to water in the forest (in order to bathe).
23. In summer let him expose himself to the heat of five fires, during the rainy season live under the open sky, and in winter be dressed in wet clothes, (thus) gradually increasing (the rigour of) his austerities.
24. When he bathes at the three Savanas (sunrise, midday, and sunset), let him offer libations of water to the manes and the gods, and practising harsher and harsher austerities, let him dry up his bodily frame.
25. Having reposited the three sacred fires in himself, according to the prescribed rule, let him live without a fire, without a house, wholly silent, subsisting on roots and fruit,
26. Making no effort (to procure) things that give pleasure, chaste, sleeping on the bare ground, not caring for any shelter, dwelling at the roots of trees.
27. From Brahmanas (who live as) ascetics, let him receive alms, (barely sufficient) to support life, or from other householders of the twice-born [Dwija](Varnas) who reside in the forest.
28. Or (the hermit) who dwells in the forest may bring (food) from a village, receiving it either in a hollow dish (of leaves), in (his naked) hand, or in a broken earthen dish, and may eat eight mouthfuls.
29. These and other observances must a Brahmana who dwells in the forest diligently practise, and in order to attain complete (union with) the (supreme) Soul, (he must study) the various sacred texts contained in the Upanishads,
30. (As well as those rites and texts) which have been practised and studied by the sages (Rishis), and by Brahmana householders, in order to increase their knowledge (of Brahman), and their austerity, and in order to sanctify their bodies;
31. Or let him walk, fully determined and going straight on, in a north-easterly direction, subsisting on water and air, until his body sinks to rest.
32. A Brahmana, having got rid of his body by one of those modes practised by the great sages, is exalted in the world of Brahman, free from sorrow and fear.
33. But having thus passed the third part of (a man’s natural term of) life in the forest, he may live as an ascetic during the fourth part of his existence, after abandoning all attachment to worldly objects.
34. He who after passing from order to order, after offering sacrifice [Yagna]s and subduing his senses, becomes, tired with (giving) alms and offerings of food, an ascetic, gains bliss after death.
35. When he has paid the three debts, let him apply his mind to (the attainment of) final liberation; he who seeks it without having paid (his debts) sinks downwards.
36. Having studied the Vedas in accordance with the rule, having begat sons according to the sacred law, and having offered sacrifice [Yagna]s according to his ability, he may direct his mind to (the attainment of) final liberation.
37. A twice-born [Dwija]man who seeks final liberation, without having studied the Vedas, without having begotten sons, and without having offered sacrifice [Yagna]s, sinks downwards.
38. Having performed the Ishti, sacred to the Lord of creatures (Pragapati), where (he gives) all his property as the sacrificial fee, having reposited the sacred fires in himself, a Brahmana may depart from his house (as an ascetic).
39. Worlds, radiant in brilliancy, become (the portion) of him who recites (the texts regarding) Brahman and departs from his house (as an ascetic), after giving a promise of safety to all created beings.
40. For that twice-born [Dwija]man, by whom not the smallest danger even is caused to created beings, there will be no danger from any (quarter), after he is freed from his body.
41. Departing from his house fully provided with the means of purification (Pavitra), let him wander about absolutely silent, and caring nothing for enjoyments that may be offered (to him).
42. Let him always wander alone, without any companion, in order to attain (final liberation), fully understanding that the solitary (man, who) neither forsakes nor is forsaken, gains his end.
43. He shall neither possess a fire, nor a dwelling, he may go to a village for his food, (he shall be) indifferent to everything, firm of purpose, meditating (and) concentrating his mind on Brahman.
44. A potsherd (instead of an alms-bowl), the roots of trees (for a dwelling), coarse worn-out garments, life in solitude and indifference towards everything, are the marks of one who has attained liberation.
45. Let him not desire to die, let him not desire to live; let him wait for (his appointed) time, as a servant (waits) for the payment of his wages.
46. Let him put down his foot purified by his sight, let him drink water purified by (straining with) a cloth, let him utter speech purified by truth, let him keep his heart pure.
47. Let him patiently bear hard words, let him not insult anybody, and let him not become anybody’s enemy for the sake of this (perishable) body.
48. Against an angry man let him not in return show anger, let him bless when he is cursed, and let him not utter speech, devoid of truth, scattered at the seven gates.
49. Delighting in what refers to the Soul, sitting (in the postures prescribed by the Yoga), independent (of external help), entirely abstaining from sensual enjoyments, with himself for his only companion, he shall live in this world, desiring the bliss (of final liberation).
50. Neither by (explaining) prodigies and omens, nor by skill in astrology and palmistry, nor by giving advice and by the exposition (of the Sastras), let him ever seek to obtain alms.
51. Let him not (in order to beg) go near a house filled with hermits, Brahmanas, birds, dogs, or other mendicants.
52. His hair, nails, and beard being clipped, carrying an alms-bowl, a staff, and a water-pot, let him continually wander about, controlling himself and not hurting any creature.
53. His vessels shall not be made of metal, they shall be free from fractures; it is ordained that they shall be cleansed with water, like (the cups, called) Kamasa, at a sacrifice [Yagna].
54. A gourd, a wooden bowl, an earthen (dish), or one made of split cane, Manu, the son of Svayambhu, has declared (to be) vessels (suitable) for an ascetic.
55. Let him go to beg once (a day), let him not be eager to obtain a large quantity (of alms); for an ascetic who eagerly seeks alms, attaches himself also to sensual enjoyments.
56. When no smoke ascends from (the kitchen), when the pestle lies motionless, when the embers have been extinguished, when the people have finished their meal, when the remnants in the dishes have been removed, let the ascetic always go to beg.
57. Let him not be sorry when he obtains nothing, nor rejoice when he obtains (something), let him (accept) so much only as will sustain life, let him not care about the (quality of his) utensils.
58. Let him disdain all (food) obtained in consequence of humble salutations, (for) even an ascetic who has attained final liberation, is bound (with the fetters of the Samsara) by accepting (food given) in consequence of humble salutations.
59. By eating little, and by standing and sitting in solitude, let him restrain his senses, if they are attracted by sensual objects.
60. By the restraint of his senses, by the destruction of love and hatred, and by the abstention from injuring the creatures, he becomes fit for immortality.
61. Let him reflect on the transmigrations of men, caused by their sinful deeds, on their falling into hell, and on the torments in the world of Yama,
62. On the separation from their dear ones, on their union with hated men, on their being overpowered by age and being tormented with diseases,
63. On the departure of the individual soul from this body and its new birth in (another) womb, and on its wanderings through ten thousand millions of existences,
64. On the infliction of pain on embodied (spirits), which is caused by demerit, and the gain of eternal bliss, which is caused by the attainment of their highest aim, (gained through) spiritual merit.
65. By deep meditation let him recognise the subtile nature of the supreme Soul, and its presence in all organisms, both the highest and the lowest.
66. To whatever order he may be attached, let him, though blemished (by a want of the external marks), fulfil his duty, equal-minded towards all creatures; (for) the external mark (of the order) is not the cause of (the acquisition of) merit.
67. Though the fruit of the Kataka tree (the clearing-nut) makes water clear, yet the (latter) does not become limpid in consequence of the mention of the (fruit’s) name.
68. In order to preserve living creatures, let him always by day and by night, even with pain to his body, walk, carefully scanning the ground.
69. In order to expiate (the death) of those creatures which he unintentionally injures by day or by night, an ascetic shall bathe and perform six suppressions of the breath.
70. Three suppressions of the breath even, performed according to the rule, and accompanied with the (recitation of the) Vyahritis and of the syllable Om, one must know to be the highest (form of) austerity for every Brahmana.
71. For as the impurities of metallic ores, melted in the blast (of a furnace), are consumed, even so the taints of the organs are destroyed through the suppression of the breath.
72. Let him destroy the taints through suppressions of the breath, (the production of) sin by fixed attention, all sensual attachments by restraining (his senses and organs), and all qualities that are not lordly by meditation.
73. Let him recognise by the practice of meditation the progress of the individual soul through beings of various kinds, (a progress) hard to understand for unregenerate men.
74. He who possesses the true insight (into the nature of the world), is not fettered by his deeds; but he who is destitute of that insight, is drawn into the circle of births and deaths.
75. By not injuring any creatures, by detaching the senses (from objects of enjoyment), by the rites prescribed in the Veda, and by rigorously practising austerities, (men) gain that state (even) in this (world).
76-77. Let him quit this dwelling, composed of the five elements, where the bones are the beams, which is held together by tendons (instead of cords), where the flesh and the blood are the mortar, which is thatched with the skin, which is foul-smelling, filled with urine and ordure, infested by old age and sorrow, the seat of disease, harassed by pain, gloomy with passion, and perishable.
78. He who leaves this body, (be it by necessity) as a tree (that is torn from) the river-bank, or (freely) like a bird (that) quits a tree, is freed from the misery (of this world, dreadful like) a shark.
79. Making over (the merit of his own) good actions to his friends and (the guilt of) his evil deeds to his enemies, he attains the eternal Brahman by the practice of meditation.
80. When by the disposition (of his heart) he becomes indifferent to all objects, he obtains eternal happiness both in this world and after death.
81. He who has in this manner gradually given up all attachments and is freed from all the pairs (of opposites), reposes in Brahman alone.
82. All that has been declared (above) depends on meditation; for he who is not proficient in the knowledge of that which refers to the Soul reaps not the full reward of the performance of rites.
83. Let him constantly recite (those texts of) the Veda which refer to the sacrifice [Yagna], (those) referring to the deities, and (those) which treat of the Soul and are contained in the concluding portions of the Veda (Vedanta).
84. That is the refuge of the ignorant, and even that (the refuse) of those who know (the meaning of the Veda); that is (the protection) of those who seek (bliss in) heaven and of those who seek endless (beatitude).
85. A twice-born [Dwija]man who becomes an ascetic, after the successive performance of the above-mentioned acts, shakes off sin here below and reaches the highest Brahman.
86. Thus the law (valid) for self-restrained ascetics has been explained to you; now listen to the (particular) duties of those who give up (the rites prescribed by) the Veda.
87. The student [Brahmachari], the householder, the hermit, and the ascetic, these (constitute) four separate orders, which all spring from (the order of) householders.
88. But all (or) even (any of) these orders, assumed successively in accordance with the Institutes (of the sacred law), lead the Brahmana who acts by the preceding (rules) to the highest state.
89. And in accordance with the precepts of the Veda and of the Smriti, the housekeeper is declared to be superior to all of them; for he supports the other three.
90. As all rivers, both great and small, find a resting-place in the ocean, even so men of all orders find protection with householders
91. By twice-born [Dwija]men belonging to (any of) these four orders, the tenfold law must be ever carefully obeyed.
92. Contentment, forgiveness, self-control, abstention from unrighteously appropriating anything, (obedience to the rules of) purification, coercion of the organs, wisdom, knowledge (of the supreme Soul), truthfulness, and abstention from anger, (form) the tenfold law.
93. Those Brahmanas who thoroughly study the tenfold law, and after studying obey it, enter the highest state.
94. A twice-born [Dwija]man who, with collected mind, follows the tenfold law and has paid his (three) debts, may, after learning the Vedanta according to the prescribed rule, become an ascetic.
95. Having given up (the performance of) all rites, throwing off the guilt of his (sinful) acts, subduing his organs and having studied the Veda, he may live at his ease under the protection of his son.
96. He who has thus given up (the performance of) all rites, who is solely intent on his own (particular) object, (and) free from desires, destroys his guilt by his renunciation and obtains the highest state.
97. Thus the fourfold holy law of Brahmanas, which after death (yields) imperishable rewards, has been declared to you; now learn the duty of kings.
1. I will declare the duties of kings, (and) show how a king should conduct himself, how he was created, and how (he can obtain) highest success.
2. A Kshatriya, who has received according to the rule the sacrament prescribed by the Veda, must duly protect this whole (world).
3. For, when these creatures, being without a king, through fear dispersed in all directions, the Lord created a king for the protection of this whole (creation),
4. Taking (for that purpose) eternal particles of Indra, of the Wind, of Yama, of the Sun, of Fire, of Varuna, of the Moon, and of the Lord of wealth (Kubera).
5. Because a king has been formed of particles of those lords of the gods, he therefore surpasses all created beings in lustre;
6. And, like the sun, he burns eyes and hearts; nor can anybody on earth even gaze on him.
7. Through his (supernatural) power he is Fire and Wind, he Sun and Moon, he the Lord of justice (Yama), he Kubera, he Varuna, he great Indra.
8. Even an infant king must not be despised, (from an idea) that he is a (mere) mortal; for he is a great deity in human form.
9. Fire burns one man only, if he carelessly approaches it, the fire of a king’s (anger) consumes the (whole) family, together with its cattle and its hoard of property.
10. Having fully considered the purpose, (his) power, and the place and the time, he assumes by turns many (different) shapes for the complete attainment of justice.
11. He, in whose favour resides Padma, the goddess of fortune, in whose valour dwells victory, in whose anger abides death, is formed of the lustre of all (gods).
12. The (man), who in his exceeding folly hates him, will doubtlessly perish; for the king quickly makes up his mind to destroy such (a man).
13. Let no (man), therefore, transgress that law which favourites, nor (his orders) which inflict pain on those in disfavour.
14. For the (king’s) sake the Lord formerly created his own son, Punishment, the protector of all creatures, (an incarnation of) the law, formed of Brahman’s glory.
15. Through fear of him all created beings, both the immovable and the movable, allow themselves to be enjoyed and swerve not from their duties.
16. Having fully considered the time and the place (of the offence), the strength and the knowledge (of the offender), let him justly inflict that (punishment) on men who act unjustly.
17. Punishment is (in reality) the king (and) the male, that the manager of affairs, that the ruler, and that is called the surety for the four orders’ obedience to the law.
18. Punishment alone governs all created beings, punishment alone protects them, punishment watches over them while they sleep; the wise declare punishment (to be identical with) the law.
19. If (punishment) is properly inflicted after (due) consideration, it makes all people happy; but inflicted without consideration, it destroys everything.
20. If the king did not, without tiring, inflict punishment on those worthy to be punished, the stronger would roast the weaker, like fish on a spit;
21. The crow would eat the sacrificial cake and the dog would lick the sacrificial viands, and ownership would not remain with any one, the lower ones would (usurp the place of) the higher ones.
22. The whole world is kept in order by punishment, for a guiltless man is hard to find; through fear of punishment the whole world yields the enjoyments (which it owes).
23. The gods, the Danavas, the Gandharvas, the Rakshasas, the bird and snake deities even give the enjoyments (due from them) only, if they are tormented by (the fear of) punishment.
24. All Varnas (varna) would be corrupted (by intermixture), all barriers would be broken through, and all men would rage (against each other) in consequence of mistakes with respect to punishment.
25. But where Punishment with a black hue and red eyes stalks about, destroying sinners, there the subjects are not disturbed, provided that he who inflicts it discerns well.
26. They declare that king to be a just inflicter of punishment, who is truthful, who acts after due consideration, who is wise, and who knows (the respective value of) virtue, pleasure, and wealth.
27. A king who properly inflicts (punishment), prospers with respect to (those) three (means of happiness); but he who is voluptuous, partial, and deceitful will be destroyed, even through the (unjust) punishment (which he inflicts).
28. Punishment (possesses) a very bright lustre, and is hard to be administered by men with unimproved minds; it strikes down the king who swerves from his duty, together with his relatives.
29. Next it will afflict his castles, his territories, the whole world together with the movable and immovable (creation), likewise the sages and the gods, who (on the failure of offerings) ascend to the sky.
30. (Punishment) cannot be inflicted justly by one who has no assistant, (nor) by a fool, (nor) by a covetous man, (nor) by one whose mind is unimproved, (nor) by one addicted to sensual pleasures.
31. By him who is pure (and) faithful to his promise, who acts according to the Institutes (of the sacred law), who has good assistants and is wise, punishment can be (justly) inflicted.
32. Let him act with justice in his own domain, with rigour chastise his enemies, behave without duplicity towards his friends, and be lenient towards Brahmanas.
33. The fame of a king who behaves thus, even though he subsist by gleaning, is spread in the world, like a drop of oil on water.
34. But the fame of a king who acts in a contrary manner and who does not subdue himself, diminishes in extent among men like a drop of clarified butter in water.
35. The king has been created (to be) the protector of the Varnas (varna) and orders, who, all according to their rank, discharge their several duties.
36. Whatever must be done by him and by his servants for the protection of his people, that I will fully declare to you in due order.
37. Let the king, after rising early in the morning, worship Brahmanas who are well versed in the threefold sacred science and learned (in polity), and follow their advice.
38. Let him daily worship aged Brahmanas who know the Veda and are pure; for he who always worships aged men, is honoured even by Rakshasas.
39. Let him, though he may already be modest, constantly learn modesty from them; for a king who is modest never perishes.
40. Through a want of modesty many kings have perished, together with their belongings; through modesty even hermits in the forest have gained kingdoms.
41. Through a want of humility Vena perished, likewise king Nahusha, Sudas, the son of Pigavana, Sumukha, and Nemi.
42. But by humility Prithu and Manu gained sovereignty, Kubera the position of the Lord of wealth, and the son of Gadhi the rank of a Brahmana.
43. From those versed in the three Vedas let him learn the threefold (sacred science), the primeval science of government, the science of dialectics, and the knowledge of the (supreme) Soul; from the people (the theory of) the (various) trades and professions.
44. Day and night he must strenuously exert himself to conquer his senses; for he (alone) who has conquered his own senses, can keep his subjects in obedience.
45. Let him carefully shun the ten vices, springing from love of pleasure, and the eight, proceeding from wrath, which (all) end in misery.
46. For a king who is attached to the vices springing from love of pleasure, loses his wealth and his virtue, but (he who is given) to those arising from anger, (loses) even his life.
47. Hunting, gambling, sleeping by day, censoriousness, (excess with) women, drunkenness, (an inordinate love for) dancing, singing, and music, and useless travel are the tenfold set (of vices) springing from love of pleasure.
48. Tale-bearing, violence, treachery, envy, slandering, (unjust) seizure of property, reviling, and assault are the eightfold set (of vices) produced by wrath.
49. That greediness which all wise men declare to be the root even of both these (sets), let him carefully conquer; both sets (of vices) are produced by that.
50. Drinking, dice, women, and hunting, these four (which have been enumerated) in succession, he must know to be the most pernicious in the set that springs from love of pleasure.
51. Doing bodily injury, reviling, and the seizure of property, these three he must know to be the most pernicious in the set produced by wrath.
52. A self-controlled (king) should know that in this set of seven, which prevails everywhere, each earlier-named vice is more abominable (than those named later).
53. (On a comparison) between vice and death, vice is declared to be more pernicious; a vicious man sinks to the nethermost (hell), he who dies, free from vice, ascends to heaven.
54. Let him appoint seven or eight ministers whose ancestors have been royal servants, who are versed in the sciences, heroes skilled in the use of weapons and descended from (noble) families and who have been tried.
55. Even an undertaking easy (in itself) is (sometimes) hard to be accomplished by a single man; how much (harder is it for a king), especially (if he has) no assistant, (to govern) a kingdom which yields great revenues.
56. Let him daily consider with them the ordinary (business, referring to) peace and war, (the four subjects called) sthana, the revenue, the (manner of) protecting (himself and his kingdom), and the sanctification of his gains (by pious gifts).
57. Having (first) ascertained the opinion of each (minister) separately and (then the views) of all together, let him do what is (most) beneficial for him in his affairs.
58. But with the most distinguished among them all, a learned Brahmana, let the king deliberate on the most important affairs which relate to the six measures of royal policy.
59. Let him, full of confidence, always entrust to that (official) all business; having taken his final resolution with him, let him afterwards begin to act.
60. He must also appoint other officials, (men) of integrity, (who are) wise, firm, well able to collect money, and well tried.
61. As many persons as the due performance of his business requires, so many skilful and clever (men), free from sloth, let him appoint.
62. Among them let him employ the brave, the skilful, the high-born, and the honest in (offices for the collection of) revenue, (e.g.) in mines, manufactures, and storehouses, (but) the timid in the interior of his palace.
63. Let him also appoint an ambassador who is versed in all sciences, who understands hints, expressions of the face and gestures, who is honest, skilful, and of (noble) family.
64. (Such) an ambassador is commended to a king (who is) loyal, honest, skilful, possessing a good memory, who knows the (proper) place and time (for action, who is) handsome, fearless, and eloquent.
65. The army depends on the official (placed in charge of it), the due control (of the subjects) on the army, the treasury and the (government of) the realm on the king, peace and its opposite (war) on the ambassador.
66. For the ambassador alone makes (kings’) allies and separates allies; the ambassador transacts that business by which (kings) are disunited or not.
67. With respect to the affairs let the (ambassador) explore the expression of the countenance, the gestures and actions of the (foreign king) through the gestures and actions of his confidential (advisers), and (discover) his designs among his servants.
68. Having learnt exactly (from his ambassador) the designs of the foreign king, let (the king) take such measures that he does not bring evil on himself.
69. Let him settle in a country which is open and has a dry climate, where grain is abundant, which is chiefly (inhabited) by Aryans, not subject to epidemic diseases (or similar troubles), and pleasant, where the vassals are obedient and his own (people easily) find their livelihood.
70. Let him build (there) a town, making for his safety a fortress, protected by a desert, or a fortress built of (stone and) earth, or one protected by water or trees, or one (formed by an encampment of armed) men or a hill-fort.
71. Let him make every effort to secure a hill-fort, for amongst all those (fortresses mentioned) a hill-fort is distinguished by many superior qualities.
72. The first three of those (various kinds of fortresses) are inhabited by wild beasts, animals living in holes and aquatic animals, the last three by monkeys, men, and gods respectively.
73. As enemies do not hurt these (beings, when they are) sheltered by (their) fortresses, even so foes (can) not injure a king who has taken refuge in his fort.
74. One bowman, placed on a rampart, is a match in battle for one hundred (foes), one hundred for ten thousand; hence it is prescribed (in the Sastras that a king will posses) a fortress.
75. Let that (fort) be well supplied with weapons, money, grain and beasts of burden, with Brahmanas, with artisans, with engines, with fodder, and with water.
76. Let him cause to be built for himself, in the centre of it, a spacious palace, (well) protected, habitable in every season, resplendent (with whitewash), supplied with water and trees.
77. Inhabiting that, let him wed a consort of equal Varna (varna), who possesses auspicious marks (on her body), and is born in a great family, who is charming and possesses beauty and excellent qualities.
78. Let him appoint a domestic priest (purohita) and choose officiating priests (ritvig); they shall perform his domestic rites and the (sacrifice [Yagna]s) for which three fires are required.
79. A king shall offer various (Srauta) sacrifice [Yagna]s at which liberal fees (are distributed), and in order to acquire merit, he shall give to Brahmanas enjoyments and wealth.
80. Let him cause the annual revenue in his kingdom to be collected by trusty (officials), let him obey the sacred law in (his transactions with) the people, and behave like a father towards all men.
81. For the various (branches of business) let him appoint intelligent supervisors; they shall inspect all (the acts) of those men who transact his business.
82. Let him honour those Brahmanas who have returned from their teacher [acharya]’s house (after studying the Veda); for that (money which is given) to Brahmanas is declared to be an imperishable treasure for kings.
83. Neither thieves nor foes can take it, nor can it be lost; hence an imperishable store must be deposited by kings with Brahmanas.
84. The offering made through the mouth of a Brahmana, which is neither spilt, nor falls (on the ground), nor ever perishes, is far more excellent than Agnihotras.
85. A gift to one who is not a Brahmana (yields) the ordinary (reward; a gift) to one who calls himself a Brahmana, a double (reward); a gift to a well-read Brahmana, a hundred-thousandfold (reward); (a gift) to one who knows the Veda and the Angas (Vedaparaga, a reward) without end.
86. For according to the particular qualities of the recipient and according to the faith (of the giver) a small or a great reward will be obtained for a gift in the next world.
87. A king who, while he protects his people, is defied by (foes), be they equal in strength, or stronger, or weaker, must not shrink from battle, remembering the duty of Kshatriyas.
88. Not to turn back in battle, to protect the people, to honour the Brahmanas, is the best means for a king to secure happiness.
89. Those kings who, seeking to slay each other in battle, fight with the utmost exertion and do not turn back, go to heaven.
90. When he fights with his foes in battle, let him not strike with weapons concealed (in wood), nor with (such as are) barbed, poisoned, or the points of which are blazing with fire.
91. Let him not strike one who (in flight) has climbed on an eminence, nor a eunuch, nor one who joins the palms of his hands (in supplication), nor one who (flees) with flying hair, nor one who sits down, nor one who says ‘I am thine;’
92. Nor one who sleeps, nor one who has lost his coat of mail, nor one who is naked, nor one who is disarmed, nor one who looks on without taking part in the fight, nor one who is fighting with another (foe);
93. Nor one whose weapons are broken, nor one afflicted (with sorrow), nor one who has been grievously wounded, nor one who is in fear, nor one who has turned to flight; (but in all these cases let him) remember the duty (of honourable warriors).
94. But the (Kshatriya) who is slain in battle, while he turns back in fear, takes upon himself all the sin of his master, whatever (it may be);
95. And whatever merit (a man) who is slain in flight may have gained for the next (world), all that his master takes.
96. Chariots and horses, elephants, parasols, money, grain, cattle, women, all sorts of (marketable) goods and valueless metals belong to him who takes them (singly) conquering (the possessor).
97. A text of the Veda (declares) that (the soldiers) shall present a choice portion (of the booty) to the king; what has not been taken singly, must be distributed by the king among all the soldiers.
98. Thus has been declared the blameless, primeval law for warriors; from this law a Kshatriya must not depart, when he strikes his foes in battle.
99. Let him strive to gain what he has not yet gained; what he has gained let him carefully preserve; let him augment what he preserves, and what he has augmented let him bestow on worthy men.
100. Let him know that these are the four means for securing the aims of human (existence); let him, without ever tiring, properly employ them.
101. What he has not (yet) gained, let him seek (to gain) by (his) army; what he has gained, let him protect by careful attention; what he has protected, let him augment by (various modes of) increasing it; and what he has augmented, let him liberally bestow (on worthy men).
102. Let him be ever ready to strike, his prowess constantly displayed, and his secrets constantly concealed, and let him constantly explore the weaknesses of his foe.
103. Of him who is always ready to strike, the whole world stands in awe; let him therefore make all creatures subject to himself even by the employment of force.
104. Let him ever act without guile, and on no account treacherously; carefully guarding himself, let him always fathom the treachery which his foes employ.
105. His enemy must not know his weaknesses, but he must know the weaknesses of his enemy; as the tortoise (hides its limbs), even so let him secure the members (of his government against treachery), let him protect his own weak points.
106. Let him plan his undertakings (patiently meditating) like a heron; like a lion, let him put forth his strength; like a wolf, let him snatch (his prey); like a hare, let him double in retreat.
107. When he is thus engaged in conquest, let him subdue all the opponents whom he may find, by the (four) expedients, conciliation and the rest.
108. If they cannot be stopped by the three first expedients, then let him, overcoming them by force alone, gradually bring them to subjection.
109. Among the four expedients, conciliation and the rest, the learned always recommend conciliation and (the employment of) force for the prosperity of kingdoms.
110. As the weeder plucks up the weeds and preserves the corn, even so let the king protect his kingdom and destroy his opponents.
111. That king who through folly rashly oppresses his kingdom, (will), together with his relatives, ere long be deprived of his life and of his kingdom.
112. As the lives of living creatures are destroyed by tormenting their bodies, even so the lives of kings are destroyed by their oppressing their kingdoms.
113. In governing his kingdom let him always observe the (following) rules; for a king who governs his kingdom well, easily prospers.
114. Let him place a company of soldiers, commanded (by a trusty officer), the midst of two, three, five or hundreds of villages, (to be) a protection of the kingdom.
115. Let him appoint a lord over (each) village, as well as lords of ten villages, lords of twenty, lords of a hundred, and lords of a thousand.
116. The lord of one village himself shall inform the lord of ten villages of the crimes committed in his village, and the ruler of ten (shall make his report) to the ruler of twenty.
117. But the ruler of twenty shall report all such (matters) to the lord of a hundred, and the lord of a hundred shall himself give information to the lord of a thousand.
118. Those (articles) which the villagers ought to furnish daily to the king, such as food, drink, and fuel, the lord of one village shall obtain.
119. The ruler of ten (villages) shall enjoy one kula (as much land as suffices for one family), the ruler of twenty five kulas, the superintendent of a hundred villages (the revenues of) one village, the lord of a thousand (the revenues of) a town.
120. The affairs of these (officials), which are connected with (their) villages and their separate business, another minister of the king shall inspect, (who must be) loyal and never remiss;
121. And in each town let him appoint one superintendent of all affairs, elevated in rank, formidable, (resembling) a planet among the stars.
122. Let that (man) always personally visit by turns all those (other officials); let him properly explore their behaviour in their districts through spies (appointed to) each.
123. For the servants of the king, who are appointed to protect (the people), generally become knaves who seize the property of others; let him protect his subjects against such (men).
124. Let the king confiscate the whole property of those (officials) who, evil-minded, may take money from suitors, and banish them.
125. For women employed in the royal service and for menial servants, let him fix a daily maintenance, in proportion to their position and to their work.
126. One pana must be given (daily) as wages to the lowest, six to the highest, likewise clothing every six months and one drona of grain every month.
127. Having well considered (the rates of) purchase and (of) sale, (the length of) the road, (the expense for) food and condiments, the charges of securing the goods, let the king make the traders pay duty.
128. After (due) consideration the king shall always fix in his realm the duties and taxes in such a manner that both he himself and the man who does the work receive (their due) reward.
129. As the leech, the calf, and the bee take their food little by little, even so must the king draw from his realm moderate annual taxes.
130. A fiftieth part of (the increments on) cattle and gold may be taken by the king, and the eighth, sixth, or twelfth part of the crops.
131. He may also take the sixth part of trees, meat, honey, clarified butter, perfumes, (medical) herbs, substances used for flavouring food, flowers, roots, and fruit;
132. Of leaves, pot-herbs, grass, (objects) made of cane, skins, of earthen vessels, and all (articles) made of stone.
133. Though dying (with want), a king must not levy a tax on Srotriyas, and no Srotriya, residing in his kingdom, must perish from hunger.
134. The kingdom of that king, in whose dominions a Srotriya pines with hunger, will even, ere long, be afflicted by famine.
135. Having ascertained his learning in the Veda and (the purity of) his conduct, the king shall provide for him means of subsistence in accordance with the sacred law, and shall protect him in every way, as a father (protects) the lawful son of his body.
136. Whatever meritorious acts (such a Brahmana) performs under the full protection of the king, thereby the king’s length of life, wealth, and kingdom increase.
137. Let the king make the common inhabitants of his realm who live by traffic, pay annually some trifle, which is called a tax.
138. Mechanics and artisans, as well as Sudras who subsist by manual labour, he may cause to work (for himself) one (day) in each month.
139. Let him not cut up his own root (by levying no taxes), nor the root of other (men) by excessive greed; for by cutting up his own root (or theirs), he makes himself or them wretched.
140. Let the king, having carefully considered (each) affair, be both sharp and gentle; for a king who is both sharp and gentle is highly respected.
141. When he is tired with the inspection of the business of men, let him place on that seat (of justice) his chief minister, (who must be) acquainted with the law, wise, self-controlled, and descended from a (noble) family.
142. Having thus arranged all the affairs (of) his (government), he shall zealously and carefully protect his subjects.
143. That (monarch) whose subjects are carried off by robbers (Dasyu) from his kingdom, while they loudly call (for help), and he and his servants are (quietly) looking on, is a dead and not a living (king).
144. The highest duty of a Kshatriya is to protect his subjects, for the king who enjoys the rewards, just mentioned, is bound to (discharge that) duty.
145. Having risen in the last watch of the night, having performed (the rite of) personal purification, having, with a collected mind, offered oblations in the fire, and having worshipped Brahmanas, he shall enter the hall of audience which must possess the marks (considered) auspicious (for a dwelling).
146. Tarrying there, he shall gratify all subjects (who come to see him by a kind reception) and afterwards dismiss them; having dismissed his subjects, he shall take counsel with his ministers.
147. Ascending the back of a hill or a terrace, (and) retiring (there) in a lonely place, or in a solitary forest, let him consult with them unobserved.
148. That king whose secret plans other people, (though) assembled (for the purpose), do not discover, (will) enjoy the whole earth, though he be poor in treasure.
149. At the time of consultation let him cause to be removed idiots, the dumb, the blind, and the deaf, animals, very aged men, women, barbarians, the sick, and those deficient in limbs.
150. (Such) despicable (persons), likewise animals, and particularly women betray secret council; for that reason he must be careful with respect to them.
151. At midday or at midnight, when his mental and bodily fatigues are over, let him deliberate, either with himself alone or with his (ministers), on virtue, pleasure, and wealth,
152. On (reconciling) the attainment of these (aims) which are opposed to each other, on bestowing his daughters in marriage, and on keeping his sons (from harm),
153. On sending ambassadors, on the completion of undertakings (already begun), on the behaviour of (the women in) his harem, and on the doings of his spies.
154. On the whole eightfold business and the five classes (of spies), on the goodwill or enmity and the conduct of the circle (of neighbours he must) carefully (reflect).
155. On the conduct of the middlemost (prince), on the doings of him who seeks conquest, on the behaviour of the neutral (king), and (on that) of the foe (let him) sedulously (meditate).
156. These (four) constituents (prakriti, form), briefly (speaking), the foundation of the circle (of neighbours); besides, eight others are enumerated (in the Institutes of Polity) and (thus) the (total) is declared to be twelve.
157. The minister, the kingdom, the fortress, the treasury, and the army are five other (constituent elements of the circle); for, these are mentioned in connexion with each (of the first twelve; thus the whole circle consists), briefly (speaking, of) seventy-two (constituent parts).
158. Let (the king) consider as hostile his immediate neighbour and the partisan of (such a) foe, as friendly the immediate neighbour of his foe, and as neutral (the king) beyond those two.
159. Let him overcome all of them by means of the (four) expedients, conciliation and the rest, (employed) either singly or conjointly, (or) by bravery and policy (alone).
160. Let him constantly think of the six measures of royal policy (guna, viz.) alliance, war, marching, halting, dividing the army, and seeking protection.
161. Having carefully considered the business (in hand), let him resort to sitting quiet or marching, alliance or war, dividing his forces or seeking protection (as the case may require).
162. But the king must know that there are two kinds of alliances and of wars, (likewise two) of both marching and sitting quiet, and two (occasions for) seeking protection.)
163. An alliance which yields present and future advantages, one must know to be of two descriptions, (viz.) that when one marches together (with an ally) and the contrary (when the allies act separately).
164. War is declared to be of two kinds, (viz.) that which is undertaken in season or out of season, by oneself and for one’s own purposes, and (that waged to avenge) an injury done to a friend.
165. Marching (to attack) is said to be twofold, (viz. that undertaken) by one alone when an urgent matter has suddenly arisen, and (that undertaken) by one allied with a friend.
166. Sitting quiet is stated to be of two kinds, (viz. that incumbent) on one who has gradually been weakened by fate or in consequence of former acts, and (that) in favour of a friend.
167. If the army stops (in one place) and its master (in another) in order to effect some purpose, that is called by those acquainted with the virtues of the measures of royal policy, the twofold division of the forces.
168. Seeking refuge is declared to be of two kinds, (first) for the purpose of attaining an advantage when one is harassed by enemies, (secondly) in order to become known among the virtuous (as the protege of a powerful king).
169. When (the king) knows (that) at some future time his superiority (is) certain, and (that) at the time present (he will suffer) little injury, then let him have recourse to peaceful measures.
170. But when he thinks all his subjects to be exceedingly contented, and (that he) himself (is) most exalted (in power), then let him make war.
171. When he knows his own army to be cheerful in disposition and strong, and (that) of his enemy the reverse, then let him march against his foe.
172. But if he is very weak in chariots and beasts of burden and in troops, then let him carefully sit quiet, gradually conciliating his foes.
173. When the king knows the enemy to be stronger in every respect, then let him divide his army and thus achieve his purpose.
174. But when he is very easily assailable by the forces of the enemy, then let him quickly seek refuge with a righteous, powerful king.
175. That (prince) who will coerce both his (disloyal) subjects and the army of the foe, let him ever serve with every effort like a Guru.
176. When, even in that (condition), he sees (that) evil is caused by (such) protection, let him without hesitation have recourse to war.
177. By all (the four) expedients a politic prince must arrange (matters so) that neither friends, nor neutrals, nor foes are superior to himself.
178. Let him fully consider the future and the immediate results of all undertakings, and the good and bad sides of all past (actions).
179. He who knows the good and the evil (which will result from his acts) in the future, is quick in forming resolutions for the present, and understands the consequences of past (actions), will not be conquered.
180. Let him arrange everything in such a manner that no ally, no neutral or foe may injure him; that is the sum of political wisdom.
181. But if the king undertakes an expedition against a hostile kingdom, then let him gradually advance, in the following manner, against his foe’s capital.
182. Let the king undertake his march in the fine month Margasirsha, or towards the months of Phalguna and Kaitra, according to the (condition of his) army.
183. Even at other times, when he has a certain prospect of victory, or when a disaster has befallen his foe, he may advance to attack him.
184. But having duly arranged (all affairs) in his original (kingdom) and what relates to the expedition, having secured a basis (for his operations) and having duly dispatched his spies;
185. Having cleared the three kinds of roads, and (having made) his sixfold army (efficient), let him leisurely proceed in the manner prescribed for warfare against the enemy’s capital.
186. Let him be very much on his guard against a friend who secretly serves the enemy and against (deserters) who return (from the enemy’s camp); for such (men are) the most dangerous foes.
187. Let him march on his road, arraying (his troops) like a staff (i.e. in an oblong), or like a waggon (i.e. in a wedge), or like a boar (i.e. in a rhombus), or like a Makara (i.e. in two triangles, with the apices joined), or like a pin (i.e. in a long line), or like a Garuda (i.e. in a rhomboid with far-extended wings).
188. From whatever (side) he apprehends danger, in that (direction) let him extend his troops, and let him always himself encamp in an array, shaped like a lotus.
189. Let him allot to the commander-in-chief, to the (subordinate) general, (and to the superior officers) places in all directions, and let him turn his front in that direction whence he fears danger.
190. On all sides let him place troops of soldiers, on whom he can rely, with whom signals have been arranged, who are expert both in sustaining a charge and in charging, fearless and loyal.
191. Let him make a small number of soldiers fight in close order, at his pleasure let him extend a large number in loose ranks; or let him make them fight, arranging (a small number) in the needle-array, (and a large number) in the thunderbolt-array.
192. On even ground let him fight with chariots and horses, in water-bound places with boats and elephants, on (ground) covered with trees and shrubs with bows, on hilly ground with swords, targets, (and other) weapons.
193. (Men born in) Kurukshetra, Matsyas, Pankalas, and those born in Surasena, let him cause to fight in the van of the battle, as well as (others who are) tall and light.
194. After arranging his troops, he should encourage them (by an address) and carefully inspect them; he should also mark the behaviour (of the soldiers) when they engage the enemy.
195. When he has shut up his foe (in a town), let him sit encamped, harass his kingdom, and continually spoil his grass, food, fuel, and water.
196. Likewise let him destroy the tanks, ramparts, and ditches, and let him assail the (foe unawares) and alarm him at night.
197. Let him instigate to rebellion those who are open to such instiJations, let him be informed of his (foe’s) doings, and, when fate is propitious, let him fight without fear, trying to conquer.
198. He should (however) try to conquer his foes by conciliation, by (well-applied) gifts, and by creating dissension, used either separately or conjointly, never by fighting, (if it can be avoided.)
199. For when two (princes) fight, victory and defeat in the battle are, as experience teaches, uncertain; let him therefore avoid an engagement.
200. (But) if even those three before-mentioned expedients fail, then let him, duly exerting himself, fight in such a manner that he may completely conquer his enemies.
201. When he has gained victory, let him duly worship the gods and honour righteous Brahmanas, let him grant exemptions, and let him cause promises of safety to be proclaimed.
202. But having fully ascertained the wishes of all the (conquered), let him place there a relative of the (vanquished ruler on the throne), and let him impose his conditions.
203. Let him make authoritative the lawful (customs) of the (inhabitants), just as they are stated (to be), and let him honour the (new king) and his chief servants with precious gifts.
204. The seizure of desirable property which causes displeasure, and its distribution which causes pleasure, are both recommendable, (if they are) resorted to at the proper time.
205. All undertakings (in) this (world) depend both on the ordering of fate and on human exertion; but among these two (the ways of) fate are unfathomable; in the case of man’s work action is possible.
206. Or (the king, bent on conquest), considering a friend, gold, and land (to be) the triple result (of an expedition), may, using diligent care, make peace with (his foe) and return (to his realm).
207. Having paid due attention to any king in the circle (of neighbouring states) who might attack him in the rear, and to his supporter who opposes the latter, let (the conqueror) secure the fruit of the expedition from (the prince whom he attacks), whether (he may have become) friendly or (remained) hostile.
208. By gaining gold and land a king grows not so much in strength as by obtaining a firm friend, (who), though weak, (may become) powerful in the future.
209. A weak friend (even) is greatly commended, who is righteous (and) grateful, whose people are contented, who is attached and persevering in his undertakings.
210. The wise declare him (to be) a most dangerous foe, who is wise, of noble race, brave, clever, liberal, grateful, and firm.
211. Behaviour worthy of an Aryan, knowledge of men, bravery, a compassionate disposition, and great liberality are the virtues of a neutral (who may be courted).
212. Let the king, without hesitation, quit for his own sake even a country (which is) salubrious, fertile, and causing an increase of cattle.
213. For times of need let him preserve his wealth; at the expense of his wealth let him preserve his wife; let him at all events preserve himself even by (giving up) his wife and his wealth.
214. A wise (king), seeing that all kinds of misfortunes violently assail him at the same time, should try all (the four) expedients, be it together or separately, (in order to save himself.)
215. On the person who employs the expedients, on the business to be accomplished, and on all the expedients collectively, on these three let him ponder and strive to accomplish his ends.
216. Having thus consulted with his ministers on all these (matters), having taken exercise, and having bathed afterwards, the king may enter the harem at midday in order to dine.
217. There he may eat food, (which has been prepared) by faithful, incorruptible (servants) who know the (proper) time (for dining), which has been well examined (and hallowed) by sacred texts that destroy poison.
218. Let him mix all his food with medicines (that are) antidotes against poison, and let him always be careful to wear gems which destroy poison.
219. Well-tried females whose toilet and ornaments have been examined, shall attentively serve him with fans, water, and perfumes.
220. In like manner let him be careful about his carriages, bed, seat, bath, toilet, and all his ornaments.
221. When he has dined, he may divert himself with his wives in the harem; but when he has diverted himself, he must, in due time, again think of the affairs of state.
222. Adorned (with his robes of state), let him again inspect his fighting men, all his chariots and beasts of burden, the weapons and accoutrements.
223. Having performed his twilight-devotions, let him, well armed, hear in an inner apartment the doings of those who make secret reports and of his spies.
224. But going to another secret apartment and dismissing those people, he may enter the harem, surrounded by female (servants), in order to dine again.
225. Having eaten there something for the second time, and having been recreated by the sound of music, let him go to rest and rise at the proper time free from fatigue.
226. A king who is in good health must observe these rules; but, if he is indisposed, he may entrust all this (business) to his servants.
1. A king, desirous of investiJating law cases, must enter his court of justice, preserving a dignified demeanour, together with Brahmanas and with experienced councillors.
2. There, either seated or standing, raising his right arm, without ostentation in his dress and ornaments, let him examine the business of suitors,
3. Daily (deciding) one after another (all cases) which fall under the eighteen titles (of the law) according to principles drawn from local usages. and from the Institutes of the sacred law.
4. Of those (titles) the first is the non-payment of debts, (then follow), (2) deposit and pledge, (3) sale without ownership, (4) concerns among partners, and (5) resumption of gifts,
5. (6) Non-payment of wages, (7) non-performance of agreements, (8) rescission of sale and purchase, (9) disputes between the owner (of cattle) and his servants,
6. (10) Disputes regarding boundaries, (11) assault and (12) defamation, (13) theft, (14) robbery and violence, (15) adultery,
7. (16) Duties of man and wife, (17) partition (of inheritance), (18) gambling and betting; these are in this world the eighteen topics which give rise to Laws[Dharma]uits.
8. Depending on the eternal law, let him decide the suits of men who mostly contend on the titles just mentioned.
9. But if the king does not personally investigate the suits, then let him appoint a learned Brahmana to try them.
10. That (man) shall enter that most excellent court, accompanied by three assessors, and fully consider (all) causes (brought) before the (king), either sitting down or standing.
11. Where three Brahmanas versed in the Vedas and the learned (judge) appointed by the king sit down, they call that the court of (four-faced) Brahman.
12. But where justice, wounded by injustice, approaches and the judges do not extract the dart, there (they also) are wounded (by that dart of injustice).
13. Either the court must not be entered, or the truth must be spoken; a man who either says nothing or speaks falsely, becomes sinful.
14. Where justice is destroyed by injustice, or truth by falsehood, while the judges look on, there they shall also be destroyed.
15. ‘Justice, being violated, destroys; justice, being preserved, preserves: therefore justice must not be violated, lest violated justice destroy us.’
16. For divine justice (is said to be) a bull (vrisha); that (man) who violates it (kurute ‘lam) the gods consider to be (a man despicable like) a Sudra (vrishala); let him, therefore, beware of violating justice.
17. The only friend who follows men even after death is justice; for everything else is lost at the same time when the body (perishes).
18. One quarter of (the guilt of) an unjust (decision) falls on him who committed (the crime), one quarter on the (false) witness, one quarter on all the judges, one quarter on the king.
19. But where he who is worthy of condemnation is condemned, the king is free from guilt, and the judges are saved (from sin); the guilt falls on the perpetrator (of the crime alone).
20. A Brahmana who subsists only by the name of his Varna (jati), or one who merely calls himself a Brahmana (though his origin be uncertain), may, at the king’s pleasure, interpret the law to him, but never a Sudra.
21. The kingdom of that monarch, who looks on while a Sudra settles the law, will sink (low), like a cow in a morass.
22. That kingdom where Sudras are very numerous, which is infested by atheists and destitute of twice-born [Dwija](inhabitants), soon entirely perishes, afflicted by famine and disease.
23. Having occupied the seat of justice, having covered his body, and having worshipped the guardian deities of the world, let him, with a collected mind, begin the trial of causes.
24. Knowing what is expedient or inexpedient, what is pure justice or injustice, let him examine the causes of suitors according to the order of the Varnas (varna).
25. By external signs let him discover the internal disposition of men, by their voice, their colour, their motions, their aspect, their eyes, and their gestures.
26. The internal (working of the) mind is perceived through the aspect, the motions, the gait, the gestures, the speech, and the changes in the eye and of the face.
27. The king shall protect the inherited (and other) property of a minor, until he has returned (from his teacher [acharya]’s house) or until he has passed his minority.
28. In like manner care must be taken of barren women, of those who have no sons, of those whose family is extinct, of wives and widows faithful to their lords, and of women afflicted with diseases.
29. A righteous king must punish like thieves those relatives who appropriate the property of such females during their lifetime.
30. Property, the owner of which has disappeared, the king shall cause to be kept as a deposit during three years; within the period of three years the owner may claim it, after (that term) the king may take it.
31. He who says, ‘This belongs to me,’ must be examined according to the rule; if he accurately describes the shape, and the number (of the articles found) and so forth, (he is) the owner, (and) ought (to receive) that property.
32. But if he does not really know the time and the place (where it was) lost, its colour, shape, and size, he is worthy of a fine equal (in value) to the (object claimed).
33. Now the king, remembering the duty of good men, may take one-sixth part of property lost and afterwards found, or one-tenth, or at least one-twelfth.
34. Property lost and afterwards found (by the king’s servants) shall remain in the keeping of (special) officials; those whom the king may convict of stealing it, he shall cause to be slain by an elephant.
35. From that man who shall truly say with respect to treasure-trove, ‘This belongs to me,’ the king may take one-sixth or one-twelfth part.
36. But he who falsely says (so), shall be fined in one-eighth of his property, or, a calculation of (the value of) the treasure having been made, in some smaller portion (of that).
37. When a learned Brahmana has found treasure, deposited in former (times), he may take even the whole (of it); for he is master of everything.
38. When the king finds treasure of old concealed in the ground let him give one half to Brahmanas and place the (other) half in his treasury.
39. The king obtains one half of ancient hoards and metals (found) in the ground, by reason of (his giving) protection, (and) because he is the lord of the soil.
40. Property stolen by thieves must be restored by the king to (men of) all Varnas (varna); a king who uses such (property) for himself incurs the guilt of a thief.
41. (A king) who knows the sacred law, must inquire into the Laws[Dharma] of Varnas (Jati), of districts, of guilds, and of families, and (thus) settle the peculiar law of each.
42. For men who follow their particular occupations and abide by their particular duty, become dear to people, though they may live at a distance.
43. Neither the king nor any servant of his shall themselves cause a Laws[Dharma]uit to be begun, or hush up one that has been brought (before them) by (some) other (man).
44. As a hunter traces the lair of a (wounded) deer by the drops of blood, even so the king shall discover on which side the right lies, by inferences (from the facts).
45. When engaged in judicial proceedings he must pay full attention to the truth, to the object (of the dispute), (and) to himself, next to the witnesses, to the place, to the time, and to the aspect.
46. What may have been practised by the virtuous, by such twice-born [Dwija]men as are devoted to the law, that he shall establish as law, if it be not opposed to the (customs of) countries, families, and Varnas (Jati).
47. When a creditor sues (before the king) for the recovery of money from a debtor, let him make the debtor pay the sum which the creditor proves (to be due).
48. By whatever means a creditor may be able to obtain possession of his property, even by those means may he force the debtor and make him pay.
49. By moral suasion, by suit of law, by artful management, or by the customary proceeding, a creditor may recover property lent; and fifthly, by force.
50. A creditor who himself recovers his property from his debtor, must not be blamed by the king for retaking what is his own.
51. But him who denies a debt which is proved by good evidence, he shall order to pay that debt to the creditor and a small fine according to his circumstances.
52. On the denial (of a debt) by a debtor who has been required in court to pay it, the complainant must call (a witness) who was present (when the loan was made), or adduce other evidence.
53. (The plaintiff) who calls a witness not present at the transaction, who retracts his statements, or does not perceive that his statements (are) confused or contradictory;
54. Or who having stated what he means to prove afterwards varies (his case), or who being questioned on a fact duly stated by himself does not abide by it;
55. Or who converses with the witnesses in a place improper for such conversation; or who declines to answer a question, properly put, or leaves (the court);
56. Or who, being ordered to speak, does not answer, or does not prove what he has alleged; or who does not know what is the first (point), and what the second, fails in his suit.
57. Him also who says ‘I have witnesses,’ and, being ordered to produce them, produces them not, the judge must on these (same) grounds declare to be non-suited.
58. If a plaintiff does not speak, he may be punished corporally or fined according to the law; if (a defendant) does not plead within three fortnights, he has lost his cause.
59. In the double of that sum which (a defendant) falsely denies or on which (the plaintiff) falsely declares, shall those two (men) offending against justice be fined by the king.
60. (A defendant) who, being brought (into court) by the creditor, (and) being questioned, denies (the debt), shall be convicted (of his falsehood) by at least three witnesses (who must depose) in the presence of the Brahmana (appointed by) the king.
61. I will fully declare what kind of men may be made witnesses in suits by creditors, and in what manner those (witnesses) must give true (evidence).
62. Householders, men with male issue, and indigenous (inhabitants of the country, be they) Kshatriyas, Vaisyas, or Sudras, are competent, when called by a suitor, to give evidence, not any persons whatever (their condition may be) except in cases of urgency.
63. Trustworthy men of all the (four) Varnas (varna) may be made witnesses in Laws[Dharma]uits, (men) who know (their) whole duty, and are free from covetousness; but let him reject those (of an) opposite (character).
64. Those must not be made (witnesses) who have an interest in the suit, nor familiar (friends), companions, and enemies (of the parties), nor (men) formerly convicted (of perjury), nor (persons) suffering under (severe) illness, nor (those) tainted (by mortal sin).
65. The king cannot be made a witness, nor mechanics and actors, nor a: Srotriya, nor a student [Brahmachari] of the Veda, nor (an ascetic) who has given up (all) connexion (with the world),
66. Nor one wholly dependent, nor one of bad fame, nor a Dasyu, nor one who follows forbidden occupations, nor an aged (man), nor an infant, nor one (man alone), nor a man of the lowest Varnas, nor one deficient in organs of sense,
67. Nor one extremely grieved, nor one intoxicated, nor a madman, nor one tormented by hunger or thirst, nor one oppressed by fatigue, nor one tormented by desire, nor a wrathful man, nor a thief.
68. Women should give evidence for women, and for twice-born [Dwija]men twice-born [Dwija]men (of the) same (kind), virtuous Sudras for Sudras, and men of the lowest Varnas for the lowest.
69. But any person whatsoever, who has personal knowledge (of an act committed) in the interior apartments (of a house), or in a forest, or of (a crime causing) loss of life, may give evidence between the parties.
70. On failure (of qualified witnesses, evidence) may given (in such cases) by a woman, by an infant, by an aged man, by a pupil, by a relative, by a slave, or by a hired servant.
71. But the (judge) should consider the evidence of infants, aged and diseased men, who (are apt to) speak untruly, as untrustworthy, likewise that of men with disordered minds.
72. In all cases of violence, of theft and adultery, of defamation and assault, he must not examine the (competence of) witnesses (too strictly).
73. On a conflict of the witnesses the king shall accept (as true) the evidence of the) majority; if (the conflicting parties are) equal in number, (that of) those distinguished by good qualities; on a difference between (equally) distinguished (witnesses, that of) the best among the twice-born.
74. Evidence in accordance with what has actually been seen or heard, is admissible; a witness who speaks truth in those (cases), neither loses spiritual merit nor wealth.
75. A witness who deposes in an assembly of honourable men (Arya) anything else but what he has seen or heard, falls after death headlong into hell and loses heaven.
76. When a man (originally) not appointed to be a witness sees or hears anything and is (afterwards) examined regarding it, he must declare it (exactly) as he saw or heard it.
77. One man who is free from covetousness may be (accepted as) witness; but not even many pure women, because the understanding of females is apt to waver, nor even many other men, who are tainted with sin.
78. What witnesses declare quite naturally, that must be received on trials; (depositions) differing from that, which they make improperly, are worthless for (the purposes of) justice.
79. The witnesses being assembled in the court in the presence of the plaintiff and of the defendant, let the judge examine them, kindly exhorting them in the following manner:
80. ‘What ye know to have been mutually transacted in this matter between the two men before us, declare all that in accordance with the truth; for ye are witnesses in this (cause).
81. ‘A witness who speaks the truth in his evidence, gains (after death) the most excellent regions (of bliss) and here (below) unsurpassable fame; such testimony is revered by Brahman (himself).
82. ‘He who gives false evidence is firmly bound by Varuna’s fetters, helpless during one hundred existences; let (men therefore) give true evidence.
83. ‘By truthfulness a witness is purified, through truthfulness his merit grows, truth must, therefore, be spoken by witnesses of all Varnas (varna).
84. ‘The Soul itself is the witness of the Soul, and the Soul is the refuge of the Soul; despise not thy own Soul, the supreme witness of men.
85. ‘The wicked, indeed, say in their hearts, “Nobody sees us;” but the gods distinctly see them and the male within their own breasts.
86. ‘The sky, the earth, the waters, (the male in) the heart, the moon, the sun, the fire, Yama and the wind, the night, the two twilights, and justice know the conduct of all corporeal beings.’
87. The (judge), being purified, shall ask in the forenoon the twice-born [Dwija](witnesses) who (also have been) purified, (and stand) facing the north or the east, to give true evidence in the presence of (images of) the gods and of Brahmanas.
88. Let him examine a Brahmana (beginning with) ‘Speak,’ a Kshatriya (beginning with) ‘Speak the truth,’ a Vaisya (admonishing him) by (mentioning) his kine, grain, and gold, a Sudra (threatening him) with (the guilt of) every crime that causes loss of Varna;
89. (Saying), ‘Whatever places (of torment) are assigned (by the sages) to the slayer of a Brahmana, to the murderer of women and children, to him who betrays a friend, and to an ungrateful man, those shall be thy (portion), if thou speakest falsely.
90. ‘(The reward) of all meritorious deeds which thou, good man, hast done since thy birth, shall become the share of the dogs, if in thy speech thou departest from the truth.
91. ‘If thou thinkest, O friend of virtue, with respect to thyself, “I am alone,” (know that) that sage who witnesses all virtuous acts and all crimes, ever resides in thy heart.
92. ‘If thou art not at variance with that divine Yama, the son of Vivasvat, who dwells in thy heart, thou needest neither visit the Ganges nor the (land of the) Kurus.
93. ‘Naked and shorn, tormented with hunger and thirst, and deprived of sight, shall the man who gives false evidence, go with a potsherd to beg food at the door of his enemy.
94. ‘Headlong, in utter darkness shall the sinful man tumble into hell, who being interrogated in a judicial inquiry answers one question falsely.
95. ‘That man who in a court (of justice) gives an untrue account of a transaction (or asserts a fact) of which he was not an eye-witness, resembles a blind man who swallows fish with the bones.
96. ‘The gods are acquainted with no better man in this world than him, of whom his conscious Soul has no distrust, when he gives evidence.
97. ‘Learn now, O friend, from an enumeration in due order, how many relatives he destroys who gives false evidence in several particular cases.
98. ‘He kills five by false Testimony regarding (small) cattle, he kills ten by false testimony regarding kine, he kills a hundred by false evidence concerning horses, and a thousand by false evidence concerning men.
99. ‘By speaking falsely in a cause regarding gold, he kills the born and the unborn; by false evidence concerning land, he kills everything; beware, therefore, of false evidence concerning land.
100. ‘They declare (false evidence) concerning water, concerning the carnal enjoyment of women, and concerning all gems, produced in water, or consisting of stones (to be) equally (wicked) as a lie concerning land.
101. ‘Marking well all the evils (which are produced) by perjury, declare thou openly everything as (thou hast) heard or seen (it).’
102. Brahmanas who tend cattle, who trade, who are mechanics, actors (or singers), menial servants or usurers, the (judge) shall treat like Sudras.
103. In (some) cases a man who, though knowing (the facts to be) different, gives such (false evidence) from a pious motive, does not lose heaven; such (evidence) they call the speech of the gods.
104. Whenever the death of a Sudra, of a Vaisya, of a Kshatriya, or of a Brahmana would be (caused) by a declaration of the truth, a falsehood may be spoken; for such (falsehood) is preferable to the truth.
105. Such (witnesses) must offer to Sarasvati oblations of boiled rice (karu) which are sacred to the goddess of speech, (thus) performing the best penance in order to expiate the guilt of that falsehood.
106. Or such (a witness) may offer according to the rule, clarified butter in the fire, reciting the Kushmanda texts, or the Rik, sacred to Varuna, ‘Untie, O Varuna, the uppermost fetter,’ or the three verses addressed to the Waters.
107. A man who, without being ill, does not give evidence in (cases of) loans and the like within three fortnights (after the summons), shall become responsible for the whole debt and (pay) a tenth part of the whole (as a fine to the king).
108. The witness to whom, within seven days after he has given evidence, happens (a misfortune through) sickness, a fire, or the death of a relative, shall be made to pay the debt and a fine.
109. If two (parties) dispute about matters for which no witnesses are available, and the (judge) is unable to really ascertain the truth, he may cause it to be discovered even by an oath.
110. Both by the great sages and the gods oaths have been taken for the purpose of (deciding doubtful) matters; and Vasishtha even swore an oath before king (Sudas), the son of Pigavana.
111. Let no wise man swear an oath falsely, even in a trifling matter; for he who swears an oath falsely is lost in this (world) and after death.
112. No crime, causing loss of Varna, is committed by swearing (falsely) to women, the objects of one’s desire, at marriages, for the sake of fodder for a cow, or of fuel, and in (order to show) favour to a Brahmana.
113. Let the (judge) cause a Brahmana to swear by his veracity, a Kshatriya by his chariot or the animal he rides on and by his weapons, a Vaisya by his kine, grain, and gold, and a Sudra by (imprecating on his own head the guilt) of all grievous offences (pataka).
114. Or the (judge) may cause the (party) to carry fire or to dive under water, or severally to touch the heads of his wives and children.
115. He whom the blazing fire burns not, whom the water forces not to come (quickly) up, who meets with no speedy misfortune, must be held innocent on (the strength of) his oath.
116. For formerly when Vatsa was accused by his younger brother, the fire, the spy of the world, burned not even a hair (of his) by reason of his veracity.
117. Whenever false evidence has been given in any suit, let the (judge) reverse the judgment, and whatever has been done must be (considered as) undone.
118. Evidence (given) from covetousness, distraction, terror, friendship, lust, wrath, ignorance, and childishness is declared (to be) invalid.
119. I will propound in (due) order the particular punishments for him who gives false evidence from any one of these motives.
120. (He who commits perjury) through covetousness shall be fined one thousand (panas), (he who does it) through distraction, in the lowest amercement; (if a man does it) through fear, two middling amercements shall be paid as a fine, (if he does it) through friendship, four times the amount of the lowest (amercement).
121. (He who does it) through lust, (shall pay) ten times the lowest amercement, but (he who does it) through wrath, three times the next (or second amercement); (he who does it) through ignorance, two full hundreds, but (he who does it) through childishness, one hundred (panas).
122. They declare that the wise have prescribed these fines for perjury, in order to prevent a failure of justice, and in order to restrain injustice.
123. But a just king shall fine and banish (men of) the three (lower) Varnas (varna) who have given false evidence, but a Brahmana he shall (only) banish.
124. Manu, the son of the Self-existent (Svayambhu), has named ten places on which punishment may be (made to fall) in the cases of the three (lower) Varnas (varna); but a Brahmana shall depart unhurt (from the country).
125. (These are) the organ, the belly, the tongue, the two hands, and fifthly the two feet, the eye, the nose, the two ears, likewise the (whole) body.
126. Let the (king), having fully ascertained the motive, the time and place (of the offence), and having considered the ability (of the criminal to suffer) and the (nature of the) crime, cause punishment to fall on those who deserve it.
127. Unjust punishment destroys reputation among men, and fame (after death), and causes even in the next world the loss of heaven; let him, therefore, beware of (inflicting) it.
128. A king who punishes those who do not deserve it, and punishes not those who deserve it, brings great infamy on himself and (after death) sinks into hell.
129. Let him punish first by (gentle) admonition, afterwards by (harsh) reproof, thirdly by a fine, after that by corporal chastisement.
130. But when he cannot restrain such (offenders) even by corporal punishment, then let him apply to them even all the four (modes cojointly).
131. Those technical names of (certain quantities of) copper, silver, and gold, which are generally used on earth for the purpose of business transactions among men, I will fully declare.
132. The very small mote which is seen when the sun shines through a lattice, they declare (to be) the least of (all) quantities and (to be called) a trasarenu (a floating particle of dust).
133. Know (that) eight trasarenus (are equal) in bulk (to) a liksha (the egg of a louse), three of those to one grain of black mustard (ragasarshapa), and three of the latter to a white mustard-seed.
134. Six grains of white mustard are one middle-sized barley-corn, and three barley-corns one krishnala (raktika, or gunga-berry); five krishnalas are one masha (bean), and sixteen of those one suvarna.
135. Four suvarnas are one pala, and ten palas one dharana; two krishnalas (of silver), weighed together, must be considered one mashaka of silver.
136. Sixteen of those make a silver dharana, or purana; but know (that) a karsha of copper is a karshapana, or pana.
137. Know (that) ten dharanas of silver make one satamana; four suvarnas must be considered (equal) in weight to a nishka.
138. Two hundred and fifty panas are declared (to be) the first (or lowest) amercement, five (hundred) are considered as the mean (or middlemost), but one thousand as the highest.
139. A debt being admitted as due, (the defendant) shall pay five in the hundred (as a fine), if it be denied (and proved) twice as much; that is the teaching of Manu.
140. A money-lender may stipulate as an increase of his capital, for the interest, allowed by Vasishtha, and take monthly the eightieth part of a hundred.
141. Or, remembering the duty of good men, he may take two in the hundred (by the month), for he who takes two in the hundred becomes not a sinner for gain.
142. Just two in the hundred, three, four, and five (and not more), he may take as monthly interest according to the order of the Varnas (varna).
143. But if a beneficial pledge (i.e. one from which profit accrues, has been given), he shall receive no interest on the loan; nor can he, after keeping (such) a pledge for a very long time, give or sell it.
144. A pledge (to be kept only) must not be used by force, (the creditor), so using it, shall give up his (whole) interest, or, (if it has been spoilt by use) he shall satisfy the (owner) by (paying its) original price; else he commits a theft of the pledge.
145. Neither a pledge nor a deposit can be lost by lapse of time; they are both recoverable, though they have remained long (with the bailee).
146. Things used with friendly assent, a cow, a camel, a riding-horse, and (a beast) made over for breaking in, are never lost (to the owner).
147. (But in general) whatever (chattel) an owner sees enjoyed by others during ten years, while, though present, he says nothing, that (chattel) he shall not recover.
148. If (the owner is) neither an idiot nor a minor and if (his chattel) is enjoyed (by another) before his eyes, it is lost to him by law; the adverse possessor shall retain that property.
149. A pledge, a boundary, the property of infants, an (open) deposit, a sealed deposit, women, the property of the king and the wealth of a Srotriya are not lost in consequence of (adverse) enjoyment.
150. The fool who uses a pledge without the permission of the owner, shall remit half of his interest, as a compensation for (such) use.
151. In money transactions interest paid at one time (not by instalments) shall never exceed the double (of the principal); on grain, fruit, wool or hair, (and) beasts of burden it must not be more than five times (the original amount).
152. Stipulated interest beyond the legal rate, being against (the law), cannot be recovered; they call that a usurious way (of lending); (the lender) is (in no case) entitled to (more than) five in the hundred.
153. Let him not take interest beyond the year, nor such as is unapproved, nor compound interest, periodical interest, stipulated interest, and corporal interest.
154. He who, unable to pay a debt (at the fixed time), wishes to make a new contract, may renew the agreement, after paying the interest which is due.
155. If he cannot pay the money (due as interest), he may insert it in the renewed (agreement); he must pay as much interest as may be due.
156. He who has made a contract to carry goods by a wheeled carriage for money and has agreed to a certain place or time, shall not reap that reward, if he does not keep to the place and the time (stipulated).
157. Whatever rate men fix, who are expert in sea-voyages and able to calculate (the profit) according to the place, the time, and the objects (carried), that (has legal force) in such cases with respect to the payment (to be made).
158. The man who becomes a surety in this (world) for the appearance of a (debtor), and produces him not, shall pay the debt out of his own property.
159. But money due by a surety, or idly promised, or lost at play, or due for spirituous liquor, or what remains unpaid of a fine and a tax or duty, the son (of the party owing it) shall not be obliged to pay.
160. This just mentioned rule shall apply to the case of a surety for appearance (only); if a surety for payment should die, the (judge) may compel even his heirs to discharge the debt.
161. On what account then is it that after the death of a surety other than for payment, whose affairs are fully known, the creditor may (in some cases) afterwards demand the debt (of the heirs)?
162. If the surety had received money (from him for whom he stood bail) and had money enough (to pay), then (the heir of him) who received it, shall pay (the debt) out of his property; that is the settled rule.
163. A contract made by a person intoxicated, or insane, or grievously disordered (by disease and so forth), or wholly dependent, by an infant or very aged man, or by an unauthorised (party) is invalid.
164. That agreement which has been made contrary to the law or to the settled usage (of the virtuous), can have no legal force, though it be established (by proofs).
165. A fraudulent mortgage or sale, a fraudulent gift or acceptance, and (any transaction) where he detects fraud, the (judge) shall declare null and void.
166. If the debtor be dead and (the money borrowed) was expended for the family, it must be paid by the relatives out of their own estate even if they are divided.
167. Should even a person wholly dependent make a contract for the behoof of the family, the master (of the house), whether (living) in his own country or abroad, shall not rescind it.
168. What is given by force, what is enjoyed by force, also what has been caused to be written by force, and all other transactions done by force, Manu has declared void.
169. Three suffer for the sake of others, witnesses, a surety, and judges; but four enrich themselves (through others), a Brahmana, a money-lender, a merchant, and a king.
170. No king, however indigent, shall take anything that ought not to be taken, nor shall he, however wealthy, decline taking that which he ought to take, be it ever so small.
171. In consequence of his taking what ought not to be taken, or of his refusing what ought to be received, a king will be accused of weakness and perish in this (world) and after death.
172. By taking his due, by preventing the confusion of the Varnas (varna), and by protecting the weak, the power of the king grows, and he prospers in this (world) and after death.
173. Let the prince, therefore, like Yama, not heeding his own likings and dislikings, behave exactly like Yama, suppressing his anger and controlling himself.
174. But that evil-minded king who in his folly decides causes unjustly, his enemies soon subjugate.
175. If, subduing love and hatred, he decides the causes according to the law, (the hearts of) his subjects turn towards him as the rivers (run) towards the ocean.
176. (The debtor) who complains to the king that his creditor recovers (the debt) independently (of the court), shall be compelled by the king to pay (as a fine) one quarter (of the sum) and to his (creditor) the money (due).
177. Even by (personal) labour shall the debtor make good (what he owes) to his creditor, if he be of the same Varna or of a lower one; but a (debtor) of a higher Varna shall pay it gradually (when he earns something).
178. According to these rules let the king equitably decide between men, who dispute with each other the matters, which are proved by witnesses and (other) evidence.
179. A sensible man should make a deposit (only) with a person of (good) family, of good conduct, well acquainted with the law, veracious, having many relatives, wealthy, and honourable (arya).
180. In whatever manner a person shall deposit anything in the hands of another, in the same manner ought the same thing to be received back (by the owner); as the delivery (was, so must be) the re-delivery.
181. He who restores not his deposit to the depositor at his request, may be tried by the judge in the depositor’s absence.
182. On failure of witnesses let the (judge) actually deposit gold with that (defendant) under some pretext or other through spies of suitable age and appearance (and afterwards demand it back).
183. If the (defendant) restores it in the manner and shape in which it was bailed, there is nothing (of that description) in his hands, for which others accuse him.
184. But if he restores not that gold, as be ought, to those (spies), then he shall be compelled by force to restore both (deposits); that is a settled rule of law.
185. An open or a sealed deposit must never be returned to a near relative (of the depositor during the latter’s lifetime); for if (the recipient) dies (without delivering them), they are lost, but if he does not die, they are not lost.
186. But (a depositary) who of his own accord returns them to a near relative of a deceased (depositor), must not be harassed (about them) by the king or by the depositor’s relatives.
187. And (in doubtful cases) he should try to obtain that object by friendly means, without (having recourse to) artifice, or having inquired into (depositary’s) conduct, he should settle (the matter) with gentle means.
188. Such is the rule for obtaining back all those open deposits; in the case of a sealed deposit (the depositary) shall incur no (censure), unless he has taken out something.
189. (A deposit) which has been stolen by thieves or washed away by water or burned by fire, (the bailee) shall not make it good, unless he took part of it (for himself).
190. Him who appropriates a deposit and him (who asks for it) without having made it, (the judge) shall try by all (sorts of) means, and by the oaths prescribed in the Veda.
191. He who does not return a deposit and he who demands what he never bailed shall both be punished like thieves, or be compelled to pay a fine equal (to the value of the object retained or claimed).
192. The king should compel him who does not restore an open deposit, and in like manner him who retains a sealed deposit, to pay a fine equal (to its value).
193. That man who by false pretences may possess himself of another’s property, shall be publicly punished by various (modes of) corporal (or capital) chastisement, together with his accomplices.
194. If a deposit of a particular description or quantity is bailed by anybody in the presence of a number (of witnesses), it must be known to be of that particular (description and quantity; the depositary) who makes a false statement (regarding it) is liable to a fine.
195. But if anything is delivered or received privately, it must be privately returned; as the bailment (was, so should be) the re-delivery.
196. Thus let the king decide (causes) concerning a deposit and a friendly loan (for use) without showing (undue) rigour to the depositary.
197. If anybody sells the property of another man, without being the owner and without the assent of the owner, the (judge) shall not admit him who is a thief, though he may not consider himself as a thief, as a witness (in any case).
198. If the (offender) is a kinsman (of the owner), he shall be fined six hundred panas; if he is not a kinsman, nor has any excuse, he shall be guilty of theft.
199. A gift or sale, made by anybody else but the owner, must be considered as null and void, according to the rule in judicial proceedings.
200. Where possession is evident, but no title is perceived, there the title (shall be) a proof (of ownership), not possession; such is the settled rule.
201. He who obtains a chattel in the market before a number (of witnesses), acquires that chattel with a clear legal title by purchase.
202. If the original (seller) be not producible, (the buyer) being exculpated by a public sale, must be dismissed by the king without punishment, but (the former owner) who lost the chattel shall receive it (back from the buyer).
203. One commodity mixed with another must not be sold (as pure), nor a bad one (as good), nor less (than the proper quantity or weight), nor anything that is not at hand or that is concealed.
204. If, after one damsel has been shown, another be given to the bridegroom, he may marry them both for the same price; that Manu ordained.
205. He who gives (a damsel in marriage), having first openly declared her blemishes, whether she be insane, or afflicted with leprosy, or have lost her virginity, is not liable to punishment.
206. If an officiating priest, chosen to perform a sacrifice [Yagna], abandons his work, a share only (of the fee) in proportion to the work (done) shall be given to him by those who work with him.
207. But he who abandons his work after the sacrificial fees have been given, shall obtain his full share and cause to be performed (what remains) by another (priest).
208. But if (specific) fees are ordained for the several parts of a rite, shall he (who performs the part) receive them, or shall they all share them?
209. The Adhvaryu priest shall take the chariot, and the Brahman at the kindling of the fires (Agnyadhana) a horse, the Hotri priest shall also take a horse, and the Udgatri the cart, (used) when (the Soma) is purchased.
210. The (four) chief priests among all (the sixteen), who are entitled to one half, shall receive a moiety (of the fee), the next (four) one half of that, the set entitled to a third share, one third, and those entitled to a fourth a quarter.
211. By the application of these principles the allotment of shares must be made among those men who here (below) perform their work conjointly.
212. Should money be given (or promised) for a pious purpose by one man to another who asks for it, the gift shall be void, if the (money is) afterwards not (used) in the manner (stated).
213. But if the (recipient) through pride or greed tries to enforce (the fulfilment of the promise), he shall be compelled by the king to pay one suvarna as an expiation for his theft.
214. Thus the lawful subtraction of a gift has been fully explained; I will next propound (the law for) the non-payment of wages.
215. A hired (servant or workman) who, without being ill, out of pride fails to perform his work according to the agreement, shall be fined eight krishnalas and no wages shall be paid to him.
216. But (if he is really) ill, (and) after recovery performs (his work) according to the original agreement, he shall receive his wages even after (the lapse of) a very long time.
217. But if he, whether sick or well, does not (perform or) cause to be performed (by others) his work according to his agreement, the wages for that work shall not be given to him, even (if it be only) slightly incomplete.
218. Thus the law for the non-payment of wages has been completely stated; I will next explain the law concerning men who break an agreement.
219. If a man belonging to a corporation inhabiting a village or a district, after swearing to an agreement, breaks it through avarice, (the king) shall banish him from his realm,
220. And having imprisoned such a breaker of an agreement, he shall compel him to pay six nishkas, (each of) four suvarnas, and one satamana of silver.
221. A righteous king shall apply this law of fines in villages and Varnas (Jati) to those who break an agreement.
222. If anybody in this (world), after buying or selling anything, repent (of his bargain), he may return or take (back) that chattel within ten days.
223. But after (the lapse of) ten days he may neither give nor cause it to be given (back); both he who takes it (back) and he who gives it (back, except by consent) shall be fined by the king six hundred (panas).
224. But the king himself shall impose a fine of ninety-six panas on him who gives a blemished damsel (to a suitor) without informing (him of the blemish).
225. But that man who, out of malice, says of a maiden, ‘She is not a maiden,’ shall be fined one hundred (panas), if he cannot prove her blemish.
226. The nuptial texts are applied solely to virgins, (and) nowhere among men to females who have lost their virginity, for such (females) are excluded from religious ceremonies.
227. The nuptial texts are a certain proof (that a maiden has been made a lawful) wife; but the learned should know that they (and the marriage ceremony are complete with the seventh step (of the bride around the sacred fire).
228. If anybody in this (world) repent of any completed transaction, (the king) shall keep him on the road of rectitude in accordance with the rules given above.
229. I will fully declare in accordance with the true law (the rules concerning) the disputes, (arising) from the transgressions of owners of cattle and of herdsmen.
230. During the day the responsibility for the safety (of the cattle rests) on the herdsman, during the night on the owner, (provided they are) in his house; (if it be) otherwise, the herdsman will be responsible (for them also during the night).
231. A hired herdsman who is paid with milk, may milk with the consent of the owner the best (cow) out of ten; such shall be his hire if no (other) wages (are paid).
232. The herdsman alone shall make good (the loss of a beast) strayed, destroyed by worms, killed by dogs or (by falling) into a pit, if he did not duly exert himself (to prevent it).
233. But for (an animal) stolen by thieves, though he raised an alarm, the herdsman shall not pay, provided he gives notice to his master at the proper place and time.
234. If cattle die, let him carry to his master their ears, skin, tails, bladders, tendons, and the yellow concrete bile, and let him point out their particular. marks.
235. But if goats or sheep are surrounded by wolves and the herdsman does not hasten (to their assistance), lie shall be responsible for any (animal) which a wolf may attack and kill.
236. But if they, kept in (proper) order, graze together in the forest, and a wolf, suddenly jumping on one of them, kills it, the herdsman shall bear in that case no responsibility.
237. On all sides of a village a space, one hundred dhanus or three samya-throws (in breadth), shall be reserved (for pasture), and thrice (that space) round a town.
238. If the cattle do damage to unfenced crops on that (common), the king shall in that case not punish the herdsmen.
239. (The owner of the field) shall make there a hedge over which a camel cannot look, and stop every gap through which a dog or a boar can thrust his head.
240. (If cattle do mischief) in an enclosed field near a highway or near a village, the herdsman shall be fined one hundred (panas);
(but cattle), unattended by a herdsman, (the watchman in the field) shall drive away.
241. (For damage) in other fields (each head of) cattle shall (pay a fine of one (pana) and a quarter, and in all (cases the value of) the crop (destroyed) shall be made good to the owner of the field; that is the settled rule.
242. But Manu has declared that no fine shall be paid for (damage done by) a cow within ten days after her calving, by bulls and by cattle sacred to the gods, whether they are attended by a herdsman or not.
243. If (the crops are destroyed by) the husbandman’s (own) fault, the fine shall amount to ten times as much as (the king’s) share; but the fine (shall be) only half that amount if (the fault lay) with the servants and the farmer had no knowledge of it.
244. To these rules a righteous king shall keep in (all cases of) transgressions by masters, their cattle, and herdsmen.
245. If a dispute has arisen between two villages concerning a boundary, the king shall settle the limits in the month of Gyaishtha, when the landmarks are most distinctly visible.
246. Let him mark the boundaries (by) trees, (e.g.) Nyagrodhas, Asvatthas, Kimsukas, cotton-trees, Salas, Palmyra palms, and trees with milky juice,
247. By clustering shrubs, bamboos of different kinds, Samis, creepers and raised mounds, reeds, thickets of Kubgaka; thus the boundary will not be forgotten.
248. Tanks, wells, cisterns, and fountains should be built where boundaries meet, as well as temples,
249. And as he will see that through men’s ignorance of the boundaries trespasses constantly occur in the world, let him cause to be made other hidden marks for boundaries,
250. Stones, bones, cow’s hair, chaff, ashes, potsherds, dry cowdung, bricks, cinders, pebbles, and sand,
251. And whatever other things of a similar kind the earth does not corrode even after a long time, those he should cause to be buried where one boundary joins (the other).
252. By these signs, by long continued possession, and by constantly flowing streams of water the king shall ascertain the boundary (of the land) of two disputing parties.
253. If there be a doubt even on inspection of the marks, the settlement of a dispute regarding boundaries shall depend on witnesses.
254. The witnesses, (giving evidence) regarding a boundary, shall be examined concerning the landmarks in the presence of the crowd of the villagers and also of the two litigants.
255. As they, being questioned, unanimously decide, even so he shall record the boundary (in writing), together with their names.
256. Let them, putting earth on their heads, wearing chaplets (of red flowers) and red dresses, being sworn each by (the rewards for) his meritorious deeds, settle (the boundary) in accordance with the truth.
257. If they determine (the boundary) in the manner stated, they are guiltless (being) veracious witnesses; but if they determine it unjustly, they shall be compelled to pay a fine of two hundred (panas).
258. On failure of witnesses (from the two villages, men of) the four neighbouring villages, who are pure, shall make (as witnesses) a decision concerning the boundary in the presence of the king.
259. On failure of neighbours (who are) original inhabitants (of the country and can be) witnesses with respect to the boundary, (the king) may hear the evidence even of the following inhabitants of the forest.
260. (Viz.) hunters, fowlers, herdsmen, fishermen, root-diggers, snake-catchers, gleaners, and other foresters.
261. As they, being examined, declare the marks for the meeting of the boundaries (to be), even so the king shall justly cause them to be fixed between the two villages.
262. The decision concerning the boundary-marks of fields, wells, tanks, of gardens and houses depends upon (the evidence of) the neighbours.
263. Should the neighbours give false evidence, when men dispute about a boundary-mark, the king shall make each of them pay the middlemost amercement as a fine.
264. He who by intimidation possesses himself of a house, a tank, a garden, or a field, shall be fined five hundred (panas); (if he trespassed) through ignorance, the fine (shall be) two hundred (panas).
265. If the boundary cannot be ascertained (by any evidence), let a righteous king with (the intention of) benefiting them (all), himself assign (his) land (to each); that is the settled rule.
266. Thus the law for deciding boundary (disputes) has been fully declared, I will next propound the (manner of) deciding (cases of) defamation.
267. A Kshatriya, having defamed a Brahmana, shall be fined one hundred (panas); a Vaisya one hundred and fifty or two hundred; a Sudra shall suffer corporal punishment.
268. A Brahmana shall be fined fifty (panas) for defaming a Kshatriya; in (the case of) a Vaisya the fine shall be twenty-five (panas); in (the case of) a Sudra twelve.
269. For offences of twice-born [Dwija]men against those of equal Varna (varna, the fine shall be) also twelve (panas); for speeches which ought not to be uttered, that (and every fine shall be) double.
270. A once-born man (a Sudra), who insults a twice-born [Dwija]man with gross invective, shall have his tongue cut out; for he is of low origin.
271. If he mentions the names and Varnas (Jati) of the (twice-born) with contumely, an iron nail, ten fingers long, shall be thrust red-hot into his mouth.
272. If he arrogantly teaches Brahmanas their duty, the king shall cause hot oil to be poured into his mouth and into his ears.
273. He who through arrogance makes false statements regarding the learning (of a Varna-fellow), his country, his Varna (Jati), or the rites by which his body was sanctified, shall be compelled to pay a fine of two hundred (panas).
274. He who even in accordance with the true facts (contemptuously) calls another man one-eyed, lame, or the like (names), shall be fined at least one karshapana.
275. He who defames his mother, his father, his wife, his brother, his son, or his teacher [acharya], and he who gives not the way to his preceptor, shall be compelled to pay one hundred (panas).
276. (For mutual abuse) by a Brahmana and a Kshatriya a fine must be imposed by a discerning (king), on the Brahmana the lowest amercement, but on the Kshatriya the middlemost.
277. A Vaisya and a Sudra must be punished exactly in the same manner according to their respective Varnas, but the tongue (of the Sudra) shall not be cut out; that is the decision.
278. Thus the rules for punishments (applicable to cases) of defamation have been truly declared; I will next propound the decision (of cases) of assault.
279. With whatever limb a man of a low Varna does hurt to (a man of the three) highest (Varnas), even that limb shall be cut off; that is the teaching of Manu.
280. He who raises his hand or a stick, shall have his hand cut off; he who in anger kicks with his foot, shall have his foot cut off.
281. A low-Varna man who tries to place himself on the same seat with a man of a high Varna, shall be branded on his hip and be banished, or (the king) shall cause his buttock to be gashed.
282. If out of arrogance he spits (on a superior), the king shall cause both his lips to be cut off; if he urines (on him), the penis; if he breaks wind (against him), the anus.
283. If he lays hold of the hair (of a superior), let the (king) unhesitatingly cut off his hands, likewise (if he takes him) by the feet, the beard, the neck, or the scrotum.
284. He who breaks the skin (of an equal) or fetches blood (from him) shall be fined one hundred (panas), he who cuts a muscle six nishkas, he who breaks a bone shall be banished.
285. According to the usefulness of the several (kinds of) trees a fine must be inflicted for injuring them; that is the settled rule.
286. If a blow is struck against men or animals in order to (give them) pain, (the judge) shall inflict a fine in proportion to the amount of pain (caused).
287. If a limb is injured, a wound (is caused), or blood (flows, the assailant) shall be made to pay (to the sufferer) the expenses of the cure, or the whole (both the usual amercement and the expenses of the cure as a) fine (to the king).
288. He who damages the goods of another, be it intentionally or unintentionally, shall give satisfaction to the (owner) and pay to the king a fine equal to the (damage).
289. In the case of (damage done to) leather, or to utensils of leather, of wood, or of clay, the fine (shall be) five times their value; likewise in the case of (damage to) flowers, roots, and fruit.
290. They declare with respect to a carriage, its driver and its owner, (that there are) ten cases in which no punishment (for damage done) can be inflicted; in other cases a fine is prescribed.
291. When the nose-string is snapped, when the yoke is broken, when the carriage turns sideways or back, when the axle or a wheel is broken,
292. When the leather-thongs, the rope around the neck or the bridle are broken, and when (the driver) has loudly called out, ‘Make way,’ Manu has declared (that in all these cases) no punishment (shall be inflicted).
293. But if the cart turns off (the road) through the driver’s want of skill, the owner shall be fined, if damage (is done), two hundred (panas).
294. If the driver is skilful (but negligent), he alone shall be fined; if the driver is unskilful, the occupants of the carriage (also) shall be each fined one hundred (panas).
295. But if he is stopped on his way by cattle or by (another) carriage, and he causes the death of any living being, a fine shall without doubt be imposed.
296. If a man is killed, his guilt will be at once the same as (that of) a thief; for large animals such as cows, elephants, camels or horses, half of that.
297. For injuring small cattle the fine (shall be) two hundred (panas); the fine for beautiful wild quadrupeds and birds shall amount to fifty (panas).
298. For donkeys, sheep, and goats the fine shall be five mashas; but the punishment for killing a dog or a pig shall be one masha.
299. A wife, a son, a slave, a pupil, and a (younger) brother of the full blood, who have committed faults, may be beaten with a rope or a split bamboo,
300. But on the back part of the body (only), never on a noble part; he who strikes them otherwise will incur the same guilt as a thief.
301. Thus the whole law of assault (and hurt) has been declared completely; I will now explain the rules for the decision (in cases) of theft.
302. Let the king exert himself to the utmost to punish thieves; for, if he punishes thieves, his fame grows and his kingdom prospers.
303. That king, indeed, is ever worthy of honour who ensures the safety (of his subjects); for the sacrificial session (sattra, which he, as it were, performs thereby) ever grows in length, the safety (of his subjects representing) the sacrificial fee.
304. A king who (duly) protects (his subjects) receives from each and all the sixth part of their spiritual merit; if he does not protect them, the sixth part of their demerit also (will fall on him).
305. Whatever (merit a man gains by) reading the Veda, by sacrificing, by charitable gifts, (or by) worshipping (Gurus and gods), the king obtains a sixth part of that in consequence of his duly protecting (his kingdom).
306. A king who protects the created beings in accordance with the sacred law and smites those worthy of corporal punishment, daily offers (as it were) sacrifice [Yagna]s at which hundred thousands (are given as) fees.
307. A king who does not afford protection, (yet) takes his share in kind, his taxes, tolls and duties, daily presents and fines, will (after death) soon sink into hell.
308. They declare that a king who affords no protection, (yet) receives the sixth part of the produce, takes upon himself all the foulness of his whole people.
309. Know that a king who heeds not the rules (of the law), who is an atheist, and rapacious, who does not protect (his subjects, but) devours them, will sink low (after death).
310. Let him carefully restrain the wicked by three methods,- by imprisonment by putting them in fetters, and by various (kinds of) corporal punishments.
311. For by punishing the wicked and by favouring the virtuous, kings are constantly sanctified, just as twice-born [Dwija]men by sacrifice [Yagna]s.
312. A king who desires his own welfare must always forgive litigants, infants, aged and sick men, who inveigh against him.
313. He who, being abused by men in pain, pardons (them), will in reward of that (act) be exalted in heaven; but he who, (proud) of his kingly state, forgives them not, will for that (reason) sink into hell.
314. A thief shall, running, approach the king, with flying hair, confessing that theft (and saying), ‘Thus have I done, punish me;’
315. (And he must) carry on his shoulder a pestle, or a club of Khadira wood, or a spear sharp at both ends, or an iron staff.
316. Whether he be punished or pardoned, the thief is freed from the (guilt of) theft; but the king, if he punishes not, takes upon himself the guilt of the thief.
317. The killer of a learned Brahmana throws his guilt on him who eats his food, an adulterous wife on her (negligent) husband, a (sinning) pupil or sacrifice [Yagna]r on (their negligent) teacher [acharya] (or priest), a thief on the king (who pardons him).
318. But men who have committed crimes and have been punished by the king, go to heaven, being pure like those who performed meritorious deeds.
319. He who steals the rope or the water-pot from a well, or damages a hut where water is distributed, shall pay one masha as a fine and restore the (article abstracted or damaged) in its (proper place).
320. On him who steals more than ten kumbhas of grain corporal punishment (shall be inflicted); in other cases he shall be fined eleven times as much, and shall pay to the (owner the value of his) property.
321. So shall corporal punishment be inflicted for stealing more than a hundred (palas) of articles sold by the weight, (i.e.) of gold, silver, and so forth, and of most excellent clothes.
322. For (stealing) more than fifty (palas) it is enacted that the hands (of the offender) shall be cut off; but in other cases, let him inflict a fine of eleven times the value.
323. For stealing men of noble family and especially women and the most precious gems, (the offender) deserves corporal (or capital) punishment.
324. For stealing large animals, weapons, or medicines, let the king fix a punishment, after considering the time and the purpose (for which they were destined).
325. For (stealing) cows belonging to Brahmanas, piercing (the nostrils of) a barren cow, and for stealing (other) cattle (belonging to Brahmanas, the offender) shall forthwith lose half his feet.
326. (For stealing) thread, cotton, drugs causing fermentation, cowdung, molasses, sour milk, sweet milk, butter-milk, water, or grass,
327. Vessels made of bamboo or other cane, salt of various kinds, earthen (vessels), earth and ashes,
328. Fish, birds, oil, clarified butter, meat, honey, and other things that come from beasts,
329. Or other things of a similar kind, spirituous liquor, boiled rice, and every kind of cooked food, the fine (shall be) twice the value (of the stolen article).
330. For flowers, green corn, shrubs, creepers, trees, and other unhusked (grain) the fine (shall be) five krishnalas.
331. For husked grain, vegetables, roots, and fruit the fine (shall be) one hundred (panas) if there is no connexion (between the owner and the thief), fifty (panas) if such a connexion exists.
332. An offence (of this description), which is committed in the presence (of the owner) and with violence, will be robbery; if (it is committed) in his absence, it will be theft; likewise if (the possession of) anything is denied after it has been taken.
333. On that man who may steal (any of) the above-mentioned articles, when they are prepared for (use), let the king inflict the first (or lowest) amercement; likewise on him who may steal (a sacred) fire out of the room (in which it is kept).
334. With whatever limb a thief in any way commits (an offence) against men, even of that (the king) shall deprive him in order to prevent (a repetition of the crime).
335. Neither a father, nor a teacher [acharya], nor a friend, nor a mother, nor a wife, nor a son, nor a domestic priest must be left unpunished by a king, if they do not keep within their duty.
336. Where another common man would be fined one karshapana, the king shall be fined one thousand; that is the settled rule.
337. In (a case of) theft the guilt of a Sudra shall be eightfold, that of a Vaisya sixteenfold, that of a Kshatriya two-and-thirtyfold,
338. That of a Brahmana sixty-fourfold, or quite a hundredfold, or (even) twice four-and-sixtyfold; (each of them) knowing the nature of the offence.
339. (The taking of) roots and of fruit from trees, of wood for a (sacrificial) fire, and of grass for feeding cows, Manu has declared (to be) no theft.
340. A Brahmana, seeking to obtain property from a man who took what was not given to him, either by sacrificing for him or by teaching him, is even like a thief.
341. A twice-born [Dwija]man, who is travelling and whose provisions are exhausted, shall not be fined, if he takes two stalks of sugar-cane or two (esculent) roots from the field of another man.
342. He who ties up unbound or sets free tied up (cattle of other men), he who takes a slave, a horse, or a carriage will have incurred the guilt of a thief.
343. A king who punishes thieves according to these rules, will gain fame in this world and after death unsurpassable bliss.
344. A king who desires to gain the throne of Indra and imperishable eternal fame, shall not, even for a moment, neglect (to punish) the man who commits violence.
345. He who commits violence must be considered as the worst offender, (more wicked) than a defamer, than a thief, and than he who injures (another) with a staff.
346. But that king who pardons the perpetrator of violence quickly perishes and incurs hatred.
347. Neither for friendship’s sake, nor for the sake of great lucre, must a king let go perpetrators of violence, who cause terror to all creatures.
348. Twice-born [Dwija]men may take up arms when (they are) hindered (in the fulfilment of their duties, when destruction (threatens) the twice-born [Dwija]Varnas (varna) in (evil) times,
349. In their own defence, in a strife for the fees of officiating priests, and in order to protect women and Brahmanas; he who (under such circumstances) kills in the cause of right, commits no sin.
350. One may slay without hesitation an assassin who approaches (with murderous intent), whether (he be one’s) teacher [acharya], a child or an aged man, or a Brahmana deeply versed in the Vedas.
351. By killing an assassin the slayer incurs no guilt, whether (he does it) publicly or secretly; in that case fury recoils upon fury.
352. Men who commit adultery with the wives of others, the king shall cause to be marked by punishments which cause terror, and afterwards banish.
353. For by (adultery) is caused a mixture of the Varnas (varna) among men; thence (follows) sin, which cuts up even the roots and causes the destruction of everything.
354. A man formerly accused of (such) offences, who secretly converses with another man’s wife, shall pay the first (or lowest) amercement.
355. But a man, not before accused, who (thus) speaks with (a woman) for some (reasonable) cause, shall not incur any guilt, since in him there is no transgression.
356. He who addresses the wife of another man at a Tirtha, outside the village, in a forest, or at the confluence of rivers, suffer (the punishment for) adulterous acts (samgrahana).
357. Offering presents (to a woman), romping (with her), touching her ornaments and dress, sitting with her on a bed, all (these acts) are considered adulterous acts (samgrahana).
358. If one touches a woman in a place (which ought) not (to be touched) or allows (oneself to be touched in such a spot), all (such acts done) with mutual consent are declared (to be) adulterous (samgrahana).
359. A man who is not a Brahmana ought to suffer death for adultery (samgrahana); for the wives of all the four Varnas even must always be carefully guarded.
360. Mendicants, bards, men who have performed the initiatory ceremony of a Vedic sacrifice [Yagna], and artisans are not prohibited from speaking to married women.
361. Let no man converse with the wives of others after he has been forbidden (to do so); but he who converses (with them), in spite of a prohibition, shall be fined one suvarna.
362. This rule does not apply to the wives of actors and singers, nor (of) those who live on (the intrigues of) their own (wives); for such men send their wives (to others) or, concealing themselves, allow them to hold criminal intercourse.
363. Yet he who secretly converses with such women, or with female slaves kept by one (master), and with female ascetics, shall be compelled to pay a small fine.
364. He who violates an unwilling maiden shall instantly suffer corporal punishment; but a man who enjoys a willing maiden shall not suffer corporal punishment, if (his Varna be) the same (as hers).
365. From a maiden who makes advances to a (man of) high (Varna), he shall not take any fine; but her, who courts a (man of) low (Varna), let him force to live confined in her house.
366. A (man of) low (Varna) who makes love to a maiden (of) the highest (Varna) shall suffer corporal punishment; he who addresses a maiden (on) equal (Varna) shall pay the nuptial fee, if her father desires it.
367. But if any man through insolence forcibly contaminates a maiden, two of his fingers shall be instantly cut off, and he shall pay a fine of six hundred (panas).
368. A man (of) equal (Varna) who defiles a willing maiden shall not suffer the amputation of his fingers, but shall pay a fine of two hundred (panas) in order to deter him from a repetition (of the offence).
369. A damsel who pollutes (another) damsel must be fined two hundred (panas), pay the double of her (nuptial) fee, and receive ten (lashes with a) rod.
370. But a woman who pollutes a damsel shall instantly have (her head) shaved or two fingers cut off, and be made to ride (through the town) on a donkey.
371. If a wife, proud of the greatness of her relatives or (her own) excellence, violates the duty which she owes to her lord, the king shall cause her to be devoured by dogs in a place frequented by many.
372. Let him cause the male offender to be burnt on a red-hot iron bed; they shall put logs under it, (until) the sinner is burned (to death).
373. On a man (once) convicted, who is (again) accused within a year, a double fine (must be inflicted); even thus (must the fine be doubled) for (repeated) intercourse with a Vratya and a Kandali.
374. A Sudra who has intercourse with a woman of a twice-born [Dwija]Varna, guarded or unguarded, (shall be punished in the following manner): if she was unguarded, he loses the part (offending) and all his property; if she was guarded, everything (even his life).
375. (For intercourse with a guarded Brahmana a Vaisya shall forfeit all his property after imprisonment for a year; a Kshatriya shall be fined one thousand (panas) and be shaved with the urine (of an ass).
376. If a Vaisya or a Kshatriya has connexion with an unguarded Brahmana, let him fine the Vaisya five hundred (panas) and the Kshatriya one thousand.
377. But even these two, if they offend with a Brahmani (not only) guarded (but the wife of an eminent man), shall be punished like a Sudra or be burnt in a fire of dry grass.
378. A Brahmana who carnally knows a guarded Brahmani against her will, shall be fined one thousand (panas); but he shall be made to pay five hundred, if he had connexion with a willing one.
379. Tonsure (of the head) is ordained for a Brahmana (instead of) capital punishment; but (men of) other Varnas shall suffer capital punishment.
380. Let him never slay a Brahmana, though he have committed all (possible) crimes; let him banish such an (offender), leaving all his property (to him) and (his body) unhurt.
381. No greater crime is known on earth than slaying a Brahmana; a king, therefore, must not even conceive in his mind the thought of killing a Brahmana.
382. If a Vaisya approaches a guarded female of the Kshatriya Varna, or a Kshatriya a (guarded) Vaisya woman, they both deserve the same punishment as in the case of an unguarded Brahmana female.
383. A Brahmana shall be compelled to pay a fine of one thousand (panas) if he has intercourse with guarded (females of) those two (Varnas); for (offending with) a (guarded) Sudra female a fine of one thousand (panas shall be inflicted) on a Kshatriya or a Vaisya.
384. For (intercourse with) an unguarded Kshatriya a fine of five hundred (panas shall fall) on a Vaisya; but (for the same offence) a Kshatriya shall be shaved with the urine (of a donkey) or (pay) the same fine.
385. A Brahmana who approaches unguarded females (of the) Kshatriya or Vaisya (Varnas), or a Sudra female, shall be fined five hundred (panas); but (for intercourse with) a female (of the) lowest (Varnas), one thousand.
386. That king in whose town lives no thief, no adulterer, no defamer, no man guilty of violence, and no committer of assaults, attains the world of Sakra (Indra).
387. The suppression of those five in his dominions secures to a king paramount sovereignty among his peers and fame in the world.
388. A sacrifice [Yagna]r who forsakes an officiating priest, and an officiating priest who forsakes a sacrifice [Yagna]r, (each being) able to perform his work and not contaminated (by grievous crimes), must each be fined one hundred (panas).
389. Neither a mother, nor a father, nor a wife, nor a son shall be cast off; he who casts them off, unless guilty of a crime causing loss of Varna, shall be fined six hundred (panas).
390. If twice-born [Dwija]men dispute among each other concerning the duty of the orders, a king who desires his own welfare should not (hastily) decide (what is) the law.
391. Having shown them due honor, he should, with (the assistance of) Brahmanas, first soothe them by gentle (speech) and afterwards teach them their duty.
392. A Brahmana who does not invite his next neighbour and his neighbour next but one, (though) both (he) worthy (of the honour), to a festival at which twenty Brahmanas are entertained, is liable to a fine of one masha.
393. A Srotriya who does not entertain a virtuous Srotriya at auspicious festive rites, shall be made to pay him twice (the value of) the meal and a masha of gold (as a fine to the king).
394. A blind man, an idiot, (a cripple) who moves with the help of a board, a man full seventy years old, and he who confers benefits on Srotriyas, shall not be compelled by any (king) to pay a tax.
395. Let the king always treat kindly a Srotriya, a sick or distressed man, an infant and an aged or indigent man, a man of high birth, and an honourable man (Arya).
396. A washerman shall wash (the clothes of his employers) gently on a smooth board of Salmaliwood he shall not return the clothes (of one person) for those (of another), nor allow anybody (but the owner) to wear them.
397. A weaver (who has received) ten palas (of thread), shall return (cloth weighing) one pala more; he who acts differently shall be compelled to pay a fine of twelve (panas).
398. Let the king take one-twentieth of that (amount) which men, well acquainted with the settlement of tolls and duties (and) skilful in (estimating the value of) all kinds of merchandise, may fix as the value for each saleable commodity.
399. Let the king confiscate the whole property of (a trader) who out of greed exports goods of which the king has a monopoly or (the export of which is) forbidden.
400. He who avoids a custom-house (or a toll), he who buys or sells at an improper time, or he who makes a false statement in enumerating (his goods), shall be fined eight times (the amount of duty) which he tried to evade.
401. Let (the king) fix (the rates for) the purchase and sale of all marketable goods, having (duly) considered whence they come, whither they go, how long they have been kept, the (probable) profit and the (probable) outlay.
402. Once in five nights, or at the close of each fortnight, let the king publicly settle the prices for the (merchants).
403. All weights and measures must be duly marked, and once in six months let him re-examine them.
404. At a ferry an (empty) cart shall be made to pay one pana, a man’s (load) half a pana, an animal and a woman one quarter of a (pana), an unloaded man one-half of a quarter.
405. Carts (laden) with vessels full (of merchandise) shall be made to pay toll at a ferry according to the value (of the goods), empty vessels and men without luggage some trifle.
406. For a long passage the boat-hire must be proportioned to the places and times; know that this (rule refers) to (passages along) the banks of rivers; at sea there is no settled (freight).
407. But a woman who has been pregnant two months or more, an ascetic, a hermit in the forest, and Brahmanas who are student [Brahmachari]s of the Veda, shall not be made to pay toll at a ferry.
408. Whatever may be damaged in a boat by the fault of the boatmen, that shall be made good by the boatmen collectively, (each paying) his share.
409. This decision in suits (brought) by passengers (holds good only) in case the boatmen are culpably negligent on the water; in the case of (an accident) caused by (the will of) the gods, no fine can be (inflicted on them).
410. (The king) should order a Vaisya to trade, to lend money, to cultivate the land, or to tend cattle, and a Sudra to serve the twice-born [Dwija]Varnas
411. (Some wealthy) Brahmana shall compassionately support both a Kshatriya and a Vaisya, if they are distressed for a livelihood, employing them on work (which is suitable for) their (Varnas).
412. But a Brahmana who, because he is powerful, out of greed makes initiated (men of the) twice-born [Dwija](Varnas) against their will do the work of slaves, shall be fined by the king six hundred (panas).
413. But a Sudra, whether bought or unbought, he may compel to do servile work; for he was created by the Self-existent (Svayambhu) to be the slave of a Brahmana.
414. A Sudra, though emancipated by his master, is not released from servitude; since that is innate in him, who can set him free from it?
415. There are slaves of seven kinds, (viz.) he who is made a captive under a standard, he who serves for his daily food, he who is born in the house, he who is bought and he who is given, he who is inherited from ancestors, and he who is enslaved by way of punishment.
416. A wife, a son, and a slave, these three are declared to have no property; the wealth which they earn is (acquired) for him to whom they belong.
417. A Brahmana may confidently seize the goods of (his) Sudra (slave); for, as that (slave) can have no property, his master may take his possessions.
418. (The king) should carefully compel Vaisyas and Sudra to perform the work (prescribed) for them; for if these two (Varnas) swerved from their duties, they would throw this (whole) world into confusion.
419. Let him daily look after the completion of his undertakings, his beasts of burden, and carriages, (the collection of) his revenues and the disbursements, his mines and his treasury.
420. A king who thus brings to a conclusion. all the legal business enumerated above, and removes all sin, reaches the highest state (of bliss).


1. I will now propound the eternal Laws[Dharma] for a husband and his wife who keep to the path of duty, whether they be united or separated.
2. Day and night woman must be kept in dependence by the males (of) their (families), and, if they attach themselves to sensual enjoyments, they must be kept under one’s control.
3. Her father protects (her) in childhood, her husband protects (her) in youth, and her sons protect (her) in old age; a woman is never fit for independence.
4. Reprehensible is the father who gives not (his daughter in marriage) at the proper time; reprehensible is the husband who approaches not (his wife in due season), and reprehensible is the son who does not protect his mother after her husband has died.
5. Women must particularly be guarded against evil inclinations, however trifling (they may appear); for, if they are not guarded, they will bring sorrow on two families.
6. Considering that the highest duty of all Varnas, even weak husbands (must) strive to guard their wives.
7. He who carefully guards his wife, preserves (the purity of) his offspring, virtuous conduct, his family, himself, and his (means of acquiring) merit.
8. The husband, after conception by his wife, becomes an embryo and is born again of her; for that is the wifehood of a wife (gaya), that he is born (gayate) again by her.
9. As the male is to whom a wife cleaves, even so is the son whom she brings forth; let him therefore carefully guard his wife, in order to keep his offspring pure.
10. No man can completely guard women by force; but they can be guarded by the employment of the (following) expedients:
11. Let the (husband) employ his (wife) in the collection and expenditure of his wealth, in keeping (everything) clean, in (the fulfilment of) religious duties, in the preparation of his food, and in looking after the household utensils.
12. Women, confined in the house under trustworthy and obedient servants, are not (well) guarded; but those who of their own accord keep guard over themselves, are well guarded.
13. Drinking (spirituous liquor), associating with wicked people, separation from the husband, rambling abroad, sleeping (at unseasonable hours), and dwelling in other men’s houses, are the six causes of the ruin of women.
14. Women do not care for beauty, nor is their attention fixed on age; (thinking), ‘(It is enough that) he is a man,’ they give themselves to the handsome and to the ugly.
15. Through their passion for men, through their mutable temper, through their natural heartlessness, they become disloyal towards their husbands, however carefully they may be guarded in this (world).
16. Knowing their disposition, which the Lord of creatures laid in them at the creation, to be such, (every) man should most strenuously exert himself to guard them.
17. (When creating them) Manu allotted to women (a love of their) bed, (of their) seat and (of) ornament, impure desires, wrath, dishonesty, malice, and bad conduct.
18. For women no (sacramental) rite (is performed) with sacred texts, thus the law is settled; women (who are) destitute of strength and destitute of (the knowledge of) Vedic texts, (are as impure as) falsehood (itself), that is a fixed rule.
19. And to this effect many sacred texts are sung also in the Vedas, in order to (make) fully known the true disposition (of women); hear (now those texts which refer to) the expiation of their (sins).
20. ‘If my mother, going astray and unfaithful, conceived illicit desires, may my father keep that seed from me,’ that is the scriptural text.
21. If a woman thinks in her heart of anything that would pain her husband, the (above-mentioned text) is declared (to be a means for) completely removing such infidelity.
22. Whatever be the qualities of the man with whom a woman is united according to the law, such qualities even she assumes, like a river (united) with the ocean.
23. Akshamala, a woman of the lowest birth, being united to Vasishtha and Sarangi, (being united) to Mandapala, became worthy of honour.
24. These and other females of low birth have attained eminence in this world by the respective good qualities of their husbands.
25. Thus has been declared the ever pure popular usage (which regulates the relations) between husband and wife; hear (next) the Laws[Dharma] concerning children which are the cause of happiness in this world and after death.
26. Between wives (striyah) who (are destined) to bear children, who secure many blessings, who are worthy of worship and irradiate (their) dwellings, and between the goddesses of fortune (sriyah, who reside) in the houses (of men), there is no difference whatsoever.
27. The production of children, the nurture of those born, and the daily life of men, (of these matters) woman is visibly the cause.
28. Offspring, (the due performance on religious rites, faithful service, highest conjugal happiness and heavenly bliss for the ancestors and oneself, depend on one’s wife alone.
29. She who, controlling her thoughts, speech, and acts, violates not her duty towards her lord, dwells with him (after death) in heaven, and in this world is called by the virtuous a faithful (wife, sadhvi)
30. But for disloyalty to her husband a wife is censured among men, and (in her next life) she is born in the womb of a jackal and tormented by diseases, the punishment of her sin.
31. Listen (now) to the following holy discussion, salutary to all men, which the virtuous (of the present day) and the ancient great sages have held concerning male offspring.
32. They (all) say that the male issue (of a woman) belongs to the lord, but with respect to the (meaning of the term) lord the revealed texts differ; some call the begetter (of the child the lord), others declare (that it is) the owner of the soil.
33. By the sacred tradition the woman is declared to be the soil, the man is declared to be the seed; the production of all corporeal beings (takes place) through the union of the soil with the seed.
34. In some cases the seed is more distinguished, and in some the womb of the female; but when both are equal, the offspring is most highly esteemed.
35. On comparing the seed and the receptacle (of the seed), the seed is declared to be more important; for the offspring of all created beings is marked by the characteristics of the seed.
36. Whatever (kind on seed is sown in a field, prepared in due season, (a plant) of that same kind, marked with the peculiar qualities of the seed, springs up in it.
37. This earth, indeed, is called the primeval womb of created beings; but the seed develops not in its development any properties of the womb.
38. In this world seeds of different kinds, sown at the proper time in the land, even in one field, come forth (each) according to its kind.
39. The rice (called) vrihi and (that called) sali, mudga-beans, sesamum, masha-beans, barley, leeks, and sugar-cane, (all) spring up according to their seed.
40. That one (plant) should be sown and another be produced cannot happen; whatever seed is sown, (a plant of) that kind even comes forth.
41. Never therefore must a prudent well-trained man, who knows the Veda and its Angas and desires long life, cohabit with another’s wife.
42. With respect to this (matter), those acquainted with the past recite some stanzas, sung by Vayu (the Wind, to show) that seed must not be sown by (any) man on that which belongs to another.
43. As the arrow, shot by (a hunter) who afterwards hits a wounded (deer) in the wound (made by another), is shot in vain, even so the seed, sown on what belongs to another, is quickly lost (to the sower).
44. (Sages) who know the past call this earth (prithivi) even the wife of Prithu; they declare a field to belong to him who cleared away the timber, and a deer to him who (first) wounded it.
45. He only is a perfect man who consists (of three persons united), his wife, himself, and his offspring; thus (says the Veda), and (learned) Brahmanas propound this (maxim) likewise, ‘The husband is declared to be one with the wife.’
46. Neither by sale nor by repudiation is a wife released from her husband; such we know the law to be, which the Lord of creatures (Pragapati) made of old.
47. Once is the partition (of the inheritance) made, (once is) a maiden given in marriage, (and) once does (a man) say,’ I will give;’ each of those three (acts is done) once only.
48. As with cows, mares, female camels, slave-girls, buffalo-cows, she-goats, and ewes, it is not the begetter (or his owner) who obtains the offspring, even thus (it is) with the wives of others.
49. Those who, having no property in a field, but possessing seed-corn, sow it in another’s soil, do indeed not receive the grain of the crop which may spring up.
50. If (one man’s) bull were to beget a hundred calves on another man’s cows, they would belong to the owner of the cows; in vain would the bull have spent his strength.
51. Thus men who have no marital property in women, but sow their seed in the soil of others, benefit the owner of the woman; but the giver of the seed reaps no advantage.
52. If no agreement with respect to the crop has been made between the owner of the field and the owner of the seed, the benefit clearly belongs to the owner of the field; the receptacle is more important than the seed.
53. But if by a special contract (a field) is made over (to another) for sowing, then the owner of the seed and the owner of the soil are both considered in this world as sharers of the (crop).
54. If seed be carried by water or wind into somebody’s field and germinates (there), the (plant sprung from that) seed belongs even to the owner of the field, the owner of the seed does not receive the crop.
55. Know that such is the law concerning the offspring of cows, mares, slave-girls, female camels, she-goats, and ewes, as well as of females of birds and buffalo-cows.
56. Thus the comparative importance of the seed and of the womb has been declared to you; I will next propound the law (applicable) to women in times of misfortune.
57. The wife of an elder brother is for his younger (brother) the wife of a Guru; but the wife of the younger is declared (to be) the daughter-in-law of the elder.
58. An elder (brother) who approaches the wife of the younger, and a younger (brother who approaches) the wife of the elder, except in times of misfortune, both become outcasts, even though (they were duly) authorised.
59. On failure of issue (by her husband) a woman who has been authorised, may obtain, (in the) proper (manner prescribed), the desired offspring by (cohabitation with) a brother-in-law or (with some other) Sapinda (of the husband).
60. He (who is) appointed to (cohabit with) the widow shall (approach her) at night anointed with clarified butter and silent, (and) beget one son, by no means a second.
61. Some (sages), versed in the law, considering the purpose of the appointment not to have been attained by those two (on the birth of the first), think that a second (son) may be lawfully procreated on (such) women.
62. But when the purpose of the appointment to (cohabit with) the widow bas been attained in accordance with the law, those two shall behave towards each other like a father and a daughter-in-law.
63. If those two (being thus) appointed deviate from the rule and act from carnal desire, they will both become outcasts, (as men) who defile the bed of a daughter-in-law or of a Guru.
64. By twice-born [Dwija]men a widow must not be appointed to (cohabit with) any other (than her husband); for they who appoint (her) to another (man), will violate the eternal law.
65. In the sacred texts which refer to marriage the appointment (of widows) is nowhere mentioned, nor is the re-marriage of widows prescribed in the rules concerning marriage.
66. This practice which is reprehended by the learned of the twice-born [Dwija]Varnas as fit for cattle is said (to have occurred) even among men, while Vena ruled.
67. That chief of royal sages who formerly possessed the whole world, caused a confusion of the Varnas (varna), his intellect being destroyed by lust.
68. Since that (time) the virtuous censure that (man) who in his folly appoints a woman, whose husband died, to (bear) children (to another man).
69. If the (future) husband of a maiden dies after troth verbally plighted, her brother-in-law shall wed her according to the following rule.
70. Having, according to the rule, espoused her (who must be) clad in white garments and be intent on purity, he shall approach her once in each proper season until issue (be had).
71. Let no prudent man, after giving his daughter to one (man), give her again to another; for he who gives (his daughter) whom he had before given, incurs (the guilt of) speaking falsely regarding a human being.
72. Though (a man) may have accepted a damsel in due form, he may abandon (her if she be) blemished, diseased, or deflowered, and (if she have been) given with fraud.
73. If anybody gives away a maiden possessing blemishes without declaring them, (the bridegroom) may annul that (contract) with the evil-minded giver.
74. A man who has business (abroad) may depart after securing a maintenance for his wife; for a wife, even though virtuous, may be corrupted if she be distressed by want of subsistence.
75. If (the husband) went on a journey after providing (for her), the wife shall subject herself to restraints in her daily life; but if he departed without providing (for her), she may subsist by blameless manual work.
76. If the husband went abroad for some sacred duty, (she) must wait for him eight years, if (he went) to (acquire) learning or fame six (years), if (he went) for pleasure three years.
77. For one year let a husband bear with a wife who hates him; but after (the lapse of) a year let him deprive her of her property and cease to cohabit with her.
78. She who shows disrespect to (a husband) who is addicted to (some evil) passion, is a drunkard, or diseased, shall be deserted for three months (and be) deprived of her ornaments and furniture.
79. But she who shows aversion towards a mad or outcast (husband), a eunuch, one destitute of manly strength, or one afflicted with such diseases as punish crimes, shall neither be cast off nor be deprived of her property.
80. She who drinks spirituous liquor, is of bad conduct, rebellious, diseased, mischievous, or wasteful, may at any time be superseded (by another wife).
81. A barren wife may be superseded in the eighth year, she whose children (all) die in the tenth, she who bears only daughters in the eleventh, but she who is quarrelsome without delay.
82. But a sick wife who is kind (to her husband) and virtuous in her conduct, may be superseded (only) with her own consent and must never be disgraced.
83. A wife who, being superseded, in anger departs from (her husband’s) house, must either be instantly confined or cast off in the presence of the family.
84. But she who, though having been forbidden, drinks spirituous liquor even at festivals, or goes to public spectacles or assemblies, shall be fined six krishnalas.
85. If twice-born [Dwija]men wed women of their own and of other (lower Varnas), the seniority, honour, and habitation of those (wives) must be (settled) according to the order of the Varnas (varna).
86. Among all (twice-born [Dwija]men) the wife of equal Varna alone, not a wife of a different Varna by any means, shall personally attend her husband and assist him in his daily sacred rites.
87. But he who foolishly causes that (duty) to be performed by another, while his wife of equal Varna is alive, is declared by the ancients (to be) as (despicable) as a Kandala (sprung from the) Brahmana (Varna).
88. To a distinguished, handsome suitor (of) equal (Varna) should (a father) give his daughter in accordance with the prescribed rule, though she have not attained (the proper age).
89. (But) the maiden, though marriageable, should rather stop in (the father’s) house until death, than that he should ever give her to a man destitute of good qualities.
90. Three years let a damsel wait, though she be marriageable; but after that time let her choose for herself a bridegroom (of) equal (Varna and rank).
91. If, being not given in marriage, she herself seeks a husband, she incurs no guilt, nor (does) he whom she weds.
92. A maiden who choses for herself, shall not take with her any ornaments, given by her father or her mother, or her brothers; if she carries them away, it will be theft.
93. But he who takes (to wife) a marriageable damsel, shall not pay any nuptial fee to her father; for the (latter) will lose his dominion over her in consequence of his preventing (the legitimate result of the appearance of) her enemies.
94. A man, aged thirty years, shall marry a maiden of twelve who pleases him, or a man of twenty-four a girl eight years of age; if (the performance of) his duties would (otherwise) be impeded, (he must marry) sooner.
95. The husband receives his wife from the gods, (he does not wed her) according to his own will; doing what is agreeable to the gods, he must always support her (while she is) faithful.
96. To be mothers were women created, and to be fathers men; religious rites, therefore, are ordained in the Veda to be performed (by the husband) together with the wife.
97. If, after the nuptial fee has been paid for a maiden, the giver of the fee dies, she shall be given in marriage to his brother, in case she consents.
98. Even a Sudra ought not to take a nuptial fee, when he gives away his daughter; for he who takes a fee sell his daughter, covering (the transaction by another name).
99. Neither ancients nor moderns who were good men have done such (a deed) that, after promising (a daughter) to one man, they have her to another;
100. Nor, indeed, have we heard, even in former creations, of such (a thing as) the covert sale of a daughter for a fixed price, called a nuptial fee.
101. ‘Let mutual fidelity continue until death,’ this may be considered as the summary of the highest law for husband and wife.
102. Let man and woman, united in marriage, constantly exert themselves, that (they may not be) disunited (and) may not violate their mutual fidelity.
103. Thus has been declared to you the law for a husband and his wife, which is intimately connected with conjugal happiness, and the manner of raising offspring in times of calamity; learn (now the law concerning) the division of the inheritance.
104. After the death of the father and of the mother, the brothers, being assembled, may divide among themselves in equal shares the paternal (and the maternal) estate; for, they have no power (over it) while the parents live.
105. (Or) the eldest alone may take the whole paternal estate, the others shall live under him just as (they lived) under their father.
106. Immediately on the birth of his first-born a man is (called) the father of a son and is freed from the debt to the manes; that (son), therefore, is worthy (to receive) the whole estate.
107. That son alone on whom he throws his debt and through whom he obtains immortality, is begotten for (the fulfilment of) the law; all the rest they consider the offspring of desire.
108. As a father (supports) his sons, so let the eldest support his younger brothers, and let them also in accordance with the law behave towards their eldest brother as sons (behave towards their father).
109. The eldest (son) makes the family prosperous or, on the contrary, brings it to ruin; the eldest (is considered) among men most worthy of honour, the eldest is not treated with disrespect by the virtuous.
110. If the eldest brother behaves as an eldest brother (ought to do), he (must be treated) like a mother and like a father; but if he behaves in a manner unworthy of an eldest brother, he should yet be honoured like a kinsman.
111. Either let them thus live together, or apart, if (each) desires (to gain) spiritual merit; for (by their living) separate (their) merit increases, hence separation is meritorious.
112. The additional share (deducted) for the eldest shall be one-twentieth (of the estate) and the best of all chattels, for the middlemost half of that, but for the youngest one-fourth.
113. Both the eldest and the youngest shall take (their shares) according to (the rule just) stated (each of) those who are between the eldest and the youngest, shall have the share (prescribed for the) middlemost.
114. Among the goods of every kind the eldest shall take the best (article), and (even a single chattel) which is particularly good, as well as the best of ten (animals).
115. But among (brothers) equally skilled in their occupations, there is no additional share, (consisting of the best animal) among ten; some trifle only shall be given to the eldest as a token of respect.
116. If additional shares are thus deducted, one must allot equal shares (out of the residue to each); but if no deduction is made, the allotment of the shares among them shall be (made) in the following manner.
117. Let the eldest son take one share in excess, the (brother) born next after him one (share) and a half, the younger ones one share each; thus the law is settled.
118. But to the maiden (sisters) the brothers shall severally give (portions) out of their shares, each out of his share one-fourth part; those who refuse to give (it), will become outcasts.
119. Let him never divide (the value of) a single goat or sheep, or a (single beast) with uncloven hoofs; it is prescribed (that) a single goat or sheep (remaining after an equal division, belongs) to the eldest alone.
120. If a younger brother begets a son on the wife of the elder, the division must then be made equally; this the law is settled.
121. The representative (the son begotten on the wife) is not invested with the right of the principal (the eldest brother to an additional share); the principal (became) a father on the procreation (of a son by his younger brother); hence one should give a share to the (son begotten on the wife of the elder brother) according to the rule (stated above).
122. If there be a doubt, how the division shall be made, in case the younger son is born of the elder wife and the elder son of the younger wife,
123. (Then the son) born of the first wife shall take as his additional share one (most excellent) bull; the next best bulls (shall belong) to those (who are) inferior on account of their mothers.
124. But the eldest (son, being) born of the eldest wife, shall receive fifteen cows and a bull, the other sons may then take shares according to (the seniority of) their mothers; that is a settled rule.
125. Between sons born of wives equal (in Varna) (and) without (any other) distinction no seniority in right of the mother exists; seniority is declared (to be) according to birth.
126. And with respect to the Subrahmanya (texts) also it is recorded that the invocation (of Indra shall be made) by the first-born, of twins likewise, (conceived at one time) in the wombs (of their mothers) the seniority is declared (to depend) on (actual) birth.
127. He who has no son may make his daughter in the following manner an appointed daughter (putrika, saying to her husband), ‘The (male) child, born of her, shall perform my funeral rites.’
128. According to this rule Daksha, himself, lord of created beings, formerly made (all his female offspring) appointed daughters in order to multiply his race.
129. He gave ten to Dharma, thirteen to Kasyapa, twenty-seven to King Soma, honouring (them) with an affectionate heart.
130. A son is even (as) oneself, (such) a daughter is equal to a son; how can another (heir) take the estate, while such (an appointed daughter who is even) oneself, lives?
131. But whatever may be the separate property of the mother, that is the share of the unmarried daughter alone; and the son of an (appointed) daughter shall take the whole estate of (his maternal grandfather) who leaves no son.
132. The son of an (appointed) daughter, indeed, shall (also) take the estate of his (own) father, who leaves no (other) son; he shall (then) present two funeral cakes to his own father and to his maternal grandfather.
133. Between a son’s son and the son of an (appointed) daughter there is no difference, neither with respect to worldly matters nor to sacred duties; for their father and mother both sprang from the body of the same (man).
134. But if, after a daughter has been appointed, a son be born (to her father), the division (of the inheritance) must in that (case) be equal; for there is no right of primogeniture for a woman.
135. But if an appointed daughter by accident dies without (leaving) a son, the husband of the appointed daughter may, without hesitation, take that estate.
136. Through that son whom (a daughter), either not appointed or appointed, may bear to (a husband) of equal (Varna), his maternal grandfather (has) a son’s son; he shall present the funeral cake and take the estate.
137. Through a son he conquers the worlds, through a son’s son he obtains immortality, but through his son’s grandson he gains the world of the sun.
138. Because a son delivers (trayate) his father from the hell called Put, he was therefore called put-tra (a deliverer from Put) by the Self-existent (Svayambhu) himself.
139. Between a son’s son and the son of a daughter there exists in this world no difference; for even the son of a daughter saves him (who has no sons) in the next world, like the son’s son.
140. Let the son of an appointed daughter first present a funeral cake to his mother, the second to her father, the funeral to his father’s father.
141. Of the man who has an adopted (Datrima) son possessing all good qualities, that same (son) shall take the inheritance, though brought from another family.
142. An adopted son shall never take the family (name) and the estate of his natural father; the funeral cake follows the family (name) and the estate, the funeral offerings of him who gives (his son in adoption) cease (as far as that son is concerned).
143. The son of a wife, not appointed (to have issue by another), and he whom (an appointed female, already) the mother of a son, bears to her brother-in-law, are both unworthy of a share, (one being) the son of an adulterer and (the other) produced through (mere) lust.
144. Even the male (child) of a female (duly) appointed, not begotten according to the rule (given above), is unworthy of the paternal estate; for he was procreated by an outcast.
145. A son (legally) begotten on such an appointed female shall inherit like a legitimate son of the body; for that seed and the produce belong, according to the law, to the owner of the soil.
146. He who takes care of his deceased brother’s estate and of his widow, shall, after raising up a son for his brother, give that property even to that (son).
147. If a woman (duly) appointed bears a son to her brother-in-law or to another (Sapinda), that (son, if he is) begotten through desire, they declare (to be) incapable of inheriting and to be produced in vain.
148. The rules (given above) must be understood (to apply) to a distribution among sons of women of the same (Varna); hear (now the law) concerning those begotten by one man on many wives of different (Varnas).
149. If there be four wives of a Brahmana in the direct order of the Varnas, the rule for the division (of the estate) among the sons born of them is as follows:
150. The (slave) who tills (the field), the bull kept for impregnating cows, the vehicle, the ornaments, and the house shall be given as an additional portion to the Brahmana (son), and one most excellent share.
151. Let the son of the Brahmana (wife) take three shares of the (remainder of the) estate, the son of the Kshatriya two, the son of the Vaisya a share and a half, and the son of the Sudra may take one share.
152. Or let him who knows the law make ten shares of the whole estate, and justly distribute them according to the following rule:
153. The Brahmana (son) shall take four shares, son of the Kshatriya (wife) three, the son of the Vaisya shall have two parts, the son of the Sudra may take one share.
154. Whether (a Brahmana) have sons or have no sons (by wives of the twice-born [Dwija]Varnas), the (heir) must, according to the law, give to the son of a Sudra (wife) no more than a tenth (part of his estate).
155. The son of a Brahmana, a Kshatriya, and a Vaisya by a Sudra (wife) receives no share of the inheritance; whatever his father may give to him, that shall be his property.
156. All the sons of twice-born [Dwija]men, born of wives of the same Varna, shall equally divide the estate, after the others have given to the eldest an additional share.
157. For a Sudra is ordained a wife of his own Varna only (and) no other; those born of her shall have equal shares, even if there be a hundred sons.
158. Among the twelve sons of men whom Manu, sprung from the Self-existent (Svayambhu), enumerates, six are kinsmen and heirs, and six not heirs, (but) kinsmen.
159. The legitimate son of the body, the son begotten on a wife, the son adopted, the son made, the son secretly born, and the son cast off, (are) the six heirs and kinsmen.
160. The son of an unmarried damsel, the son received with the wife, the son bought, the son begotten on a re-married woman, the son self-given, and the son of a Sudra female, (are) the six (who are) not heirs, (but) kinsmen.
161. Whatever result a man obtains who (tries to) cross a (sheet of) water in an unsafe boat, even that result obtains he who (tries to) pass the gloom (of the next world) with (the help of) bad (substitutes for a real) son.
162. If the two heirs of one man be a legitimate son of his body and a son begotten on his wife, each (of the two sons), to the exclusion of the other, shall take the estate of his (natural) father.
163. The legitimate son of the body alone (shall be) the owner of the paternal estate; but, in order to avoid harshness, let him allow a maintenance to the rest.
164. But when the legitimate son of the body divides the paternal estate, he shall give one-sixth or one-fifth part of his father’s property to the son begotten on the wife.
165. The legitimate son and the son of the wife (thus) share the father’s estate; but the other tell become members of the family, and inherit according to their order (each later named on failure of those named earlier).
166. Him whom a man begets on his own wedded wife, let him know to be a legitimate son of the body (Aurasa), the first in rank.
167. He who was begotten according to the peculiar law (of the Niyoga) on the appointed wife of a dead man, of a eunuch, or of one diseased, is called a son begotten on a wife (Kshetraga).
168. That (boy) equal (by Varna) whom his mother or his father affectionately give, (confirming the gift) with (a libation of) water, in times of distress (to a man) as his son, must be considered as an adopted son (Datrima).
169. But he is considered a son made (Kritrima) whom (a man) makes his son, (he being) equal (by Varna), acquainted with (the distinctions between) right and wrong, (and) endowed with filial virtues.
170. If (a child) be born in a man’s house and his father be not known, he is a son born secretly in the house (Gudhotpanna), and shall belong to him of whose wife he was born.
171. He whom (a man) receives as his son, (after he has been) deserted by his parents or by either of them, is called a son cast off (Apaviddha).
172. A son whom a damsel secretly bears in the house of her father, one shall name the son of an unmarried damsel (Kanina, and declare) such offspring of an unmarried girl (to belong) to him who weds her (afterwards).
173. If one marries, either knowingly or unknowingly, a pregnant (bride), the child in her womb belongs to him who weds her, and is called (a son) received with the bride (Sahodha).
174. If a man buys a (boy), whether equal or unequal (in good qualities), from his father and mother for the sake of having a son, that (child) is called a (son) bought (Kritaka).
175. If a woman abandoned by her husband, or a widow, of her own accord contracts a second marriage and bears (a son), he is called the son of a re-married woman (Paunarbhava).
176. If she be (still) a virgin, or one who returned (to her first husband) after leaving him, she is worthy to again perform with her second (or first deserted) husband the (nuptial) ceremony.
177. He who, having lost his parents or being abandoned (by them) without (just) cause, gives himself to a (man), is called a son self-given (Svayamdatta).
178. The son whom a Brahmana begets through lust on a Sudra female is, (though) alive (parayan), a corpse (sava), and hence called a Parasava (a living corpse).
179. A son who is (begotten) by a Sudra on a female slave, or on the female slave of his slave, may, if permitted (by his father), take a share (of the inheritance); thus the law is settled.
180. These eleven, the son begotten on the wife and the rest as enumerated (above), the wise call substitutes for a son, (taken) in order (to prevent) a failure of the (funeral) ceremonies.
181. Those sons, who have been mentioned in connection with (the legitimate son of the body), being begotten by strangers, belong (in reality) to him from whose seed they sprang, but not to the other (man who took them).
182. If among brothers, sprung from one (father), one have a son, Manu has declared them all to have male offspring through that son.
183. If among all the wives of one husband one have a son, Manu declares them all (to be) mothers of male children through that son.
184. On failure of each better (son), each next inferior (one) is worthy of the inheritance; but if there be many (of) equal (rank), they shall all share the estate.
185. Not brothers, nor fathers, (but) sons take the paternal estate; but the father shall take the inheritance of (a son) who leaves no male issue, and his brothers.
186. To three (ancestors) water must be offered, to three the funeral cake is given, the fourth (descendant is) the giver of these (oblations), the fifth has no connection (with them).
187. Always to that (relative within three degrees) who is nearest to the (deceased) Sapinda the estate shall belong; afterwards a Sakulya shall be (the heir, then) the spiritual teacher [acharya] or the pupil.
188. But on failure of all (heirs) Brahmanas (shall) share the estate, (who are) versed the in the three Vedas, pure and self-controlled; thus the law is not violated.
189. The property of a Brahmana must never be taken by the king, that is a settled rule; but (the property of men) of other Varnas the king may take on failure of all (heirs).
190. (If the widow) of (a man) who died without leaving issue, raises up to him a son by a member of the family (Sagotra), she shall deliver to that (son) the whole property which belonged to the (deceased).
191. But if two (sons), begotten by two (different men), contend for the property (in the hands) of their mother, each shall take, to the exclusion of the other, what belonged to his father.
192. But when the mother has died, all the uterine brothers and the uterine sisters shall equally divide the mother’s estate.
193. Even to the daughters of those (daughters) something should be given, as is seemly, out of the estate of their maternal grandmother, on the score of affection.
194. What (was given) before the (nuptial) fire, what (was given) on the bridal procession, what was given in token of love, and what was received from her brother, mother, or father, that is called the sixfold property of a woman.
195. (Such property), as well as a gift subsequent and what was given (to her) by her affectionate husband, shall go to her offspring, (even) if she dies in the lifetime of her husband.
196. It is ordained that the property (of a woman married) according to the Brahma, the Daiva, the Arsha, the Gandharva, or the Pragapatya rite (shall belong) to her husband alone, if she dies without issue.
197. But it is prescribed that the property which may have been given to a (wife) on an Asura marriage or (one of the) other (blamable marriages, shall go) to her mother and to her father, if she dies without issue.
198. Whatever property may have been given by her father to a wife (who has co-wives of different Varnas), that the daughter (of the) Brahmani (wife) shall take, or that (daughter’s) issue.
199. Women should never make a hoard from (the property of) their families which is common to many, nor from their own (husbands’ particular) property without permission.
200. The ornaments which may have been worn by women during their husbands’ lifetime, his heirs shall not divide; those who divide them become outcasts.
201. Eunuchs and outcasts, (persons) born blind or deaf, the insane, idiots and the dumb, as well as those deficient in any organ (of action or sensation), receive no share.
202. But it is just that (a man) who knows (the law) should give even to all of them food and raiment without stint, according to his ability; he who gives it not will become all outcast.
203. If the eunuch and the rest should somehow or other desire to (take) wives, the offspring of such among them as have children is worthy of a share.
204. Whatever property the eldest (son) acquires (by his own exertion) after the father’s death, a share of that (shall belong) to his younger (brothers), provided they have made a due progress in learning.
205. But if all of them, being unlearned, acquire property by their labour, the division of that shall be equal, (as it is) not property acquired by the father; that is a settled rule.
206. Property (acquired) by learning belongs solely to him to whom (it was given), likewise the gift of a friend, a present received on marriage or with the honey-mixture.
207. But if one of the brothers, being able (to maintain himself) by his own occupation, does not desire (a share of the family) property, he may be made separate (by the others) receiving a trifle out of his share to live upon.
208. What one (brother) may acquire by his labour without using the patrimony, that acquisition, (made solely) by his own effort, he shall not share unless by his own will (with his brothers).
209. But if a father recovers lost ancestral property, he shall not divide it, unless by his own will, with his sons, (for it is) self-acquired (property).
210. If brothers, (once) divided and living (again) together (as coparceners), make a second partition, the division shall in that case be equal; in such a case there is no right of primogeniture.
211. If the eldest or the youngest (brother) is deprived of his share, or if either of them dies, his share is not lost (to his immediate heirs).
212. His uterine brothers, having assembled together, shall equally divide it, and those brothers who were reunited (with him) and the uterine sisters.
213. An eldest brother who through avarice may defraud the younger ones, shall no (longer hold the position of) the eldest, shall not receive an (eldest son’s additional) share, and shall be punished by the king.
214. All brothers who habitually commit forbidden acts, are unworthy of (a share of) the property, and the eldest shall not make (anything his) separate property without giving (an equivalent) to his younger brothers.
215. If undivided brethren, (living with their father,) together make an exertion (for gain), the father shall on no account give to them unequal shares (on a division of the estate).
216. But a son, born after partition, shall alone take the property of his father, or if any (of the other sons) be reunited with the (father), he shall share with them.
217. A mother shall obtain the inheritance of a son (who dies) without leaving issue, and, if the mother be dead, the paternal grandmother shall take the estate.
218. And if, after all the debts and assets have been duly distributed according to the rule, any (property) be afterwards discovered, one must divide it equally.
219. A dress, a vehicle, ornaments, cooked food, water, and female (slaves), property destined for pious uses or sacrifice [Yagna]s, and a pasture-ground, they declare to be indivisible.
220. The division (of the property) and the rules for allotting (shares) to the (several) sons, those begotten on a wife and the rest, in (due) order, have been thus declared to you; hear (now) the Laws[Dharma] concerning gambling.
221. Gambling and betting let the king exclude from his realm; those two vices cause the destruction of the kingdoms of princes.
222. Gambling and betting amount to open theft; the king shall always exert himself in suppressing both (of them).
223. When inanimate (things) are used (for staking money on them), that is called among men gambling (dyuta), when animate beings are used (for the same purpose), one must know that to be betting (samahvaya).
224. Let the king corporally punish all those (persons) who either gamble and bet or afford (an opportunity for it), likewise Sudras who assume the distinctive marks of twice-born [Dwija](men).
225. Gamblers, dancers and singers, cruel men, men belonging to an heretical sect, those following forbidden occupations, and sellers of spirituous liquor, let him instantly banish from his town.
226. If such (persons who are) secret thieves, dwell in the realm of a king, they constantly harass his good subjects by their forbidden practices.
227. In a former Kalpa this (vice of) gambling has been seen to cause great enmity; a wise man, therefore, should not practise it even for amusement.
228. On every man who addicts himself to that (vice) either secretly or openly, the king may inflict punishment according to his discretion.
229. But a Kshatriya, a Vaisya, and a Sudra who are unable to pay a fine, shall discharge the debt by labour; a Brahmana shall pay it by installments.
230. On women, infants, men of disordered mind, the poor and the sick, the king shall inflict punishment with a whip, a cane, or a rope and the like.
231. But those appointed (to administer public) affairs, who, baked by the fire of wealth, mar the business of suitors, the king shall deprive of their property.
232. Forgers of royal edicts, those who corrupt his ministers, those who slay women, infants, or Brahmanas, and those who serve his enemies, the king shall put to death.
233. Whenever any (legal transaction) has been completed or (a punishment) been inflicted according to the law, he shall sanction it and not annul it.
234. Whatever matter his ministers or the judge may settle improperly, that the king himself shall (re-) settle and fine (them) one thousand (panas).
235. The slayer of a Brahmana, (A twice-born [Dwija]man) who drinks (the spirituous liquor called) Sura, he who steals (the gold of a Brahmana), and he who violates a Guru’s bed, must each and all be considered as men who committed mortal sins (mahapataka).
236. On those four even, if they do not perform a penance, let him inflict corporal punishment and fines in accordance with the law.
237. For violating a Guru’s bed, (the mark of) a female part shall be (impressed on the forehead with a hot iron); for drinking (the spirituous liquor called) Sura, the sign of a tavern; for stealing (the gold of a Brahmana), a dog’s foot; for murdering a Brahmana, a headless corpse.
238. Excluded from all fellowship at meals, excluded from all sacrifice [Yagna]s, excluded from instruction and from matrimonial alliances, abject and excluded from all religious duties, let them wander over (this) earth.
239. Such (persons) who have been branded with (indelible) marks must be cast off by their paternal and maternal relations, and receive neither compassion nor a salutation; that is the teaching of Manu.
240. But (men of) all Varnas who perform the prescribed penances, must not be branded on the forehead by the king, but shall be made to pay the highest amercement.
241. For (such) offences the middlemost amercement shall be inflicted on a Brahmana, or he may be banished from the realm, keeping his money and his chattels.
242. But (men of) other (Varnas), who have unintentionally committed such crimes, ought to be deprived of their whole property; if (they committed them) intentionally, they shall be banished.
243. A virtuous king must not take for himself the property of a man guilty of mortal sin; but if he takes it out of greed, he is tainted by that guilt (of the offender).
244. Having thrown such a fine into the water, let him offer it to Varuna, or let him bestow it on a learned and virtuous Brahmana.
245. Varuna is the lord of punishment, for he holds the sceptre even over kings; a Brahmana who has learnt the whole Veda is the lord of the whole world.
246. In that (country), where the king avoids taking the property of (mortal) sinners, men are born in (due) time (and are) long-lived,
247. And the crops of the husbandmen spring up, each as it was sown, and the children die not, and no misshaped (offspring) is born.
248. But the king shall inflict on a base-born (Sudra), who intentionally gives pain to Brahmanas, various (kinds of) corporal punishment which cause terror.
249. When a king punishes an innocent (man), his guilt is considered as great as when he sets free a guilty man; but (he acquires) merit when he punishes (justly).
250. Thus the (manner of) deciding suits (falling) under the eighteen titles, between two litigant parties, has been declared at length.
251. A king who thus duly fulfils his duties in accordance with justice, may seek to gain countries which he has not yet gained, and shall duly protect them when he has gained them.
252. Having duly settled his country, and having built forts in accordance with the Institutes, he shall use his utmost exertions to remove (those men who are nocuous like) thorns.
253. By protecting those who live as (becomes) Aryans and by removing the thorns, kings, solely intent on guarding their subjects, reach heaven.
254. The realm of that king who takes his share in kind, though he does not punish thieves, (will be) disturbed and he (will) lose heaven.
255. But if his kingdom be secure, protected by the strength of his arm, it will constantly flourish like a (well)- watered tree.
256. Let the king who sees (everything) through his spies, discover the two sorts of thieves who deprive others of their property, both those who (show themselves) openly and those who (lie) concealed.
257. Among them, the open rogues (are those) who subsist by (cheating in the sale of) various marketable commodities, but the concealed rogues are burglars, robbers in forests, and so forth.
258. Those who take bribes, cheats and rogues, gamblers, those who live by teaching (the performance of) auspicious ceremonies, sanctimonious hypocrites, and fortune-tellers,
259. Officials of high rank and physicians who act improperly, men living by showing their proficiency in arts, and clever harlots,
260. These and the like who show themselves openly, as well as others who walk in disguise (such as) non-Aryans who wear the marks of Aryans, he should know to be thorns (in the side of his people).
261. Having detected them by means of trustworthy persons, who, disguising themselves, (pretend) to follow the same occupations and by means of spies, wearing various disguises, he must cause them to be instigated (to commit offences), and bring them into his power.
262. Then having caused the crimes, which they committed by their several actions, to be proclaimed in accordance with the facts, the king shall duly punish them according to their strength and their crimes.
263. For the wickedness of evil-minded thieves, who secretly prowl over this earth, cannot be restrained except by punishment.
264. Assembly-houses, houses where water is distributed or cakes are sold, brothels, taverns and victualler’s shops, cross-roads, well-known trees, festive assemblies, and play-houses and concert-rooms,
265. Old gardens, forests, the shops of artisans, empty dwellings, natural and artificial groves,
266. These and the like places the king shall cause to be guarded by companies of soldiers, both stationary and patrolling, and by spies, in order to keep away thieves.
267. By the means of clever reformed thieves, who associate with such (rogues), follow them and know their various machinations, he must detect and destroy them.
268. Under the pretext of (offering them) various dainties, of introducing them to Brahmanas, and on the pretence of (showing them) feats of strength, the (spies) must make them meet (the officers of justice).
269. Those among them who do not come, and those who suspect the old (thieves employed by the king), the king shall attack by force and slay together with their friends, blood relations, and connexions.
270. A just king shall not cause a thief to be put to death, (unless taken) with the stolen goods (in his possession); him who (is taken) with the stolen goods and the implements (of burglary), he may, without hesitation, cause to be slain.
271. All those also who in villages give food to thieves or grant them room for (concealing their implements), he shall cause to be put to death.
272. Those who are appointed to guard provinces and his vassals who have been ordered (to help), he shall speedily punish like thieves, (if they remain) inactive in attacks (by robbers).
273. Moreover if (a man), who subsists by (the fulfilment of) the law, departs from the established rule of the law, the (king) shall severely punish him by a fine, (because he) violated his duty.
274. Those who do not give assistance according to their ability when a village is being plundered, a dyke is being destroyed, or a highway robbery committed, shall be banished with their goods and chattels.
275. On those who rob the king’s treasury and those who persevere in opposing (his commands), he shall inflict various kinds of capital punishment, likewise on those who conspire with his enemies.
276. But the king shall cut off the hands of those robbers who, breaking into houses, commit thefts at night, and cause them to be impaled on a pointed stake.
277. On the first conviction, let him cause two fingers of a cut-purse to be amputated; on the second, one hand and one foot; on the third, he shall suffer death.
278. Those who give (to thieves) fire, food, arms, or shelter, and receivers of stolen goods, the ruler shall punish like thieves.
279. Him who breaks (the dam of) a tank he shall slay (by drowning him) in water or by (some other) (mode of) capital punishment; or the offender may repair the (damage), but shall be made to pay the highest amercement.
280. Those who break into a (royal) storehouse, an armoury, or a temple, and those who steal elephants, horses, or chariots, he shall slay without hesitation.
281. But he who shall take away the water of a tank, made in ancient times, or shall cut off the supply of water, must be made to pay the first (or lowest) amercement.
282. But he who, except in a case of extreme necessity, drops filth on the king’s high-road, shall pay two karshapanas and immediately remove (that) filth.
283. But a person in urgent necessity, an aged man, a pregnant woman, or a child, shall be reprimanded and clean the (place); that is a settled rule.
284. All physicians who treat (their patients) wrongly (shall pay) a fine; in the case of animals, the first (or lowest); in the case of human beings, the middlemost (amercement).
285. He who destroys a bridge, the flag (of a temple or royal palace), a pole, or images, shall repair the whole (damage) and pay five hundred (panas).
286. For adulterating unadulterated commodities, and for breaking gems or for improperly boring (them), the fine is the first (or lowest) amercement.
287. But that man who behaves dishonestly to honest (customers) or cheats in his prices, shall be fined in the first or in the middlemost amercement.
288. Let him place all prisons near a high-road, where the suffering and disfigured offenders can be seen.
289. Him who destroys the wall (of a town), or fills up the ditch (round a town), or breaks a (town)- gate, he shall instantly banish.
290. For all incantations intended to destroy life, for magic rites with roots (practised by persons) not related (to him against whom they are directed), and for various kinds of sorcery, a fine of two hundred (panas) shall be inflicted.
291. He who sells (for seed-corn that which is) not seed-corn, he who takes up seed (already sown), and he who destroys a boundary (-mark), shall be punished by mutilation.
292. But the king shall cause a goldsmith who behaves dishonestly, the most nocuous of all the thorns, to be cut to pieces with razors.
293. For the theft of agricultural implements, of arms and of medicines, let the king award punishment, taking into account the time (of the offence) and the use (of the object).
294. The king and his minister, his capital, his realm, his treasury, his army, and his ally are the seven constituent parts (of a kingdom); (hence) a kingdom is said to have seven limbs (anga).
295. But let him know (that) among these seven constituent parts of a kingdom (which have been enumerated) in due order, each earlier (named) is more important and (its destruction) the greater calamity.
296. Yet in a kingdom containing seven constituent parts, which is upheld like the triple staff (of an ascetic), there is no (single part) more important (than the others), by reason of the importance of the qualities of each for the others.
297. For each part is particularly qualified for (the accomplishment of) certain objects, (and thus) each is declared to be the most important for that particular purpose which is effected by its means.
298. By spies, by a (pretended) display of energy, and by carrying out (various) undertakings, let the king constantly ascertain his own and his enemy’s strength;
299. Moreover, all calamities and vices; afterwards, when he has fully considered their relative importance, let him begin his operations.
300. (Though he be) ever so much tired (by repeated failures), let him begin his operations again and again; for fortune greatly favours the man who (strenuously) exerts himself in his undertakings.
301. The various ways in which a king behaves (resemble) the Krita, Treta, Dvapara, and Kali ages; hence the king is identified with the ages (of the world).
302. Sleeping he represents the Kali (or iron age), waking the Dvapara (or brazen) age, ready to act the Treta (or silver age), but moving (actively) the Krita (or golden) age.
303. Let the king emulate the energetic action of Indra, of the Sun, of the Wind, of Yama, of Varuna, of the Moon, of the Fire, and of the Earth.
304. As Indra sends copious rain during the four months of the rainy season, even so let the king, taking upon himself the office of Indra, shower benefits on his kingdom.
305. As the Sun during eight months (imperceptibly) draws up the water with his rays, even so let him gradually draw his taxes from his kingdom; for that is the office in which he resembles the Sun.
306. As the Wind moves (everywhere), entering (in the shape of the vital air) all created beings, even so let him penetrate (everywhere) through his spies; that is the office in which he resembles the Wind.
307. As Yama at the appointed time subjects to his rule both friends and foes, even so all subjects must be controlled by the king; that is the office in which he resembles Yama.
308. As (a sinner) is seen bound with ropes by Varuna, even so let him punish the wicked; that is his office in which he resembles Varuna.
309. He is a king, taking upon himself the office of the Moon, whose (appearance) his subjects (greet with as great joy) as men feel on seeing the full moon.
310. (If) he is ardent in wrath against criminals and endowed with brilliant energy, and destroys wicked vassals, then his character is said (to resemble) that of Fire.
311. As the Earth supports all created beings equally, thus (a king) who supports all his subjects, (takes upon himself) the office of the Earth.
312. Employing these and other means, the king shall, ever untired, restrain thieves both in his own dominions and in (those of) others.
313. Let him not, though fallen into the deepest distress, provoke Brahmanas to anger; for they, when angered, could instantly destroy him together with his army and his vehicles.
314. Who could escape destruction, when he provokes to anger those (men), by whom the fire was made to consume all things, by whom the (water of the) ocean was made undrinkable, and by whom the moon was made to wane and to increase again?
315. Who could prosper, while he injures those (men) who provoked to anger, could create other worlds and other guardians of the world, and deprive the gods of their divine station?
316. What man, desirous of life, would injure them to whose support the (three) worlds and the gods ever owe their existence, and whose wealth is the Veda?
317. A Brahmana, be he ignorant or learned, is a great divinity, just as the fire, whether carried forth (for the performance of a burnt-oblation) or not carried forth, is a great divinity.
318. The brilliant fire is not contaminated even in burial-places, and, when presented with oblations (of butter) at sacrifice [Yagna]s, it again increases mightily.
319. Thus, though Brahmanas employ themselves in all (sorts of) mean occupations, they must be honoured in every way; for (each of) them is a very great deity.
320. When the Kshatriyas become in any way overbearing towards the Brahmanas, the Brahmanas themselves shall duly restrain them; for the Kshatriyas sprang from the Brahmanas.
321. Fire sprang from water, Kshatriyas from Brahmanas, iron from stone; the all-penetrating force of those (three) has no effect on that whence they were produced.
322. Kshatriyas prosper not without Brahmanas, Brahmanas prosper not without Kshatriyas; Brahmanas and Kshatriyas, being closely united, prosper in this (world) and in the next.
323. But (a king who feels his end drawing nigh) shall bestow all his wealth, accumulated from fines, on Brahmanas, make over his kingdom to his son, and then seek death in battle.
324. Thus conducting himself (and) ever intent on (discharging) his royal duties, a king shall order all his servants (to work) for the good of his people.
325. Thus the eternal law concerning the duties of a king has been fully declared; know that the following rules apply in (due) order to the duties of Vaisyas and Sudras.
326. After a Vaisya has received the sacraments and has taken a wife, he shall be always attentive to the business whereby he may subsist and to (that of) tending cattle.
327. For when the Lord of creatures (Pragapati) created cattle, he made them over to the Vaisya; to the Brahmana, and to the king he entrusted all created beings.
328. A Vaisya must never (conceive this) wish, I will not keep cattle; and if a Vaisya is willing (to keep them), they must never be kept by (men of) other (Varnas).
329. (A Vaisya) must know the respective value of gems, of pearls, of coral, of metals, of (cloth) made of thread, of perfumes, and of condiments.
330. He must be acquainted with the (manner of) sowing of seeds, and of the good and bad qualities of fields, and he must perfectly know all measures and weights.
331. Moreover, the excellence and defects of commodities, the advantages and disadvantages of (different) countries, the (probable) profit and loss on merchandise, and the means of properly rearing cattle.
332. He must be acquainted with the (proper), wages of servants, with the various languages of men, with the manner of keeping goods, and (the rules of) purchase and sale.
333. Let him exert himself to the utmost in order to increase his property in a righteous manner, and let him zealously give food to all created beings.
334. But to serve Brahmanas (who are) learned in the Vedas, householders, and famous (for virtue) is the highest duty of a Sudra, which leads to beatitude.
335. (A Sudra who is) pure, the servant of his betters, gentle in his speech, and free from pride, and always seeks a refuge with Brahmanas, attains (in his next life) a higher Varna.
336. The excellent law for the conduct of the (four) Varnas (varna), (when they are) not in distress, has been thus promulgated; now hear in order their (several duties) in times of distress.


1. Let the three twice-born [Dwija]Varnas (varna), discharging their (prescribed) duties, study (the Veda); but among them the Brahmana (alone) shall teach it, not the other two; that is an established rule.
2. The Brahmana must know the means of subsistence (prescribed) by law for all, instruct the others, and himself live according to (the law)
3. On account of his pre-eminence, on account of the superiority of his origin, on account of his observance of (particular) restrictive rules, and on account of his particular sanctification the Brahmana is the lord of (all) Varnas (varna).
4. Brahmana, the Kshatriya, and the Vaisya Varnas (varna) are the twice-born [Dwija]ones, but the fourth, the Sudra, has one birth only; there is no fifth (Varna).
5. In all Varnas (varna) those (children) only which are begotten in the direct order on wedded wives, equal (in Varna and married as) virgins, are to be considered as belonging to the same Varna (as their fathers)
6. Sons, begotten by twice-born [Dwija]man on wives of the next lower Varnas, they declare to be similar (to their fathers, but) blamed on account of the fault (inherent) in their mothers.
7. Such is the eternal law concerning (children) born of wives one degree lower (than their husbands); know (that) the following rule (is applicable) to those born of women two or three degrees lower.
8. From a Brahmana a with the daughter of a Vaisya is born (a son) called an Ambashtha, with the daughter of a sudra a Nishada, who is also called Parasava.
9. From a Kshatriya and the daughter of a Sudra springs a being, called Ugra, resembling both a Kshatriya and a Sudra, ferocious in his manners, and delighting in cruelty.
10. Children of a Brahmana by (women of) the three (lower) Varnas, of a Kshatriya by (wives of) the two (lower) Varnas, and of a Vaisya by (a wife of) the one Varna (below him) are all six called base-born (apasada).
11. From a Kshatriya by the daughter of a Brahmana is born (a son called) according to his Varna (Jati) a Suta; from a Vaisya by females of the royal and the Brahmana (Varnas) spring a Magadha and a Vaideha.
12. From a Sudra are born an Ayogava, a Kshattri, and a Kandala, the lowest of men, by Vaisya, Kshatriya, and Brahmana) females, (sons who owe their origin to) a confusion of the Varnas.
13. As an Ambashtha and an Ugra, (begotten) in the direct order on (women) one degree lower (than their husbands) are declared (to be), even so are a Kshattri and a Vaidehaka, though they were born in the inverse order of the Varnas (from mothers one degree higher than the fathers).
14. Those sons of the twice-born, begotten on wives of the next lower Varnas, who have been enumerated in due order, they call by the name Anantaras (belonging to the next lower Varna), on account of the blemish (inherent) in their mothers.
15. A Brahmana begets on the daughter of an Ugra an Avrita, on the daughter of an Ambashtha an Abhira, but on a female of the Ayogava (Varna) a Dhigvana.
16. From a Sudra spring in the inverse order (by females of the higher Varnas) three base-born (sons, apasada), an Ayogava, a Kshattri, and a Kandala, the lowest of men;
17. From a Vaisya are born in the inverse order of the Varnas a Magadha and a Vaideha, but from a Kshatriya a Suta only; these are three other base-born ones (apasada).
18. The son of a Nishada by a Sudra female becomes a Pukkasa by Varna (Jati), but the son of a Sudra by a Nishada female is declared to be a Kukkutaka.
19. Moreover, the son of by Kshattri by an Ugra female is called a Svapaka; but one begotten by a Vaidehaka on an Ambashtha female is named a Vena.
20. Those (sons) whom the twice-born [Dwija]beget on wives of equal Varna, but who, not fulfilling their sacred duties, are excluded from the Savitri, one must designate by the appellation Vratyas.
21. But from a Vratya (of the) Brahmana (Varna) spring the wicked Bhriggakantaka, the Avantya, the Vatadhana, the Pushpadha, and the Saikha.
22. From a Vratya (of the) Kshatriya (Varna), the Ghalla, the Malla, the Likkhivi, the Nata, the Karana, the Khasa, and the Dravida.
23. From a Vratya (of the) Vaisya (Varna) are born a Sudhanvan, an Akarya, a Karusha, a Viganman, a Maitra, and a Satvata.
24. By adultery (committed by persons) of (different) Varnas, by marriages with women who ought not to be married, and by the neglect of the duties and occupations (prescribed) to each, are produced (sons who owe their origin) to a confusion the Varnas.
25. I will (now) fully enumerate those (sons) of mixed origin, who are born of Anulomas and of Pratilomas, and (thus) are mutually connected.
26. The Suta, the Vaidehaka, the Kandala, that lowest of mortals, the Magadha, he of the Kshattri Varna (Jati), and the Ayogava,
27. These six (Pratilomas) beget similar races (varna) on women of their own (Varna), they (also) produce (the like) with females of their mother’s Varna (Jati), and with females (of) higher ones.
28. As a (Brahmana) begets on (females of) two out of the three (twice-born [Dwija]Varnas a son similar to) himself, (but inferior) on account of the lower degree (of the mother), and (one equal to himself) on a female of his own race, even so is the order in the case of the excluded (races, vahya).
29. Those (six mentioned above) also beget, the one on the females of the other, a great many (kinds of) despicable (sons), even more sinful than their (fathers), and excluded (from the Aryan community, vahya).
30. Just as a Sudra begets on a Brahmana female a being excluded (from the Aryan community), even so (a person himself) excluded pro creates with (females of) the four Varnas (varna, sons) more (worthy of being) excluded (than he himself).
31. But men excluded (by the Aryans, vahya), who approach females of higher rank, beget races (varna) still more worthy to be excluded, low men (hina) still lower races, even fifteen (in number).
32. A Dasyu begets on an Ayogava (woman) a Sairandhra, who is skilled in adorning and attending (his master), who, (though) not a slave, lives like a slave, (or) subsists by snaring (animals).
33. A Vaideha produces (with the same) a sweet-voiced Maitreyaka, who, ringing a bell at the appearance of dawn, continually. praises (great) men.
34. A Nishada begets (on the same) a Margava (or) Dasa, who subsists by working as a boatman, (and) whom the inhabitants of Aryavarta call a Kaivarta.
35. Those three base-born ones are severally begot on Ayogava women, who wear the clothes of the dead, are wicked, and eat reprehensible food.
36. From a Nishada springs (by a woman of the Vaideha Varna) a Karavara, who works in leather; and from a Vaidehaka (by women of the Karavara and Nishada Varnas), an Andhra and a Meda, who dwell outside the village.
37. From a Kandala by a Vaideha woman is born a Pandusopaka, who deals in cane; from a Nishada (by the same) an Ahindika.
38. But from a Kandala by a Pukkasa woman is born the sinful Sopaka, who lives by the occupations of his sire, and is ever despised by good men.
39. A Nishada woman bears to a Kandala a son (called) Antyavasayin, employed in burial-grounds, and despised even by those excluded (from the Aryan community).
40. These races, (which originate) in a confusion (of the Varnas and) have been described according to their fathers and mothers, may be known by their occupations, whether they conceal or openly show themselves.
41. Six sons, begotten (by Aryans) on women of equal and the next lower Varnas (Anantara), have the duties of twice-born [Dwija]men; but all those born in consequence of a violation (of the law) are, as regards their duties, equal to Sudras.
42. By the power of austerities and of the seed (from which they sprang), these (races) obtain here among men more exalted or lower rank in successive births.
43. But in consequence of the omission of the sacred rites, and of their not consulting Brahmanas, the following tribes of Kshatriyas have gradually sunk in this world to the condition of Sudras;
44. (Viz.) the Paundrakas, the Kodas, the Dravidas, the Kambogas, the Yavanas, the Sakas, the Paradas, the Pahlavas, the Kinas, the Kiratas, and the Daradas.
45. All those tribes in this world, which are excluded from (the community of) those born from the mouth, the arms, the thighs, and the feet (of Brahman), are called Dasyus, whether they speak the language of the Mlekkhas (barbarians) or that of the Aryans.
46. Those who have been mentioned as the base-born (offspring, apasada) of Aryans, or as produced in consequence of a violation (of the law, apadhvamsaga), shall subsist by occupations reprehended by the twice-born.
47. To Sutas (belongs) the management of horses and of chariots; to Ambashthas, the art of healing; to Vaidehakas, the service of women; to Magadhas, trade;
48. Killing fish to Nishadas; carpenters’ work to the Ayogava; to Medas, Andhras, Kunkus, and Madgus, the slaughter of wild animals;
49. To Kshattris, Ugras, and Pukkasas, catching and killing (animals) living in holes; to Dhigvanas, working in leather; to Venas, playing drums.
50. Near well-known trees and burial-grounds, on mountains and in groves, let these (tribes) dwell, known (by certain marks), and subsisting by their peculiar occupations.
51. But the dwellings of Kandalas and Svapakas shall be outside the village, they must be made Apapatras, and their wealth (shall be) dogs and donkeys.
52. Their dress (shall be) the garments of the dead, (they shall eat) their food from broken dishes, black iron (shall be) their ornaments, and they must always wander from place to place.
53. A man who fulfils a religious duty, shall not seek intercourse with them; their transactions (shall be) among themselves, and their marriages with their equals.
54. Their food shall be given to them by others (than an Aryan giver) in a broken dish; at night they shall not walk about in villages and in towns.
55. By day they may go about for the purpose of their work, distinguished by marks at the king’s command, and they shall carry out the corpses (of persons) who have no relatives; that is a settled rule.
56. By the king’s order they shall always execute the criminals, in accordance with the law, and they shall take for themselves the clothes, the beds, and the ornaments of (such) criminals.
57. A man of impure origin, who belongs not to any Varna, (varna, but whose character is) not known, who, (though) not an Aryan, has the appearance of an Aryan, one may discover by his acts.
58. Behaviour unworthy of an Aryan, harshness, cruelty, and habitual neglect of the prescribed duties betray in this world a man of impure origin.
59. A base-born man either resembles in character his father, or his mother, or both; he can never conceal his real nature.
60. Even if a man, born in a great family, sprang from criminal intercourse, he will certainly possess the faults of his (father), be they small or great.
61. But that kingdom in which such bastards, sullying (the purity of) the Varnas, are born, perishes quickly together with its inhabitants.
62. Dying, without the expectation of a reward, for the sake of Brahmanas and of cows, or in the defence of women and children, secures beatitude to those excluded (from the Aryan community, vahya.)
63. Abstention from injuring (creatures), veracity, abstention from unlawfully appropriating (the goods of others), purity, and control of the organs, Manu has declared to be the summary of the law for the four Varnas.
64. If (a female of the Varna), sprung from a Brahmana and a Sudra female, bear (children) to one of the highest Varna, the inferior (tribe) attains the highest Varna within the seventh generation.
65. (Thus) a Sudra attains the rank of a Brahmana, and (in a similar manner) a Brahmana sinks to the level of a Sudra; but know that it is the same with the offspring of a Kshatriya or of a Vaisya.
66. If (a doubt) should arise, with whom the preeminence (is, whether) with him whom an Aryan by chance begot on a non-Aryan female, or (with the son) of a Brahmana woman by a non-Aryan,
67. The decision is as follows: ‘He who was begotten by an Aryan on a non-Aryan female, may become (like to) an Aryan by his virtues; he whom an Aryan (mother) bore to a non-Aryan father (is and remains) unlike to an Aryan.’
68. The law prescribes that neither of the two shall receive the sacraments, the first (being excluded) on account of the lowness of his origin, the second (because the union of his parents was) against the order of the Varnas.
69. As good seed, springing up in good soil, turns out perfectly well, even so the son of an Aryan by an Aryan woman is worthy of all the sacraments.
70. Some sages declare the seed to be more important, and others the field; again others (assert that) the seed and the field (are equally important); but the legal decision on this point is as follows:
71. Seed, sown on barren ground, perishes in it; a (fertile) field also, in which no (good) seed (is sown), will remain barren.
72. As through the power of the seed (sons) born of animals became sages who are honoured and praised, hence the seed is declared to be more important.
73. Having considered (the case of) a non-Aryan who acts like an Aryan, and (that of) an Aryan who acts like a non-Aryan, the creator declared, ‘Those two are neither equal nor unequal.’
74. Brahmanas who are intent on the means (of gaining union with) Brahman and firm in (discharging) their duties, shall live by duly performing the following six acts, (which are enumerated) in their (proper) order.
75. Teaching, studying, sacrificing for himself, sacrificing for others, making gifts and receiving them are the six acts (prescribed) for a Brahmana.
76. But among the six acts (ordained) for him three are his means of subsistence, (viz.) sacrificing for others, teaching, and accepting gifts from pure men.
77. (Passing) from the Brahmana to the Kshatriya, three acts (incumbent on the former) are forbidden, (viz.) teaching, sacrificing for others, and, thirdly, the acceptance of gifts.
78. The same are likewise forbidden to a Vaisya, that is a settled rule; for Manu, the lord of creatures (Pragapati), has not prescribed them for (men of) those two (Varnas).
79. To carry arms for striking and for throwing (is prescribed) for Kshatriyas as a means of subsistence; to trade, (to rear) cattle, and agriculture for Vaisyas; but their duties are liberality, the study of the Veda, and the performance of sacrifice [Yagna]s.
80. Among the several occupations the most commendable are, teaching the Veda for a Brahmana, protecting (the people) for a Kshatriya, and trade for a Vaisya.
81. But a Brahmana, unable to subsist by his peculiar occupations just mentioned, may live according to the law applicable to Kshatriyas; for the latter is next to him in rank.
82. If it be asked, ‘How shall it be, if he cannot maintain himself by either (of these occupations?’ the answer is), he may adopt a Vaisya’s mode of life, employing himself in agriculture and rearing cattle.
83. But a Brahmana, or a Kshatriya, living by a Vaisya’s mode of subsistence, shall carefully avoid (the pursuit of) agriculture, (which causes) injury to many beings and depends on others.
84. (Some) declare that agriculture is something excellent, (but) that means of subsistence is blamed by the virtuous; (for) the wooden (implement) with iron point injuries the earth and (the beings) living in the earth.
85. But he who, through a want of means of subsistence, gives up the strictness with respect to his duties, may sell, in order to increase his wealth, the commodities sold by Vaisyas, making (however) the (following) exceptions.
86. He must avoid (selling) condiments of all sorts, cooked food and sesamum, stones, salt, cattle, and human (beings),
87. All dyed cloth, as well as cloth made of hemp, or flax, or wool, even though they be not dyed, fruit, roots, and (medical) herbs
88. Water, weapons, poison, meat, Soma, and perfumes of all kinds, fresh milk, honey, sour milk, clarified butter, oil, wax, sugar, Kusa-grass;
89. All beasts of the forest, animals with fangs or tusks, birds, spirituous liquor, indigo, lac, and all one-hoofed beasts.
90. But he who subsists by agriculture, may at pleasure sell unmixed sesamum grains for sacred purposes, provided he himself has grown them and has not kept them long.
91. If he applies sesamum to any other purpose but food, anointing, and charitable gifts, he will be born (again) as a worm and, together with his ancestors, be plunged into the ordure of dogs.
92. By (selling) flesh, salt, and lac a Brahmana at once becomes an outcast; by selling milk he becomes (equal to) a Sudra in three days.
93. But by willingly selling in this world other (forbidden) commodities, a Brahmana assumes after seven nights the character of a Vaisya.
94. Condiments may be bartered for condiments, but by no means salt for (other) condiments; cooked food (may be exchanged) for (other kinds of) cooked food, and sesamum seeds for grain in equal quantities.
95. A Kshatriya who has fallen into distress, may subsist by all these (means); but he must never arrogantly adopt the mode of life (prescribed for his) betters.
96. A man of low Varna who through covetousness lives by the occupations of a higher one, the king shall deprive of his property and banish.
97. It is better (to discharge) one’s own (appointed) duty incompletely than to perform completely that of another; for he who lives according to the law of another (Varna) is instantly excluded from his own.
98. A Vaisya who is unable to subsist by his own duties, may even maintain himself by a Sudra’s mode of life, avoiding (however) acts forbidden (to him), and he should give it up, when he is able (to do so).
99. But a Sudra, being unable to find service with the twice-born [Dwija]and threatened with the loss of his sons and wife (through hunger), may maintain himself by handicrafts.
100. (Let him follow) those mechanical occupations and those various practical arts by following which the twice-born [Dwija]are (best) served.
101. A Brahmana who is distressed through a want of means of subsistence and pines (with hunger), (but) unwilling to adopt a Vaisya’s mode of life and resolved to follow his own (prescribed) path, may act in the following manner.
102. A Brahmana who has fallen into distress may accept (gifts) from anybody; for according to the law it is not possible (to assert) that anything pure can be sullied.
103. By teaching, by sacrificing for, and by accepting gifts from despicable (men) Brahmanas (in distress) commit not sin; for they (are as pure) as fire and water.
104. He who, when in danger of losing his life, accepts food from any person whatsoever, is no more tainted by sin than the sky by mud.
105. Agigarta, who suffered hunger, approached in order to slay (his own) son, and was not tainted by sin, since he (only) sought a remedy against famishing.
106. Vamadeva, who well knew right and wrong, did not sully himself when, tormented (by hunger), he desired to eat the flesh of a dog in order to save his life.
107. Bharadvaga, a performer of great austerities, accepted many cows from the carpenter Bribu, when he was starving together with his sons in a lonely forest.
108. Visvamitra, who well knew what is right or wrong, approached, when he was tormented by hunger, (to eat) the haunch of a dog, receiving it the hands of a Kandala.
109. On (comparing) the acceptance (of gifts from low men), sacrificing (for them), and teaching (them), the acceptance of gifts is the meanest (of those acts) and (most) reprehensible for a Brahmana (on account of its results) in the next life.
110. (For) assisting in sacrifice [Yagna]s and teaching are (two acts) always performed for men who have received the sacraments; but the acceptance of gifts takes place even in (case the giver is) a Sudra of the lowest class.
111. The guilt incurred by offering sacrifice [Yagna]s for teaching (unworthy men) is removed by muttering (sacred texts) and by burnt offerings, but that incurred by accepting gifts (from them) by throwing (the gifts) away and by austerities.
112. A Brahmana who is unable to maintain himself, should (rather) glean ears or grains from (the field of) any (man); gleaning ears is better than accepting gifts, picking up single grains is declared to be still more laudable.
113. If Brahmanas, who are Snatakas, are pining with hunger, or in want of (utensils made of) common metals, or of other property, they may ask the king for them; if he is not disposed to be liberal, he must be left.
114. (The acceptance on an untilled field is less blamable than (that of) a tilled one; (with respect to) cows, goats, sheep, gold, grain, and cooked food, (the acceptance of) each earlier-named (article is less blamable than of the following ones).
115. There are seven lawful modes of acquiring property, (viz.) inheritance, finding or friendly donation, purchase, conquest, lending at interest, the performance of work, and the acceptance of gifts from virtuous men.
116. Learning, mechanical arts, work for wages, service, rearing cattle, traffic, agriculture, contentment (with little), alms, and receiving interest on money, are the ten modes of subsistence (permitted to all men in times of distress).
117. Neither a Brahmana, nor a Kshatriya must lend (money at) interest; but at his pleasure (either of them) may, in times of distress when he requires money) for sacred purposes, lend to a very sinful man at a small interest.
118. A Kshatriya (king) who, in times of distress, takes even the fourth part (of the crops), is free from guilt, if he protects his subjects to the best of his ability.
119. His peculiar duty is conquest, and he must not turn back in danger; having protected the Vaisyas by his weapons, he may cause the legal tax to be collected;
120. (Viz.) from Vaisyas one-eighth as the tax on grain, one-twentieth (on the profits on gold and cattle), which amount at least to one Karshapana; Sudras, artisans, and mechanics (shall) benefit (the king) by (doing) work (for him).
121. If a Sudra, (unable to subsist by serving Brahmanas,) seeks a livelihood, he may serve Kshatriyas, or he may also seek to maintain himself by attending on a wealthy Vaisya.
122. But let a (Sudra) serve Brahmanas, either for the sake of heaven, or with a view to both (this life and the next); for he who is called the servant of a Brahmana thereby gains all his ends.
123. The service of Brahmanas alone is declared (to be) an excellent occupation for a Sudra; for whatever else besides this he may perform will bear him no fruit.
124. They must allot to him out of their own family (-property) a suitable maintenance, after considering his ability, his industry, and the number of those whom he is bound to support.
125. The remnants of their food must be given to him, as well as their old clothes, the refuse of their grain, and their old household furniture.
126. A Sudra cannot commit an offence, causing loss of Varna (pataka), and he is not worthy to receive the sacraments; he has no right to (fulfil) the sacred law (of the Aryans, yet) there is no prohibition against (his fulfilling certain portions of) the law.
127. (Sudras) who are desirous to gain merit, and know (their) duty, commit no sin, but gain praise, if they imitate the practice of virtuous men without reciting sacred texts.
128. The more a (Sudra), keeping himself free from envy, imitates the behaviour of the virtuous, the more he gains, without being censured, (exaltation in) this world and the next.
129. No collection of wealth must be made by a Sudra, even though he be able (to do it); for a Sudra who has acquired wealth, gives pain to Brahmanas.
130. The duties of the four Varnas (varna) in times of distress have thus been declared, and if they perform them well, they will reach the most blessed state.
131. Thus all the legal rules for the four Varnas have been proclaimed; I next will promulgate the auspicious rules for penances.


1. Him who wishes (to marry for the sake of having) offspring, him who wishes to perform a sacrifice [Yagna], a traveller, him who has given away all his property, him who begs for the sake of his teacher [acharya], his father, or his mother, a student [Brahmachari] of the Veda, and a sick man,
2. These nine Brahmanas one should consider as Snatakas, begging in order to fulfil the sacred law; to such poor men gifts must be given in proportion to their learning.
3. To these most excellent among the twice-born, food and presents (of money) must be given; it is declared that food must be given to others outside the sacrificial enclosure.
4. But a king shall bestow, as is proper, jewels of all sorts, and presents for the sake of sacrifice [Yagna]s on Brahmanas learned in the Vedas.
5. If a man who has a wife weds a second wife, having begged money (to defray the marriage expenses, he obtains) no advantage but sensual enjoyment; but the issue (of his second marriage belongs) to the giver of the money.
6. One should give, according to one’s ability, wealth to Brahmanas learned in the Veda and living alone; (thus) one obtains after death heavenly bliss.
7. He who may possess (a supply of) food sufficient to maintain those dependant on him during three years or more than that, is worthy to drink the Soma-juice.
8. But a twice-born [Dwija]man, who, though possessing less than that amount of property, nevertheless drinks the Soma-juice, does not derive any benefit from that (act), though he may have formerly drunk the Soma-juice.
9. (If) an opulent man (is) liberal towards strangers, while his family lives in distress, that counterfeit virtue will first make him taste the sweets (of fame, but afterwards) make him swallow the poison (of punishment in hell).
10. If (a man) does anything for the sake of his happiness in another world, to the detriment of those whom he is bound to maintain, that produces evil results for him, both while he lives and when he is dead.
11. If a sacrifice [Yagna], (offered) by (any twice-born) sacrifice [Yagna]r, (and) especially by a Brahmana, must remain incomplete through (the want of) one requisite, while a righteous king rules,
12. That article (required) for the completion of the sacrifice [Yagna], may be taken (forcibly) from the house of any Vaisya, who possesses a large number of cattle, (but) neither performs the (minor) sacrifice [Yagna]s nor drinks the Soma-juice;
13. (Or) the (sacrifice [Yagna]r) may take at his pleasure two or three (articles required for a sacrifice [Yagna]) from the house of a Sudra; for a Sudra has no business with sacrifice [Yagna]s.
14. If (a man) possessing one hundred cows, kindles not the sacred fire, or one possessing a thousand cows, drinks not the Soma-juice, a (sacrifice [Yagna]r) may unhesitatingly take (what he requires) from the houses of those two, even (though they be Brahmanas or Kshatriyas);
15. (Or) he may take (it by force or fraud) from one who always takes and never gives, and who refuses to give it; thus the fame (of the taker) will spread and his merit increase.
16. Likewise he who has not eaten at (the time of) six meals, may take at (the time of) the seventh meal (food) from a man who neglects his sacred duties, without (however) making a provision for the morrow,
17. Either from the threshing-floor, or from a field, or out of the house, or wherever he finds it; but if (the owner) asks him, he must confess to him that (deed and its cause).
18. (On such occasions) a Kshatriya must never take the property of a (virtuous Brahmana; but he who is starving may appropriate the possessions of a Dasyu, or of one who neglects his sacred duties.
19. He who takes property from the wicked and bestows it on the virtuous, transforms himself into a boat, and carries both (over the sea of misfortune).
20. The property of those who zealously offer sacrifice [Yagna]s, the wise call the property of the gods; but the wealth of those who perform no sacrifice [Yagna]s is called the property of the Asuras.
21. On him (who, for the reasons stated, appropriates another’s possessions), a righteous king shall not inflict punishment; for (in that case) a Brahmana pines with hunger through the Kshatriya’s want of care.
22. Having ascertained the number of those dependent on such a man, and having fully considered his learning and his conduct, the king shall allow him, out of his own property, a maintenance whereon he may live according to the law;
23. And after allotting to him a maintenance, the king must protect him in every way; for he obtains from such (a man) whom he protects, the part of his spiritual merit.
24. A Brahmana shall never beg from a Sudra property for a sacrifice [Yagna]; for a sacrifice [Yagna]r, having begged (it from such a man), after death is born (again) as a Kandala.
25. A Brahmana who, having begged any property for a sacrifice [Yagna], does not use the whole (for that purpose), becomes for a hundred years a (vulture of the kind called) Bhasa, or a crow.
26. That sinful man, who, through covetousness, seizes the property of the gods, or the property of Brahmanas, feeds in another world on the leavings of vultures.
27. In case the prescribed animal and Soma-sacrifice [Yagna]s cannot be performed, let him always offer at the change of the year a Vaisvanari Ishti as a penance (for the omission).
28. But a twice-born, who, without being in distress, performs his duties according to the law for times of distress, obtains no reward for them in the next world; that is the opinion (of the sages).
29. By the Visve-devas, by the Sadhyas, and by the great sages (of the) Brahmana (Varna), who were afraid of perishing in times of distress, a substitute was made for the (principal) rule.
30. That evil-minded man, who, being able (to fulfil) the original law, lives according to the secondary rule, reaps no reward for that after death.
31. A Brahmana who knows the law need not bring any (offence) to the notice of the king; by his own power alone be can punish those men who injure him.
32. His own power is greater than the power of the king; the Brahmana therefore, may punish his foes by his own power alone.
33. Let him use without hesitation the sacred texts, revealed by Atharvan and by Angiras; speech, indeed, is the weapon of the Brahmana, with that he may slay his enemies.
34. A Kshatriya shall pass through misfortunes which have befallen him by the strength of his arms, a Vaisya and a Sudra by their wealth, the chief of the twice-born [Dwija]by muttered prayers and burnt-oblations.
35. The Brahmana is declared (to be) the creator (of the world), the punisher, the teacher [acharya], (and hence) a benefactor (of all created beings); to him let no man say anything unpropitious, nor use any harsh words.
36. Neither a girl, nor a (married) young woman, nor a man of little learning, nor a fool, nor a man in great suffering, nor one uninitiated, shall offer an Agnihotra.
37. For such (persons) offering a burnt-oblation sink into hell, as well as he to whom that (Agnihotra) belongs; hence the person who sacrifice [Yagna]s (for another) must be skilled in (the performance of) Vaitana (rites), and know the whole Veda.
38. A Brahmana who, though wealthy, does not give, as fee for the performance of an Agnyadheya, a horse sacred to Pragapati, becomes (equal to one) who has not kindled the sacred fires.
39. Let him who has faith and controls his senses perform other meritorious acts, but let him on no account offer sacrifice [Yagna]s at which he gives smaller fees (than those prescribed).
40. The organs (of sense and action), honour, (bliss in) heaven, longevity, fame, offspring, and cattle are destroyed by a sacrifice [Yagna] at which (too) small sacrificial fees are given; hence a man of small means should not offer a (Srauta) sacrifice [Yagna].
41. A Brahmana who, being an Agnihotrin, voluntarily neglects the sacred fires, shall perform a lunar penance during one month; for that (offence) is equal to the slaughter of a son.
42. Those who, obtaining wealth from Sudras, (and using that) offer an Agnihotra, are priests officiating for Sudras, (and hence) censured among those who recite the Veda.
43. Treading with his foot on the heads of those fools who worship a fire (kindled at the expense) of a Sudra, the giver (of the wealth) shall always pass over his miseries (in the next world).
44. A man who omits a prescribed act, or performs a blamable act, or cleaves to sensual enjoyments, must perform a penance.
45. (All) sages prescribe a penance for a sin unintentionally committed; some declare, on the evidence of the revealed texts, (that it may be performed) even for an intentional (offence).
46. A sin unintentionally committed is expiated by the recitation of Vedic texts, but that which (men) in their folly commit intentionally, by various (special) penances.
47. A twice-born [Dwija]man, having become liable to perform a penance, be it by (the decree of) fate or by (an act) committed in a former life, must not, before the penance has been performed, have intercourse with virtuous men.
48. Some wicked men suffer a change of their (natural) appearance in consequence of crimes committed in this life, and some in consequence of those committed in a former (existence).
49. He who steals the gold (of a Brahmana) has diseased nails; a drinker of (the spirituous liquor called) Sura, black teeth; the slayer of a Brahmana, consumption; the violator of a Guru’s bed, a diseased skin;
50. An informer, a foul-smelling nose; a calumniator, a stinking breath; a stealer of grain, deficiency in limbs; he who adulterates (grain), redundant limbs;
51. A stealer of (cooked) food, dyspepsia; a stealer of the words (of the Veda), dumbness a stealer of clothes, white leprosy; a horse-stealer, lameness.
52. The stealer of a lamp will become blind; he who extinguishes it will become one-eyed; injury (to sentient beings) is punished by general sickliness; an adulterer (will have) swellings (in his limbs).
53. Thus in consequence of a remnant of (the guilt of former) crimes, are born idiots, dumb, blind, deaf, and deformed men, who are (all) despised by the virtuous.
54. Penances, therefore, must always be performed for the sake of purification, because those whose sins have not been expiated, are born (again) with disgraceful marks.
55. Killing a Brahmana, drinking (the spirituous liquor called) Sura, stealing (the gold of a Brahmana), adultery with a Guru’s wife, and associating with such (offenders), they declare (to be) mortal sins (mahapataka).
56. Falsely attributing to oneself high birth, giving information to the king (regarding a crime), and falsely accusing one’s teacher [acharya], (are offences) equal to slaying a Brahmana.
57. Forgetting the Veda, reviling the Vedas, giving false evidence, slaying a friend, eating forbidden food, or (swallowing substances) unfit for food, are six (offences) equal to drinking Sura.
58. Stealing a deposit, or men, a horse, and silver, land, diamonds and (other) gems, is declared to be equal to stealing the gold (of a Brahmana).
59. Carnal intercourse with sisters by the same mother, with (unmarried) maidens, with females of the lowest Varnas, with the wives of a friend, or of a son, they declare to be equal to the violation of a Guru’s bed.
60. Slaying kine, sacrificing for those who are unworthy to sacrifice [Yagna], adultery, selling oneself, casting off one’s teacher [acharya], mother, father, or son, giving up the (daily) study of the Veda, and neglecting the (sacred domestic) fire,
61. Allowing one’s younger brother to marry first, marrying before one’s elder brother, giving a daughter to, or sacrificing for, (either brother),
62. Defiling a damsel, usury, breaking a vow, selling a tank, a garden, one’s wife, or child,
63. Living as a Vratya, casting off a relative, teaching (the Veda) for wages, learning (the Veda) from a paid teacher [acharya], and selling goods which one ought not to sell,
64. Superintending mines (or factories) of any sort, executing great mechanical works, injuring (living) plants, subsisting on (the earnings of) one’s wife, sorcery (by means of sacrifice [Yagna]s), and working (magic by means of) roots, (and so forth),
65. Cutting down green trees for firewood, doing acts for one’s own advantage only, eating prohibited food,
66. Neglecting to kindle the sacred fires, theft, non-payment of (the three) debts, studying bad books, and practising (the arts of) dancing and singing,
67. Stealing grain, base metals, or cattle, intercourse with women who drink spirituous liquor, slaying women, Sudras, Vaisyas, or Kshatriyas, and atheism, (are all) minor offences, causing loss of Varna (Upapataka).
68. Giving pain to a Brahmana (by a blow), smelling at things which ought not to be smelt at, or at spirituous liquor, cheating, and an unnatural offence with a man, are declared to cause the loss of Varna (Jatibhramsa)
69. Killing a donkey, a horse, a camel, a deer, an elephant, a goat, a sheep, a fish, a snake, or a buffalo, must be known to degrade (the offender) to a mixed Varna (Samkarikarana).
70. Accepting presents from blamed men, trading, serving Sudras, and speaking a falsehood, make (the offender) unworthy to receive gifts (Apatra).
71. Killing insects, small or large, or birds, eating anything kept close to spirituous liquors, stealing fruit, firewood, or flowers, (are offences) which make impure (Malavaha).
72. Learn (now) completely those penances, by means of which all the several offences mentioned (can) be expiated.
73. For his purification the slayer of a Brahmana shall make a hut in the forest and dwell (in it) during twelve years, subsisting on alms and making the skull of a dead man his flag.
74. Or let him, of his own free will, become (in a battle) the target of archers who know (his purpose); or he may thrice throw himself headlong into a blazing fire;
75. Or he may offer a horse-sacrifice [Yagna], a Svargit, a Gosava, an Abhigit, a Visvagit, a Trivrit, or an Agnishtut;
76. Or, in order to remove (the guilt of) slaying a Brahmana, he may walk one hundred yoganas, reciting one of the Vedas, eating little, and controlling his organs;
77. Or he may present to a Brahmana, learned in the Vedas, whole property, as much wealth as suffices for the maintenance (of the recipient), or a house together with the furniture;
78. Or, subsisting on sacrificial food, he may walk against the stream along (the whole course of the river) Sarasvati; or, restricting his food (very much), he may mutter thrice the Samhita of a Veda.
79. Having shaved off (all his hair), he may dwell at the extremity of the village, or in a cow-pen, or in a hermitage, or at the root of a tree, taking pleasure in doing good to cows and Brahmanas.
80. He who unhesitatingly abandons life for the sake of Brahmanas or of cows, is freed from (the guilt of) the murder of a Brahmana, and (so is he) who saves (the life of) a cow, or of a Brahmana.
81. If either he fights at least three times (against robbers in defence of) a Brahmana’s (property), or reconquers the whole property of a Brahmana, or if he loses his life for such a cause, he is freed (from his guilt).
82. He who thus (remains) always firm in his vow, chaste, and of concentrated mind, removes after the lapse of twelve years (the guilt of) slaying a Brahmana.
83. Or he who, after confessing his crime in an assembly of the gods of the earth (Brahnanas), and the gods of men (Kshatriyas), bathes (with the priests) at the close of a horse-sacrifice [Yagna], is (also) freed (from guilt).
84. The Brahmana is declared (to be) the root of the sacred law and the Kshatriya its top; hence he who has confessed his sin before an assembly of such men, becomes pure.
85. By his origin alone a Brahmana is a deity even for the gods, and (his teaching is) authoritative for men, because the Veda is the foundation for that.
86. (If) only three of them who are learned in the Veda proclaim the expiation for offences, that shall purify the (sinners); for the words of learned men are a means of purification.
87. A Brahmana who, with a concentrated mind, follows any of the (above-mentioned) rules, removes the sin committed by slaying a Brahmana through his self-control.
88. For destroying the embryo (of a Brahmana, the sex of which was) unknown, for slaying a Kshatriya or a Vaisya who are (engaged in or) have offered a (Vedic) sacrifice [Yagna], or a (Brahmana) woman who has bathed after temporary uncleanness (Atreyi), he must perform the same penance,
89. Likewise for giving false evidence (in an important cause), for passionately abusing the teacher [acharya], for stealing a deposit, and for killing (his) wife or his friend:
90. This expiation has been prescribed for unintentionally killing a Brahmana; but for intentionally slaying a Brahmana no atonement is ordained.
91. A twice-born [Dwija]man who has (intentionally) drunk, through delusion of mind, (the spirituous liquor called) Sura shall drink that liquor boiling-hot; when his body has been completely scalded by that, he is freed from his guilt;
92. Or he may drink cow’s urine, water, milk, clarified butter or (liquid) cowdung boiling-hot, until he dies;
93. Or, in order to remove (the guilt of) drinking Sura, he may eat during a year once (a day) at night grains (of rice) or oilcake, wearing clothes made of cowhair and his own hair in braids and carrying (a wine cup as) a flag.
94. Sura, indeed, is the dirty refuse (mala) of grain, sin also is called dirt (mala); hence a Brahmana, a Kshatriya, and a Vaisya shall not drink Sura.
95. Sura one must know to be of three kinds, that distilled from molasses (gaudi), that distilled from ground rice, and that distilled from Madhuka-flowers (madhvi); as the one (named above) even so are all (three sorts) forbidden to the chief of the twice-born.
96. Sura, (all other) intoxicating drinks and decoctions and flesh are the food of the Yakshas, Rakshasas, and Pisakas; a Brahmana who eats (the remnants of) the offerings consecrated to the gods, must not partake of such (substances).
97. A Brahmana, stupefied by drunkenness, might fall on something impure, or (improperly) pronounce Vedic (texts), or commit some other act which ought not to be committed.
98. When the Brahman (the Veda) which dwells in his body is (even) once (only) deluged with spirituous liquor, his Brahmanhood forsakes him and he becomes a Sudra.
99. The various expiations for drinking (the spirituous liquors called) Sura have thus been explained; I will next proclaim the atonement for stealing the gold (of a Brahmana).
100. A Brahmana who has stolen the gold (of a Brahmana) shall go to the king and, confessing his deed, say, ‘Lord, punish me!’
101. Taking (from him) the club (which he must carry), the king himself shall strike him once, by his death the thief becomes pure; or a Brahmana (may purify himself) by austerities.
102. He who desires to remove by austerities the guilt of stealing the gold (of a Brahmana), shall perform the penance (prescribed) for the slayer of a Brahmana, (living) in a forest and dressed in (garments) made of bark.
103. By these penances a twice-born [Dwija]man may remove the guilt incurred by a theft (of gold); but he may atone for connexion with a Guru’s wife by the following penances.
104. He who has violated his Guru’s bed, shall, after confessing his crime, extend himself on a heated iron bed, or embrace the red-hot image (of a woman); by dying he becomes pure;
105. Or, having himself cut off his organ and his testicles and having taken them in his joined hands, he may walk straight towards the region of Nirriti (the south-west), until he falls down (dead);
106. Or, carrying the foot of a bedstead, dressed in (garments of) bark and allowing his beard to grow, he may, with a concentrated mind, perform during a whole year the Krikkhra (or hard, penance), revealed by Pragapati, in a lonely forest;
107. Or, controlling his organs, he may during three months continuously perform the lunar penance, (subsisting) on sacrificial food or barley-gruel, in order to remove (the guilt of) violating a Guru’s bed.
108. By means of these penances men who have committed mortal sins (Mahapataka) may remove their guilt, but those who committed minor offences, causing loss of Varna, (Upapataka, can do it) by the various following penances.
109. He who has committed a minor offence by slaying a cow (or bull) shall drink during (the first) month (a decoction of) barley-grains; having shaved all his hair, and covering himself with the hide (of the slain cow), he must live in a cow-house.
110. During the two (following) months he shall eat a small (quantity of food) without any factitious salt at every fourth meal-time, and shall bathe in the urine of cows, keeping his organs under control.
111. During the day he shall follow the cows and, standing upright, inhale the dust (raised by their hoofs); at night, after serving and worshipping them, he shall remain in the (posture, called) virasana.
112. Controlling himself and free from anger, he must stand when they stand, follow them when they walk, and seat himself when they lie down.
113. (When a cow is) sick, or is threatened by danger from thieves, tigers, and the like, or falls, or sticks in a morass, he must relieve her by all possible means:
114. In heat, in rain, or in cold, or when the wind blows violently, he must not seek to shelter himself, without (first) sheltering the cows according to his ability.
115. Let him not say (a word), if a cow eats (anything) in his own or another’s house or field or on the threshing-floor, or if a calf drinks (milk).
116. The slayer of a cow who serves cows in this manner, removes after three months the guilt which he incurred by killing a cow.
117. But after he has fully performed the penance, he must give to (Brahmanas) learned in the Veda ten cows and a bull, (or) if he does not possess (so much property) he must offer to them all he has.
118. Twice-born [Dwija]men who have committed (other) minor offences (Upapataka), except a student [Brahmachari] who has broken his vow (Avakirnin), may perform, in order to purify themselves, the same penance or also a lunar penance.
119. But a student [Brahmachari] who has broken his vow shall offer at night on a crossway to Nirriti a one-eyed ass, according to the rule of the Pakayagnas.
120. Having offered according to the rule oblations in the fire, he shall finally offer (four) oblations of clarified butter to Vata, to Indra, to the teacher [acharya] (of the gods, Brihaspati) and to Agni, reciting the Rik verse ‘May the Maruts grant me,’ &c.
121. Those who know the Veda declare that a voluntary effusion of semen by a twice-born [Dwija](youth) who fulfils the vow (of student [Brahmachari]ship constitutes) a breach of that vow.
122. The divine light which the Veda imparts to the student [Brahmachari], enters, if he breaks his vow, the Maruts, Puruhuta (Indra), the teacher [acharya] (of the gods, Brihaspati) and Pavaka (Fire).
123. When this sin has been committed, he shall go begging to seven houses, dressed in the hide of the (sacrifice [Yagna]d) ass, proclaiming his deed.
124. Subsisting on a single (daily meal that consists) of the alms obtained there and bathing at (the time of) the three savanas (morning, noon, and evening), he becomes pure after (the lapse of) one year.
125. For committing with intent any of the deeds which cause loss of Varna (Jatibhramsakara), (the offender) shall perform a Samtapana Krikkhra; (for doing it) unintentionally, (the Krikkhra) revealed by Pragapati.
126. As atonement for deeds which degrade to a mixed Varna (Samkara), and for those which make a man unworthy to receive gifts (Apatra), (he shall perform) the lunar (penance) during a month; for (acts) which render impure (Malinikaraniya) he shall scald himself during three days with (hot) barley-gruel.
127. One fourth (of the penance) for the murder of a Brahmana is prescribed (as expiation) for (intentionally) killing a Kshatriya, one-eighth for killing a Vaisya; know that it is one-sixteenth for killing a virtuous Sudra.
128. But if a Brahmana unintentionally kills a Kshatriya, he shall give, in order to purify himself, one thousand cows and a bull;
129. Or he may perform the penance prescribed for the murderer of a Brahmana during three years, controlling himself, wearing his hair in braids, staying far away from the village, and dwelling at the root of a tree.
130. A Brahmana who has slain a virtuous Vaisya, shall perform the same penance during one year, or he may give one hundred cows and one (bull).
131. He who has slain a Sudra, shall perform that whole penance during six months, or he may also give ten white cows and one bull to a Brahmana.
132. Having killed a cat, an ichneumon, a blue jay, a frog, a dog, an iguana, an owl, or a crow, he shall perform the penance for the murder of a Sudra;
133. Or he may drink milk during three days, or walk one hundred yoganas, or bathe in a river, or mutter the hymn addressed to the Waters.
134. For killing a snake, a Brahmana shall give a spade of black iron, for a eunuch a load of straw and a masha of lead;
135. For a boar a pot of clarified butter, for a partridge a drona of sesamum-grains, for a parrot a calf two years old, for a crane (a calf) three years old.
136. If he has killed a Hamsa, a Balaka, a heron, a peacock, a monkey, a falcon, or a Bhasa, he shall give a cow to a Brahmana.
137. For killing a horse, he shall give a garment, for (killing) an elephant, five black bulls, for (killing) a goat, or a sheep, a draught-ox, for killing a donkey, (a calf) one year old;
138. But for killing carnivorous wild beasts, he shall give a milch-cow, for (killing) wild beasts that are not carnivorous, a heifer, for killing a camel, one krishnala.
139. For killing adulterous women of the four Varnas, he must give, in order to purify himself, respectively a leathern bag, a bow, a goat, or a sheep.
140. A twice-born [Dwija]man, who is unable to atone by gifts for the slaughter of a serpent and the other (creatures mentioned), shall perform for each of them, a Krikkhra (penance) in order to remove his guilt.
141. But for destroying one thousand (small) animals that have bones, or a whole cart-load of boneless (animals), he shall perform the penance (prescribed) for the murder of a Sudra.
142. But for killing (small) animals which have bones, he should give some trifle to a Brahmana; if he injures boneless (animals), he becomes pure by a suppressing his breath (pranayama).
143. For cutting fruit-trees, shrubs, creepers, lianas, or flowering plants, one hundred Rikas must be muttered.
144. (For destroying) any kind of creature, bred in food, in condiments, in fruit, or in flowers, the expiation is to eat clarified butter.
145. If a man destroys for no good purpose plants produced by cultivation, or such as spontaneously spring up in the forest, he shall attend a cow during one day, subsisting on milk alone.
146. The guilt incurred intentionally or unintentionally by injuring (created beings) can be removed by means of these penances; hear (now, how) all (sins) committed by partaking of forbidden food (or drink, can be expiated).
147. He who drinks unintentionally (the spirituous liquor, called) Varuni, becomes pure by being initiated (again); (even for drinking it) intentionally (a penance) destructive to life must not be imposed; that is a settled rule.
148. He who has drunk water which has stood in a vessel used for keeping (the spirituous liquor, called) Sura, or other intoxicating drinks, shall drink during five (days and) nights (nothing but) milk in which the Sankhapushpi (plant) has been boiled.
149. He who has touched spirituous liquor, has given it away, or received it in accordance with the rule, or has drunk water left by a Sudra, shall drink during three days water in which Kusa-grass has been boiled.
150. But when a Brahmana who has partaken of Soma-juice, has smelt the odour exhaled by a drinker of Sura, he becomes pure by thrice suppressing his breath in water, and eating clarified butter.
151. (Men of) the three twice-born [Dwija]Varnas who have unintentionally swallowed ordure or urine, or anything that has touched Sura, must be initiated again.
152. The tonsure, (wearing) the sacred girdle, (carrying) a staff, going to beg, and the vows (incumbent on a student [Brahmachari]), are omitted on the second initiation of twice-born [Dwija]men.
153. But he who has eaten the food of men, whose food must not be eaten, or the leavings of women and Sudras, or forbidden flesh, shall drink barley (-gruel) during seven (days and) nights.
154. A twice-born [Dwija]man who has drunk (fluids that have turned) sour, or astringent decoctions, becomes, though (these substances may) not (be specially) forbidden, impure until they have been digested.
155. A twice-born [Dwija]man, who has swallowed the urine or ordure of a village pig, of a donkey, of a camel, of a jackal, of a monkey, or of a crow, shall perform a lunar penance.
156. He who has eaten dried meat, mushrooms growing on the ground, or (meat, the nature of) which is unknown, (or) such as had been kept in a slaughter-house, shall perform the same penance.
157. The atonement for partaking of (the meat of) carnivorous animals, of pigs, of camels, of cocks, of crows, of donkeys, and of human flesh, is a Tapta Krikkhra (penance).
158. If a twice-born [Dwija]man, who has not returned (home from his teacher [acharya]’s house), eats food, given at a monthly (Sraddha,) he shall fast during three days and pass one day (standing) in water.
159. But a student [Brahmachari] who on any occasion eats honey or meat, shall perform an ordinary Krikkhra (penance), and afterwards complete his vow (of student [Brahmachari]ship).
160. He who eats what is left by a cat, by a crow, by a mouse (or rat), by a dog, or by an ichneumon, or (food) into which a hair or an insect has fallen, shall drink (a decoction of) the Brahmasuvarkala (plant).
161. He who desires to be pure, must not eat forbidden food, and must vomit up such as he has eaten unintentionally, or quickly atone for it by (various) means of purification.
162. The various rules respecting penances for eating forbidden food have been thus declared; hear now the law of those penances which remove the guilt of theft.
163. The chief of the twice-born, having voluntarily stolen (valuable) property, grain, or cooked food, from the house of a Varna-fellow, is purified by performing Krikkhra (penances) during a whole year.
164. The lunar penance has been declared to be the expiation for stealing men and women, and (for wrongfully appropriating) a field, a house, or the water of wells and cisterns.
165. He who has stolen objects of small value from the house of another man, shall, after restoring the (stolen article), perform a Samtapana Krikkhra for his purification.
166. (To swallow) the five products of the cow (pankagavya) is the atonement for stealing eatables of various kinds, a vehicle, a bed, a seat, flowers, roots, or fruit.
167. Fasting during three (days and) nights shall be (the penance for stealing) grass, wood, trees, dry food, molasses, clothes, leather, and meat.
168. To subsist during twelve days on (uncooked) grains (is the penance for stealing) gems, pearls, coral, copper, silver, iron, brass, or stone.
169. (For stealing) cotton, silk, wool, an animal with cloven hoofs, or one with uncloven hoofs, a bird, perfumes, medicinal herbs, or a rope (the penance is to subsist) during three days (on) milk.
170. By means of these penances, a twice-born [Dwija]man may remove the guilt of theft; but the guilt of approaching women who ought not to be approached (agamya), he may expiate by (the following) penances.
171. He who has had sexual intercourse with sisters by the same mother, with the wives of a friend, or of a son, with unmarried maidens, and with females of the lowest Varnas, shall perform the penance, prescribed for the violation of a Guru’s bed.
172. He who has approached the daughter of his father’s sister, (who is almost equal to) a sister, (the daughter) of his mother’s sister, or of his mother’s full brother, shall perform a lunar penance.
173. A wise man should not take as his wife any of these three; they must not be wedded because they are (Sapinda-) relatives, he who marries (one of them), sinks low.
174. A man who has committed a bestial crime, or an unnatural crime with a female, or has had intercourse in water, or with a menstruating woman, shall perform a Samtapana Krikkhra.
175. A twice-born [Dwija]man who commits an unnatural offence with a male, or has intercourse with a female in a cart drawn by oxen, in water, or in the day-time, shall bathe, dressed in his clothes.
176. A Brahmana who unintentionally approaches a woman of the Kandala or of (any other) very low Varna, who eats (the food of such persons) and accepts (presents from them) becomes an outcast; but (if he does it) intentionally, he becomes their equal.
177. An exceedingly corrupt wife let her husband confine to one apartment, and compel her to perform the penance which is prescribed for males in cases of adultery.
178. If, being solicited by a man (of) equal (Varna), she (afterwards) is again unfaithful, then a Krikkhra and a lunar penance are prescribed as the means of purifying her.
179. The sin which a twice-born [Dwija]man commits by dallying one night with a Vrishali, he removes in three years, by subsisting on alms and daily muttering (sacred texts).
180. The atonement (to be performed) by sinners (of) four (kinds) even, has been thus declared; hear now the penances for those who have intercourse with outcasts.
181. He who associates with an outcast, himself becomes an outcast after a year, not by sacrificing for him, teaching him, or forming a matrimonial alliance with him, but by using the same carriage or seat, or by eating with him.
182. He who associates with any one of those outcasts, must perform, in order to atone for (such) intercourse, the penance prescribed for that (sinner).
183. The Sapindas and Samanodakas of an outcast must offer (a libation of) water (to him, as if he were dead), outside (the village), on an inauspicious day, in the evening and in the presence of the relatives, officiating priests, and teacher [acharya]s.
184. A female slave shall upset with her foot a pot filled with water, as if it were for a dead person; (his Sapindas) as well as the Samanodakas shall be impure for a day and a night;
185. But thenceforward it shall be forbidden to converse with him, to sit with him, to give him a share of the inheritance, and to hold with him such intercourse as is usual among men;
186. And (if he be the eldest) his right of primogeniture shall be withheld and the additional share, due to the eldest son; and his stead a younger brother, excelling in virtue, shall obtain the share of the eldest.
187. But when he has performed his penance, they shall bathe with him in a holy pool and throw down a new pot, filled with water.
188. But he shall throw that pot into water, enter his house and perform, as before, all the duties incumbent on a relative.
189. Let him follow the same rule in the case of female outcasts; but clothes, food, and drink shall be given to them, and they shall live close to the (family-) house.
190. Let him not transact any business with unpurified sinners; but let him in no way reproach those who have made atonement.
191. Let him not dwell together with the murderers of children, with those who have returned evil for good, and with the slayers of suppliants for protection or of women, though they may have been purified according to the sacred law.
192. Those twice-born [Dwija]men who may not have been taught the Savitri (at the time) prescribed by the rule, he shall cause to perform three Krikkhra (penances) and afterwards initiate them in accordance with the law.
193. Let him prescribe the same (expiation) when twice-born [Dwija]men, who follow forbidden occupations or have neglected (to learn) the Veda, desire to perform a penance.
194. If Brahmanas acquire property by a reprehensible action, they become pure by relinquishing it, muttering prayers, and (performing) austerities.
195. By muttering with a concentrated mind the Savitri three thousand times, (dwelling) for a month in a cow-house, (and) subsisting on milk, (a man) is freed from (the guilt of) accepting presents from a wicked man.
196. But when he returns from the cow-house, emaciated with his fast, and reverently salutes, (the Brahmanas) shall ask him, ‘Friend, dost thou desire to become our equal?’
197. If he answers to the Brahmanas, ‘Forsooth, (I will not offend again), ‘he shall scatter (some) grass for the cows; if the cows hallow that place (by eating the grass) the (Brahmana) shall re-admit him (into their community).
198. He who has sacrifice [Yagna]d for Vratyas, or has performed the obsequies of strangers, or a magic sacrifice [Yagna] (intended to destroy life) or an Ahina sacrifice [Yagna], removes (his guilt) by three Krikkhra (penances).
199. A twice-born [Dwija]man who has cast off a suppliant for protection, or has (improperly) divulged the Veda, atones for his offence, if he subsists during a year on barley.
200. He who has been bitten by a dog, a jackal, or a donkey, by a tame carnivorous animal, by a man, a horse, a camel, or a (village-) pig, becomes pure by suppressing his breath (Pranayama).
201. To eat during a month at each sixth mealtime (only), to recite the Samhita (of a Veda), and (to perform) daily the Sakala oblations, are the means of purifying those excluded from society at repasts (Apanktya).
202. A Brahmana who voluntarily rode in a carriage drawn by camels or by asses, and he who bathed naked, become pure by suppressing his breath (Pranayama).
203. He who has relieved the necessities of nature, being greatly pressed, either without (using) water or in water, becomes pure by bathing outside (the village) in his clothes and by touching a cow.
204. Fasting is the penance for omitting the daily rites prescribed by the Veda and for neglecting the special duties of a Snataka.
205. He who has said ‘Hum’ to a Brahmana, or has addressed one of his betters with ‘Thou,’ shall bathe, fast during the remaining part of the day, and appease (the person offended) by a reverential salutation.
206. He who has struck (a Brahmana) even with a blade of grass, tied him by the neck with a cloth, or conquered him in an altercation, shall appease him by a prostration.
207. But he who, intending to hurt a Brahmana, has threatened (him with a stick and the like) shall remain in hell during a hundred years; he who (actually) struck him, during one thousand years.
208. As many particles of dust as the blood of a Brahmana causes to coagulate, for so many thousand years shall the shedder of that (blood) remain in hell.
209. For threatening a Brahmana, (the offender) shall perform a Krikkhra, for striking him an Atikrikkhra, for shedding his blood a Krikkhra and an Atikrikkhra.
210. For the expiation of offences for which no atonement has been prescribed, let him fix a penance after considering (the offender’s) strength and the (nature of the) offence.
211. I will (now) describe to you those means, adopted by the gods, the sages, and the manes, through which a man may remove his sins.
212. A twice-born [Dwija]man who performs (the Krikkhra penance), revealed by Pragapati, shall eat during three days in the morning (only), during (the next) three days in the evening (only), during the (following) three days (food given) unasked, and shall fast during another period of three days.
213. (Subsisting on) the urine of cows, cowdung, milk, sour milk, clarified butter, and a decoction of Kusa-grass, and fasting during one (day and) night, (that is) called a Samtapana Krikkhra.
214. A twice-born [Dwija]man who performs an Atikrikkhra (penance), must take his food during three periods of three days in the manner described above, (but) one mouthful only at each meal, and fast during the last three days.
215. A Brahmana who performs a Taptakrikkhra (penance) must drink hot water, hot milk, hot clarified butter and (inhale) hot air, each during three days, and bathe once with a concentrated mind.
216. A fast for twelve days by a man who controls himself and commits no mistakes, is called a Paraka Krikkhra, which removes all guilt.
217. If one diminishes (one’s food daily by) one mouthful during the dark (half of the month) and increases (it in the same manner) during the bright half, and bathes (daily) at the time of three libations (morning, noon, and evening), that is called a lunar penance (Kandrayana).
218. Let him follow throughout the same rule at the (Kandrayana, called) yavamadhyama (shaped like a barley-corn), (but) let him (in that case) begin the lunar penance, (with a) controlled (mind), on the first day of the bright half (of the month).
219. He who performs the lunar penance of ascetics, shall eat (during a month) daily at midday eight mouthfuls, controlling himself and consuming sacrificial food (only).
220. If a Brahmana, with concentrated mind, eats (during a month daily) four mouthfuls in a morning and four after sunset, (that is) called the lunar penance of children.
221. He who, concentrating his mind, eats during a month in any way thrice eighty mouthfuls of sacrificial food, dwells (after death) in the world of the moon.
222. The Rudras, likewise the Adityas, the Vasus and the Maruts, together with the great sages, practised this (rite) in order to remove all evil.
223. Burnt oblations, accompanied by (the recitation of) the Mahavyahritis, must daily be made (by the penitent) himself, and he must abstain from injuring (sentient creatures), speak the truth, and keep himself free from anger and from dishonesty.
224. Let him bathe three times each day and thrice each night, dressed in his clothes; let him on no account talk to women, Sudras, and outcasts.
225. Let him pass the time standing (during the day) and sitting (during the night), or if he is unable (to do that) let him lie on the (bare) ground; let him be chaste and observe the vows (of a student [Brahmachari]) and worship his Gurus, the gods, and Brahmanas.
226. Let him constantly mutter the Savitri and (other) purificatory texts according to his ability; (let him) carefully (act thus) on (the occasion of) all (other) vows (performed) by way of penance.
227. By these expiations twice-born [Dwija]men must be purified whose sins are known, but let him purify those whose sins are not known by (the recitation of) sacred texts and by (the performance of) burnt oblations.
228. By confession, by repentance, by austerity, and by reciting (the Veda) a sinner is freed from guilt, and in case no other course is possible, by liberality.
229. In proportion as a man who has done wrong, himself confesses it, even so far he is freed from guilt, as a snake from its slough.
230. In proportion as his heart loathes his evil deed, even so far is his body freed from that guilt.
231. He who has committed a sin and has repented, is freed from that sin, but he is purified only by (the resolution of) ceasing (to sin and thinking) ‘I will do so no more.’
232. Having thus considered in his mind what results will arise from his deeds after death, let him always be good in thoughts, speech, and actions.
233. He who, having either unintentionally or intentionally committed a reprehensible deed, desires to be freed from (the guilt on it, must not commit it a second time.
234. If his mind be uneasy with respect to any act, let him repeat the austerities (prescribed as a penance) for it until they fully satisfy (his conscience).
235. All the bliss of gods and men is declared by the sages to whom the Veda was revealed, to have austerity for its root, austerity for its middle, and austerity for its end.
236. (The pursuit of sacred) knowledge is the austerity of a Brahmana, protecting (the people) is the austerity of a Kshatriya, (the pursuit of) his daily business is the austerity of a Vaisya, and service the austerity of a Sudra.
237. The sages who control themselves and subsist on fruit, roots, and air, survey the three worlds together with their moving and immovable (creatures) through their austerities alone.
238. Medicines, good health, learning, and the various divine stations are attained by austerities alone; for austerity is the means of gaining them.
239. Whatever is hard to be traversed, whatever is hard to be attained, whatever is hard to be reached, whatever is hard to be performed, all (this) may be accomplished by austerities; for austerity (possesses a power) which it is difficult to surpass.
240. Both those who have committed mortal sin (Mahapataka) and all other offenders are severally freed from their guilt by means of well-performed austerities.
241. Insects, snakes, moths, bees, birds and beings, bereft of motion, reach heaven by the power of austerities.
242. Whatever sin men commit by thoughts, words, or deeds, that they speedily burn away by penance, if they keep penance as their only riches.
243. The gods accept the offerings of that Brahmana alone who has purified himself by austerities, and grant to him all he desires.
244. The lord, Pragapati, created these Institutes (of the sacred law) by his austerities alone; the sages likewise obtained (the revelation of) the Vedas through their austerities.
245. The gods, discerning that the holy origin of this whole (world) is from austerity, have thus proclaimed the incomparable power of austerity.
246. The daily study of the Veda, the performance of the great sacrifice [Yagna]s according to one’s ability, (and) patience (in suffering) quickly destroy all guilt, even that caused by mortal sins.
247. As a fire in one moment consumes with its bright flame the fuel that has been placed on it, even so he who knows the Veda destroys all guilt by the fire of knowledge.
248. The penances for sins (made public) have been thus declared according to the law; learn next the penances for secret (sins).
249. Sixteen suppressions of the breath (Pranayama) accompanied by (the recitation of) the Vyahritis and of the syllable Om, purify, if they are repeated daily, after a month even the murderer of a learned Brahmana.
250. Even a drinker of (the spirituous liquor called) Sura becomes pure, if he mutters the hymn (seen) by Kutsa, ‘Removing by thy splendour our guilt, O Agni,’ &c., (that seen) by Vasishtha, ‘With their hymns the Vasishthas woke the Dawn,’ &c., the Mahitra (hymn) and (the verses called) Suddhavatis.
251. Even he who has stolen gold, instantly becomes free from guilt, if he once mutters (the hymn beginning with the words) ‘The middlemost brother of this beautiful, ancient Hotri-priest’ and the Sivasamkalpa.
252. The violator of a Guru’s bed is freed (from sin), if he repeatedly recites the Havishpantiya (hymn), (that beginning) ‘Neither anxiety nor misfortune,’ (and that beginning) ‘Thus, verily, thus,’ and mutters the hymn addressed to Purusha.
253. He who desires to expiate sins great or small, must mutter during a year the Rit-verse ‘May we remove thy anger, O Varuna,’ &c., or ‘Whatever offence here, O Varuna,’ &c.
254. That man who, having accepted presents which ought not to be accepted, or having eaten forbidden food, mutters the Taratsamandiya (Rikas), becomes pure after three days.
255. But he who has committed many sins, becomes pure, if he recites during a month the (four verses) addressed to Soma and Rudra, and the three verses (beginning) ‘Aryaman, Varuna, and Mitra,’ while he bathes in a river.
256. A grievous offender shall mutter the seven verses (beginning with) ‘Indra,’ for half a year; but he who has committed any blamable act in water, shall subsist during a month on food obtained by begging.
257. A twice-born [Dwija]man removes even very great guilt by offering clarified butter with the sacred texts belonging to the Sakala-homas, or by muttering the Rik, (beginning) ‘Adoration.’
258. He who is stained by mortal sin, becomes pure, if, with a concentrated mind, he attends cows for a year, reciting the Pavamani (hymns) and subsisting on alms.
259. Or if, pure (in mind and in body), he thrice repeats the Samhita of the Veda in a forest, sanctified by three Paraka (penances), he is freed from all crimes causing loss of Varna (pataka).
260. But if (a man) fasts during three days, bathing thrice a day, and muttering (in the water the hymn seen by) Aghamarshana, he is (likewise) freed from all sins causing loss of Varna.
261. As the horse-sacrifice [Yagna], the king of sacrifice [Yagna]s, removes all sin, even so the Aghamarshana hymn effaces all guilt.
262. A Brahmana who retains in his memory the Rig-veda is not stained by guilt, though he may have destroyed these three worlds, though he may eat the food of anybody.
263. He who, with a concentrated mind, thrice recites the Riksamhita, or (that of the) Yagur-veda; or (that of the) Sama-veda together with the secret (texts, the Upanishads), is completely freed from all sins.
264. As a clod of earth, falling into a great lake, is quickly dissolved, even so every sinful act is engulfed in the threefold Veda.
265. The Rikas, the Yagus (-formulas) which differ (from the former), the manifold Saman (-songs), must be known (to form) the triple Veda; he who knows them, (is called) learned in the Veda.
266. The initial triliteral Brahman on which the threefold (sacred science) is based, is another triple Veda which must be kept secret; he who knows that, (is called) learned in the Veda.


1. ‘O sinless One, the whole sacred law, (applicable) to the four Varnas, has been declared by thee; communicate to us (now), according to the truth, the ultimate retribution for (their) deeds.’
2. To the great sages (who addressed him thus) righteous Bhrigu, sprung from Manu, answered, ‘Hear the decision concerning this whole connexion with actions.’
3. Action, which springs from the mind, from speech, and from the body, produces either good or evil results; by action are caused the (various) conditions of men, the highest, the middling, and the lowest.
4. Know that the mind is the instigator here below, even to that (action) which is connected with the body, (and) which is of three kinds, has three locations, and falls under ten heads.
5. Coveting the property of others, thinking in one’s heart of what is undesirable, and adherence to false (doctrines), are the three kinds of (sinful) mental action.
6. Abusing (others, speaking) untruth, detracting from the merits of all men, and talking idly, shall be the four kinds of (evil) verbal action.
7. Taking what has not been given, injuring (creatures) without the sanction of the law, and holding criminal intercourse with another man’s wife, are declared to be the three kinds of (wicked) bodily action.
8. (A man) obtains (the result of) a good or evil mental (act) in his mind, (that of) a verbal (act) in his speech, (that of) a bodily (act) in his body.
9. In consequence of (many) sinful acts committed with his body, a man becomes (in the next birth) something inanimate, in consequence (of sins) committed by speech, a bird, or a beast, and in consequence of mental (sins he is re-born in) a low Varna.
10. That man is called a (true) tridandin in whose mind these three, the control over his speech (vagdanda), the control over his thoughts (manodanda), and the control over his body (kayadanda), are firmly fixed.
11. That man who keeps this threefold control (over himself) with respect to all created beings and wholly subdues desire and wrath, thereby assuredly gains complete success.
12. Him who impels this (corporeal) Self to action, they call the Kshetragna (the knower of the field); but him who does the acts, the wise name the Bhutatman (the Self consisting of the elements).
13. Another internal Self that is generated with all embodied (Kshetragnas) is called Giva, through which (the Kshetragna) becomes sensible of all pleasure and pain in (successive) births.
14. These two, the Great One and the Kshetragna, who are closely united with the elements, pervade him who resides in the multiform created beings.
15. From his body innumerable forms go forth, which constantly impel the multiform creatures to action.
16. Another strong body, formed of particles (of the) five (elements and) destined to suffer the torments (in hell), is produced after death (in the case) of wicked men.
17. When (the evil-doers) by means of that body have suffered there the torments imposed by Yama, (its constituent parts) are united, each according to its class, with those very elements (from which they were taken).
18. He, having suffered for his faults, which are produced by attachment to sensual objects, and which result in misery, approaches, free from stains, those two mighty ones.
19. Those two together examine without tiring the merit and the guilt of that (individual soul), united with which it obtains bliss or misery both in this world and the next.
20. If (the soul) chiefly practises virtue and vice to a small degree, it obtains bliss in heaven, clothed with those very elements.
21. But if it chiefly cleaves to vice and to virtue in a small degree, it suffers, deserted by the elements, the torments inflicted by Yama.
22. The individual soul, having endured those torments of Yama, again enters, free from taint, those very five elements, each in due proportion.
23. Let (man), having recognised even by means of his intellect these transitions of the individual soul (which depend) on merit and demerit, always fix his heart on (the acquisition of) merit.
24. Know Goodness (sattva), Activity (ragas), and Darkness (tamas) to be the three qualities of the Self, with which the Great One always completely pervades all existences.
25. When one of these qualities wholly predominates in a body, then it makes the embodied (soul) eminently distinguished for that quality.
26. Goodness is declared (to have the form of) knowledge, Darkness (of) ignorance, Activity (of) love and hatred; such is the nature of these (three) which is (all-) pervading and clings to everything created.
27. When (man) experiences in his soul a (feeling) full of bliss, a deep calm, as it were, and a pure light, then let him know (that it is) among those three (the quality called) Goodness.
28. What is mixed with pain and does not give satisfaction to the soul one may know (to be the quality of) Activity, which is difficult to conquer, and which ever draws embodied (souls towards sensual objects).
29. What is coupled with delusion, what has the character of an undiscernible mass, what cannot be fathomed by reasoning, what cannot be fully known, one must consider (as the quality of) Darkness.
30. I will, moreover, fully describe the results which arise from these three qualities, the excellent ones, the middling ones, and the lowest.
31. The study of the Vedas, austerity, (the pursuit of) knowledge, purity, control over the organs, the performance of meritorious acts and meditation on the Soul, (are) the marks of the quality of Goodness.
32. Delighting in undertakings, want of firmness, commission of sinful acts, and continual indulgence in sensual pleasures, (are) the marks of the quality of Activity.
33. Covetousness, sleepiness, pusillanimity, cruelty, atheism, leading an evil life, a habit of soliciting favours, and inattentiveness, are the marks of the quality of Darkness.
34. Know, moreover, the following to be a brief description of the three qualities, each in its order, as they appear in the three (times, the present, past, and future).
35. When a (man), having done, doing, or being about to do any act, feels ashamed, the learned may know that all (such acts bear) the mark of the quality of Darkness.
36. But, when (a man) desires (to gain) by an act much fame in this world and feels no sorrow on failing, know that it (bears the mark of the quality of) Activity.
37. But that (bears) the mark of the quality of Goodness which with his whole (heart) he desires to know, which he is not ashamed to perform, and at which his soul rejoices.
38. The craving after sensual pleasures is declared to be the mark of Darkness, (the pursuit of) wealth (the mark) of Activity, (the desire to gain) spiritual merit the mark of Goodness; each later) named quality is) better than the preceding one.
39. I will briefly declare in due order what transmigrations in this whole (world a man) obtains through each of these qualities.
40. Those endowed with Goodness reach the state of gods, those endowed with Activity the state of men, and those endowed with Darkness ever sink to the condition of beasts; that is the threefold course of transmigrations.
41. But know this threefold course of transmigrations that depends on the (three) qualities (to be again) threefold, low, middling, and high, according to the particular nature of the acts and of the knowledge (of each man).
42. Immovable (beings), insects, both small and great, fishes, snakes, and tortoises, cattle and wild animals, are the lowest conditions to which (the quality of) Darkness leads.
43. Elephants, horses, Sudras, and despicable barbarians, lions, tigers, and boars (are) the middling states, caused by (the quality of) Darkness.
44. Karanas, Suparnas and hypocrites, Rakshasas and Pisakas (belong to) the highest (rank of) conditions among those produced by Darkness.
45. Ghallas, Mallas, Natas, men who subsist by despicable occupations and those addicted to gambling and drinking (form) the lowest (order of) conditions caused by Activity.
46. Kings and Kshatriyas, the domestic priests of kings, and those who delight in the warfare of disputations (constitute) the middling (rank of the) states caused by Activity.
47. The Gandharvas, the Guhyakas, and the servants of the gods, likewise the Apsarases, (belong all to) the highest (rank of) conditions produced by Activity.
48. Hermits, ascetics, Brahmanas, the crowds of the Vaimanika deities, the lunar mansions, and the Daityas (form) the first (and lowest rank of the) existences caused by Goodness.
49. Sacrifice [Yagna]rs, the sages, the gods, the Vedas, the heavenly lights, the years, the manes, and the Sadhyas (constitute) the second order of existences, caused by Goodness.
50. The sages declare Brahma, the creators of the universe, the law, the Great One, and the Undiscernible One (to constitute) the highest order of beings produced by Goodness.
51. Thus (the result) of the threefold action, the whole system of transmigrations which (consists) of three classes, (each) with three subdivisions, and which includes all created beings, has been fully pointed out.
52. In consequence of attachment to (the objects of) the senses, and in consequence of the non-performance of their duties, fools, the lowest of men, reach the vilest births.
53. What wombs this individual soul enters in this world and in consequence of what actions, learn the particulars of that at large and in due order.
54. Those who committed mortal sins (mahapataka), having passed during large numbers of years through dreadful hells, obtain, after the expiration of (that term of punishment), the following births.
55. The slayer of a Brahmana enters the womb of a dog, a pig, an ass, a camel, a cow, a goat, a sheep, a deer, a bird, a Kandala, and a Pukkasa.
56. A Brahmana who drinks (the spirituous liquor called) Sura shall enter (the bodies) of small and large insects, of moths, of birds, feeding on ordure, and of destructive beasts.
57. A Brahmana who steals (the gold of a Brahmana shall pass) a thousand times (through the bodies) of spiders, snakes and lizards, of aquatic animals and of destructive Pisakas.
58. The violator of a Guru’s bed (enters) a hundred times (the forms) of grasses, shrubs, and creepers, likewise of carnivorous (animals) and of (beasts) with fangs and of those doing cruel deeds.
59. Men who delight in doing hurt (become) carnivorous (animals); those who eat forbidden food, worms; thieves, creatures consuming their own kind; those who have intercourse with women of the lowest Varnas, Pretas.
60. He who has associated with outcasts, he who has approached the wives of other men, and he who has stolen the property of a Brahmana become Brahmarakshasas.
61. A man who out of greed has stolen gems, pearls or coral, or any of the many other kinds of precious things, is born among the goldsmiths.
62. For stealing grain (a man) becomes a rat, for stealing yellow metal a Hamsa, for stealing water a Plava, for stealing honey a stinging insect, for stealing milk a crow, for stealing condiments a dog, for stealing clarified butter an ichneumon;
63. For stealing meat a vulture, for stealing fat a cormorant, for stealing oil a winged animal (of the kind called) Tailapaka, for stealing salt a cricket, for stealing sour milk a bird (of the kind called) Balaka.
64. For stealing silk a partridge, for stealing linen a frog, for stealing cotton-cloth a crane, for stealing a cow an iguana, for stealing molasses a flying-fox;
65. For stealing fine perfumes a musk-rat, for stealing vegetables consisting of leaves a peacock, for stealing cooked food of various kinds a porcupine, for stealing uncooked food a hedgehog.
66. For stealing fire he becomes a heron, for stealing household-utensils a mason-wasp, for stealing dyed clothes a francolin-partridge;
67. For stealing a deer or an elephant a wolf, for stealing a horse a tiger, for stealing fruit and roots a monkey, for stealing a woman a bear, for stealing water a black-white cuckoo, for stealing vehicles a camel, for stealing cattle a he-goat.
68. That man who has forcibly taken away any kind of property belonging to another, or who has eaten sacrificial food (of) which (no portion) had been offered, inevitably becomes an animal.
69. Women, also, who in like manner have committed a theft, shall incur guilt; they will become the females of those same creatures (which have been enumerated above).
70. But (men of the four) Varnas who have relinquished without the pressure of necessity their proper occupations, will become the servants of Dasyus, after migrating into despicable bodies.
71. A Brahmana who has fallen off from his duty (becomes) an Ulkamukha Preta, who feeds on what has been vomited; and a Kshatriya, a Kataputana (Preta), who eats impure substances and corpses.
72. A Vaisya who has fallen off from his duty becomes a Maitrakshagyotika Preta, who feeds on pus; and a Sudra, a Kailasaka (Preta, who feeds on moths).
73. In proportion as sensual men indulge in sensual pleasures, in that same proportion their taste for them grows.
74. By repeating their sinful acts those men of small understanding suffer pain here (below) in various births;
75. (The torture of) being tossed about in dreadful hells, Tamisra and the rest, (that of) the Forest with sword-leaved trees and the like, and (that of) being bound and mangled;
76. And various torments, the (pain of) being devoured by ravens and owls, the heat of scorching sand, and the (torture of) being boiled in jars, which is hard to bear;
77. And births in the wombs (of) despicable (beings) which cause constant misery, and afflictions from cold and heat and terrors of various kinds,
78. The (pain of) repeatedly lying in various wombs and agonizing births, imprisonment in fetters hard to bear, and the misery of being enslaved by others,
79. And separations from their relatives and dear ones, and the (pain of) dwelling together with the wicked, (labour in) gaining wealth and its loss, (trouble in) making friends and (the appearance of) enemies,
80. Old age against which there is no remedy, the pangs of diseases, afflictions of many various kinds, and (finally) unconquerable death.
81. But with whatever disposition of mind (a man) forms any act, he reaps its result in a (future) body endowed with the same quality.
82. All the results, proceeding from actions, have been thus pointed out; learn (next) those acts which secure supreme bliss to a Brahmana.
83. Studying the Veda, (practising) austerities, (the acquisition of true) knowledge, the subjuJation of the organs, abstention from doing injury, and serving the Guru are the best means for attaining supreme bliss.
84. (If you ask) whether among all these virtuous actions, (performed) here below, (there be) one which has been declared more efficacious (than the rest) for securing supreme happiness to man,
85. (The answer is that) the knowledge of the Soul is stated to be the most excellent among all of them; for that is the first of all sciences, because immortality is gained through that.
86. Among those six (kinds of) actions (enumerated) above, the performance of) the acts taught in the Veda must ever be held to be most efficacious for ensuring happiness in this world and the next.
87. For in the performance of the acts prescribed by the Veda all those (others) are fully comprised, (each) in its turn in the several rules for the rites.
88. The acts prescribed by the Veda are of two kinds, such as procure an increase of happiness and cause a continuation (of mundane existence, pravritta), and such as ensure supreme bliss and cause a cessation (of mundane existence, nivritta).
89. Acts which secure (the fulfilment of) wishes in this world or in the next are called pravritta (such as cause a continuation of mundane existence); but acts performed without any desire (for a reward), preceded by (the acquisition) of (true) knowledge, are declared to be nivritta (such as cause the cessation of mundane existence).
90. He who sedulously performs acts leading to future births (pravritta) becomes equal to the gods; but he who is intent on the performance of those causing the cessation (of existence, nivritta) indeed, passes beyond (the reach of) the five elements.
91. He who sacrifice [Yagna]s to the Self (alone), equally recognising the Self in all created beings and all created beings in the Self, becomes (independent like) an autocrat and self-luminous.
92. After giving up even the above-mentioned sacrificial rites, a Brahmana should exert himself in (acquiring) the knowledge of the Soul, in extinguishing his passions, and in studying the Veda.
93. For that secures the attainment of the object of existence, especially in the case of a Brahmana, because by attaining that, not otherwise, a twice-born [Dwija]man has gained all his ends.
94. The Veda is the eternal eye of the manes, gods, and men; the Veda-ordinance (is) both beyond the sphere of (human) power, and beyond the sphere of (human) comprehension; that is a certain fact.
95. All those traditions (smriti) and those despicable systems of philosophy, which are not based on the Veda, produce no reward after death; for they are declared to be founded on Darkness.
96. All those (doctrines), differing from the (Veda), which spring up and (soon) perish, are worthless and false, because they are of modern date.
97. The four Varnas, the three worlds, the four orders, the past, the present, and the future are all severally known by means of the Veda.
98. Sound, touch, colour, taste, and fifthly smell are known through the Veda alone, (their) production (is) through the (Vedic rites, which in this respect are) secondary acts.
99. The eternal lore of the Veda upholds all created beings; hence I hold that to be supreme, which is the means of (securing happiness to) these creatures.
100. Command of armies, royal authority, the office of a judge, and sovereignty over the whole world he (only) deserves who knows the Veda-science.
101. As a fire that has gained strength consumes even trees full of sap, even so he who knows the Veda burns out the taint of his soul which arises from (evil) acts.
102. In whatever order (a man) who knows the true meaning of the Veda-science may dwell, he becomes even while abiding in this world, fit for the union with Brahman.
103. (Even forgetful) student [Brahmachari]s of the (sacred) books are more distinguished than the ignorant, those who remember them surpass the (forgetful) student [Brahmachari]s, those who possess a knowledge (of the meaning) are more distinguished than those who (only) remember (the words), men who follow (the teaching of the texts) surpass those who (merely) know (their meaning).
104. Austerity and sacred learning are the best means by which a Brahmana secures supreme bliss; by austerities he destroys guilt, by sacred learning he obtains the cessation of (births and) deaths.
105. The three (kinds of evidence), perception, inference, and the (sacred) Institutes which comprise the tradition (of) many (schools), must be fully understood by him who desires perfect correctness with respect to the sacred law.
106. He alone, and no other man, knows the sacred law, who explores the (utterances) of the sages and the body of the Laws[Dharma], by (modes of) reasoning, not repugnant to the Veda-lore.
107. Thus the acts which secure supreme bliss have been exactly and fully described; (now) the secret portion of these Institutes, proclaimed by Manu, will be taught.
108. If it be asked how it should be with respect to (points of) the law which have not been (specially) mentioned, (the answer is), ‘that which Brahmanas (who are) Sishtas propound, shall doubtlessly have legal (force).’
109. Those Brahmanas must be considered as Sishtas who, in accordance with the sacred law, have studied the Veda together with its appendages, and are able to adduce proofs perceptible by the senses from the revealed texts.
110. Whatever an assembly, consisting either of at least ten, or of at least three persons who follow their prescribed occupations, declares to be law, the legal (force of) that one must not dispute.
111. Three persons who each know one of the three principal Vedas, a logician, a Mimamsaka, one who knows the Nirukta, one who recites (the Institutes of) the sacred law, and three men belonging to the first three orders shall constitute a (legal) assembly, consisting of at least ten members.
112. One who knows the Rig-veda, one who knows the Yagur-veda, and one who knows the Sama-veda, shall be known (to form) an assembly consisting of at least three members (and competent) to decide doubtful points of law.
113. Even that which one Brahmana versed in the Veda declares to be law, must be considered (to have) supreme legal (force, but) not that which is proclaimed by myriads of ignorant men.
114. Even if thousands of Brahmanas, who have not fulfilled their sacred duties, are unacquainted with the Veda, and subsist only by the name of their Varna, meet, they cannot (form) an assembly (for settling the sacred law).
115. The sin of him whom dunces, incarnations of Darkness, and unacquainted with the law, instruct (in his duty), falls, increased a hundredfold, on those who propound it.
116. All that which is most efficacious for securing supreme bliss has been thus declared to you; a Brahmana who does not fall off from that obtains the most excellent state.
117. Thus did that worshipful deity disclose to me, through a desire of benefiting mankind, this whole most excellent secret of the sacred law.
118. Let (every Brahmana), concentrating his mind, fully recognise in the Self all things, both the real and the unreal, for he who recognises the universe in the Self, does not give his heart to unrighteousness.
119. The Self [आत्मा ] alone is the multitude of the gods, the universe rests on the Self; for the Self produces the connexion of these embodied (spirits) with actions.
120. Let him meditate on the ether as identical with the cavities (of the body), on the wind as identical with the organs of motions and of touch, on the most excellent light as the same with his digestive organs and his sight, on water as the same with the (corporeal) fluids, on the earth as the same with the solid parts (of his body);
121. On the moon as one with the internal organ, on the quarters of the horizon as one with his sense of hearing, on Vishnu as one with his (power of) motion, on Hara as the same with his strength, on Agni (Fire) as identical with his speech, on Mitra as identical with his excretions, and on Pragapati as one with his organ of generation.
122. Let him know the Supreme Purusha, to be the sovereign ruler of them all, smaller even than small, bright like gold, and perceptible by the intellect (only when) in (a state of) Samadhi.
123. Some call him Agni (Fire), others Manu, the Lord of creatures, others Indra, others the vital air, and again others eternal[Sanatana] Brahman.
124. He pervades all created beings in the five forms, and constantly makes them, by means of birth, growth and decay, revolve like the wheels (of a chariot).
125. He who thus recognises the Self [Atman] through the Self in all created beings, becomes equal (-minded) towards all, and enters the highest state, Brahman.
126. A twice-born [Dwija]man who recites these Institutes, revealed by Manu, will be always virtuous in conduct, and will reach whatever condition he desires.

Read the Text in Sanskrit


Annulment refers only to making a voidable marriage null under section 12 of Hindu Marriage Act

Section 12 in The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 [extract]

(1) Any marriage solemnized, whether before or after the commencement of this Act, shall be voidable and may be annulled by a decree of nullity on any of the following grounds, namely:-

(a) that the marriage has not been consummated owing to the impotency of the respondent; or

(b) that the marriage is in contravention of the condition specified in clause (ii) of Section 5; or

(c) that the consent of the petitioner, or where the consent of the guardian in marriage of the petitioner was required under Section 5 as it stood immediately before the commencement of the Child Marriage Restraint (Amendment) Act, 1978, the consent of such guardian was obtained by force or by fraud as to the nature of the ceremony or as to any material fact or circumstance concerning the respondent; or

(d) that the respondent was at the time of the marriage pregnant by some person other than the petitioner.

An annulment may be granted when a marriage is automatically void under the law for public policy reasons or voidable by one party when certain requisite elements of the marriage contract were not present at the time of the marriage

Sanjay Kumar Sinha Vs. Asha Kumari & ANR.[ALL SC 2018 APRIL]

KEYWORDS:-  Divorce- pendente lite-


DATE:- April 09, 2018

ACTS:- Section 13 AND 24 of the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955

Consequent upon passing of the maintenance order dated 15.07.2016 under Section 24 of the Act by the Family Court, the order passed by the Family Court, Samastipur under Section 125 of Cr.P.C. stands superseded and now no longer holds the field.


Sanjay Kumar Sinha Vs. Asha Kumari & ANR.

[Civil Appeal No. 3658 of 2018 arising out of S.L.P. (C) No. 6301 of 2017]

Abhay Manohar Sapre, J.

1. Leave granted.

2. This appeal is filed by the husband against the final judgment and order dated 27.10.2016 passed by the High Court of Judicature at Patna in CMJC No.965/2016 whereby the High Court dismissed the application filed by the appellant herein and upheld the order dated 15.07.2016 passed by the Principal Judge, Family Court, Begusarai in Divorce Case No.42 of 2010.

3. Few facts need to be mentioned to appreciate the short issue involved in the appeal.

4. The dispute is between the husband and wife. The appellant is the husband whereas the respondent is the wife.

5. The appellant (husband) has filed the divorce petition under Section 13 of the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 (hereinafter referred to as “the Act”) against the respondent (wife) being Divorce Case No. 42/2010 before the Principal Judge, Family Court, Bagusarai. It is pending for its final disposal.

6. The respondent (wife) filed an application under Section 24 of the Act in the aforesaid Divorce petition and claimed from the appellant (husband) pendente lite monthly maintenance for herself and her daughter. The appellant contested it.

7. By order dated 15.07.2016, the Family Judge awarded Rs.8000/- per month to the wife and Rs.4000/- per month to her minor daughter towards the maintenance and Rs.2500/- per month towards the litigation expenses.

8. It may be mentioned here that the respondent (wife) had also filed one application under Section 125 of the Criminal Procedure Code, 1973 (hereinafter referred to as “Cr.P.C”) seeking maintenance before the Principal Judge, Family Court, Samastipur. By order dated 03.01.2011, the Family Judge allowed the application and awarded Rs.4000/- per month to the wife (petitioner therein) and Rs.2000/- per month to the daughter towards the maintenance and Rs.5000/- towards the litigation expenses.

9. The appellant (husband) felt aggrieved by the order dated 15.07.2016 by the Family Judge and filed civil miscellaneous application in the High Court at Patna. By impugned order, the Single Judge upheld the order dated 15.07.2016 of the Family Judge, Begusarai and dismissed the application filed by the appellant herein, which has given rise to filing of the present appeal by way of special leave before this Court by the husband.

10. Heard Mr. Abhishek Vikas, learned counsel for the appellant and Mr. Ranjit Kumar Sharma, learned counsel for the respondents.

11. Having heard learned counsel for the parties and on perusal of the record of the case, we are inclined to dispose of the appeal finally as under:

12. First, the Family Court shall decide the main Divorce Case No. 42/2010 preferably within 6 months on merits.

13. Second, consequent upon passing of the maintenance order dated 15.07.2016 under Section 24 of the Act by the Family Court, the order passed by the Family Court, Samastipur under Section 125 of Cr.P.C. stands superseded and now no longer holds the field. Indeed, this fact was conceded by the learned counsel appearing for the respondent (wife).

14. Third, the appellant (husband) shall, during pendency of main divorce case, continue to pay in cash a sum of Rs.8000/- p.m. (Rs.6000/- to the wife and Rs.2000/- to the daughter) and for the balanced sum, i.e., Rs.4000/- p.m., the appellant would furnish security.

15. Fourth, depending upon the outcome of the main case, appropriate orders towards permanent maintenance and its arrears be also passed.

16. Fifth, the arrears towards monthly maintenance be paid by the appellant to the respondent (wife) within one month from the date of this order, if any, at the rate fixed by this Court above.

17. Sixth, payment of monthly maintenance amount, as fixed by this Court, be paid on 1st of every month by the appellant to the respondent.

18. Seventh, security for the balance amount (at the rate of Rs.4000/- per month) be furnished within one month to the satisfaction of the Family Judge after calculating the monthly maintenance and arrears liability.

19. Parties are at liberty to adduce evidence on the issue of grant of permanent maintenance in the main case.

20. Parties are also granted liberty to mediate and settle the issue amicably by appearing before the Family Court and if the issue is not settled amicably, the Family Court would decide it on merits, as directed above.

21. We have not expressed any opinion on the merits of the issue and, therefore, the Family Court will decide the case, without being influenced by our order, only on the basis of pleadings and evidence adduced by the parties in the main case.

22. With these directions, the appeal stands disposed of.



New Delhi;

April 09, 2018

Ms. Githa Hariharan and another Vs Reserve Bank of India and another[ALL SC 1999 FEBRUARY]

KEYWORDS:-natural guardian-



  • The father by reason of a dominant personality cannot be ascribed to have a preferential right over the mother in the matter of guardianship since both fall within the same category

AIR 1999 SC 1149 : (1999) 1 SCR 669 : (1999) 2 SCC 228 : JT 1999 (1) SC 524 : (1999) 1 SCALE 490


Ms. Githa Hariharan and another Appellant
Reserve Bank of India and another Respondent


Dr. Vandana Shiva Appellant
Jayanta Bandhopadhyaya and another Respondent

(Before : Dr. A. S. Anand, C.J.I., M. Srinivasan And U. C. Banerjee, JJ.)

Writ Petn. (Civil) No. 489 of 1995 WITH Writ Petn. (C) No. 1016 of 1991, Decided on : 17-02-1999.

Guardian And Wards Act, 1890—Section 19(b)—Mother of minor can act as natural guardian during life time of her husband—Word “after” in Section 6(a) of Hindu Minority and Guardianship Act has to be read to mean “in the absence of father” to make consistent with constitutional safeguard of gender equality.

The word “after’ need not necessarily mean “after the lifetime”. In the context in which it appears in Section 6(a), it means “in the absence of”, the word ‘absence’ therein referring to the father’s absence from the care of the minor’s property or person for any reason whatever. If the father is wholly indifferent to the matters of the minor, even if he is living with the mother or if by virtue of mutual understanding between the father and the mother, the latter is put exclusively in charge of the minor, or if the father is physically unable to take care of the minor either because of his staying away from the place where the mother and the minor are living or because of his physical or mental incapacity, in all such like situations, the father can be considered to be absent and the mother being a recognised natural guardian, can act validly on behalf of the minor as the guardian.

Hindu Minority And Guardianship Act, 1956—Section 6(a)—Guardianship—Mother of minor can act as natural guardian during life time of her husband—Word “after” in Section 6(a) of Hindu Minority and Guardianship Act has to be read to mean “in the absence of father” to make consistent with constitutional safeguard of gender equality.

The word “after’ need not necessarily mean “after the lifetime”. In the context in which it appears in Section 6(a), it means “in the absence of”, the word ‘absence’ therein referring to the father’s absence from the care of the minor’s property or person for any reason whatever. If the father is wholly indifferent to the matters of the minor, even if he is living with the mother or if by virtue of mutual understanding between the father and the mother, the latter is put exclusively in charge of the minor, or if the father is physically unable to take care of the minor either because of his staying away from the place where the mother and the minor are living or because of his physical or mental incapacity, in all such like situations, the father can be considered to be absent and the mother being a recognised natural guardian, can act validly on behalf of the minor as the guardian.

Counsel for the Parties:

Ms. Indra Jaisingh, Sr. Advocate, Sanjay Parikh, Ms. Anitha Shenoy, Sanjoy Ghosh, Abinash Kumar Misra, Advocates, with her for Petitioners

H. N. Salve, Sr. Advocate, H. S. Parihar, Kuldeep S. Parihar, Ajit Pudussery and Ms. C. K. Sucharita, Advocates, with him, for Respondents.


Dr. A. S. ANAND, C. J. I—We have had the advantage of reading the draft judgment of our learned Brother Banerjee, J. While agreeing with the conclusion, we wish to add our own reasons.

2. The facts in W. P. (C) No. 489/95 are shortly as follows:The first petitioner is the wife of the second petitioner. The first petitioner is a writer and several of her books are said to have been published by Penguin. The second petitioner is a Medical Scientist in Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. They jointly applied to the Reserve Bank of India (first respondent) on 10-12-1984 for 9% Relief Bonds in the name of their minor son Rishab Bailey for ` 20,000/-. They stated expressly that both of them agreed that the mother of the child, i.e., the first petitioner would act as the guardian of the minor for the purpose of investments made with the money held by their minor son. Accordingly, in the prescribed form of application, the first petitioner signed as the guardian of the minor. The first respondent replied to the petitioners advising them either to produce the application form signed by the father of the minor or a certificate of guardianship from a competent authority in favour of the mother. That lead to the filing of this writ petition by the two petitioners with prayers to strike down Section 6(a) of the Hindu Minority and Guardianship Act, 1956, (hereinafter referred to as HMG Act) and Section 19(b) of the Guardians and Wards Act, 1890 (hereinafter referred to as GW Act) as violative of Articles 14 and 15 of the Constitution and to quash and set aside the decision of the first respondent refusing to accept the deposit from the petitioners and to issue a mandamus directing the acceptance of the same after declaring the first petitioner as the natural guardian of the minor.

3. In the counter affidavit filed on behalf of the first respondent, it is stated that the first petitioner is not the natural guardian of the minor son and the application was not rightly accepted by the bank. It is also stated that under Section 6(a) of the HMG Act the father of a Hindu minor is the only natural guardian. The first respondent prayed for the dismissal of the writ petition.

4. In W. P. (C) No. 1016/91, the petitioner is the wife of the first respondent. The latter has instituted a proceeding for divorce against the former and it is pending in the District Court of Delhi. He has also prayed for custody of their minor son in the same proceeding. According to the petitioner, he had been repeatedly writing to her and the school in which the minor was studying, asserting that he was the only natural guardian of the minor and no decision should be taken without his permission. The petitioner has in turn filed an application for maintenance for herself and the minor son. She has filed the writ petition for striking down Section 6(a) of the HMG Act and Section 19(b) of the GW Act as voilative of Articles 14 and 15 of the Constitution.

5. Since, challenge to the constitutionality of Section 6(a) of HMG Act and Section 19(b) of GW Act was common in both cases, the writ petitions were heard together. The main contention of Ms. Indira Jai Singh learned senior counsel for the petitioners is that the two sections i.e. Section 6(a) of HMG Act and Section 19(b) of GW Act are violative of the equality clause of the Constitution, inasmuch as the mother of the minor is relegated to an inferior position on ground of sex alone since her right, as a natural guardian of the minor, is made cognisable only ‘after’ the father. Hence, according to the learned counsel both the sections must be struck down as unconstitutional.

6. Section 6 of the HMG Act reads as follows:

“The natural guardians of a Hindu minor, in respect of the minor’s person as well as in respect of the minor’s property (excluding his or her undivided interest in joint family property), are-

(a) in the case of a boy or an unmarried girl – the father, and after him, the mother provided that the custody of a minor who has not completed the age of five years shall ordinarily be with the mother;

(b) in the case of an illegitimate boy or an illegitimate unmarried girl – the mother, and after her, the father;

(c) in the case of a married girl – the husband;

Provided that no person shall be entitled to act as the natural guardian of a minor under the provisions of this section –

(a) if he has ceased to be a Hindu, or

(b) if he has completely and finally renounced the world becoming a hermit (vanaprastha) or an ascetic (yati or sanyasi).

Explanation – In this section, the expression “father” and “mother” do not include a step-father and a step-mother”.

7. The expression ‘natural guardian’ is defined in S. 4(c) of HMG Act as any of the guardians mentioned in Section 6 (supra). The term ‘guardian’ is defined in S. 4(b) of HMG Act as a person having the care of the person of a minor or of his property or of both, his person and property, and includes a natural guardian among others. Thus, it is seen that the definitions of ‘guardian’ and ‘natural guardian’ do not make any discrimination against mother and she being one of the guardians mentioned in S. 6 would undoubtedly be a natural guardian as defined in Section 4(c). The only provision to which exception is taken is found in Section 6(a) which reads “the father, and after him, the mother”. (underlining ours). That phrase, on a cursory reading, does give an impression that the mother can be considered to be natural guardian of the minor only after the life time of the father. In fact that appears to be the basis of the stand taken by the Reserve Bank of India also. It is not in dispute and is otherwise well settled also that welfare of the minor in the widest sense is the paramount consideration and even during the life time of the father, if necessary, he can be replaced by the mother or any other suitable person by an order of Court, where to do so would be in the interest of the welfare of the minor.

8. Whenever a dispute concerning the guardianship of a minor, between the father and mother of the minor is raised in a Court of law, the word ‘after’ in the Section would have no significance, as the Court is primarily concerned with the best interests of the minor and his welfare in the widest sense while determining the question as regards custody and guardianship of the minor. The question, however, assumes importance only when the mother acts as guardian of the minor during the lifetime of the father, without the matter going to Court, and the validity of such an action is challenged on the ground that she is not the legal guardian of the minor in view of S. 6(a) (supra). In the present case, the Reserve Bank of India has questioned the authority of the mother, even when she had acted with the concurrence of the father, because in its opinion she could function as a guardian only after the lifetime of the father and not during his lifetime.

9. Is that the correct way of understanding the section and does the word ‘after’ in the Section mean only ‘after the lifetime’? If this question is answered in the affirmative, the section has to be struck down as unconstitutional as it undoubtedly violates gender-equality, one of the basic principles of our Constitution. The HMG Act came into force in 1956, i.e., six years after the Constitution. Did the Parliament intend to transgress the constitutional limits or ignore the fundamental rights guaranteed by the Constitution which essentially prohibits discrimination on grounds of sex? In our opinion – No. It is well settled that if on one construction a given statute will become unconstitutional, whereas on another construction, which may be open, the statute remains within the constitutional limits, the Court will prefer the latter on the ground that the Legislature is presumed to have acted in accordance with the Constitution and courts generally lean in favour of the constitutionality of the statutory provisions.

10. We are of the view that the Section 6(a) (supra) is capable of such construction as would retain it within the Constitutional limits. The word ‘after’ need not necessarily mean ‘after the lifetime’. In the context in which it appears in Section 6(a) (supra), it means ‘in the absence of’, the word ‘absence’ therein referring to the father’s absence from the care of the minor’s property or person for any reason whatever. If the father is wholly indifferent to the matters of the minor even if he is living with the mother or if by virtue of mutual understanding between the father and the mother, the latter is put exclusively in charge of the minor, or if the father is physically unable to take care of the minor either because of his staying away from the place where the mother and the minor are living or because of his physical or mental incapacity, in all such like situations, the father can be considered to be absent and the mother being a recognised natural guardian, can act validly on behalf of the minor as the guardian. Such an interpretation will be the natural outcome of harmonious construction of S. 4 and S. 6 of HMG Act, without causing any violence to the language of S. 6(a) (supra).

11. The above interpretation has already been adopted to some extent by this Court in Jijabai Vithalrao Gajre v. Pathankhan (1970) 2 SCC 717 . The appellant in that case filed an application before the concerned Tehsildar under the provisions of Bombay Tenancy and Agricultural Lands (Vidharba Region) Act, 1958 for after notice to him on the ground of personal requirements. The Tehsildar found that the application was maintainable and within time but held that the lease deed executed by the tenant in favour of the appellant’s mother during his minority when his father was alive was not valid. However, the Tehsildar took the view that it could be considered as a lease created after April 1, 1957 and therefore the tenant could be dislodged. The application was granted on that ground. On appeal, the appellate authority and in further revision, the Tribunal confirmed the findings. The aggrieved tenant filed a writ petition under Article 227 of the Constitution challenging the said orders. The High Court held that the lease was valid on the ground that the mother was the natural guardian because the father was not taking any interest in his minor daughter’s affairs and refused to grant the relief of possession but held that the appellant was entitled to resume a portion of the land leased for personal cultivation. Consequently, the matter was remanded. That judgment of the High Court was challenged in this Court. The Division Bench of this Court found that it was the mother who was actually managing the affairs of her minor daughter who was under her care and protection and though the father was alive, he was not taking any interest in the affairs of the minor. In the words of the Bench :

“. . . . . . . We have already referred to the fact that the father and mother of the appellant had fallen out and that the mother was living separately for over 20 years. It was the mother who was actually managing the affairs of her minor daughter, who was under her care and protection. From 1951 onwards the mother in the usual course of management had been leasing out the properties of the appellant to the tenant. Though from 1951 to 1956 the leases were oral, for the year 1956-57 a written lease was executed by the tenant in favour of the appellant represented by her mother. It is no doubt true that the father was alive but he was not taking any interest in the affairs of the minor and it was as good as if he was non-existent so far as the minor appellant was concerned. We are inclined to agree with the view of the High Court that in the particular circumstances of this case, the mother can be considered to be the natural guardian of her minor daughter. It is needless to state that even before the passing of the Hindu Minority and Guardianship Act, 1956 (Act 32 of 1956), the mother is the natural guardian after the father. The above Act came into force on August 25, 1956 and under S. 6 the natural guradians of the Hindu minor in respect of minor’s person as well as minor’s property are the father and after him the mother. The position in Hindu Law before the enactment was also the same. That is why we have stated that normally when the father is alive he is the natural guardian and it is only after him that the mother becomes the natural guardian. But on the facts found above the mother was rightly treated by the High Court as the natural guardian.”

(Emphasis supplied)

Consequently, the Bench dismissed the appeal. The interpretation placed by us above in the earlier part of this judgment on Section 6(a) (supra) is, thus, only an expansion of the principle set out by the Bench in Jijabai Vithalrao Gajre (supra).

12. Our attention has been drawn to a later judgment of another Bench of this Court in Pannilal v. Rajinder Singh (1993) 4 SCC 38. In that case, some property belonging to the respondents therein was sold when they were minors by their mother acting as their guardian to the appellant under a registered sale deed. Upon attaining majority, the respondents sued the appellant for possession of the land on the ground that the sale having been made without the permission of the Court was void. The appellant relied heavily on the fact that the sale deed was attested by the father of the respondents and contended that it should be deemed to be a sale validly made by the legal guardian of the respondents. It was also argued that the sale was for legal necessity as well as for the benefit of the respondents. The trial Court found that there was no reliable evidence on record to show that the sale was made for legal necessity or for the benefit of the respondents and having been effected without the permission of the Court was voidable. Ultimately the trial Court held the same to be void and granted a decree as prayed for by the respondents. That was affirmed by the District Court and the High Court. In this Court the Division Bench observed that in view of the concurrent findings, the sale was in any event voidable. Dealing with the question whether the sale could be considered to have been effected by (the father) natural guardian of the minors, (though actually made by the mother) because father had attested the sale deed, the Court referred to the judgment in Jijabai Vithalrao Gajre (supra) and observed:

“In this behalf our attention was invited to this Court’s judgment in Jijabai Vithalrao Gajre v. Pathankhan (1970) 2 SCC 717 . This was a case in which it was held that the position in Hindu law was that when the father was alive he was the natural guardian and it was only after him that the mother became the natural guardian. Where the father was alive but had fallen out with the mother of the minor child and was living separately for several years without taking any interest in the affairs of the minor, who was in the keeping and care of the mother, it was held that, in the peculiar circumstances, the father should be treated as if non-existent and, therefore, the mother could be considered as the natural guardian of the minor’s person as well as property, having power to bind the minor by dealing with her immovable property.”

Emphasis supplied)

Distinguishing the facts in Jijabai Vithalrao Gajre (supra), the Court observed that there was no evidence to show that the father of the minor-respondents was not taking any interest in their affairs or that they were keeping in the care of the mother to the exclusion of the father. An inference was drawn from the factum of attestation of the sale deed that the father was very much ‘present’ and in the picture. The Bench held that the sale by the mother notwithstanding the fact that the father had attested the deed, could not be held to be a sale by the father and natural guardian, satisfying the requirements of Section 8. Confirming the decree of the court below, the Bench opined:

“The provisions of Section 8 are devised to fully protect the property of a minor, even from the depredations of his parents. Section 8 empowers only the legal guardian to alienate a minor’s immovable property provided it is for the necessity or benefit of the minor or his estate and it further requires that such alienation shall be effected after the permission of the Court has been obtained. It is difficult, therefore, to hold that the sale was voidable, not void, by reason of the fact that the mother of the minor respondents signed the sale deed and the father attested it.”

13. Thus, on the facts of Pannilal’s case (supra) even if the sale had been made by the father, it could have been annulled for want of permission from the Court. It is, thus, evident from the two paragraphs extracted above, that the conclusion in Pannilal’s case (supra) turned mainly on the fact that the sale was not supported by legal necessity; was not for the benefit of the minor and the same had been effected without the permission of the Court. That judgment, therefore, does not run counter to the interpretation now placed by us on Section 6 (supra), as that case was decided on its peculiar facts and is clearly distinguishable.

14. The message of international instruments – Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, 1979 (“CEDAW”) and the Beijing Declaration, which directs all State parties to take appropriate measures to prevent discrimination of all forms against women is quite clear. India is a signatory to CEDAW having accepted and ratified it in June, 1993. The interpretation that we have placed on Section 6(a) (supra) gives effect to the principles contained in these instruments. The domestic courts are under an obligation to give due regard to International Conventions and Norms for construing domestic laws when there is no inconsistency between them. (See with advantage – Apparel Export Promotion Council v. A. K. Chopra, Civil Appeal Nos. 226-227 of 1999 decided on January 20, 1999.

15. Similarly, Section 19(b) of the GW Act would also have to be construed in the same manner by which we have construed Section 6(a) (supra).

16. While both the parents are duty bound to take care of the person and property of their minor child and act in the best interest of his welfare, we hold that in all situations where the father is not in actual charge of the affairs of the minor either because of his indifference or because of an agreement between him and the mother of the minor (oral or written) and the minor is in the exclusive care and custody of the mother or the father for any other reason is unable to take care of the minor because of his physical and/or mental incapacity, the mother, can act as natural guardian of the minor and all her actions would be valid even during the life time of the father, who would be deemed to be ‘absent’ for the purpose of S. 6(a) of HMG Act and Section 19(b) of GW Act.

17. Hence, the Reserve Bank of India was not right in insisting upon an application signed by the father or an order of the Court in order to open a deposit account in the name of the minor particularly when there was already a letter jointly written by both petitioners evidencing their mutual agreement. The Reserve Bank, now ought to accept the application filed by the mother.

18. We are conscious of the fact that till now many transactions may have been invalidated on the ground that the mother is not a natural guardian, when the father is alive. Those issues cannot be permitted to be reopened. This judgment, it is clarified, will operate prospectively and will not enable any person to reopen any decision already rendered or question the validity of any past transaction, on the basis of this judgment.

19. The Reserve Bank of India and similarly placed other organisations, may formulate appropriate methodology in the light of the observations made above to meet the situations arising in the contextual facts of a given case.

20. In the light of what we have said above, the dispute between the petitioner and the first respondent in Writ Petition No. 1016 of 1991 as regards custody and guardianship of their minor son shall be decided by the District Court, Delhi, where it is said to be pending.

21. The Writ Petitions are disposed of in the aforesaid manner but without any order as to costs.

22. Banjerjee, J—Though nobility and self-denial coupled with tolerance mark the greatest features of Indian womanhood in the past and the cry for equality and equal status being at a very low ebb, but with the passage of time and change of social structure the same is however no longer dormant but presently quite loud. This cry is not restrictive to any particular country but world over with variation in degree only. Article 2 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (as adopted and proclaimed by the General Assembly in its resolution No. 217A (III)) provided that everybody is entitled to all rights and freedom without distinction of any kind whatsoever such as race, sex or religion and the ratification of the convention for elimination of all forms of discrimination against women (for short CEDAW) by the United Nations Organisation in 1979 and subsequent acceptance and ratification by India in June 1993 also amply demonstrate the same.

23. We the people of this country gave ourselves a written Constitution, the basic structure of which permeates equality of status and thus negates tender bias and it is on this score, the validity of Section 6 of the Hindu Minority and Guardianship Act of 1956 has been challenged in the matters under consideration, on the ground that dignity of women is a right inherent under the Constitution which as a matter of fact stands negatived by Section 6 of the Act of 1956.

24. In order, however, to appreciate the contentions raised, it would be convenient to advert to the factual aspect of the matters at this juncture. The facts in WP (c) No. 489 of 1995 can be stated as below:-

25. The petitioner and Dr. Mohan Ram were married at Bangalore in 1982 and in July 1984, a son named Rishab Bailey was born to them. In December, 1984 the petitioner applied to the Reserve Bank of India for 9% Relief Bond to be held in the name of their minor son Rishab along with an intimation that the petitioner No. 1 being the mother, would act as the natural guardian for the purposes of investments. The application however was sent back to the petitioner by the RBI Authority advising her to produce the application signed by the father and in the alternative the Bank informed that a certificate of guardianship from a Competent Authority in her favour, ought to be forwarded to the Bank forthwith so as to enable the Bank to issue Bonds as requested and it is the communication from the RBI authorities, which is stated to be arbitrary and opposed to the basic concept of justice in this petition under Article 32 of the Constitution challenging the validity of Section 6 of the Act as indicated above.

26. The factual backdrop in WP (c) No. 1016 of 1991 centres round a prayer for custody of the minor son born through the lawful wedlock between the petitioner and the first respondent. Be it noted that a divorce proceeding is pending in the District Court of Delhi and the first respondent has prayed for custody of their minor son in the same proceeding. The petitioner in turn, however, also has filed an application for maintenance for herself and the minor son. On further factual score it appears that the first respondent has been repeatedly writing to the petitioner, asserting that he was the only natural guardian of the minor and no decision should be taken without her permission. Incidently, the minor has been staying with the mother and it has been the definite case of the petitioner in this petition under Article 32 that in spite of best efforts of the petitioner, the father has shown total apathy towards the child and as a matter of fact is not interested in welfare and benefit of the child excepting however claiming the right to be the natural guardian without however discharging any corresponding obligation. It is on these facts that the petitioner moved this Court under Article 32 of the Constitution praying for declaration of the provisions of Section 6(a) of the Act read with Section 19(b) of the Guardian and Wards Act as violative of Articles 14 and 15 of the Constitution.

27. Since, challenge to the constitutionality of S. 6 of the Act is involved in both the matters, the petitions were heard together.

28. Ms. Indira Jaisingh, appearing in support of the petitions strongly contended that the provisions of Section 6 of the Act seriously disadvantage woman and discriminate man against woman in the matter of guardianship rights, responsibilities and authority in relation to their own children.

29. It has been contended that on a true and proper interpretation of Section 4 and the various provisions thereunder and having due regard to the legislative intent, which is otherwise explicit, question of putting an embargo for the mother in the matter of exercise of right over the minor as the guardian or ascribing the father as the preferred guardian does not arise, but unfortunately however, the language in S. 6 of the Act runs counter to such an equality of rights of the parents to act as guardian to the minor child.

30. For convenience sake however section 6 of the Act of 1956 is set out hereinbelow:

“6. Natural guardians of a Hindu minor – The natural guardians of a Hindu minor, in respect of the minor’s person as well as in respect of the minor’s property (excluding his or her undivided interest in joint family property), are –

(a) in the case of a boy or an unmarried girl-the father, and after him, the mother:provided that the custody of a minor who has not completed the age of five years shall ordinarily be with the mother,

(b) in the case of an illegitimate boy or an illegitimate unmarried girl-the mother, and after her, the father;

(c) in the case of a married girl-the husband:

Provided that no person shall be entitled to act as the natural guardian of a minor under the provisions of this section –

(a) if he has ceased to be a Hindu, or

(b) if he has completely and finally renounced the world by becoming a hermit (vanaprastha) or an ascetic (yati or sanyasi).

Explanation:- In this section, the expressions ‘father’ and ‘mother’ do not include a step-father and a step-mother.”

31. Be it noted that the Hindu Minority and Guardianship Act of 1956 has been engrafted on the statute book by way of an amendment and codification of certain parts of the law relating to minority and guardianship among Hindus. It is not out of place to mention also that Hindu law being one of the oldest known system of jurisprudence has shown no signs of decrepitude and it has its values and importance even today. But the law makers however thoguht it prudent to codify certain parts of the law in order to give a fruitful meaning and statutory sanction to the prevailing concept of law having due regard to the social and economic changes in the society. It is on this perspective however certain aspects of the law as it stood prior to the codification ought to be noted.

32. As regards the concept of guardianship both the parents under the Hindu law were treated as natural guardians, of the persons and the separate property of their minor children, male or female except however that the husband is the natural guardian of his wife howsoever young she might be and the adopted father being the natural guardian of the adopted son. The law however provided that upon the death of the father and in the event of there being no testamentary guardian appointed by the father, the mother succeeds to the natural guardianship of the person and separate property of their minor children. Conceptually, this guardianship however is in the nature of a sacred trust and the guardian cannot therefore, during his lifetime substitute another person to be the guardian in his place though however entrustment of the custody of the child for education or purposes allying may be effected temporarily with a power to revoke at the option of the guardian.

33. The codification of this law pertaining to guardianship however brought about certain changes in regard thereto, of which we will presently refer, but it is interesting to note that prior to the enactment, the law recognised both de facto and de jure guardian of a minor. A guardian-de facto implying thereby one who has taken upon himself the guardianship of a minor-whereas the guardian de-jure is a legal guardian who has a legal right to guardianship of a person or the property or both as the case may be. This concept of legal guardian includes a natural guardian:a testamentary guardian or a guardian of a Hindu minor appointed or declared by Court of law under the general law of British India.

34. Incidentally, the law relating to minority and guardianship amongst Hindus is to be found not only in the old Hindu law as laid down by the smritis, shrutis and the commentaries as recognised by the Courts of law but also statutes applicable amongst others to Hindus, to wit, Guardian and Wards Act of 1890 and Indian Majority Act of 1875. Be it further noted that the Act of 1956 does not as a matter of fact in any way run counter to the earlier statutes in the subject but they are supplemental to each other as reflected in Section 2 of the Act of 1956 itself which provides that the Act shall be in addition to and not in derogation of the Acts as noticed above.

35. Before proceeding further, however, on the provisions of the Act in its true perspective, it is convenient to note that lately the Indian Courts following the rule of equality as administered in England have refused to give effect to inflexible application of paternal right of minor children. In equity, a discretionary power has been exercised to control the father’s or guardian’s legal rights of custody, where exercise of such right cannot but be termed to be capricious or whimsical in nature or would materially interfere with the happiness and the welfare of the child. In re Mc Grath (1893) 1 Ch 143 Lindley, L. J., observed:

“The dominant matter for the consideration of the Court is the welfare of the child. But the welfare of a child is not to be measured by money only, nor by physical comfort only. The word ‘welfare’ must be taken in its widest sense. The moral and religious welfare of the child must be considered as well as its physical well being. Nor can the ties of affection be disregarded.” Lord Esher, M. R. in the Gyngall (1893) 2 QB 232 stated:

“The Court has to consider therefore, the whole of the circumstances of the case, the position of the parent, the position of the child, the age of the child, the religion of the child so far as it can be said to have any religion, and the happiness of the child. Prima facie it would not be for the welfare of the child to be taken away from its natural parent and given over to other people who have not that natural relation to it. Every wise man would say that, generally speaking, the best place for a child is with its parent. If a child is brought up, as one may say from its mother’s lap in one form of religion, it would not, I should say be for its happiness and welfare that a stranger should take it away in order to alter its religious views. Again, it cannot be merely because the parent is poor and the person who seeks to have the possession of the child as against the parent is rich, that, without regard to any other consideration, to the natural rights and feelings of the parent, or the feelings and views that have been introduced into the heart and mind of the child, the child ought not to be taken away from its parent merely because its pecuniary position will be thereby bettered. No wise man would entertain such suggestions as these.” The English law therefore has been consistent with the concept of welfare theory of the child. The Indian law also does not make any departure, therefrom. In this context, reference may be made to the decision of this Court in the case of J. V. Gajre v. Pathankhan (1970) 2 SCC 717 in which this Court in paragraph 11 of the report observed:

“We have already referred to the fact that the father and mother of the appellant had fallen out and that the mother was living separately for over 20 years. It was the mother who was actually managing the affairs of her minor daughter, who was under her care and protection. From 1951 onwards the mother in the usual course of management had been leasing out the properties of the appellant to the tenant. Though from 1951 to 1956 the leases were oral, for the year 1956-57 a written lease was executed by the tenant in favour of the appellant represented by her mother. It is no doubt true that the father was alive but he was not taking any interest in the affairs of the minor and it was as good as if he was non-existent so far as the minor appellant was concerned. We are inclined to agree with the view of the High Court that in the particular circumstances of this case, the mother can be considered to be the natural guardian of her minor daughter. It is needless to state that even before the passing of the Hindu Minority and Guardianship Act, 1956 (Act 32 of 1956), the mother is the natural guardian after the father. The above Act came into force on August 25, 1956 and under S. 6 the natural guardians of a Hindu minor in respect of the minor’s person as well as the minor’s property are the father and after him the mother. The position in the Hindu Law before this enactment was also the same. That is why we have stated that normally when the father is alive he is the natural guardian and it is only after him that the mother becomes the natural guardian. But on the facts found above the mother was rightly treated by the High Court as the natural guardian.”

36. Obviously, a rigid insistence of strict statutory interpretation may not be conducive for the growth of the child, and welfare being the predominant criteria, it would be a plain exercise of judicial power of interpreting the law so as to be otherwise conducive to a fuller and better development and growth of the child.

37. Incidentally the Constitution of India has introduced an equality code prohibiting discrimination on the ground of sex and having due regard to such a mandate in the Constitution, is it justifiable to decry the rights of the mother to be declared a natural guardian or have the father as a preferred guardian? Ms. Indira Jaisingh answers it with an emphatic ‘no’ and contended that the statute in question covering this aspect of the Personal law has used the expression ‘after’ in Section 6(a) but the same cannot run counter to the constitutional safeguards of gender justice and as such cannot but be termed to be void and ultra vires the Constitution.

38. Be it noted here that the expressions ‘guardian’ and ‘natural guardian’ have been given statutory meanings as appears from section 4(b) wherein guardian is said to mean a person having the care of the person of a minor or his property and includes:

(i) natural guardian;

(ii) a guardian appointed by the will of the minor’s father or mother,

(iii) a guardian appointed or declared by Court, and

(iv) a person empowered to act as such by or under any enactment relating to any Court of wards;

39. It is pertinent to note that sub-section (c) of Section 4 provides that a natural guardian means a guardian mentioned in Section 6. This definition section, however obviously in accordance with the rule of interpretation of statute, ought to be read subject to S. 6 being one of the basic provisions of the Act and it is this Section 6 which records that natural guardian of a Hindu minor, in the case of a boy or an unmarried girl, is the father and after him the mother. The statute therefore on a plain reading with literal meaning being ascribed to the words used, depicts that the mother’s right to act as a natural guardian stands suspended during the lifetime of the father and it is only in the event of death of the father, the mother obtains such a right to act as a natural guardian of a Hindu minor – It is this interpretation which has been ascribed to be having a gender bias and thus opposed to the constitutional provision. It has been contended that the classification is based on marital status depriving a mother’s guardianship of a child during the life time of the father which also cannot but be stated to be a prohibited marker under Article 15 of the Constitution.

40. The whole tenor of the Act of 1956 is to protect the welfare of the child and as such interpretation ought to be in consonance with the legislative intent in engrafting the statute on the Statute Book and not de hors the same and it is on this perspective that the word ‘after’ appearing in section 6A shall have to be interpreted. It is now a settled law that a narrow pedantic interpretation running counter to the constitutional mandate ought always to be avoided unless of course, the same makes a violent departure from the Legislative intent-in the event of which a wider debate may be had having due reference to the contextual facts.

41. The contextual facts in the decision noticed above, depict that since the father was not taking any interest in the minor and it was as good as if he was non-existing so far as the minor was concerned, the High Court allowed the mother to be the guardian but without expression of any opinion as regards the true and correct interpretation of the word ‘after’ or deciding the issue as to the constitutionality of the provision as contained in S. 6(a) of the Act of 1956 – it was decided upon the facts of the matter in issue. The High Court in fact recognised the mother to act as the natural guardian and the findings stand accepted and approved by this Court. Strictly speaking, therefore, this decision does not lend any assistance in the facts of the matter under consideration excepting however that welfare concept had its due recognition.

42. There is yet another decision of this Court in the case of Panni Lal v. Rajinder Singh (1993) 4 SCC 38 wherein the earlier decision in Gajre’s case was noted but in our view Panni Lal’s case does not lend any assistance in the matter in issue and since the decision pertain to protection of the properties of a minor.

43. Turning attention on the principal contention as regards the constitutionality of the legislation, in particular Section 6 of the Act of 1956 it is to be noted that validity of a legislation is to be presumed and efforts should always be there on the part of the law courts in the matter of retention of the legislation in the statute book rather than scrapping it and it is only in the event of gross violation of constitutional sanctions that law courts would be within its jurisdiction to declare the legislative enactment to be an invalid piece of legislation and not otherwise and it is on this perspective that we may analyse the expressions used in Section 6 in a slightly more greater detail. The word ‘guardian’ and the meaning attributed to it by the legislature under S. 4(b) of the Act cannot be said to be restrictive in any way and thus the same would mean and include both the father and the mother and this is more so by reason of the meaning attributed to the word as “a person having the care of the person of a minor or his property or of both his person and property. . . . .” It is an axiomatic truth that both the mother and the father of a minor child are duty bound to take due care of the person and the property of their child and thus having due regard to the meaning attributed to the word ‘guardian’ both the parents ought to be treated as guardians of the minor. As a matter of fact the same was the situation as regards the law prior to the codification by the Act of 1956. The law therefore recognised that a minor has to be in the custody of the person who can sub-serve his welfare in the best possible way – the interest of the child being paramount consideration.

44. The expression ‘natural guardian’ has been defined in S. 4(c) as noticed above to mean any of the guardians as mentioned in S. 6 of the Act of 1956. This section refers to three classes of guardians viz., father, mother and in the csae of a married girl the husband. The father and mother therefore, are natural guardians in terms of the provisions of S. 6 read with S. 4(c). Incidentally it is to be noted that in the matter of interpretation of statute the same meaning ought to be attributed to the same word used by the statute as per the definition section. In the event, the word ‘guardian’ in the definition section means and implies both the parents, the same meaning ought to be attributed to the word appearing in section 6(a) and in that perspective mother’s right to act as the guardian does not stand obliterated during the lifetime of the father and to read the same on the statute otherwise would tantamount to a violent departure from the legislative intent. Section 6(a) itself recognises that both the father and the mother ought to be treated as natural guardians and the expression ‘after’ therefore shall have to be read and interpreted in a manner so as not to defeat the true intent of the legislature.

45. Be it noted further, that gender equality is one of the basic principles of our Constitution and in the event the word ‘after’ is to be read to mean a disqualification of a mother to act as a guardian during the lifetime of the father, the same would definitely run counter to the basic requirement of the constitutional mandate and would lead to a differenciation between male and female. Normal rules of interpretation shall have to bow down to the requirement of the Constitution since the Constitution is supreme and the statute shall have to be in accordance therewith and not de hors the same. The father by reason of a dominant personality cannot be ascribed to have a preferential right over the mother in the matter of guardianship since both fall within the same category and in that view of the matter the word ‘after’ shall have to be interpreted in terms of constitutional safeguard and guarantee so as to give a proper and effective meaning to the words used.

46. In our opinion the word ‘after’ shall have to be given a meaning which would sub-serve the need of the situation viz., welfare of the minor and having due regard to the factum that law courts endeavour to retain the legislation rather than declaring it to be a void, we do feel it expedient to record that the word ‘after’ does not necessarily mean after the death of the father, on the contrary, it depicts an intent so as to ascribe the meaning thereto as ‘in the absence of’ – be it temporary or otherwise or total apathy of the father towards the child or even inability of the father by reason of ailment or otherwise and it is only in the event of such a meaning being ascribed to the word ‘after’ as used in S. 6 then and in that event the same would be in accordance with the intent of the legislation viz. welfare of the child.

47. In that view of the matter question of ascribing the literal meaning to the word ‘after’ in the context does not and cannot arise having due regard to the object of the statute, read with the constitutional guarantee of gender equality and to give a full play to the legislative intent, since any other interpretation would render the statute void and which situation in our view ought to be avoided.

48. In view of the above, the Writ Petition (c) No. 489 of 1995 stands disposed of with a direction that Reserve Bank authorities are directed to formulate appropriate methodology in the light of the observations, as above, so as to meet the situation as called for in the contextual facts.

49. Writ Petition (c) No. 1016 of 1991 also stands disposed of in the light of the observations as recorded above and the matter pending before the District Court, Delhi, as regards custody and guardianship of the minor child, shall be decided in accordance therewith.

50. In the facts of the matters under consideration there shall however be no order as to costs.

Mst. Raj Kali Kuer Vs Ram Rattan Pandey [ALL SC 1955 APRIL]

whether a Hindu female is entitled to succeed to the hereditary priestly office of a ‘Pujari’ and ‘Panda’ held by her husband in a temple and to receive the emoluments thereof.


DATE :- 07-04-1955

AIR 1955 SC 493 : (1955) 2 SCR 186


Mst. Raj Kali Kuer Appellant
Ram Rattan Pandey Respondent

(Before : Vivian Bose, B. Jagannadhadas And B. P. Sinha, JJ.)

Civil Appeal No. 136 of 1953, Decided on : 07-04-1955.

fundamental Rules, Rule 44—Dearness allowance—Claim for—Matter of discretion with the local Government whether it will grant dearness allowance and if so, how much—prayer for ‘mandamus’ is clearly misconceived, as that could be granted only when there is’in the applicant a right to compel the performance of some duty cast on the opponent. Rule 44 of the fundamental Rules confers no right on the Government servants to the grant of dearness allowance; it imposes no duty on the State to grant it.

Hindu Law—Succession—Religious office—Succession by woman—Permissibility—Office of Pujari—Claim of right to perform the puja either herself or through her karinda (agent)—Effect of personal disqualification of woman to officiate as Pujari—No prohibition on performance of duties through substitute—Right of woman to succeed to the office upheld.

It is also undisputed that according to Hindu Shastras the functions of a ‘Pujari’ can be performed only by certain limited classes and involves special qualifications and that these classes may vary with the nature of the institution. Now, whatever may have been the position in early times, of which there is no clear historical evidence, it appears to have been well established in later times that a female, even of the recognised limited classes, cannot by herself perform the duties of a ‘Pujari’. Even at a time when the institution of temple worship had probably not come into general vogue, the incapacity of a woman to recite ‘Vedic’ texts, to offer sacrificial fire, or to perform sacramental rites, is indicated in certain texts of Manu.

It cannot be denied and is indeed a matter of common knowledge, that at the present day, hereditary priestly offices are, as often as not, performed by proxies, the choice of proxy being, of course, limited to a small circle permitted by usage.

In a matter of this kind where there is no express prohibition in the texts for the performance of the duties of the ‘Pujari’s’ office by the appointment of substitutes, and where such an office has developed into a hereditary right of property, the consideration of public policy cannot be insisted on to the extent of negativing the right itself. In such a situation what has to be equally emphasised is the duty-aspect of the office and to insist, on the superior authorities in charge of the temple exercising vigilantly their responsibility by controlling the then incumbent of the priestly office in the exercise of his rights (or by other persons having interest taking appropriate steps through court), when it is found that the services are not being properly or efficiently performed. In view of the peculiar nature of such offices as combining in them both the element of property and the element of duty, it cannot be doubted that superior authorities in charge of the institutions or other persons interested have this right which may be enforced by appropriate legal means.

There is nothing on the record to show whether the temple in this case falls within this category. If, however, the temple is a private one or the idol therein is not one ‘Shastrically’ consecrated, the case in favour of the plaintiff is much stronger and her right cannot be seriously challenged.

Counsel for the Parties:

Mr. R. C. Prasad, Advocate, for Appellant

Mr. S. P. Varma, Advocate, for Respondent.


Jagannadhdas, JThis is an appeal by leave granted under Article 136(1) of the Constitution against the second appellate judgment of the High Court of Patna. It relates to the office of ‘Pujari’ and ‘Panda’ of a famous temple in the town of Arrah in the State of Bihar, known as the temple of Aranya Devi and Killa Ki Devi.

The appellant before us – a woman -brought this suit claiming joint title to the office along with the defendant and as such entitled to perform the ‘Puja’ either by herself or through her ‘Karinda’ and to get a half share in the income of offerings of the said Asthan. It is the admitted case that this office belongs to the family of both the parties and that the duties of the office were being jointly performed by the defendant and his deceased brothers. Rambeyas Pande, and that they were enjoying the emoluments jointly. The plaintiff – the widow of Rambeyas Pande – claims to have succeeded to her husband’s share in this property and bases her suit on the said claim.

In the written statement the defendant raised three main defences, two out of which are (1) the plaintiff was not the legally wedded wife of his brother, Rambeyas Pande, and (2) during the life time of Rambeyas Pande, there was a division between them with reference to the office of Pujari’ and Panda’ belonging to this family in respect of two temples (a) at Arrah and (b) at Gangipul, that the office of Pujari’ at Gangipul was given to the plaintiff’s husband and that the temple of Aran Devi at Arrah was given to the defendant and that since then, i.e. for about 11 years prior to the date of the suit, the plaintiff’s husband had no connection with the office of ‘pujari’ in this temple nor with the receipt of any offerings therein.

Both these contentions were found against the defendant by the trial court as well as by the first appellate court and they have become conclusive. The further and third defence raised by the defendant was that the property in suit, viz., the office of ‘Pujari’ and ‘Panda’ of the temple cannot be inherited by a female.

The contention is set out in the following terms in he written statement:

“The plaintiff not at all entitled to the office and the post of Pujari and Panda of Arun Devi and she is not entitled to get 1/2 share or any share in the income and offering of the said Asthan, nor has she got any right to perform Puja as a Panda personally, or through her karinda and to get the income, etc. This is against the custom and usage and practice and also against the Sastras. The property in suit is such as cannot be inherited by a female”.

It is the question thus raised which has got to be considered in this appeal.

2. The trial court held against this contention in the following terms:

“No authority has been cited nor any custom proved to show that female cannot inherit a property of this nature”.

The first appellate court also affirmed this view as follows;

“The defendant’s objection that the plaintiff being a female is not authorised to hold the office of a priest of the Aranya Debi temple is not borne out by any evidence or material on the record. There is nothing to show that by reason of her sex she is debarred from holding this office either by religion, custom or usage. Moreover admittedly she holds the office at the Gangi temple.”

On the findings arrived at by the trial court and the first appellate court, the plaintiff got a decree as prayed for declaring her right to half share in the office and for recovery of mesne profits on that footing. On second appeal to the High Court, the learned Judges went into the question at some length and were of the opinion that

“the plaintiff being a female is not entitled to inherit the priestly office in question and her claim to officiate as a priest in the temple by rotation cannot be sustained. The declaration sought for by her that she is entitled to the office of Pujari cannot, therefore, be granted.”

They held, however,

“that she is not debarred from being entitled to be maintained out of the estate of her husband which, in the particular case, happens to be no other than the emoluments attached to the priestly office in the shape of offerings made to the deity which office was undoubtedly hereditary”.

They further held that

“she will be entitled to receive from the defendant half the amount of the offerings in lieu of her maintenance”

and they varied the decree of the trial court accordingly.

The short question that arises, therefore, for consideration in this appeal is whether a Hindu female is entitled to succeed to the hereditary priestly office of a ‘Pujari’ and ‘Panda’ held by her husband in a temple and to receive the emoluments thereof. This is a question about which there has been some difference of opinion in the decided cases. It requires dose examination.

4. That religious offices can be hereditary and that the right to such an office is in the nature of property under the Hindu Law is now well established. A Full Bench of the Calcutta High Court in -’Monohar ,v. Bhupendra’, AIR 1932 Cal 791 (A), has laid this down in respect of ‘Shebaitship’ of a temple and this view has been accepted by the Privy council in two subsequent cases in -’Ganesh vs. Lal Behary’, AIR 1936 PC 318 (B), and -’Bhabatarini vs. Ashalata’, AIR 1943 PC 89 (C). In a recent judgment of this Court reported as -’Commissioner, Hindu Religious Endowments, Madras vs. Sri Laksh. mindra Thirtha Swamiar’, AIR 1954 SC 282 (D). this view has been reiterated and extended to the office of a Mahant. On the view that ‘shebaiti’ is property, this Court has also rerecognised the right of a female to succeed to the religious office of ‘Shebaitship’ in the case reported as – ‘Sm. Angurbala vs. Debabrata’. AIR 1951 SC 293 (E), where the question as to the applicability of Hindu Women’s Right to Property Act to the office of ‘Shebaitship ‘ came up for consideration. On the same analogy as that of a ‘Shebaiti’ right, the right of a hereditary priest of ‘Pujari’ in a temple must also amount to property where emoluments are attached to such an office. Indeed, some of the decisions which have recognised the ‘Shebaiti’ right as property appear to be cases where the ‘Shebaiti’ right combines the priestly office of a ‘Pujari’ of the idol with the office of the manager of the temple, who in south India, is known by the name of ‘Dharmakarta’.

As early as in ‘Mitta Kunth Audhicarry vs. Neerunjun Audhicarry’, 14 Beng LR 166 (F). it was recognised that hereditary priestly office in a family is property liable to partition. A number of other decisions to be noticed in the later part of this judgment recognise this position. The learned Judges of the High Court in their judgment in the case under appeal, have attempted to distinguish the present case from that of the case of the ‘Shebaitship’ and have come to the conclusion that while in respect of ‘Shebaiti’ right a woman may succeed by heirship, she is not entitled to such succession in respect of the right of a ‘Panda’ and ‘Pujari’. But in making this distinction they do not negative the idea that the right to the office of the ‘Pujari’ itself is property to which a female could succeed. but for her supposed disqualification. The disqualification is said to arise with inference to the duties attached to this office, and it is said that in the respect it differ from the office of a ‘Shebait’.

5. Now there can be no doubt that while in one sense the right to such a religious office is properly it involves also substantial elements of duty. As has been stated by this court in AIR 1951 SC 293 (E); and in AIR 1954 SC 282 (D), “both the elements of office and property, of duties and personal interest are blended together (in such offices) and neither can be detached from the other”. It must also be recognised that in respect of such offices especially where they are attached to public institutions, the duties are to be regarded as primary and that the rights and emoluments are only appurtenant to the duties. See the observations of Justice Page in -’Nagendra vs. Rabindra’. AIR 1926 Cal 490 (G), at pages 495 and 496 and that of Justice Sadashiva Aiyar

in – ‘Sundarambal vs. Yogavanagurukkal’, AIR 1915 Mad 561 (H), at page 564, as also of Mukherjea on Endowments (1952 Edn.) page 201. If, therefore, it is found that the recognition of a female’s right to succeed to the hereditary office of ‘Pujari’ in a temple held by her husband is incompatible with due discharge of the duties of the office, her right to succeed must be negatived.

The correct approach to a question of this kind has been laid down by the Privy Council in a case which relates to a Mohammadan religious office but would equally be applicable to a Hindu religious office. In – ‘Shahar Bano vs. Aga Mahomed Jaffer Bindaneem’, 34 Ind App 46, their Lordships, after noticing the view taken by the learned Judges of the Calcutta High Court, that

“there is no legal prohibition against a woman holding a mutwalliship when the trust, by its nature involves no spiritual duties such as a woman could not properly discharge ‘in person or by deputy’“

approved this view of the High Court and said “it appears to their Lordships, that there is simple authority for that proposition”. The question, therefore, that requires consideration in the present case is whether the office of the ‘Pujari’ and ‘Panda’ in a temple involves such duties as could not be discharged by a female in person and if so, whether she is also incompetent to get the same discharged by a deputy.

6. Now for this purpose it is desirable to have a clear idea of the duties of a ‘Pujari’ in an ordinary Hindu temple. A ‘Pujari’ has to perform the prescribed daily worship of the image as well as the special worship of a periodical nature on particular occasions and for prescribed festivals during the year. In- ‘Ramabrahma Chatterjee vs. Kedar Nath’, AIR 1923 Cal 60, Justice Sir Asutosh Mookerjee indicated the daily routine of worship in the following passage:

“The normal type of continued worship of a consecrated image consists of the sweeping of a temple, the process of smearing, the removal of the previous day’s offering of flowers, the presentation of fresh flowers and water, and other like practices. It is sufficient to State that the deity is, in short, conceived as a living being and is treated in the same way as the master of the house would be treated by his humble servant. The daily routine of life is gone through with minute accuracy; the vivified image is regaled with the necessaries and luxuries of life in due succession, even to the changing of clothes, the offering of cooked and uncooked food, and the retirement to rest”.

In Saraswati’s Hindu Law of Endowments the nature of the daily worship of a consecrated idol in a temple is set out at pages 134 and 135 in detail. It must be recognised that the daily worship differs according to the tenets and usages of the religious sect for which the temple is intended and the idol is consecrated. But whatever may be the details of the worship and the variations therein there can be no doubt that the ministration of various services involving personal touch of the idol and often enough, the recitation of religious hymns inclusive of ‘Vedic’ hymns are amongst the normal and essential features of a ‘Pujari’s’ duties, at any rate in temples where the worship is conducted according to the ‘Shastras’. It is also undisputed that according to Hindu Shastras the functions of a ‘Pujari’ can be performed only by certain limited classes and involves special qualifications and that these classes may vary with the nature of the institution. Now, whatever may have been the position in early times, of which there is no clear historical evidence, it appears to have been well established in later times that a female, even of the recognised limited classes, cannot by herself perform the duties of a ‘Pujari. Even at a time when the institution of temple worship had probably not come into general vogue, the incapacity of a woman to recite ‘Vedic’ texts, to offer sacrificial fire, or to perform sacramental rites, is indicated in certain texts of Manu. (See Sacred Books of the East, Manu, Vol. 25, pages 330 and 437, Chapter 9, section 18 and Chapter 11, section 36). Whether it is on the basis of these texts or for some other reason, her incapacity to discharge, in person, the duties of the ‘Pujari’ appears to have been well settled in later times as appears from the following text from Brihan-Naradiya Purana quoted in Saraswati’s Hindu Law of Endowments at page 136:

“Women, those uninvested with the sacred thread, (i.e, the members of the Dvija class before the initiation ceremony has been performed for them), and Sudras are not competent to touch images of Vishnu or Siva. A Sudra, one uninvested with the sacred thread, a woman or an outcaste, having touched Vishnu or Siva, goes to hell”.

This passage, in terms, refers to the images of Vishnu and Siva but it may reasonably be assumed, in the absence of any evidence to the contrary, that practice the incapacity of a female to discharge the duties of a ‘ Pujari’ by herself extended at any rate, to all public temples where an image of whatever form had been consecrated and installed according to the ‘Shastras’. Indeed, all the cases on the subject have assumed this incapacity of the female. The point of controversy has been whether she is also incompetent to get he duties discharged by employing a qualified substitute. If her competence in the behalf is recognised and can be accepted there is no reason why she should not be held entitled to succeed to the office. Thus the really important question for consideration in this case is whether the duties of the ‘Pujari’s office can be got done by a substitute and if so is there any particular reason or clearly established usage, against a female employing such a substitute and thus becoming entitled to the office.

7. In early Hindu society a priestly office could have relation only to the performance of various kinds of ‘Vedic’ rituals and sacrifices either of a daily and routine nature or of a periodical and special nature. In theory a ‘Brabhmin’ is to perform such functions for himself by himself, while person of other classes should get them done through qualified ‘Brahmins’. On principle a priest in the Hindu concept is chosen as such with reference to his personal qualities and competence. The system of hereditary priesthood, however, with the possibility of persons not fully competent succeeding to or occupying such an office, appears to have come into vouge from fairly early times. It appears, however, that from the very nature of the situation, the temporary discharge of the priestly function by a substitute in the price of the hereditary priest was a matter of inevitable necessity since the Hindu ‘Shastras’ recognised temporary and casual disqualifications like that of birth and death pollution. But there does not appear to be any indication in the early books of any general practice about the functions of priestly office being discharged by proxies. In comparatively later days, however, there is clear indication of such a practice.

In Saraswati’s Hindu Law of Endowments at page 56, it is stated that in the ‘Padma Purana’ and other treatises incapacitated persons are directed to have the worship performed through ‘Brahmins’. This statement is with reference to the performance of service of an idol and has presumably reference to the incapacity of persons occupying of a priestly office. In Colebrooke’s translation of the Digest of Hindu Law on Contracts and Succession with a commentary by Jagannatha Tercapanchanana (4th Edition, published by Higginbotham and Co. Madras; (1874), Vol. I, Book II, Chapter III, Section II, pages 360 to 381 deal with the topic of partnership among priests jointly officiating at holy rites. A perusal thereof and particularly of placita 28 to 44 containing citations from various ‘Smrutis’ with Jagannatha’s commentary thereon, clearly indicate that the institution of hereditary priestship, became established by that date and that the performance of such priestly functions by substitutes had definitely come into vogue. Various rules are propounded as to the sharing of remuneration between the substitute priest and the hereditary priest when the former happens to perform the functions in the place of the latter. It is to be noticed that these passages from Jagannatha’s Digest infer in terms only to priestly office by way of officiating at holy rites, i.e., sacrifices and other ‘Vedic’ or ‘Shastric’ functions but do not in terms refer to the discharge of a priest’s duties in relation to the worship of an idol in a temple. This is all the more remarkable because by the date of Jagannatha’s Digest the institution of worship of consecrated idols in temples had become long since fairly established. The probable explanation is that Jagannatha’s Digest is a commentary on selected texts. mostly of the various ‘Smrutis’ from which he quotes and that in the days of the ‘Smrutis’ the temple worship does not appear to have come sufficiently into vogue.

The historical origin and growth of temple worship has been fully dealt with in Saraswati’s Hindu Law of Endowments and has been also noticed in the referring judgment in -’Annaya Tantrl vs. Ammaka Hengsu’, AIR 1919 Mad 598 (FB) (K). It is pointed out therein that according to Hindu sentiment the performance of the duties of an ‘Archaka’ or ‘Pujari’ for an idol has been considered sinful and it required inducements by way of liberal grants of land and promise of substantial perquisites to attract competent persons for the office of ‘Pujari’ or ‘Archaka’. This, in course of time and with the change in social conditions and economic values, rendered the offices of ‘Panda’ and ‘Pujari’ in almost all the famous shrines in India, a lucrative affair, and has enabled the hereditary priests to get the functions discharged by paid substitutes and themselves enjoy a substantial margin of income.

Here just in the same way as the patronage of the kings or the society may have been a great incentive to the development of the system of discharge of hereditary priestly functions by substitutes in relation to sacrificial and ‘Vedic’ religious rites, the phenomenal development and worship of idols in temples and the substantial emoluments which in course of time rendered the discharge of priestly office lucrative must have brought into vogue the employment of substitutes for performance of the duties of the priests not only for sacrificial or other religious rites but also for temple worship. Whether and how far this practise is permitted by the ‘Shastras’ is not the question before us. But it cannot be denied and is indeed a matter of common knowledge, that at the present day, hereditary. priestly offices are, as often as not, performed by proxies, the choice of proxy being, of course, limited to a small circle permitted by usage. The question for consideration of the courts is, whether, in this State of things, a female is to be excluded from succession to the hereditary office of ‘Pujari’ on account of her well cognised personal disqualification to officiate as such ‘Pujari’ for the ‘Shastrically’ installed and consecrated idols in the temples and whether she is to be denied the capacity to retain the property by setting the priestly duties efficiently discharged through a competent substitute. The only basis for the alleged denial is a passage from Jagannatha’s Digest which is as follows:(Vide Vol. I page 379, commentary under placitum 43).

“Wives and others, disqualified by sex for the performance of holy rites, cannot appoint a substitute; as defiled person cannot perform a solemn act ordained by the Vedas, therefore wives have no property in the office of priest.”,

Now apart from the question whether this passage can be taken to be sufficiently authoritative, there has been some difference of opinion as to the correct import thereof.

In AIR 1915 Mad 561 (H), this passage has been relied upon by Justice Sadasiva Aiyar as showing that women are incompetent to discharge the functions of a priest even through a substitute and that, therefore, they have no right of succession to the office. The learned Judges of the High Court in the present case have also relied on it. In AIR 1919 Mad 598 (FB) (K), Justice Seshagiri Aiyar in his referring judgment has referred to this passage and was of the opinion that it does not express a specific view.

In Ganapathi Iyer on Hindu and Mahomedan Endowments (2nd Edn.) the learned author while commenting on this very passage says as follows at page 453 of his book.

“Jagannatha there considers the question whether wives and others, have a title to the succession to this priestly office. As usual with the discussions of Jagannatha it is difficult to say what his final opinion is. But we should certainly think that Jagannatha’s opinion is that woman can inherit doing the duties through a substitute, but enjoying the emoluments attached to that office.”

It appears on a careful consideration of the dispute passage with reference to its context, that the view of the learned author is correct. In any case the passage cannot be definitely relied upon as an authority for the contrary view. The discussion in connection with which this passage occurs in the commentary is under placitum No. 43 in Section II of Chapter III. Book II, which is a felt from ‘Narada’ relating to hereditary priests. The statement relied on occurs at a place where there is an attempt to reconcile the disqualification of the female to discharge the functions of a hereditary priest, and the recognition of her right to succeed to all property including a hereditary office.

The relevant portions of the discussion are herein below set out.

“It is doubted whether wives and others have a title to this succession, although the partition, founded of the admission of a right vesting in Agraharicas and other officiating priests, ought to be similar to the partition of inheritance in general. As the wife’s title to succession, on failure of heirs in the male line as far as the great-grandson, will be declared under the head of Inheritance, what should reverse her title in the instance ? It should not be argued, that the wife can have no right to the village, because as a woman, she is disqualified for the performance of holy rites, and because the wives of agraharicas and others are totally incapable of receiving tila delivered as a gift to priests. The tila may be received, and the rites be performed, through the intervention of a substitute. Let it not be argued, that, were it so, a property in the sacrificial fee and regular dues would vest in the substitute. The wife may have the benefit of property acquired by the substitute, as a sacrificer has the benefit of rites performed by an officiating priest. However, there is this difference:the sacrificer acquires merit from rites performed by an officiating priest, and none is ever acquired by the intermediate performer of the rites; but if the duty of the officiating priest be performed by a substitute, property in the sacrificial fee is at first vested in the substitute, and through him, in the widow entitled thereto. It is alleged, that there is no authority for the construction.


The text which ordains that “a person unable to act shall appoint another to act for him”, is the foundation of this construction ; but the property of an outcaste, or other person disqualified for solemn rites, is absolutely lost in the same manner with his right to the paternal gold, silver, and the like. This will be explained in the fifth book on Inheritance, ‘Wives and others, disqualified by sex for the performance of holy rites, cannot appoint a substitute:as a defiled person cannot perform a solemn act ordained by the Vedas ; therefore wives have no property in the office of priest’.”

At the end of the discussion there is the following significant passage.

“Therefore the difficulty is thus reconciled; women are entitled to that only for which they are qualified. In regard to the assertion, that women, being disqualified, cannot appoint a substitute, this must be understood:being disqualified for solemn acts ordained by the Vedas, they cannot appoint a substitute for such acts:but qualified for worldly acts, nothing prevents their appointment of a substitute for temporal affairs:and the right should devolve on the next in succession, under the text quoted in another place (Book 5, vs. 477) and because women are dependent on men. Grain and similar property may be consumed by a woman entitled to the succession; but gold silver, and the like, should be preserved:if she cannot guard it, let it be entrusted to her husband’s heir, as will be mentioned under the title of inheritance. Here, since a woman cannot preserve the office, it should be executed by her husband’s daughter’s son, or other heir:but the produce should be enjoyed by the woman. However, should he daughter’s son be at variance with his maternal grandmother, it may be executed by another person:he is not entitled to his maternal grandfather’s property, if that grandfather leave a wife:and should the maternal grandmother litigate, it must be amicably adjusted.”

The concluding portion seems father to indicate that the more categorical passage underlined above and relied upon is in the nature of an objection which is being answered and that the final conclusion is the recognition of a right to succeed by getting the duties of the office performed by the next male in succession. The learned Judges of the High Court have in fact noticed this concluding passage but have missed its correct import.

8. It is desirable now to consider how this question stands with reference to the decided cases in the various High Courts. A fairly substantial number of cases appear in the reports of the Madras High Court. One of the earliest decisions is that of the Madras. Sadar Diwani Adalat in-’Seshu Ammal vs. Soundaraja Aiyar’, 1853 Mad SDA 261. (L), wherein it was held, following the opinion of the Sadar Court ‘Pandits’, that a woman was disqualified by reason of her sex from inheriting the office of ‘Acharyapurusha’ but the same ‘Pandits” opinion distinctly recognises that religious offices like those of an ‘Archaka’ or ‘Pujari’ can be held by a female, by her getting the duties thereof performed through a competent male substitute.

In -’Tangirala Chiranjivi vs. R. Rajaya Lakshmamma’, AIR 1915 Mad 505 (1) (M), it was stated that there was no basis for the assumption that a minor, a female, or a person unlearned in the ‘Vedas’, will lose the right to service in the temple and that the onus will be on the person who alleges the disqualification to prove it. The learned Judges categorically asserted (apparently as being a matter within general knowledge and experience) that “service in temples is being performed by proxies”.

In.- ‘Ramasundaram Pillai vs. Savundaratha Ammal’, AIR 1915 Mad 725 (N), the learned Judges say as follows:

“ It is undeniable that this and other High Courts have in numerous cases acted on the assumption (which was not questioned) that women could hold religious offices and get the duties performed by proxy.”

They further say:

“It may be that the parties concerned are so accustomed to the idea of female officeholders with proxies that it has usually not occurred to them to question the legality of such a State of affairs and that in the absence of contest, the Courts have somewhat too readily assumed it to be legal without requiring proof of a valid custom in support of it.”

In -’ Rajeswari Ammal vs. Subramania Archaka’, AIR 1917 Mad 963 (2) (O), the learned Judges State as follows:

“We are of the opinion that a female is not, under Hindu law or custom, disqualified from succeeding to a hereditary religious office and getting such duties as she may be disqualified by reason of her sex from performing, performed by proxy”.

The only dissentient view against this current of authority in the Madras High Court was that of Justice Sadasiva Aiyar in AIR 1915 Mad 561 (A). He expressed a strong opinion that the practice of allowing the priestly office to be performed by a substitute excepting for merely temporary occasions or casual purposes, is wholly opposed to public policy and that it should not be recognised. In a later judgment in AIR 1919 Mad 598 (FB) (K), relating to the same topic he (Justice Sadasiva Aiyar) stated as follows:

“It is notorious that the deputy is usually chosen on the principle of a Dutch auction. The man who agrees to allow the widow to retold the largest portion of the emoluments of the office and to receive the least as his own remuneration is given the place of the deputy.”

The learned Judge pointed out that

“such a practice was mischievous and that even if it was sanctioned by usage it ought not to be recognised by courts.”

There is certainly form in this comment. But in a matter of this kind where there is no express prohibition in the texts for the performance of the duties of the ‘Pujari’s’ office by the appointment of substitutes and where such an office has developed into a hereditary right of property, the consideration of public policy cannot be insisted on to the extent of negativing the right itself. In such a situation what has, to be equally emphasised is the duty-aspect of the office and to insist, on the superior authorities in charge of the temple exercising vigilantly their responsibility by controlling the then incumbent of the priestly office in the exercise of his rights (or by other persons having interest taking appropriate steps through court), when it is found that the services are not being properly or efficiently performed. In view of the peculiar nature of such offices as combining in them both the element of property and the element of duty; it cannot be doubted that superior authorities in charge of the institutions or other persons interested have this right which may be enforced by appropriate legal means. In – ‘Peary Mohan Mukherji vs. Monohar Mukherji’, AIR 1922 PC 235, the Privy council has recognised that notwithstanding the personal interest of a ‘Shebait’ in respect of his office, the performance of the duties thereof has got to be safeguarded and that he can be removed where he has put himself in a position in which the obligation of his office can no longer be faithfully discharged.

9. So far as the Madras High Court area is concerned, the controversy has been settled by the Full Bench case in AIR 1919 Mad 598 (FB) (K), where the view taken by Justice Sadasiva Aiyar was specifically overruled on the ground that “there were numerous decision of the Madras High Court in conformity with the decisions of the other High Courts by which the widow and the daughter and the daughter of the last male ‘Archaka’ are held entitled in accordance with the established user to succeed to the office of Archaka discharging his duties by deputy and to transmit it to their heirs, who as male heirs are preferred to female, and will generally be competent to perform the duties in person”. These decisions of the Madras High Court seem to recognise both the factual and validity of the usage as one that has been accepted by the courts not only within its own jurisdiction but also within the jurisdiction of the other High Courts. It is urged, however, that there is no such usage that can be definitely said to be established with reference to the decisions of the other High Courts.

10. As, regards the other High Courts doubtless the actual cases appearing in the reports about this point are not many. In the Bombay High, Court one of the earliest decisions is the case in 1866 of – ‘Keshavbhat vs. Bhagirhibai’, 3 Bom HCR AC 75 (Q), where the learned Judges say as follows:

“With respect to the objection, that a Hindu female cannot perform the duties which attach to the office for the maintenance of which the allowance was granted, it may be observed that the defendant had not proved the existence of any usage in conformity with his allegation:”

The claim in question in that case was to an annual allowance paid from the Government Treasury to the members of a family for the maintenance of certain religious services at the temple of ‘Mahadev” at Baneshvar near Poona. In – ‘Sitarimbhat vs. Sitaram Ganesh’, 6 Bom HCR AC 250 (R) the head note shows as follows:

“Semble, that an hereditary priestly office descends in default of males through females”.

This is apparently the assumption on which that judgment appears to have proceeded though the matter does not appear to have been specifically so decided. In Calcutta one of the early cases is – ‘Poorun Narain Dutt vs. Kasheessuree Dosee’, 3 Suth WR 179, There it was recognised that a woman can succeed to a priestly office and the contention to the contrary was overruled on the ground that the lower appellate court found the same as a fact on the evidence and that no one but the defendant bad raised the contention.

In – ‘Joy Deb Surma vs. Huroputty Surma’, 16 Suth WR 282 (T) the same question was raised, viz., whether according to Hindu law a woman can succeed to the priestly office and reliance appears to have been placed for that contention on the passage from Colebrooke’s Digest already above referred to. In view of this contention the learned Judges remitted the care to the lower court for determination of the question whether with reference to any particular custom or rule of Hindu law at woman is entitled to succeed to the priestly office in that case it was the office of the Dolloi of the temple. It does not appear what the finding received was and how this matter was finally decided.

In – ‘Radha Mohun Mundul vs. Jadoomonee Dossee’, 23 Suth WR 369 (U) their Lordships of the Judicial Committee quoted with apparent approval the following passage from the judgment of the trial Court.

“They (the members of the family) merely say that as the said properties are of a debuttur character, they are not susceptible of division among the share-holders:and that since the plaintiff is a children widow, she is not competent to may on the service of the gods. That the, properties in question do not admit of any partition among the cosharers is a fact which must be admitted by me; but I do not see any reason why a widow of the family should be incapacitated from superintending the service of the gods. It is not urged by the defendants that any such rule has been laid down in the family, and that under it the widows have been excluded from the above superintendence. On the other hand, among the Hindoos, persons belonging to no other caste except that of Brahmins can perform the service of a god with his own hands, that is, worship the idol by touching its person. Men of other castes simply superintend the service of the gods and goddesses established by themselves, while they cause their actual worship to be performed by Brahmins. Thus, when. persons of the above description can conduct the service of idols in the above-mentioned manner, why should not the widows of their family be able to carry on worship in a similar way ? ……………Consequently, there is nothing to prevent the Court from finding that the plaintiff has a right to hold possesssion of the debutter properties enumerated by the defendants in the 12th paragraph of their written statement, and to superintend the service of the gods conjointly with the other co-sharers”.

In – ‘Mahamaya Debi vs. Haridas Halder’. AIR 1915 Cal 161(2) (V) , it has been recognised that according to custom the ‘palas’ of Kalighat shrine in Calcutta are heritable and that it was immaterial whether the heir is a make or a female. This must necessary have involved the recognition of the capacity of the female to get the worship performed by a male substitute who is to be taken from a limited class.

As has been already noticed, the reported cases dealing with this matter outside the Madras High Court do not appear to be many; At any rate, no others have been brought to our notice dealing with this question directly:though there are many cases relating to the questioned of succession to the office of ‘Shebait’ and the performance of duties thereof by proxy, which is a matter distinguishable from case relating to the office of ‘Pujari’ or Archaka’ simpliciter. The paucity of decided cases in the reports of the other High Courts may very well be due to what has been pointed out in one of the Madras cases, viz, that the practice of females succeeding to this office and getting the duties thereof performed by a Substitute was so common and well recognised that it has not been seriously contested and brought up to the Courts.

Further the institution of private family temples and the endowments of large and substantial properties for the ‘Deb-seva’ in such temples though somewhat uncommon in South India is fairly common in Bengal and some other States. In view of the ‘Dayabhaga’ system of law of succession prevalent in Bengal and the very much larger number of occasions for wiyes and daughters succeeding to a sonless coparcener in ‘Dayabhaga’ joint families, the practice of females succeeding to the priestly office and of getting the duties performed by other members of the family as proxies in their places must, by the very situation, have been common in these areas.

The case reported in -’Jalandhar Thakur vs. Jharula Das’, AIR 1914 PC 72 (W), is a case relating to the ‘Shobait’s (priest’s) office in the ‘Singheswar’ temple of Bhagalpur and the facts therein show that there was unquestioned female succession to the office. It is a clear indication of the prevalence of the usage of female succession to priestly office in the State of Bihar from which the present case arises.

11. A careful review, therefore, of the reported cases on this matter shows that the usage of a female succeeding to a priestly office and getting the same performed through a competent deputy, is one that has been fairly well-recognised. There is nothing in the textual Hindu law to the contrary. Nor can it be said that the recognition of such a usage is opposed to public policy, in the Hindu law sense. As already pointed out the consideration of public policy can only be given effect in he present State of the law, to the extent required for enforcing adequate discharge of the duties appurtenats to the office. Subject to the proper and efficient discharge of the duties of the office, there can be no reason either on principle or on authority to refuse to accord to a female the right to succeed to the hereditary office held by her husband and to get the duties of the office performed by a substitute excepting in cases where usage to the contrary is pleaded and established.

In the present case such a usage was pleaded by the defendant in his written statement but no evidence of it was given. Indeed as pointed out by the first appellate Court, the plea that there has been a partition of the offices of the two temples and the implied recognition of the plaintiff’s right to the office of the other temple at Gangupal appears to indicate the contrary usage. We are accordingly of the opinion that the claim of the plaintiff- appellant is made out and that she is entitled to succeed.

12. The discussion above is more germane to the case of a public temple wherein the idol has been “Shastrically’ installed and consecrated and the worship is in accordance with the ‘Shastras’. There is nothing on the record to show whether the temple in this case falls within this category. If, however, the temple is a private one or the idol therein is not one ‘Shastrically’ consecrated, the case in favour of the plaintiff is much stronger and her right cannot be seriously challenged.

At this stage, it is desirable to mention one other matter. In the present case the emoluments attached to the office are stated to be the daily and other offerings made to the deity at the worship by the visiting devotees. Both the parties to this case have come upto Court on the common footing that it is this which constitutes the emoluments. Whether and how far such votive offerings can be appropriated by a ‘Pujari’ for his emoluments if the temple is a public institution, (i.e. not a private family temple) and whether any usage in this behalf is valid is a matter which does not arise before us in this case.

13. In the result, the appeal must be allowed with costs throughout and the decree of the trial court must be restored.

Smt. Satya Vs Teja Singh [ ALL SC 1974 October]

Whether Indian Courts bound to give recognition to divorce decrees granted by foreign Courts?


DATE:-Decided on : 01-10-1974-

Whether a Hindu marriage solemnised within this country can be validly annulled by a decree of divorce granted by a foreign Court ?

AIR 1975 SC 105 : (1975) 2 SCR 97 : (1975) 1 SCC 120 : (1975) CriLJ SC 52


Smt. Satya Appellant
Teja Singh Respondent

(Before : H. R. Khanna And Y. V. Chandrachud, JJ.)

Criminal Appeal No. 187 of 1970, Decided on : 01-10-1974.

Criminal Procedure Code, 1898—Section 488—Petition for maintenance for wife and children—Contention by husband of non-liability on account of his having obtained a decree of divorce from the Nevada Court, under-section A—Decree obtained exparte— Decree is open to collateral attack as lacking jurisdiction— Private International Law—Decree held not binding or valid—For valid domicile, residence must answer qualitative and quantitative tests.

English Law—Divorce—Principles governing recognition of foreign, decrees of divorce—Criteria of American Courts adopted by English Courts—Wife’s choice of a domicile may be fettered by the real, and not feigned domicile of husband—Fraud as to merits of petition was ignored bat fraud as to jurisdiction of foreign Court treated as ground for refusal to recognise foreign decree—Development of English Law of Divorce—Traced.

Foreign Law—American Law—Divorce—Validity of divorce decree granted by a foreign Court recognised on the ground that the decree is entitled to full faith and credit under Article IV of the U.S. Constitution or on the ground of comity.

Private International Law—Need for legislative reform in India—Stressed.

Private International Law—No system of Private International Law can claim universal recognition—Every case coming before an Indian Court must be decided according to Indian law—Recognition to a law of a foreign country to be given on considerations of justice and if it does not offend our public policy—The rules of private International law evolved by other countries cannot be mechanically adopted in India.

Private International Law—Principles of American and English conflict of laws not to be blindly adopted by Indian Courts—Criteria which should determine the rules of our Private International Law—Laid down.

American Law—Divorce law—Foreign decree of divorce is subject to collateral attack for fraud or want of jurisdiction—Fraudulent simulation of domicile is impermissible.

American Law—Divorce jurisdiction—To confer jurisdiction and entitle decree to extra-territorial recognition residence must be actual and genuine and accompanied by an intent to make the State his home.

American Law—Recognition of divorce decree granted by a foreign Court as a matter of comity—Principles governing—Court granting the decree should have jurisdiction over the proceedings—Foreign decree is subject to collateral attack for lack of jurisdiction even where it contains findings of jurisdictional facts.

American Law—Recognition by U. S Courts of Foreign decree—Principles governing—Enunciated.

Civil Procedure Code, 1908—Section 13(a)—Scope and applicability of—Decree of divorce obtained by husband by lying to the foreign Court on jurisdictional facts—Not conclusive or binding—A judgment of a foreign Court to be conclusive between the parties must be a judgment pronounced by a Court of competent jurisdiction—Competency contemplated by section 13 in an International sense—Even a judgment in rem is liable to attack on ground of lack of jurisdiction—Fraud bearing on jurisdictional facts vitiates all judicial acts—Private International law.

Civil Procedure Code, 1908—Section 13—Foreign judgment—Decree of divorce—Decree if binding on Indian Courts—Determination of jurisdiction of foreign Court.

The concept of domicil is not uniform throughout the world and just as long residence does not by itself establish domicil, brief residence may not negative it. But residence for a particular purpose fails to answer the qualitative test for, the purpose being accomplished the residence would cease. The residence must answer “a qualitative as well as a quantitative test”, that is, the two elements of factum at animus must concur. The respondent went to Nevada forumhunting, found a convenient jurisdiction which would easily purvey a divorce to him and left it even before the ink on his domiciliary assertion was dry. Thus, the decree of the Nevada Court lacks jurisdiction. It can receive no recognition in our Courts.

Section 13(a) of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 makes a foreign judgment conclusive as to any matter thereby directly adjudicated upon except “where it has not been pronounced by a Court of competent jurisdiction.” Learned counsel for the respondent urged that this provision occurring in the Civil Procedure Code cannot govern Criminal proceedings and therefore the want of jurisdiction in the Nevada Court to pass the decree of divorce can be no answer to an application for maintenance under Section 488, Criminal Procedure Code. This argument is misconceived. The judgment of the Nevada Court was rendered in a civil proceeding and therefore its validity in India must be determined on the terms of Section 13. It is beside the point that the validity of that judgment is questioned in a Criminal Court and not in a civil Court. If the judgment falls under any of the clauses (a) to (e) of Section 13, it will cease to be conclusive as to any matter thereby adjudicated upon. The judgment will then be open to a collateral attack on the grounds mentioned in the five clauses of Section 13.

Under Section 13(e), Civil Procedure Code, the foreign judgment is open to challenge “where it has been obtained by fraud”. Fraud as to the merits of the respondent’s case may be ignored and his allegation that he and his wife “have lived separate and apart for more than three (3) consecutive years without cohabitation and that there is no possibility of a reconciliation” may be assumed to be true. But fraud as to the jurisdiction of the Nevada Court is a vital consideration in the recognition of the decree passed by that Court. It is therefore, relevant that the respondent successfully invoked the jurisdiction of the Nevada Court by lying to it on jurisdictional facts.

Evidence Act, 1872—Sections 41 and 44—Foreign Judgment—Effect of—Admissibility where the Judgment was obtained by fraud or accusation or was delivered by the Court which has no jurisdiction—Admissibility of Judgment cannot render its binding.

Evidence Act, 1872—Sections 41 and 42—Competent Court—Judgment in rem—Binding affect—The judgment must be delivered by the Court of competent jurisdiction and must not be vitiated by fraud or collusion.

Section 41 of the Indian Evidence Act provides, to the extent material, that a final judgment of competent Court in the exercise of matrimonial jurisdiction is conclusive proof that the legal character which it confers or takes away accrued or ceased at the time declared in the judgment for that purpose. But the judgment has to be of a “competent Court”, that is, a Court having jurisdiction over the parties and the subject matter. Even a judgment in rem is therefore open to attack on the ground that the Court which gave it had no jurisdiction to do so.

In fact Section 44 of the Evidence Act gives to any party to a suit or proceeding the right to show that the judgment which is relevant under Section 41 “was delivered by a Court not competent to deliver it, or was obtained by fraud or collusion”. It is therefore wrong to think that judgments in rem are inviolable. Fraud, in any case bearing on jurisdictional facts, vitiates all judicial acts whether in rem or in personam.

Judgment—Judgment in rem—Binding affect—The judgment must be delivered by the Court of competent jurisdiction and must not be vitiated by fraud or collusion.


Chandrachud. J—This appeal by special leave arises out of an application made by the appellant under Sec. 488, Code of Criminal Procedure, 1898. It raises issues far beyond the normal compass of a summary maintenance proceeding designed primarily to give quick relief to a neglected wife and children. Are Indian Courts bound to give recognition to divorce decrees granted by foreign Courts ? That, broadly, is the question for decision.

2. Satya, the appellant herein, married the respondent Teja Singh on July 1, 1955 according to Hindu rites. Both were Indian citizens and were domiciled in India at the time of their marriage. The marriage was performed at Jullundur in the State of Punjab. Two children were born of the marriage, a boy in 1956 and a girl in 1958. On January 23, 1959 the respondent, who was working as a Forest Range Officer at Gurdaspur, left for U.S.A. for higher studies in Forestry. He spent a year in a New York University and then joined the Utah State University where he studied for about 4 years for a Doctorate in Forestry. On the conclusion of his studies he secured a job in Utah on a salary of the equivalent of about 2500 rupees per month. During these 5 years the appellant continued to live in India with her minor children. She did not ever join the respondent in America as, so it seems, he promised to return to India on completing his studies.

3. On January 21, 1965 the appellant moved an application under Section 488, Criminal Procedure Code, alleging that the respondent had neglected to maintain her and the two minor children. She prayed that he should be directed to pay a sum of Rupees 1000/- per month for their maintenance.

4. Respondent appeared through a counsel and demurred that his marriage with the appellant was dissolved on December 30, 1964 by a decree of divorce granted by the ‘Second Judicial District Court of the State of Nevada and for the County of Washoe. U.S.A.’ He contended that the appellant had ceased to be his wife by virtue of that decree and, therefore, he was not liable to maintain her any longer. He expressed his willingness to take charge of the children and maintain them.

5. The Judicial Magistrate, First Class, Jullundur held by her judgment dated December 17, 1966 that the decree of divorce was not binding on the appellant as the respondent had not “permanently settled” in the State of Nevada and that the marriage between the appellant and the respondent could be dissolved only under the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955. The learned Magistrate directed the respondent to pay a sum of ` 300/per month for the maintenance of the appellant and ` 100/per month for each child. This order was confirmed in revision by the Additional Sessions Judge, Jullundur, on the ground that the marriage could be dissolved only under the Hindu Marriage Act.

6. In the third round of litigation, the husband succeeded in a Revision Application filed by him in the High Court of Punjab and Haryana. A learned single Judge of that Court found that “at the crucial time of the commencement of the proceedings for divorce before the Court in Nevada, the petitioner was domiciled within that State in United States of America”. This finding is the corner-stone of the judgment of the High Court. Applying the old English rule that during marriage the domicil of the wife, without exception, follows the domicil of the husband, the learned Judge held that since the respondent was domiciled in Nevada so was the appellant in the eye of law. The Nevada Court had therefore, jurisdiction to pass the decree of divorce. In coming to this conclusion the learned Judge relied principally on the decisions of the Privy Council in (i) Le Mesurier v. Le Mesurier. 1895 AC 517 and (ii) Attorney General for Alberta v. Cook 1926 AC 444 and of the House of Lords in (i) Lord Advocate v. Jaffrey, 1921 AC 146 and (ii) Salvesen or von Lorang v. Administrator of Austrian Property. 1927 AC 641. In Le Mesurier’s case (supra) which is often referred to, though not rightly, as the “starting point”, it was held that “according to International law, the domicil for the time being of the married pair affords the only true test of jurisdiction to dissolve their marriage”.

7. The High Court framed the question for consideration thus:”Whether a Hindu marriage solemnised within this country can be validly annulled by a decree of divorce granted by a foreign Court”. In one sense, this frame of the question narrows the controversy by restricting the inquiry to Hindu marriages. In another, it broadens the inquiry by opening up the larger question whether marriages solemnized in this country can at all be dissolved by foreign Courts. In any case, the High Court did not answer the question and preferred to rest its decision on the Le Mesurier doctrine that domicil of the spouses affords the only true test of jurisdiction. In order to bring out the real point in controversy, we would prefer to frame the question for decision thus:Is the decree of divorce passed by the Nevada Court U.S.A., entitled to recognition in India? The question is a vexed one to decide and it raises issues that transcend the immediate interest which the parties have in this litigation. Marriage and divorce are matters of social significance.

8. The answer to the question as regards the recognition to be accorded to the Nevada decree must depend principally on the rules of our Private International Law. It is a well recognized principle that “private International law is not the same in all countries”.[1]There is no system of private International law which can claim universal recognition and that explains why Cheshire, for example, says that his book is concerned solely with that system which obtains in England, that is to say, with the rules that guide an English Court whenever it is seized of a case that contains some foreign element. The same emphasis can be seen in the works of other celebrated writers like Graveson. Dicey and Marris, and Martin Wolff. Speaking of the “English conflict of laws” Graveson says “Almost every country in the modem world has not only its own system of municipal law differing materially from those of its neighbours but also its own system of conflict of laws, …..”[2]. According to Dicey and Morris, “The conflict of laws exists because there are different systems of domestic law. But systems of the conflict of laws also differ”[3] Martin Wolff advocates the same point of view thus:”Today undoubtedly Private International Law is national law. There exists an English private International law as distinct from a French, a German, an Italian private International law. The rules on the conflict of laws in the various countries differ nearly as much from each other as do those on internal (municipal) law”[4]. It is thus a truism to say that whether it is a problem of municipal law or of Conflict of Laws, every case which comes before an Indian Court must be decided in accordance with Indian law. It is another matter that the Indian conflict of laws may require that the law of a foreign country ought to be applied in a given situation for deciding a case which contains a foreign element. Such a recognition is accorded not as an act of Courtesy but on considerations of justice.[5]It is implicit in that process that the foreign law must not offend against our public policy.

9. We cannot therefore adopt mechanically the rules of Private International Law evolved by other countries. These principles vary greatly and are molded by the distinctive social, political and economic conditions obtaining in these countries. Questions relating to the personal status of a party depend in England and North America upon the law of his domicil, but in France, Italy, Spain and most of the other European countries upon the law of his nationality. Principles governing matters within the divorce jurisdiction are so conflicting in the different countries that not unoften a man and a woman are husband and wife in one jurisdiction but treated as divorced in another jurisdiction. We have before us the problem of such a limping marriage.

10. The respondent petitioned for divorce in the Nevada Court on November 9, 1964. Paragraph I of the petition which has a material bearing on the matter before us reads thus:

“That for more than six weeks preceding the commencement of this action plaintiff has been, and now is a bona fide resident of and domiciled in the County of Washoe, State of Nevada, with the intent to make the State of Nevada his home for an indefinite period of time, and that he has been actually physically and corporeally present in said County and State for more than six weeks.”

By Para IV, the respondent alleged:

“That plaintiff is a student who has not as yet completed his education; that by defendant’s choice she and the minor children the issue of the marriage reside with her parents and are supported by her parents; that at the place in India where defendant and the minor children reside, seven and 50/100 (7.50) Dollars per month per child is more than adequate to support, maintain and educate a child in the best style; and that plaintiff should be ordered to pay to defendant the sum of 7. 50 per month per child for the support, maintenance and education of the aforesaid two minor children …………”

The cause of action is stated in Para VI of the petition in these words:

“That Plaintiff alleges for his cause of action against defendant that he and defendant have lived separate and apart for more than three (3) consecutive years without cohabitation, and that there is no possibility of a reconciliation.”

The relief asked for by the respondent is:

“ That the bonds of matrimony now and heretofore existing between plaintiff and defendant be forever and completely dissolved, and that each party hereto be freed and released from all of the responsibilities and obligations thereof and restored to the status of an unmarried person.”

11. The judgment of the Nevada Court consists of four parts:(i) The preliminary recitals; (ii) “Findings Of Fact”; (iii) “Conclusions Of Law”; and (iv) The operative portion, the ‘“Decree Of Divorce”.

12. The preliminary recitals show that the respondent appeared personally and through his attorney, that the appellant “failed to appear or to file her answer or other responsive pleadings within the time required by law after having been duly and regularly served with process by publication and mailing as required by law”, that the case came on for trial on December 30, 1964 and that evidence was submitted to the Court for its decision.

13. The next part of the judgment, “Findings Of Fact”, consists of five paragraphs which, with minor modifications, are a verbatim reproduction of the averments contained in the respondent’s petition for divorce. The relevant portion of that petition is extracted above. The first paragraph of this part may usefully be reproduced:

“That for more than six weeks preceding the commencement of this action, the plaintiff was, and now is, a bona fide resident of and domiciled in the County of Washoe, State of Nevada with the intent to make the State of Nevada his home for an indefinite period of time, and that he has been actually, physically and corporeally present in said county and State for more than six weeks.”

The second paragraph of this part refers to the factum of marriage between the appellant and the respondent, the third contains the finding that 7.50 Dollars per month for each of the two minor children was a “reasonable sum for plaintiff to pay to defendant as and for the support, care, maintenance and education of the said minor children”, the fourth recites that there was no community property to be adjudicated by the Court and the fifth contains the findings:

“That the plaintiff and defendant have lived separate and apart for more than three (3) consecutive years without cohabitation; and that there is no possibility of a reconciliation between them.”

14. The part of the Judgment headed ‘‘Conclusions Of Law” consists of two paragraphs. The first paragraph states:

‘‘That this Court has jurisdiction over the plaintiff and over the subject matter of this action.”

The second paragraph says:

“That the plaintiff is entitled to the relief hereinafter granted.”

The operative portion of the Judgment, “Decree of Divorce” says by its first paragraph:

“That plaintiff, Teja Singh, be and he hereby is, given and granted a final and absolute divorce from defendant. Satya Singh on the ground of their having lived separate and apart for more than three (3) consecutive years without cohabitation, there being no possibility of reconciliation between them …………….”

The second paragraph contains the provision for the payment of maintenance to the minor children.

15. It is clear from the key recitals of the petition and the judgment that the Nevada Court derived jurisdiction to entertain and hear the divorce petition because it was alleged and held that the respondent was “a bona fide resident of and domiciled in the County of Washoe. State of Nevada, with the intent to make the State of Nevada his home for an indefinite period of time”.

16. Since we are concerned with recognition of a divorce decree granted by an American Court, a look at the American law in a similar jurisdiction would be useful. It will serve a two-fold purpose:a perception of principles on which foreign decrees of divorce are accorded recognition in America and a brief acquaintance with the divorce jurisdiction in Nevada.

17. The United States of America has its own peculiar problems of the conflict of laws arising from the co-existence of 50 States each with its own autonomous legal system. The domestic relations of husband and wife constitute a subject reserved to the individual States and does not belong to the United States under the American Constitution. Article IV, Sec. 1, of that Constitution requires that “Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the public Acts. Records, and judicial Proceedings of every other State”. The validity of a divorce decree passed by a State Court is in other States tested as if it were a decree granted by a foreign Court. In general, a foreign decree of divorce is recognised in any other jurisdiction either on the ground, in the case of a decree of a sister State, that the decree is entitled to full faith and credit under Article IV, Section 1, or in the case of a decree of a foreign Court and in some instances a decree of a State Court, on the ground of ‘comity.’[6] The phrase ‘‘comity of nations” which owes its origin to the theory of a Dutch jurist. John Voet, has, however, been widely criticised as “grating to the ear, when it proceeds from a Court of justice.”[7] Comity, as said by Livermore is a matter for sovereigns, not for Judges required to decide a case according to the rights of parties.

18. In determining whether a divorce decree will be recognised in another jurisdiction as a matter of comity, public policy and good morals may be considered. No country is bound by comity to give effect in its Courts to divorce laws of another country which are repugnant to its own laws and public policy. Thus. where a “mail-order divorce” granted by a Mexican Court was not based on jurisdictional finding of domicil, the decree was held to have no extraterritorial effect in New Jersey. State v. Najjar 2 NJ 208. American Courts generally abhor the collusive Mexican mail-order divorces and refuse to recognise them, Langner v. Langner, 39 NYS 2d 918. Mail-order divorces are obtained by correspondence by a spouse not domiciled in Mexico. Latey. in his well known book on divorce says that “The facilities afforded by the Mexican Courts to grant divorces to all and sundry whatsoever their nationality or domicile have become even more notorious than those in Reno, Nevada”.[8] Recognition is denied to such decrees as a matter of public policy.

19. Foreign decrees of divorce including decrees of sister States have been either accorded recognition or have been treated as invalid, depending on the circumstances of each particular case. But if a decree of divorce is to be accorded full faith and credit in the Courts of another jurisdiction it is necessary that the Court granting the decree has jurisdiction over the proceedings. A decree of divorce is thus treated as a conclusive adjudication of all matters in controversy except the jurisdictional facts on which it is founded. Domicil is such a jurisdictional fact. A foreign divorce decree is therefore subject to collateral attack for lack of jurisdiction even where the decree contains the findings or recitals of jurisdictional facts.[9]

20. To confer jurisdiction on the ground of plaintiff’s residence and entitle the decree to extraterritorial recognition, the residence must be actual and genuine, and accompanied by an intent to make the State his home. A mere sojourn or temporary residence as distinguished from legal domicile is not sufficient, Harrison v. Harrison, (1954) 99 Law ed 704. In Unterrman v. Untermann 19 NJ 507 a divorce decree obtained by a husband in Mexico after one day’s residence therein was held invalid.

21. A foreign decree of divorce is subject to collateral attack for fraud or for want of jurisdiction either of the subject-matter or of the parties provided that the attacking party is not estopped from doing so:Cohen v. Randall, (1943) 86 Law ed 480. A foreign decree of divorce obtained by fraud is void. Fraudulent simulation of domicile is impermissible. A spouse who goes to a State or country other than that of the matrimonial domicile for the sole purpose of obtaining a divorce perpetrates a fraud, and the judgment is not binding on the Courts of other States.[10]

22. In regard to the divorce law in force in Nevada it is only necessary to state that though the plaintiff in a divorce action is required to “reside” in the State for more than six weeks immediately preceding the petition, the requirement of residence is construed in the sense of domicil Cohen v. Cohen, 319 Mass. 31; Corpus Juris Secundum Vol. 27B p. 799-Footnote 29:’Residence’, ‘domicil’. In Lane v. Lane 68 NYS 2d 712 it was held that under the Nevada law, intent to make Nevada plaintiff’s home is a necessary jurisdictional fact without which the decreeing Court is powerless to act in divorce action. Accordingly, a husband who did not become a bona fide resident of Nevada, who continued lease of his New Jersey apartment who failed to transfer his accounts, who continued his business activities in New York City, and who departed from Nevada almost immediately after entry of divorce decree, was held never to have intended to establish a fixed and permanent residence in Nevada, and, therefore any proof, which he submitted to Nevada Court in his divorce action, and on which such finding by Court of bona fide residence was based was held to constitute a fraud on such Court, Edelman v. Edelman, 161 NYS 2d 717.

23. A survey of American law in this jurisdiction would be incomplete without reference to a decision rendered by the American Supreme Court in Williams v. State of North Carolina, (1944) 89 Law Ed 1577 the second Williams case. Mr. Williams and Mrs. Hendrix who were long-time residents of North Carolina went to Nevada, stayed in an auto Court for transients filed suits for divorce against their respective spouses immediately after a six weeks’ stay, married one another as soon as the divorces were obtained and promptly returned to North Carolina. They were prosecuted for bigamous cohabitation under Section 14-183 of the General Statutes of North Carolina (1943). Their defence to the charge of bigamy was that at the time of their marriage they were each lawfully divorced from the bond of their respective first marriages. The question which arose on this defence was whether they were “lawfully divorced’, that is, whether the decrees of divorce passed by the Nevada Court were lawful. Those decrees would not be lawful unless the Nevada Court had jurisdiction to pass them. The jurisdiction of the Nevada Court depended on whether Mr. Williams and Mrs. Hendrix were domiciled in Nevada at the time of the divorce proceedings. The existence of domicil in Nevada thus became the decisive issue.

24. While upholding the conviction recorded in North Carolina, Frankfurter J., speaking for the majority, said:(i) a judgment in one State is conclusive upon the merits in every other State, only if the Court of the first State had jurisdiction to render the judgment; (ii) a decree of divorce passed in one State can be impeached collaterally in another State on proof that the Court had no jurisdiction even when the record purports to show that it had jurisdiction:(iii) under the American system of law, judicial power or jurisdiction to grant a divorce is founded on domicil; and (iv) domicil implies a nexus between person and place of such permanence as to control the creation of legal relations and responsibilities of the utmost significance. The learned Judge observed:

“We conclude that North Carolina was not required to yield her State policy because a Nevada Court found that Petitioners were domiciled in Nevada when it granted them decrees of divorce. North Carolina was entitled to find as she did, that they did not acquire domicile in Nevada and that the Nevada Court was therefore without power to liberate the petitioners from amenability to the laws of North Carolina governing domestic relations.” Murphy J. in his concurring judgment said:

“No Justifiable purpose is served by imparting constitutional sanctity to the efforts of petitioners to establish a false and fictitious domicil in Nevada ……………And Nevada has no interest that we can respect in issuing divorce decrees with extraterritorial effect to those who are domiciled elsewhere and who secure sham domicile in Nevada solely for divorce purposes.”

25. These then are the principles on which American Courts grant or refuse to grant recognition to divorce decrees passed by foreign Courts which include the Courts of sister States. Shorn of confusing refinements, a foreign decree of divorce is denied recognition in American Courts if the judgment is without jurisdiction or is procured by fraud or if treating it as valid would offend against public policy. Except where the issue of jurisdiction was litigated in the foreign action or the defendant appeared and had an opportunity to contest it, a foreign divorce may be collaterally attacked for lack of jurisdiction, even though jurisdictional facts are recited in the judgment. Such recitals are not conclusive and may be contradicted by satisfactory proof. Domicil is a jurisdictional fact. Therefore, a foreign divorce decree may be attacked, and its invalidity shown, by proof that plaintiff did not have, or that neither party had, a domicil or bona fide residence in the State or country where the decree was rendered. In order to render a foreign decree subject to a collateral attack on the ground of fraud, the fraud in procurement of the judgment must go to the jurisdiction of the Court. It is necessary and sufficient that there was a fraudulent representation designed and intended to mislead and resulting in damaging deception. In America, in most of the States, the wife can have a separate domicil for divorce and it is easy enough for anyone, man or woman, to acquire a domicil of choice in another State.

26. The English law on the subject has grown out of a maze of domiciliary wilderness but English Courts have. by and large, come to adopt the same criteria as the American Courts for denying validity to foreign decrees of divorce. Recent legislative changes have weakened the authority of some of the archaic rules of English law like the one by which the wife’s domicil follows that of the husband, a rule described by Lord Denning M. R. in Formosa v. Formosa, (1962) 3 All ER 419 as “the last barbarous relic of a wife’s servitude”. The High Court has leaned on that rule heavily but in the view which we are disposed to take, the rule will have no relevance. The wife’s choice of a domicil may be fettered by the husband’s domicil but that means by a real, not a feigned domicil.

27. From Lolley’s case, (supra) which is the true starting point of the controversy, to Indyka v. Indyka, (1967) 2 All ER 689 which is treated as the cause celebre, the law has gone through many phases. The period of over a century and half is marked by a variety of views showing how true it is that there is scarcely a doctrine of law which as regards a formal and exact statement is in a more uncertain condition than that which relates to the question as to what effect should be given by Courts of one nation to the judgments rendered by the Courts of another nation.

28. Lolley case was for long considered as having decided that a foreign decree of divorce could not ever dissolve a marriage celebrated in England. “Its ghost stalked the pages of the law reports for much of the remainder of the nineteenth century before it was finally laid.”[11] In Dolphin v. Robins, (1859)) 7 HLC 390 and Shaw v. Gould, (1868) 3 HL 55 the House of Lords declined to grant validity to Scots divorces as in the former case parties were not bona file domiciled in Scotland and in the latter, residence in Scotland did not involve the acquisition of a Scots domicil. These were cases of “migratory” divorce and the Court applied the universalist doctrine that questions of personal status depended, as a matter of ‘‘universal jurisprudence”, on the law of domicil.

29. In this climate, the decision of the Court of Appeal in Niboyet v. Niboyet, (1878) 4 PD 1 came as a surprise. The majority took the view that if the spouses actually resided in England and were not merely present there casually or as travellers, the English Courts were competent to dissolve their marriage even though they were not actually domiciled in England. Several Christian European Countries had by this time adopted the test of nationality in preference to that of domicil in matters of personal status. The dissenting Judge, Brett L. J. preferred in Niboyet’s case (supra) to stick to the domiciliary test but he perceived how a strict application of the test would result in hardship to the deserted wife.

30. Le Mesurier v. Le Mesurier, 1895 AC 517, on which the judgment of the High Court rests, is a decision of the Privy Council in an appeal from Ceylon but it was always treated as laying down the law for England. Observing that there was an “obvious fallacy” in the reasoning in Niboyet’ case, the Privy Council held that although the matrimonial home of the petitioning husband was in Ceylon the Courts of that country were disentitled from entertaining his divorce petition because he was not, in the strict sense, domiciled there. Lord Watson, who delivered the opinion of the Board said:

‘‘Their Lordships have …. come to the conclusion that, according to inter national law, the domicil for the time being of the married pair affords the only true test of jurisdiction to dissolve their marriage.” Later cases like the decision of the House of Lords in 1921 AC 146 and of the Privy Council in 1926 AC 444 show faith in the dominance of the domicil principle. Under the former decision the wife was incapable of acquiring a domicil separate from her husband even if he had afforded her grounds for divorce, while under the latter even a judicially-separated wife could not acquire a separate domicil.

31. These decisions caused great hardship to deserted wives for they had to seek the husband in his domicil to obtain against him a decree of divorce recognizable in England. During something like a game of chess between the judiciary and the legislature, the rigor of the rule regarding the dominance of domicil was reduced by frequent legislative interventions.

32. By Section 1 of the Law Reform (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act, 1949, English Courts were given jurisdiction to entertain proceeding for divorce by a wife even if the husband was not domiciled in England, provided that the wife had resided in England for a period of three years immediately preceding the commencement of the proceedings. In Travers v. Holley, (1953) 2 All ER 794, the Court of Appeal, drawing on this provision, accepted as valid a decree of divorce granted to the wife by an Australian Court though the husband after acquiring a domicil in New South Wales had reverted to his English domicil at the time of the wife’s petition. This was put on the ground that “what entitles an English Court to assume jurisdiction must be equally effective in the case of a foreign Court”. Section 40 (I) (a) and (b) of the Matrimonial Causes Act, 1965 confer upon a wife the right, in some circumstances, to sue for divorce in England even if the husband is not domiciled there at the time of the proceedings.

33. The decision in (1953) 2 All ER 794 was accepted as correct by the House of Lords in (1967) 2 All ER 689. The husband, a Czech national, married his first wife, also a Czech national, in Czechoslovakia. He acquired an English domicil in 1948 but his wife who was continuously residing in Czechoslovakia obtained in 1949 a decree of divorce in that country. In 1946 the husband married his second wife in England who petitioned for divorce on the grounds of cruelty. The husband cross-petitioned for nullity alleging that the Czech divorce would not be recognised in England since England was the country of common domicil and the decree of the Czech Court was therefore without jurisdiction. The House of Lords upheld the validity of the Czech divorce. Though the decision in Indyka broadened the prevalent rules for recognition of foreign decree and though a new look at the Le Mesurier doctrine was imperative in a changed world, it is not easy on a reading of the five judgments in the Indyka case to lay down a definitive set of rules as to when an English Court will or will not recognise a foreign decree of divorce. Cheshire says:

“One cannot turn from (1967) 2 All ER 689 without expressing grave concern at decisions of the House of Lords which, though unanimous, epitomize the adage ‘tot homines, quotsententiae”[12]. Graveson observes:”Although each of the five judgments in this case[13] differs from the other four, none is dessenting ………….”** The English Law Commission opined that “in any case a complete overhaul of the relevant law is urgently needed since recent decisions have left it in a state of considerable uncertainty”.[14]

34. Very recently, the extended rule in Indyka was applied in Nessina v. Smith, (1971) 2 All ER 1046 where a Nevada decree of divorce obtained by the wife was granted recognition in England. The wife was resident in the United States for a period of six years but the domicil of the spouses, in the strict sense, was in England. The Nevada decree was accepted as valid on the ground that the wife had a sufficient connection with the Court granting the decree and that if the Nevada decree could be recognised as valid by the other States in America under Article IV, Section 1 of the American Constitution, there was no justification for the English Courts to deny recognition to that decree. English Courts have thus been attempting to free the law of divorce from the strangle-hold of the domicil rule.

35. The Recognition of Divorces and Legal Separations Act, 1971 which came into force on January 1, 1972 has brought about important changes in the law of England and Scotland relating to the recognition of divorces and legal separations in the British Isles and abroad. The Act results from the Hague Convention agreed to by most countries in 1970, and ratifies that Convention in accordance with the terms set out in the Act.

36. Section 2 provides for the recognition in Great Britain of overseas divorces and legal separations obtained by judicial or other proceedings in any country outside the British Isles which are effective according to the law of that country. Section 3 provides for the validity of an overseas divorce or legal separation to be recognised if, at the date of institution of proceedings in the country in which it was obtained, either spouse was habitually resident in that country or either spouse was a national of that country. In a country comprising territories in which different systems of law are in force in matters of divorce or legal separation (e.g. United States or Canada), the provisions of Section 3 have effect as if each territory were a separate country. Where the concept of domicil as a ground of jurisdiction for divorce or legal separation applies, this is to have effect as if the reference to habitual residence included a reference to domicil. Under Section 5, any finding of fact made in proceedings by which a decree was obtained and on the basis of which jurisdiction was assumed is conclusive evidence of the fact found if both spouses took part in such proceedings, and in any other case is sufficient proof of that fact unless the contrary is shown. Section 6 provides that certain existing rules of recognition are to continue in force, so that decree obtained in the country of the spouses’ domicil or obtained elsewhere but recognised as valid in that country or by virtue of any act will be recognized; ‘‘but save as aforesaid no such divorce or legal separation shall be recognized as valid in Great Britain except as provided in this Act., * According to the English Law Commission, the effect of this provision would seem to preclude any further development of judge-made rules of recognition of divorces and legal separations and further the principles laid down in (1953) 2 All ER 794 and (1967) 2 All ER 689 would be excluded. By Section 8 (2). recognition of an overseas divorce or legal separation may be refused if a spouse obtained it without notice of the proceedings to the other spouse or if the “recognition would manifestly be contrary to public policy”.[15]

We have treated the development of the English Law of divorce prior to the passing of the Act of 1971 as we have in India no corresponding enactment. Besides the judgment of the High Court is wholly founded on English decisions and the respondent’s counsel also based his argument on these decisions.

37. Turning to proof of fraud as a vitiating factor, if the foreign decree was obtained by the fraud of the petitioner. then fraud as to the merits of the petition was ignored in England, but fraud as to the jurisdiction of the foreign Court, i.e. where the petitioner had successfully invoked the jurisdiction by misleading the foreign Court as to the jurisdictional facts, used to provide grounds for not recognizing the decree. In Middleton v. Middleton, (1966) 1 All ER 168 the husband, domiciled and resident in Indiana, petitioned for divorce in Illinois. He alleged that he had been resident in Illinois for over a year before taking the proceedings and he alleged further that his wife had deserted him. Both of these allegations, unknown to the Illinois Court, were false. The decree was granted and when the wife petitioned in England for a declaration as to the validity of the Illinois divorce, evidence was given that. notwithstanding the fraud. that decree was a lawful decree and would be recognized by the lex domicil, Indiana Cairns, J., held that the husband’s false and fraudulent evidence as to the matrimonial offence was not a ground for refusal to recognize the Illinois decree, but that his fraud as to the jurisdiction of the Illinois Court did justify a refusal to recognize the decree. According to Cheshire:”it is firmly established that a foreign judgment is impeachable for fraud in the sense that upon proof of fraud it cannot be enforced by action in England.’[16]

38. As we have stated at the outset, these principles of the American and English conflict of laws are not to be adopted blindly by Indian Courts. Our notions of a genuine divorce and of substantial justice and the distinctive principles of our public policy must determine the rules of our private International Law. But an awareness of foreign law in a parallel jurisdiction would be a useful guideline in determining these rules. We are sovereign within our territory but “it is no derogation of sovereignty to take account of foreign law” and as said by Cardozo J. “ We are not so provincial as to say that every solution of a problem is wrong because we deal with it otherwise at home”, and we shall not brush aside foreign judicial processes unless doing so “would violate some fundamental principle of justice, some prevalent conception of good morals, some deep-rooted tradition of the common weal.[17]

39. The decree of divorce obtained by the respondent from the Nevada Court is, prima facie, a complete answer to the appellant’s claim for maintenance under Section 488, Code of Criminal Procedure. If that decree is valid the appellant’s claim for maintenance, though not her children’s must fail, as Sec. 488 enables a “wife” and children to apply for maintenance. But was the decree of divorce procured by fraud and if so, is it entitled to recognition here? That is the essence of the matter.

40. The Nevada Court assumed and exercised jurisdiction to pass the divorce decree on the basis that the respondent was a bona fide resident of and was domiciled in Nevada. Domicil being a jurisdictional fact, the decree is open to the collateral attack that the respondent was not a bona fide resident of Nevada, much less was he domiciled in Nevada. The recital in the judgment of the Nevada Court that the respondent was a bona fide resident of and was domiciled in Nevada is not conclusive and can be contradicted by satisfactory proof. The appellant did not appear in the Nevada Court, was un-represented and did not submit to the jurisdiction of that Court.

41. The record of the present proceeding establishes certain important facts:The respondent left India for the United States of America on January 23 1959. He spent a year in a New York University. He then joined the Utah State University where he studied for his doctrine for 4 years. In 1964, on the conclusion of his studies he secured a Job in Utah. On August 17. 1964 he wrote a letter (Ex. RW 7/1) to his father Gian Singh from “791 North, 6 East Logan, Utah”, U.S.A.

42. The respondent filed his petition for divorce in the Nevada Court on November 9, 1964 and obtained a decree on December 30, 1964.

43. Prior to the institution of the divorce proceedings the respondent might have stayed, but never lived in Nevada. He made a false representation to the Nevada Court that he was a bona fide resident of Nevada. Having secured the divorce decree, he left Nevada almost immediately thereafter rendering it false again that he had “the intent to make the State of Nevada his home for an indefinite period of time”.

44. The appellant filed the maintenance petition on January 21, 1965. On November 4, 1965 the respondent applied for exemption from personal appearance in those proceedings mentioning his address as “791 North, 6 East Logan, Utah. 228. 4th, U.S.A.”. The letter dated 13-12-1965 from the Under Secretary, Ministry of External Affairs, Government of India to one Lakhi Singh Chaudhuri, a Member of the Punjab Vidhan Sabha shows that by then the respondent had taken a job as Research Officer in the Department of Forestry. Alberta, Canada. The trial Court decided the maintenance proceeding against the respondent on December 17, 1966. Early in 1967, the respondent filed a revision application in the Sessions Court, Jullundur mentioning his then address as “Deptt. of Forestry, Public Building, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)”. The revision was dismissed on June 15, 1968. The respondent filed a further revision application in the High Court of Punjab and Haryana and gave the same Canada address.

45. Thus, from 1960 to 1964 the respondent was living in Utah and since 1965 he has been in Canada. It requires no great persuasion to hold that the respondent went to Nevada as a bird-of-passage, resorted to the Court there solely to found jurisdiction and procured a decree of divorce on a misrepresentation that he was domiciled in Nevada. True, that the concept of domicil is not uniform throughout the world and just as long residence does not by itself establish domicil, brief residence may not negative it. But residence for a particular purpose fails to answer the qualitative test for, the purpose being accomplished the residence would cease. The residence must answer “a qualitative as well as a quantitative test”, that is, the two elements of factum at animus must concur. The respondent went to Nevada forum-hunting found a convenient jurisdiction which would easily purvey a divorce to him and left it even before the ink on his domiciliary assertion was dry. Thus, the decree of the Nevada Court lacks jurisdiction. It can receive no recognition in our Courts.

46. In this view, the Le Mesurier doctrine on which the High Court drew loses its relevance. The Privy Council held in that case that “the domicil for the time being of the married pair affords the only true test of jurisdiction to dissolve their marriage”. The High Court assumed that the respondent was domiciled in Nevada. It then applied the old English rule that the wife’s domicil, in all events, follows the domicil of the husband.

47. Deducing that the appellant must also be deemed to have been domiciled in Nevada, the High Court concluded that the Nevada Court had jurisdiction to pass the decree of divorce.

48. To an extent, the appellant is to blame for her failure to put the plea of fraud in the forefront. If the facts referred to by us were pointed out to the High Court, it would probably have seen the futility of relying on the rule in Le Mesurier and then in applying the principle that the wife takes the domicil of the husband. But facts on which we have relied to show a lack of jurisdiction in the Nevada Court are mostly facts to be found in the pleadings and documents of the respondent himself. Those incontrovertible facts establish that Nevada was not and could not be the home, the permanent home, of the respondent. If the High Court were invited to consider the conduct and projects of the respondent it would have perceived that the respondent had merely simulated a domicil in Nevada. In that event, even applying the Le Mesurier doctrine the Nevada Court would have had no jurisdiction to pass the decree of divorce.

49. Section 13 (a) of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 makes a foreign judgment conclusive as to any matter thereby directly adjudicated upon except “where it has not been pronounced by a Court of competent jurisdiction.” Learned counsel for the respondent urged that this provision occurring in the Civil Procedure Code cannot govern Criminal proceedings and therefore the want of jurisdiction in the Nevada Court to pass the decree of divorce can be no answer to an application for maintenance under Section 488, Criminal Procedure Code. This argument is misconceived. The judgment of the Nevada Court was rendered in a civil proceeding and therefore its validity in India must be determined on the terms of Sec. 13. It is beside the point that the validity of that judgment is questioned in a Criminal Court and not in a civil Court. If the judgment falls under any of the clauses (a) to (e) of Section 13, it will cease to be conclusive as to any matter thereby adjudicated upon. The judgment will then be open to a collateral attack on the grounds mentioned in the five clauses of Section 13.

50. Under Section 13 (e), Civil Procedure Code, the foreign judgment is open to challenge “where it has been obtained by fraud”. Fraud as to the merits of the respondent’s case (supra) may be ignored and his allegation that he and his wife “have lived separate and apart for more than three (3) consecutive years without cohabitation and that there is no possibility of a reconciliation” maybe assumed to be true. But fraud as to the jurisdiction of the Nevada Court is a vital consideration in the recognition of the decree passed by that Court. It is therefore relevant that the respondent successfully invoked the jurisdiction of the Nevada Court by lying to it on jurisdictional facts. In the Duchess of Kingston’s Case (supra),[18] De Grey C. J. explained the nature of fraud in this context in reference to the judgment of a spiritual Court. That judgment, said the learned Chief Justice, though res judicata and not impeachable from within, might be impeachable from without. In other words, though it was not permissible to allege that the Court was ‘mistaken,” it was permissible to allege that the Court was “misled.” The essential distinction thus was between mistake and trickery. The appellant’s contention is not directed to showing that the Nevada Court was mistaken but to showing that it was imposed upon.

51. Learned counsel for the respondent argued that judgments on status are judgments in rem, that such is the character of Nevada judgment and therefore that judgment is binding on the whole world. Section 41 of the Indian Evidence Act provides, to the extent material, that a final judgment of a competent Court in the exercise of matrimonial jurisdiction is conclusive proof that the legal character which it confers or takes away accrued or ceased at the time declared in the judgment for that purpose. But the judgment has to be of a “competent Court” that is, a Court having jurisdiction over the parties and the subject-matter. Even a judgment in rem is therefore open to attack on the ground that the Court which gave it had no jurisdiction to do so. In R. Viswanathan v. Rukn-ul-Mulk Syed Abdul Majid (1963) 3 SCR 22 at page No. 42, this Court held that “a judgment of a foreign Court to be conclusive between the parties must be a judgment pronounced by a Court of competent-’ jurisdiction and competence contemplated by Section 13 of the Code of. Civil Procedure is in an International sense and not merely by the law of foreign State in which the Court delivering judgment functions”. In fact S. 44 of the Evidence Act gives to any party to a suit or proceeding the right to show that the judgment which is relevant under S. 41 “ was delivered by a Court not competent to deliver it, or was obtained by fraud or collusion”. It is therefore wrong to think that judgments in rem are inviolable. Fraud, in any case bearing on jurisdictional facts, vitiates all judicial acts whether in rem or in personam.

52. Unhappily the marriage between the appellant and respondent has to limp. They will be treated as divorced in Nevada but their bond of matrimony will remain unsnapped in India, the country of their domicil. This view it is urged for the respondent will lead to difficulties. It may. But “these rules of private International law are made for men and women – not the other way round – and a nice tidy logical perfection can never be achieved” (Per Denovan L. J.:Formosa v. Formosa (1962) 3 All ER 419 at page No. 424.)

53. Our legislature ought to find a solution to such schizoid situations as the British Parliament has, to a large extent, done by passing the “Recognition of Divorces and Legal Separations Act, 1971”. Perhaps, the International Hague Convention of 1970 which contains a comprehensive scheme for relieving the confusion caused by differing systems of conflict of laws may serve as a model. But any such law shall have to provide for the non-recognition of foreign decrees procured by fraud bearing on jurisdictional facts as also for the non-recognition of decrees, the recognition of which would be contrary to our public policy. Until then the Courts shall have to exercise a residual discretion to avoid flagrant injustice for, no rule of private International law could compel a wife to submit to a decree procured by the husband by trickery. Such decrees offend against our notions of substantial justice.

54. In the result we allow the appeal with costs, set aside the judgment of the High Court and restore that of the trial Court.

[1]. Cheshire’s Private International Law. Eighth Ed., (1970) p. 10.

[2]. The Conflict of Laws,” R.H. Graveson. Sixth Ed.. (1969) pp. 3,5,6

[3]. The Conflict of Laws”, Dicey and Morris, Eighth Ed., (1967) p. 10.

[4]. Private International Law”, Martin Wolff, Second Ed., (1950) p. 11.

[5]. See G. Melville Bigelow’s Note to Story’s “ Commentaries on the Conflict of Laws” Eighth Ed. (1883) p. 38.

[6]. Corpus Juris Secundum. Vol. 27B, Paragraph 326, pp. 786-787.

[7]. De Nova (1964), 8 American Journal of Legal History pp. 136. 141, citing the early American author, Livermore.

[8]. The Law and Practice in Divorce and Matrimonial Causes”, 15th Ed. (1973) p. 461.

[9]. Corpus Juris Secundum Vol. 27B, paragraph 335. pp 796, 797.

[10] . Corpus Juris Secundum, Vol. 27B. Paragraph 361, p. 847,

[11]. The Old Order Changeth – Travers v. Holley Reinterpreted” by P. R. H. Webb, International and Comparative Law Quarterly, 1967 (Vol. 16), pp. 997, 1000.

[12]. Cheshire’s Private International Law, 8th Ed., p. 368.

[13]. The Conflict of Laws” by Graveson 6th Ed., p. 324.

[14]. Third Annual Report l967-68 (Law Com. No. 15), para 57.

[15]. The Law and Practice in Divorce and Matrimonial Causes” by William Latey; 15th Ed. (1973) p. 44

[16]. Cheshire (supra) p. 652.

[17]. Loucks v. Standard Oil Co. of New York (1918) 224 N. Y. 99. at page No. 111.

[18]. Smith’s leading cases, (13th Edn.) ii, 644 at page No. 651.

Danamma @ Suman Surpur & ANR. Vs. Amar & Ors [SC 2018 February]

KEYWORDS:- suit for partition and a separate possession-


DATE: -February 1, 2018-

“we hold that the rights under the amendment are applicable to living daughters of living coparceners as on 9-9-2005 irrespective of when such daughters are born. Disposition or alienation including partitions which may have taken place before 20-12-2004 as per law applicable prior to the said date will remain unaffected. Any transaction of partition effected thereafter will be governed by the Explanation”

Act: -Hindu Succession Act, 1956 Explanation 1 to Section 6 of the Act


Danamma @ Suman Surpur & ANR. Vs. Amar & Ors.

[Civil Appeal Nos. 188-189 of 2018 @ SLP (C) Nos. 10638-10639 of 2013]


1. The appellants herein, two in number, are the daughters of one, Gurulingappa Savadi, propositus of a Hindu Joint Family. Apart from these two daughters, he had two sons, namely, Arunkumar and Vijay. Gurulingappa Savadi died in the year 2001 leaving behind the aforesaid two daughters, two sons and his widow, Sumitra. After his death, Amar, S/o Arunkumar filed the suit for partition and a separate possession of the suit property described at Schedule B to E in the plaint stating that the two sons and widow were in joint possession of the aforesaid properties as coparceners and properties mentioned in Schedule B was acquired out of the joint family nucleus in the name of Gurulingappa Savadi.

Case set up by him was that the appellants herein were not the coparceners in the said joint family as they were born prior to the enactment of Hindu Succession Act, 1956 (hereinafter referred to as the ‘Act’). It was also pleaded that they were married daughters and at the time of their marriage they had received gold and money and had, hence, relinquished their share.

2. The appellants herein contested the suit by claiming that they were also entitled to share in the joint family properties, being daughters of Gurulingappa Savadi and for the reason that he had died after coming into force the Act of 1950.

3. The trial court, while decreeing the suit held that the appellants were not entitled to any share as they were born prior to the enactment of the Act and, therefore, could not be considered as coparceners. The trial court also rejected the alternate contention that the appellants had acquired share in the said properties, in any case, after the amendment in the Act vide amendment Act of 2005. This view of the trial court has been upheld by the High Court in the impugned judgement dated January 25, 2012 thereby confirming the decree dated August 09, 2007 passed in the suit filed for partition.

4. In the aforesaid backdrop, the question of law which arises for consideration in this appeal is as to whether, the appellants, daughters of Gurulingappa Savadi, could be denied their share on the ground that they were born prior to the enactment of the Act and, therefore, cannot be treated as coparceners? Alternate question is as to whether, with the passing of Hindu Succession (Amendment) Act, 2005, the appellants would become coparcener “by birth” in their “own right in the same manner as the son” and are, therefore, entitled to equal share as that of a son?

5. Though, we have mentioned the gist of the lis involved in this case along with brief factual background in which it has arisen, some more facts which may be necessary for understanding the genesis of issue involved may also be recapitulated. We may start with the genealogy of the parties, it is as under: “

Guralingappa=Sumitra (Def.8)

Mahandanda (Def. 7)

Arunkumar @ Arun (Def.1) (dead) = Sarojini (Def.2)

Vijay (Def.5)

Danamma (Def. 6)

Sheetal (Def. 3)

Amar (Plff)

Triveni (Def. 4)

6. Respondent No. 1 herein (the plaintiff) filed the suit on July 01, 2002 claiming 1/15th share in the suit schedule properties. In the said suit, he mentioned the properties which needed partition.

7. The plaint schedule C compromised of the house properties belonging to the joint family. The plaint schedule D comprised of the shop properties belonging to the joint family. The plaint schedule E comprised of the machineries and movable belonging to the joint family. The plaintiff averred that the plaint schedule properties belonged to the joint family and that defendant no. 1, the father of the plaintiff was neglecting the plaintiff and his siblings and sought partition of the suit schedule properties.

The plaintiff contended that all the suit schedule properties were the joint family properties. The plaintiff contended in para 5 of the plaint that the propositus, Guralingappa died 1 year prior to the filing of the suit. In para 7 of the plaint, the plaintiff contended that defendant no. 1 had 1/3rd share and defendant no. 5 and 8 had 1/3rd share each in the suit schedule properties. The plaintiff also contended that defendants 6 and 7 did not have any share in the suit schedule properties.

8. Defendant no. 1 (father of the plaintiff) and son of Guralingappa Savadi did not file any written statement. Defendant nos. 2, 3 and 4 filed their separate written statements supporting the claim of the plaintiff. Defendant no. 5 (respondent no. 5 herein and son of Guralingappa Savadi), however, contested the suit. He, inter alia, contended that after the death of Guralingappa, an oral partition took place between defendant no. 1, defendant no. 5 and others and in the said partition, defendant no. 1 was allotted certain properties and defendant no. 5 was allotted certain other properties and defendant no. 8, Sumitra, wife of Guralingappa Savadi was allotted certain other properties. Defendant 5 no. 5 further contended that defendant nos. 6 and 7 were not allotted any properties in the said alleged oral partition.

9. Defendant no. 5 further contended that one of the properties, namely, C.T.S. No. 774 and also certain other properties were not joint family properties.

10. The appellants claimed that they were also entitled to their share in the property. After framing the issues and recording the evidence, the trial court by its judgment and decree dated August 09, 2007 held that the suit schedule properties were joint family properties except CTS No. 774 (one of the house properties in plaint C schedule).

11. The trial court held that the plaintiff, defendant nos. 2 to 4 were entitled to 1/8th share in the joint family properties. The trial court further noted that defendant no. 8 (wife of Gurulingappa Savadi) died during the pendency of the suit intestate and her share devolved in favour of defendants no. 1 and 5 only and, therefore, defendant nos. 1 and 2 were entitled to 1/2 share in the said share. The trial court passed the following order: “The suit of the plaintiff is decreed holding that the plaintiff is entitled for partition and separate possession of his 1/8th share in the suit ‘B’, ‘C’ and ‘D’ schedule properties (except CTS No. 774) and also in respect of the Machinery’s stated in the report of the commissioner. The commissioners report Ex. P16 which contains the list of machinery’s to form part of the decree. 6 The defendants 2 to 4 are each entitled to a/8th share and the 5th defendant is entitled for 4/8 share in the above said properties.”

12. The trial court, thus, denied any share to the appellants.

13. Aggrieved by the said judgment and decree of the trial court, the defendant nos. 6 and 7 filed an appeal bearing R.F.A. No. 322 of 2008 before the High Court seeking equal share as that of the sons of the propositus, namely, defendant nos. 1 and 5.

14. The High Court by its impugned judgment and order dated January 25, 2012 dismissed the appeal. Thereafter, on March 04, 2012 defendant nos. 6 and 7 filed a review petition bearing no. 1533 of 2012 before the High Court, which met the same fate.

15. We have heard the learned counsel for the parties. Whereas, the learned counsel for the appellants reiterated his submissions which were made before the High Court as well and noted above, learned counsel for the respondents refuted those submissions by relying upon the reason given by the High Court in the impugned judgment.

16. In the first instance, let us take note of the provisions of Section 6 of the Act, as it stood prior to its amendment by the Amendment Act, 2005. This provision reads as under:

“6. Devolution of interest in coparcenary property.- When a male Hindu dies after the commencement of this Act, having at the time of his death an interest in a Mitakshara coparcenary property, his interest in the property shall devolve by survivorship upon the surviving members of the coparcenary and not in accordance with this Act: Provided that, if the deceased had left him surviving a female relative specified in Class I of the Schedule or a male relative specified in that class who claims through such female relative, the interest of the deceased in the Mitakshara coparcenary property shall devolve by testamentary or intestate succession, as the case may be, under this Act and not by survivorship.

Explanation 1.- For the purposes of this section, the interest of a Hindu Mitakshara coparcener shall be deemed to be the share in the property that would have been allotted to him if a partition of the property had taken place immediately before his death, irrespective of whether he was entitled to claim partition or not.

Explanation 2.- Nothing contained in the proviso to this section shall be construed as enabling a person who had separated himself from the coparcenary before the death of the deceased or any of his heirs to claim on intestacy a share in the interest referred to therein.”

17. No doubt, Explanation 1 to the aforesaid Section states that the interest of the deceased Mitakshara coparcenary property shall be deemed to be the share in the property that would have been allotted to him if the partition of the property had taken place immediately before his death, irrespective whether he was entitled to claim partition or not. This Explanation came up for interpretation before this Court in Anar Devi & Ors. v. Parmeshwari Devi & Ors. (2006) 8 SCC 656 8 The Court quoted, with approval, the following passage from the authoritative treatise of Mulla, Principles of Hindu Law, 17th Edn., Vol. II, p. 250 wherein the learned  author made following remarks while interpreting Explanation 1 to Section 6:

“…Explanation 1 defines the expression ‘the interest of the deceased in Mitakshara coparcenary property’ and incorporates into the subject the concept of a notional partition. It is essential to note that this notional partition is for the purpose of enabling succession to and computation of an interest, which was otherwise liable to devolve by survivorship and for the ascertainment of the shares in that interest of the relatives mentioned in Class I of the Schedule.

Subject to such carving out of the interest of the deceased coparcener the other incidents of the coparcenary are left undisturbed and the coparcenary can continue without disruption. A statutory fiction which treats an imaginary state of affairs as real requires that the consequences and incidents of the putative state of affairs must flow from or accompany it as if the putative state of affairs had in fact existed and effect must be given to the inevitable corollaries of that state of affairs.”

7. The learned author further stated that: “[T]he operation of the notional partition and its inevitable corollaries and incidents is to be only for the purposes of this section, namely, devolution of interest of the deceased in coparcenary property and would not bring about total disruption of the coparcenary as if there had in fact been a regular partition and severance of status among all the surviving coparceners.”

8. According to the learned author, at pp. 253-54, the undivided interest “of the deceased coparcener for the purpose of giving effect to the rule laid down in the proviso, as already pointed out, is to be ascertained on the footing of a notional partition as of the date of his death.

The determination of that share must depend on the number of persons who would have been entitled to a share in the coparcenary property if a partition had in fact taken place immediately before his death and such person would have to be ascertained according to the law of joint family and partition. The rules of Hindu law on the subject in force at the time of the death of the coparcener must, therefore, govern the question of ascertainment of the persons who would 9 have been entitled to a share on the notional partition”.

18. Thereafter the Court spelled out the manner in which the statutory fiction is to be construed by referring to certain judgments and summed up the position as follows:

“11. Thus we hold that according to Section 6 of the Act when a coparcener dies leaving behind any female relative specified in Class I of the Schedule to the Act or male relative specified in that class claiming through such female relative, his undivided interest in the Mitakshara coparcenary property would not devolve upon the surviving coparcener, by survivorship but upon his heirs by intestate succession.

Explanation 1 to Section 6 of the Act provides a mechanism under which undivided interest of a deceased coparcener can be ascertained and i.e. that the interest of a Hindu Mitakshara coparcener shall be deemed to be the share in the property that would have been allotted to him if a partition of the property had taken place immediately before his death, irrespective of whether he was entitled to claim partition or not.

It means for the purposes of finding out undivided interest of a deceased coparcener, a notional partition has to be assumed immediately before his death and the same shall devolve upon his heirs by succession which would obviously include the surviving coparcener who, apart from the devolution of the undivided interest of the deceased upon him by succession, would also be entitled to claim his undivided interest in the coparcenary property which he could have got in notional partition.”

19. This case clearly negates the view taken by the High Court in the impugned judgment.

20. That apart, we are of the view that amendment to the aforesaid Section vide Amendment Act, 2005 clinches the issue, beyond any pale of doubt, in favour of the appellants. This amendment now confers upon the daughter of the coparcener as well the status of coparcener in her own right in the same manner as the son and gives same rights and liabilities in the coparcener properties as she would have had if it had been son. The amended provision reads as under:

“6. Devolution of interest in coparcenary property.-

(1) On and from the commencement of the Hindu Succession (Amendment) Act, 2005 (39 of 2005), in a Joint Hindu family governed by the Mitakshara law, the daughter of a coparcener shall,-

(a) by birth become a coparcener in her own right the same manner as the son;

(b) have the same rights in the coparcenery property as she would have had if she had been a son;

(c) be subject to the same liabilities in respect of the said coparcenery property as that of a son, and any reference to a Hindu Mitakshara coparcener shall be deemed to include a reference to a daughter of a coparcener: Provided that nothing contained in this sub-section shall affect or invalidate any disposition or alienation including any partition or testamentary disposition of property which had taken place before the 20th day of December, 2004.

(2) Any property to which a female Hindu becomes entitled by virtue of sub-section (1) shall be held by her with the incidents of coparcenary ownership and shall be regarded, notwithstanding anything contained in this Act or any other law for the time being in force, as property capable of being disposed of by her by testamentary disposition.

(3) Where a Hindu dies after the commencement of the Hindu Succession (Amendment) Act, 2005 (39 of 2005), his interest in the property of a Joint Hindu family governed by the Mitakshara law, shall devolve by testamentary or intestate succession, as the case may be, under this Act and not by survivorship, and the coparcenery property shall be deemed to have been divided as if a partition had taken place and,-

(a) the daughter is allotted the same share as is allotted to a son;

(b) the share of the pre-deceased son or a pre-deceased daughter, as they would have got had they been alive at the time of partition, shall be allotted to the surviving child of such pre-deceased son or of such pre-deceased daughter; and

(c) the share of the pre-deceased child of a pre-deceased son or of a pre-deceased daughter, as such child would have got had he or she been alive at the time of the partition, shall be allotted to the child of such pre-deceased child of the pre-deceased son or a pre-deceased daughter, as the case may be.

Explanation.-For the purposes of this sub-section, the interest of a Hindu Mitakshara coparcener shall be deemed to be the share in the property that would have been allotted to him if a partition of the property had taken place immediately before his death, irrespective of whether he was entitled to claim partition or not.

(4) After the commencement of the Hindu Succession (Amendment) Act, 2005 (39 of 2005), no court shall recognise any right to proceed against a son, grandson or great-grandson for the recovery of any debt due from his father, grandfather or great-grandfather solely on the ground of the pious obligation under the Hindu law, of such son, grandson or great-grandson to discharge any such debt: Provided that in the case of any debt contracted before the commencement of the Hindu Succession (Amendment) Act, 2005 (39 of 2005), nothing contained in this sub-section shall affect-

(a) the right of any creditor to proceed against the son, grandson or great-grandson, as the case may be; or

(b) any alienation made in respect of or in satisfaction of, any such debt, and any such right or alienation shall be enforceable under the rule of pious obligation in the same manner and to the same extent as it would have been enforceable as if the Hindu Succession (Amendment) Act, 2005 (39 of 2005) had not been enacted.

Explanation.-For the purposes of clause (a), the expression “son”, “grandson” or “great-grandson” shall be deemed to refer to the son, grandson or great-grandson, as the case may be, who was born or adopted prior to the commencement of the Hindu Succession (Amendment) Act, 2005 (39 of 2005).

(5) Nothing contained in this section shall apply to a partition, which has been effected before the 20th day of December, 2004.

Explanation.-For the purposes of this section “partition” means any partition made by execution of a deed of partition duly registered under the Registration Act, 1908 (16 of 1908) or partition effected by a decree of a court.]”

21. The effect of this amendment has been the subject matter of pronouncements by various High Courts, in particular, the issue as to whether the right would be conferred only upon the daughters who are born after September 9, 2005 when Act came into force or even to those daughters who were born earlier. Bombay High Court in Vaishali Satish Gonarkar v. Satish Keshorao Gonarkar2 had taken the view that the provision cannot be made applicable to all daughters born even prior to the amendment, when the Legislature itself specified the posterior date from which the Act would come into force.

This view was contrary to the view taken by the same High Court in Sadashiv Sakharam Patil v. Chandrakant Gopal Desale3. Matter was referred to the Full Bench and the judgment of the Full Bench is reported as Badrinarayan Shankar Bhandari v. Omprakash Shankar Bhandari4. The Full Bench held that clause (a) of sub-section (1) of Section 6 would be prospective in operation whereas clause (b) and (c) and other parts of sub-section (1) as well as sub-section (2) would be retroactive in operation.

It held that amended Section 6 applied to daughters born 2 AIR 2012 Bom 110 3 2011 (5) Bom CR 726 4 AIR 2014 Bom 151 13 prior to June 17, 1956 (the date on which Hindu Succession Act came into force) or thereafter (between June 17, 1956 and September 8, 2005) provided they are alive on September 9, 2005 i.e. on the date when Amended Act, 2005 came into force. Orissa, Karnataka and Delhi High Court have also held to the same effect5.

22. The controversy now stands settled with the authoritative pronouncement in the case of Prakash & Ors. v. Phulavati & Ors. which has approved the view taken by the aforesaid High Courts as well as Full Bench of the Bombay High Court. Following discussion from the said judgment is relevant:

“17. The text of the amendment itself clearly provides that the right conferred on a “daughter of a coparcener” is “on and from the commencement of the Hindu Succession (Amendment) Act, 2005”. Section 6(3) talks of death after the amendment for its applicability. In view of plain language of the statute, there is no scope for a different interpretation than the one suggested by the text of the amendment. An amendment of a substantive provision is always prospective unless either expressly or by necessary intendment it is retrospective. [Shyam Sunder v. Ram Kumar, (2001) 8 SCC 24, paras 22 to 27]

In the present case, there is neither any express provision for giving retrospective effect to the amended provision nor necessary intendment to that effect. Requirement of partition being registered can have no application to statutory notional partition on opening of succession as per unamended provision, having regard to nature of such partition which is by operation of law. The intent and effect of the amendment will be considered a little later. On this finding, the view of the High Court cannot be sustained.

18. The contention of the respondents that the amendment 5 AIR 2008 Ori 133: Pravat Chandra Pattnaik v. Sarat Chandra Pattnaik; ILR 2007 Kar 4790: Sugalabai v. Gundappa A. Maradi and 197 (2013) DLT 154: Rakhi Gupta v. Zahoor Ahmad 6 (2016) 2 SCC 36 14 should be read as retrospective being a piece of social legislation cannot be accepted. Even a social legislation cannot be given retrospective effect unless so provided for or so intended by the legislature. In the present case, the legislature has expressly made the amendment applicable on and from its commencement and only if death of the coparcener in question is after the amendment.

Thus, no other interpretation is possible in view of the express language of the statute. The proviso keeping dispositions or alienations or partitions prior to 20-12-2004 unaffected can also not lead to the inference that the daughter could be a coparcener prior to the commencement of the Act. The proviso only means that the transactions not covered thereby will not affect the extent of coparcenary property which may be available when the main provision is applicable. Similarly, Explanation has to be read harmoniously with the substantive provision of Section 6(5) by being limited to a transaction of partition effected after 20-12-2004. Notional partition, by its very nature, is not covered either under the proviso or under sub-section (5) or under the Explanation.

19. Interpretation of a provision depends on the text and the context. [RBI v. Peerless General Finance & Investment Co. Ltd., (1987) 1 SCC 424, p. 450, para 33] Normal rule is to read the words of a statute in ordinary sense. In case of ambiguity, rational meaning has to be given. [Kehar Singh v. State (Delhi Admn.), (1988) 3 SCC 609 : 1988 SCC (Cri) 711] In case of apparent conflict, harmonious meaning to advance the object and intention of legislature has to be given. [District Mining Officerv. TISCO, (2001) 7 SCC 358]

20. There have been number of occasions when a proviso or an explanation came up for interpretation. Depending on the text, context and the purpose, different rules of interpretation have been applied. [S. Sundaram Pillai v. V.R. Pattabiraman, (1985) 1 SCC 591]

21. Normal rule is that a proviso excepts something out of the enactment which would otherwise be within the purview of the enactment but if the text, context or purpose so require a different rule may apply. Similarly, an explanation is to explain the meaning of words of the section but if the language or purpose so require, the explanation can be so interpreted. Rules of interpretation of statutes are useful servants but difficult masters. [Keshavji Ravji & Co. v. CIT, (1990) 2 SCC 231 : 1990 SCC (Tax) 268] Object of interpretation is to discover the intention of legislature.

22. In this background, we find that the proviso to Section 6(1) and sub-section (5) of Section 6 clearly intend to exclude the transactions referred to therein which may have taken place prior to 20-12-2004 on which date the Bill was introduced. Explanation cannot permit reopening of partitions which were valid when effected. Object of giving finality to transactions prior to 20-12-2004 is not to make the main provision retrospective in any manner.

The object is that by fake transactions available property at the introduction of the Bill is not taken away and remains available as and when right conferred by the statute becomes available and is to be enforced. Main provision of the amendment in Sections 6(1) and (3) is not in any manner intended to be affected but strengthened in this way. Settled principles governing such transactions relied upon by the appellants are not intended to be done away with for period prior to 20-12-2004. In no case statutory notional partition even after 20-12-2004 could be covered by the Explanation or the proviso in question.

23. Accordingly, we hold that the rights under the amendment are applicable to living daughters of living coparceners as on 9-9-2005 irrespective of when such daughters are born. Disposition or alienation including partitions which may have taken place before 20-12-2004 as per law applicable prior to the said date will remain unaffected. Any transaction of partition effected thereafter will be governed by the Explanation.”

23. The law relating to a joint Hindu family governed by the Mitakshara law has undergone unprecedented changes. The said changes have been brought forward to address the growing need to merit equal treatment to the nearest female relatives, namely daughters of a coparcener. The section stipulates that a daughter would be a coparcener from her birth, and would have the same rights and liabilities as that of a son. The daughter would hold property to which she is entitled as a coparcenary property, which would be construed as property being capable of being disposed of by her either by a will or any other testamentary disposition.

These changes have been sought to be made on the touchstone of equality, thus seeking to remove the perceived disability and prejudice to which a daughter was subjected. The fundamental changes brought forward about in the Hindu Succession Act, 1956 by amending it in 2005, are perhaps a realization of the immortal words of Roscoe Pound as appearing in his celebrated treaties, The Ideal Element in Law, that “the law must be stable and yet it cannot stand still. Hence all thinking about law has struggled to reconcile the conflicting demands of the need of stability and the need of change.”

24. Section 6, as amended, stipulates that on and from the commencement of the amended Act, 2005, the daughter of a coparcener shall by birth become a coparcener in her own right in the same manner as the son. It is apparent that the status conferred upon sons under the old section and the old Hindu Law was to treat them as coparceners since birth. The amended provision now statutorily recognizes the rights of coparceners of daughters as well since birth.

The section uses the words in the same manner as the son. It should therefore be apparent that both the sons and the daughters of a coparcener have been conferred the right of becoming coparceners by birth. It is the very factum of birth in a coparcenary that creates the coparcenary, therefore the sons and daughters of a coparcener become coparceners by virtue of birth. Devolution of coparcenary property is the later stage of and a consequence of death of a coparcener. The first stage of a coparcenary is obviously its creation as explained above, and as is well recognized. One of the incidents of coparcenary is the right of a coparcener to seek a severance of status. Hence, the rights of coparceners emanate and flow from birth (now including daughters) as is evident from sub-s (1)(a) and (b).

25. Reference to the decision of this Court, in the case of State Bank of India v. Ghamandi Ram7 in essential to understand the incidents of coparceneryship as was always inherited in a Hindu Mitakshara coparcenary: “According to the Mitakshara School of Hindu Law all the property of a Hindu joint family is held in collective ownership by all the coparceners in a quasi-corporate capacity. The textual authority of the Mitakshara lays down in express terms that the joint family property is held in trust for the joint family members then living and thereafter to be born (See Mitakshara, Ch. I. 1-27).

The incidents of coparcenership under the Mitakshara law are: first, the lineal male descendants of a person up to the third generation, acquire on birth ownership in the ancestral properties is common; secondly, that such descendants can at any time work out their rights by asking for partition; thirdly, that till partition each member has got ownership extending over the entire property, conjointly with the rest; fourthly, that as a result of such co-ownership the possession and enjoyment of the properties is common; fifthly, that no alienation of the property is possible unless it be for necessity, without the concurrence of the coparceners, and sixthly, that the interest of a deceased member lapses on his death to the survivors.”

26. Hence, it is clear that the right to partition has not been abrogated. 7 AIR 1969 SC 1330. The right is inherent and can be availed of by any coparcener, now even a daughter who is a coparcener.

27. In the present case, no doubt, suit for partition was filed in the year 2002. However, during the pendency of this suit, Section 6 of the Act was amended as the decree was passed by the trial court only in the year 2007. Thus, the rights of the appellants got crystallised in the year 2005 and this event should have been kept in mind by the trial court as well as by the High Court. This Court in Ganduri Koteshwaramma & Anr. v. Chakiri Yanadi & Anr.8 held that the rights of daughters in coparcenary property as per the amended S. 6 are not lost merely because a preliminary decree has been passed in a partition suit. So far as partition suits are concerned, the partition becomes final only on the passing of a final decree. Where such situation arises, the preliminary decree would have to be amended taking into account the change in the law by the amendment of 2005.

28. On facts, there is no dispute that the property which was the subject matter of partition suit belongs to joint family and Gurulingappa Savadi was propositus of the said joint family property. In view of our aforesaid discussion, in the said partition suit, share will devolve upon the appellants as well. Since, Savadi died leaving behind two sons, two daughters and a widow, both the appellants would be entitled to 1/5th 8 (2011) 9 SCC 788 19 share each in the said property. Plaintiff (respondent No.1) is son of Arun Kumar (defendant No.1). Since, Arun Kumar will have 1/5th share, it would be divided into five shares on partition i.e. between defendant No.1 Arun Kumar, his wife defendant No.2, his two daughters defendant Nos.3 and 4 and son/plaintiff (respondent No.1). In this manner, the plaintiff/respondent No.1 would be entitled to 1/25th share in the property.

29. The appeals are allowed in the aforesaid terms and decree of partition shall be drawn by the trial court accordingly.

No order as to costs.




FEBRUARY 1, 2018.

Manu Smriti – Laws of Manu



॥ मनुस्मृति अथवा मानवधर्मशास्त्रम् ॥-Manu smriti or Manab dharma Sastram]

अध्याय १  CHAPER 1

ं१।०१अ/ मनुमेकाग्रमासीनमभिगम्य महर्षयः ।
ं१।०१च्/ प्रतिपूज्य यथान्यायमिदं वचनमब्रुवन् ॥

ं१।०२अ/ भगवन् सर्ववर्णानां यथावदनुपूर्वशः ।
ं१।०२च्/ अन्तरप्रभवानां च धर्मान्नो वक्तुमर्हसि ॥

ं१।०३अ/ त्वमेको ह्यस्य सर्वस्य विधानस्य स्वयंभुवः ।
ं१।०३च्/ अचिन्त्यस्याप्रमेयस्य कार्यतत्त्वार्थवित् प्रभो ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।०४अ/ स तैः पृष्टस्तथा सम्यगमितोजा महात्मभिः ।
ं१।०४च्/ प्रत्युवाचार्च्य तान् सर्वान् महर्षींश्रूयतामिति ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।०५अ/ आसीदिदं तमोभूतमप्रज्ञातमलक्षणम् ।
ं१।०५च्/ अप्रतर्क्यमविज्ञेयं प्रसुप्तमिव सर्वतः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।०६अ/ ततः स्वयंभूर्भगवानव्यक्तो व्यञ्जयन्निदम् ।
ं१।०६च्/ महाभूतादि वृत्तोजाः प्रादुरासीत् तमोनुदः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।०७अ/ योऽसावतीन्द्रियग्राह्यः सूक्ष्मोऽव्यक्तः सनातनः ।
ं१।०७च्/ सर्वभूतमयोऽचिन्त्यः स एव स्वयमुद्बभौ ॥
ं१।०८अ/ सोऽभिध्याय शरीरात् स्वात् सिसृक्षुर्विविधाः प्रजाः ।
ं१।०८च्/ अप एव ससर्जादौ तासु वीर्यमवासृजत् ॥

ं१।०९अ/ तदण्डमभवद्धैमं सहस्रांशुसमप्रभम् ।
ं१।०९च्/ तस्मिञ्जज्ञे स्वयं ब्रह्मा सर्वलोकपितामहः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।१०अ/ आपो नारा इति प्रोक्ता आपो वै नरसूनवः ।
ं१।१०च्/ ता यदस्यायनं पूर्वं तेन नारायणः स्मृतः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।११अ/ यत् तत् कारणमव्यक्तं नित्यं सदसदात्मकम् ।
ं१।११च्/ तद्विसृष्टः स पुरुषो लोके ब्रह्मैति कीर्त्यते ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।१२अ/ तस्मिन्नण्डे स भगवानुषित्वा परिवत्सरम् ।
ं१।१२च्/ स्वयमेवात्मनो ध्यानात् तदण्डमकरोद् द्विधा ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।१३अ/ ताभ्यां स शकलाभ्यां च दिवं भूमिं च निर्ममे ।
ं१।१३च्/ मध्ये व्योम दिशश्चाष्टावपां स्थानं च शाश्वतम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।१४अ/ उद्बबर्हात्मनश्चैव मनः सदसदात्मकम् ।
ं१।१४च्/ मनसश्चाप्यहङ्कारमभिमन्तारमीश्वरम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥ %[ं। अहङ्कारम्]
ं१।१५अ/ महान्तमेव चात्मानं सर्वाणि त्रिगुणानि च ।
ं१।१५च्/ विषयाणां ग्रहीतॄणि शनैः पञ्चैन्द्रियाणि च ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।१६अ/ तेषां त्ववयवान् सूक्ष्मान् षण्णामप्यमितौजसाम् ।
ं१।१६च्/ संनिवेश्यात्ममात्रासु सर्वभूतानि निर्ममे ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥ %[ं। सन्निवेश्य]
ं१।१७अ/ यन् मूर्त्यवयवाः सूक्ष्मास्तानीमान्याश्रयन्ति षट् ।
ं१।१७च्/ तस्माच्छरीरमित्याहुस्तस्य मूर्तिं मनीषिणः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।१८अ/ तदाविशन्ति भूतानि महान्ति सह कर्मभिः ।
ं१।१८च्/ मनश्चावयवैः सूक्ष्मैः सर्वभूतकृदव्ययम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।१९अ/ तेषामिदं तु सप्तानां पुरुषाणां महौजसाम् ।
ं१।१९च्/ सूक्ष्माभ्यो मूर्तिमात्राभ्यः संभवत्यव्ययाद् व्ययम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।२०अ/ आद्याद्यस्य गुणं त्वेषामवाप्नोति परः परः ।
ं१।२०च्/ यो यो यावतिथश्चैषां स स तावद् गुणः स्मृतः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।२१अ/ सर्वेषां तु स नामानि कर्माणि च पृथक् पृथक् ।
ं१।२१च्/ वेदशब्देभ्य एवादौ पृथक् संस्थाश्च निर्ममे ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।२२अ/ कर्मात्मनां च देवानां सोऽसृजत् प्राणिनां प्रभुः ।
ं१।२२च्/ साध्यानां च गणं सूक्ष्मं यज्ञं चैव सनातनम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।२३अ/ अग्निवायुरविभ्यस्तु त्रयं ब्रह्म सनातनम् ।
ं१।२३च्/ दुदोह यज्ञसिद्ध्यर्थं ऋच्।यजुस्।सामलक्षणम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।२४अ/ कालं कालविभक्तीश्च नक्षत्राणि ग्रहांस्तथा ।
ं१।२४च्/ सरितः सागरान् शैलान् समानि विषमानि च ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।२५अ/ तपो वाचं रतिं चैव कामं च क्रोधमेव च ।
ं१।२५च्/ सृष्टिं ससर्ज चैवैमां स्रष्टुमिच्छन्निमाः प्रजाः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।२६अ/ कर्मणां च विवेकार्थं धर्माधर्मौ व्यवेचयत् । %[क्:विवेकाय ]
ं१।२६च्/ द्वन्द्वैरयोजयच्चैमाः सुखदुःखादिभिः प्रजाः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।२७अ/ अण्व्यो मात्रा विनाशिन्यो दशार्धानां तु याः स्मृताः ।
ं१।२७च्/ ताभिः सार्धमिदं सर्वं संभवत्यनुपूर्वशः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।२८अ/ यं तु कर्मणि यस्मिन् स न्ययुङ्क्त प्रथमं प्रभुः ।
ं१।२८च्/ स तदेव स्वयं भेजे सृज्यमानः पुनः पुनः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।२९अ/ हिंस्राहिंस्रे मृदुक्रूरे धर्माधर्मावृतानृते ।
ं१।२९च्/ यद् यस्य सोऽदधात् सर्गे तत् तस्य स्वयमाविशत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥% ****
ं१।३०अ/ यथर्तुलिङ्गान्यर्तवः स्वयमेवर्तुपर्यये ।
ं१।३०च्/ स्वानि स्वान्यभिपद्यन्ते तथा कर्माणि देहिनः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।३१अ/ लोकानां तु विवृद्ध्यर्थं मुखबाहूरुपादतः ।
ं१।३१च्/ ब्राह्मणं क्षत्रियं वैश्यं शूद्रं च निरवर्तयत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।३२अ/ द्विधा कृत्वाऽत्मनो देहमर्धेन पुरुषोऽभवत् ।
ं१।३२च्/ अर्धेन नारी तस्यां स विराजमसृजत् प्रभुः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।३३अ/ तपस्तप्त्वाऽसृजद् यं तु स स्वयं पुरुषो विराट् ।
ं१।३३च्/ तं मां वित्तास्य सर्वस्य स्रष्टारं द्विजसत्तमाः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।३४अ/ अहं प्रजाः सिसृक्षुस्तु तपस्तप्त्वा सुदुश्चरम् ।
ं१।३४च्/ पतीन् प्रजानामसृजं महर्षीनादितो दश ॥Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।३५अ/ मरीचिमत्र्यङ्गिरसौ पुलस्त्यं पुलहं क्रतुम् ।
ं१।३५च्/ प्रचेतसं वसिष्ठं च भृगुं नारदमेव च ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।३६अ/ एते मनूंस्तु सप्तान् यानसृजन् भूरितेजसः ।
ं१।३६च्/ देवान् देवनिकायांश्च महर्षींश्चामितोजसः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।३७अ/ यक्षरक्षः पिशाचांश्च गन्धर्वाप्सरसोऽसुरान् ।
ं१।३७च्/ नागान् सर्पान् सुपर्णांश्च पितॄणांश्च पृथग्गणम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥ %[ं। पितॄणां]
ं१।३८अ/ विद्युतोऽशनिमेघांश्च रोहितैन्द्रधनूंषि च ।
ं१।३८च्/ उल्कानिर्घातकेतूंश्च ज्योतींष्युच्चावचानि च ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।३९अ/ किन्नरान् वानरान् मत्स्यान् विविधांश्च विहङ्गमान् ।
ं१।३९च्/ पशून् मृगान् मनुष्यांश्च व्यालांश्चोभयतोदतः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।४०अ/ कृमिकीटपतङ्गांश्च यूकामक्षिकमत्कुणम् ।
ं१।४०च्/ सर्वं च दंशमशकं स्थावरं च पृथग्विधम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।४१अ/ एवमेतैरिदं सर्वं मन्नियोगान् महात्मभिः ।
ं१।४१च्/ यथाकर्म तपोयोगात् सृष्टं स्थावरजङ्गमम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।४२अ/ येषां तु यादृशं कर्म भूतानामिह कीर्तितम् ।
ं१।४२च्/ तत् तथा वोऽभिधास्यामि क्रमयोगं च जन्मनि ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।४३अ/ पशवश्च मृगाश्चैव व्यालाश्चोभयतोदतः ।
ं१।४३च्/ रक्षांसि च पिशाचाश्च मनुष्याश्च जरायुजाः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥ %[ंंअनुषाश्च ]
ं१।४४अ/ अण्डजाः पक्षिणः सर्पा नक्रा मत्स्याश्च कच्छपाः ।
ं१।४४च्/ यानि चैवं।प्रकाराणि स्थलजान्यौदकानि च ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।४५अ/ स्वेदजं दंशमशकं यूकामक्षिकमत्कुणम् ।
ं१।४५च्/ ऊष्मणश्चोपजायन्ते यच्चान्यत् किं चिदीदृशम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।४६अ/ उद्भिज्जाः स्थावराः सर्वे बीजकाण्डप्ररोहिणः ।
ं१।४६च्/ ओषध्यः फलपाकान्ता बहुपुष्पफलोपगाः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।४७अ/ अपुष्पाः फलवन्तो ये ते वनस्पतयः स्मृताः ।
ं१।४७च्/ पुष्पिणः फलिनश्चैव वृक्षास्तूभयतः स्मृताः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।४८अ/ गुच्छगुल्मं तु विविधं तथैव तृणजातयः ।
ं१।४८च्/ बीजकाण्डरुहाण्येव प्रताना वल्ल्य एव च ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।४९अ/ तमसा बहुरूपेण वेष्टिताः कर्महेतुना ।
ं१।४९च्/ अन्तस्संज्ञा भवन्त्येते सुखदुःखसमन्विताः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।५०अ/ एतदन्तास्तु गतयो ब्रह्माद्याः समुदाहृताः ।
ं१।५०च्/ घोरेऽस्मिन् भूतसंसारे नित्यं सततयायिनि ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।५१अ/ एवं सर्वं स सृष्ट्वैदं मां चाचिन्त्यपराक्रमः ।
ं१।५१च्/ आत्मन्यन्तर्दधे भूयः कालं कालेन पीडयन् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।५२अ/ यदा स देवो जागर्ति तदेवं चेष्टते जगत् ।
ं१।५२च्/ यदा स्वपिति शान्तात्मा तदा सर्वं निमीलति ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।५३अ/ तस्मिन् स्वपिति तु स्वस्थे कर्मात्मानः शरीरिणः । %[ं।स्वपति ]
ं१।५३च्/ स्वकर्मभ्यो निवर्तन्ते मनश्च ग्लानिमृच्छति ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।५४अ/ युगपत् तु प्रलीयन्ते यदा तस्मिन् महात्मनि ।
ं१।५४च्/ तदाऽयं सर्वभूतात्मा सुखं स्वपिति निर्वृतः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।५५अ/ तमोऽयं तु समाश्रित्य चिरं तिष्ठति सैन्द्रियः ।
ं१।५५च्/ न च स्वं कुरुते कर्म तदोत्क्रामति मूर्तितः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।५६अ/ यदाऽणुमात्रिको भूत्वा बीजं स्थाणु चरिष्णु च ।
ं१।५६च्/ समाविशति संसृष्टस्तदा मूर्तिं विमुञ्चति ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।५७अ/ एवं स जाग्रत्स्वप्नाभ्यामिदं सर्वं चराचरम् ।
ं१।५७च्/ सञ्जीवयति चाजस्रं प्रमापयति चाव्ययः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।५८अ/ इदं शास्त्रं तु कृत्वाऽसौ मामेव स्वयमादितः ।
ं१।५८च्/ विधिवद् ग्राहयामास मरीच्यादींस्त्वहं मुनीन् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।५९अ/ एतद् वोऽयं भृगुः शास्त्रं श्रावयिष्यत्यशेषतः ।
ं१।५९च्/ एतद् हि मत्तोऽधिजगे सर्वमेषोऽखिलं मुनिः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।६०अ/ ततस्तथा स तेनोक्तो महर्षिमनुना भृगुः ।
ं१।६०च्/ तानब्रवीद् ऋषीन् सर्वान् प्रीतात्मा श्रूयतामिति ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।६१अ/ स्वायंभुवस्यास्य मनोः षड्वंश्या मनवोऽपरे ।
ं१।६१च्/ सृष्टवन्तः प्रजाः स्वाः स्वा महात्मानो महौजसः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।६२अ/ स्वारोचिषश्चोत्तमश्च तामसो रैवतस्तथा ।
ं१।६२च्/ चाक्षुषश्च महातेजा विवस्वत्सुत एव च ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।६३अ/ स्वायंभुवाद्याः सप्तैते मनवो भूरितेजसः ।
ं१।६३च्/ स्वे स्वेऽन्तरे सर्वमिदमुत्पाद्यापुश्चराचरम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।६४अ/ निमेषा दश चाष्टौ च काष्ठा त्रिंशत् तु ताः कला ।
ं१।६४च्/ त्रिंशत् कला मुहूर्तः स्यादहोरात्रं तु तावतः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।६५अ/ अहोरात्रे विभजते सूर्यो मानुषदैविके ।
ं१।६५च्/ रात्रिः स्वप्नाय भूतानां चेष्टायै कर्मणामहः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।६६अ/ पित्र्ये रात्र्यहनी मासः प्रविभागस्तु पक्षयोः ।
ं१।६६च्/ कर्मचेष्टास्वहः कृष्णः शुक्लः स्वप्नाय शर्वरी ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।६७अ/ दैवे रात्र्यहनी वर्षं प्रविभागस्तयोः पुनः ।
ं१।६७च्/ अहस्तत्रोदगयनं रात्रिः स्याद् दक्षिणायनम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।६८अ/ ब्राह्मस्य तु क्षपाहस्य यत् प्रमाणं समासतः ।
ं१।६८च्/ एकैकशो युगानां तु क्रमशस्तन्निबोधत ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।६९अ/ चत्वार्याहुः सहस्राणि वर्षाणां तत् कृतं युगम् ।
ं१।६९च्/ तस्य तावत्शती संध्या संध्यांशश्च तथाविधः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।७०अ/ इतरेषु ससंध्येषु ससंध्यांशेषु च त्रिषु ।
ं१।७०च्/ एकापायेन वर्तन्ते सहस्राणि शतानि च ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।७१अ/ यदेतत् परिसङ्ख्यातमादावेव चतुर्युगम् ।
ं१।७१च्/ एतद् द्वादशसाहस्रं देवानां युगमुच्यते ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।७२अ/ दैविकानां युगानां तु सहस्रं परिसङ्ख्यया ।
ं१।७२च्/ ब्राह्ममेकमहर्ज्ञेयं तावतीं रात्रिमेव च ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥ %[ं।तावती रात्रिरेव च ]
ं१।७३अ/ तद् वै युगसहस्रान्तं ब्राह्मं पुण्यमहर्विदुः ।
ं१।७३च्/ रात्रिं च तावतीमेव तेऽहोरात्रविदो जनाः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।७४अ/ तस्य सोऽहर्निशस्यान्ते प्रसुप्तः प्रतिबुध्यते ।
ं१।७४च्/ प्रतिबुद्धश्च सृजति मनः सदसदात्मकम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।७५अ/ मनः सृष्टिं विकुरुते चोद्यमानं सिसृक्षया ।
ं१।७५च्/ आकाशं जायते तस्मात् तस्य शब्दं गुणं विदुः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।७६अ/ आकाशात् तु विकुर्वाणात् सर्वगन्धवहः शुचिः ।
ं१।७६च्/ बलवाञ्जायते वायुः स वै स्पर्शगुणो मतः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।७७अ/ वायोरपि विकुर्वाणाद् विरोचिष्णु तमोनुदम् ।
ं१।७७च्/ ज्योतिरुत्पद्यते भास्वत् तद् रूपगुणमुच्यते ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।७८अ/ ज्योतिषश्च विकुर्वाणादापो रसगुणाः स्मृताः ।
ं१।७८च्/ अद्भ्यो गन्धगुणा भूमिरित्येषा सृष्टिरादितः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।७९अ/ यद् प्राग् द्वादशसाहस्रमुदितं दैविकं युगम् ।
ं१।७९च्/ तदेकसप्ततिगुणं मन्वन्तरमिहोच्यते ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।८०अ/ मन्वन्तराण्यसङ्ख्यानि सर्गः संहार एव च ।
ं१।८०च्/ क्रीडन्निवैतत् कुरुते परमेष्ठी पुनः पुनः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।८१अ/ चतुष्पात् सकलो धर्मः सत्यं चैव कृते युगे ।
ं१।८१च्/ नाधर्मेणागमः कश्चिन् मनुष्यान् प्रति वर्तते ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥ %[ं। उपवर्तते ]
ं१।८२अ/ इतरेष्वागमाद् धर्मः पादशस्त्ववरोपितः ।
ं१।८२च्/ चौरिकानृतमायाभिर्धर्मश्चापैति पादशः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।८३अ/ अरोगाः सर्वसिद्धार्थाश्चतुर्वर्षशतायुषः ।
ं१।८३च्/ कृते त्रेतादिषु ह्येषामायुर्ह्रसति पादशः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥ %[V। वयो ह्रसति ]
ं१।८४अ/ वेदोक्तमायुर्मर्त्यानामाशिषश्चैव कर्मणाम् ।
ं१।८४च्/ फलन्त्यनुयुगं लोके प्रभावश्च शरीरिणाम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।८५अ/ अन्ये कृतयुगे धर्मास्त्रेतायां द्वापरेऽपरे । %[ं।परे ]
ं१।८५च्/ अन्ये कलियुगे नॄणां युगह्रासानुरूपतः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।८६अ/ तपः परं कृतयुगे त्रेतायां ज्ञानमुच्यते ।
ं१।८६च्/ द्वापरे यज्ञमेवाहुर्दानमेकं कलौ युगे ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।८७अ/ सर्वस्यास्य तु सर्गस्य गुप्त्यर्थं स महाद्युतिः ।
ं१।८७च्/ मुखबाहूरुपज्जानां पृथक्कर्माण्यकल्पयत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।८८अ/ अध्यापनमध्ययनं यजनं याजनं तथा ।
ं१।८८च्/ दानं प्रतिग्रहं चैव ब्राह्मणानामकल्पयत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।८९अ/ प्रजानां रक्षणं दानमिज्याऽध्ययनमेव च ।
ं१।८९च्/ विषयेष्वप्रसक्तिश्च क्षत्रियस्य समासतः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥ %[ं।समादिशत्]
ं१।९०अ/ पशूनां रक्षणं दानमिज्याऽध्ययनमेव च ।
ं१।९०च्/ वणिक्पथं कुसीदं च वैश्यस्य कृषिमेव च ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।९१अ/ एकमेव तु शूद्रस्य प्रभुः कर्म समादिशत् ।
ं१।९१च्/ एतेषामेव वर्णानां शुश्रूषामनसूयया ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।९२अ/ ऊर्ध्वं नाभेर्मेध्यतरः पुरुषः परिकीर्तितः ।
ं१।९२च्/ तस्मान् मेध्यतमं त्वस्य मुखमुक्तं स्वयंभुवा ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।९३अ/ उत्तमाङ्गोद्भवाज् ज्येष्ठ्याद् ब्रह्मणश्चैव धारणात् । %[ं।ज्यैष्ठ्याद्]
ं१।९३च्/ सर्वस्यैवास्य सर्गस्य धर्मतो ब्राह्मणः प्रभुः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।९४अ/ तं हि स्वयंभूः स्वादास्यात् तपस्तप्त्वाऽदितोऽसृजत् ।
ं१।९४च्/ हव्यकव्याभिवाह्याय सर्वस्यास्य च गुप्तये ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।९५अ/ यस्यास्येन सदाऽश्नन्ति हव्यानि त्रिदिवौकसः ।
ं१।९५च्/ कव्यानि चैव पितरः किं भूतमधिकं ततः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।९६अ/ भूतानां प्राणिनः श्रेष्ठाः प्राणिनां बुद्धिजीविनः ।
ं१।९६च्/ बुद्धिमत्सु नराः श्रेष्ठा नरेषु ब्राह्मणाः स्मृताः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।९७अ/ ब्राह्मणेषु च विद्वांसो विद्वत्सु कृतबुद्धयः ।
ं१।९७च्/ कृतबुद्धिषु कर्तारः कर्तृषु ब्रह्मवेदिनः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।९८अ/ उत्पत्तिरेव विप्रस्य मूर्तिर्धर्मस्य शाश्वती ।
ं१।९८च्/ स हि धर्मार्थमुत्पन्नो ब्रह्मभूयाय कल्पते ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।९९अ/ ब्राह्मणो जायमानो हि पृथिव्यामधिजायते ।
ं१।९९च्/ ईश्वरः सर्वभूतानां धर्मकोशस्य गुप्तये ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।१००अ/ सर्वं स्वं ब्राह्मणस्येदं यत् किं चित्जगतीगतम् ।
ं१।१००च्/ श्रैष्ठ्येनाभिजनेनेदं सर्वं वै ब्राह्मणोऽर्हति ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।१०१अ/ स्वमेव ब्राह्मणो भुङ्क्ते स्वं वस्ते स्वं ददाति च ।
ं१।१०१च्/ आनृशंस्याद् ब्राह्मणस्य भुञ्जते हीतरे जनाः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।१०२अ/ तस्य कर्मविवेकार्थं शेषाणामनुपूर्वशः ।
ं१।१०२च्/ स्वायंभुवो मनुर्धीमानिदं शास्त्रमकल्पयत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।१०३अ/ विदुषा ब्राह्मणेनैदमध्येतव्यं प्रयत्नतः ।
ं१।१०३च्/ शिश्येभ्यश्च प्रवक्तव्यं सम्यग़् नान्येन केन चित् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।१०४अ/ इदं शास्त्रमधीयानो ब्राह्मणः शंसितव्रतः ।
ं१।१०४च्/ मनोवाक्देहजैर्नित्यं कर्मदोषैर्न लिप्यते ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।१०५अ/ पुनाति पङ्क्तिं वंश्यांश्च ?? सप्तसप्त परावरान् ।
ं१।१०५च्/ पृथिवीमपि चैवेमां कृत्स्नामेकोऽपि सोऽर्हति ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।१०६अ/ इदं स्वस्त्ययनं श्रेष्ठमिदं बुद्धिविवर्धनम् ।
ं१।१०६च्/ इदं यशस्यमायुष्यं इदं निःश्रेयसं परम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥ %[ं। इदं यशस्यं सततम्]
ं१।१०७अ/ अस्मिन् धर्मेऽखिलेनोक्तौ गुणदोषौ च कर्मणाम् ।
ं१।१०७च्/ चतुर्णामपि वर्णानामाचारश्चैव शाश्वतः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।१०८अ/ आचारः परमो धर्मः श्रुत्योक्तः स्मार्त एव च ।
ं१।१०८च्/ तस्मादस्मिन् सदा युक्तो नित्यं स्यादात्मवान् द्विजः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।१०९अ/ आचाराद् विच्युतो विप्रो न वेदफलमश्नुते ।
ं१।१०९च्/ आचारेण तु संयुक्तः सम्पूर्णफलभाग् भवेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥ %[ं। सम्पूर्णफलभाक् स्मृतः]
ं१।११०अ/ एवमाचारतो दृष्ट्वा धर्मस्य मुनयो गतिम् ।
ं१।११०च्/ सर्वस्य तपसो मूलमाचारं जगृहुः परम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।१११अ/ जगतश्च समुत्पत्तिं संस्कारविधिमेव च ।
ं१।१११च्/ व्रतचर्यौपचारं च स्नानस्य च परं विधिम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।११२अ/ दाराधिगमनं चैव विवाहानां च लक्षणम् ।
ं१।११२च्/ महायज्ञविधानं च श्राद्धकल्पं च शाश्वतम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।११३अ/ वृत्तीनां लक्षणं चैव स्नातकस्य व्रतानि च ।
ं१।११३च्/ भक्ष्याभक्ष्यं च शौचं च द्रव्याणां शुद्धिमेव च ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।११४अ/ स्त्रीधर्मयोगं तापस्यं मोक्षं संन्यासमेव च ।
ं१।११४च्/ राज्ञश्च धर्ममखिलं कार्याणां च विनिर्णयम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।११५अ/ साक्षिप्रश्नविधानं च धर्मं स्त्रीपुंसयोरपि ।
ं१।११५च्/ विभागधर्मं द्यूतं च कण्टकानां च शोधनम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।११६अ/ वैश्यशूद्रोपचारं च सङ्कीर्णानां च संभवम् ।
ं१।११६च्/ आपद्धर्मं च वर्णानां प्रायश्चित्तविधिं तथा ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।११७अ/ संसारगमनं चैव त्रिविधं कर्मसंभवम् ।
ं१।११७च्/ निःश्रेयसं कर्मणां च गुणदोषपरीक्षणम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।११८अ/ देशधर्मान्जातिधर्मान् कुलधर्मांश्च शाश्वतान् ।
ं१।११८च्/ पाषण्डगणधर्मांश्च शास्त्रेऽस्मिन्नुक्तवान् मनुः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं१।११९अ/ यथैदमुक्तवांशास्त्रं पुरा पृष्टो मनुर्मया ।
ं१।११९च्/ तथैदं यूयमप्यद्य मत्सकाशान्निबोधत ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

अध्याय २   CHAPTER 2 


ं२।०१अ/ विद्वद्भिः सेवितः सद्भिर्नित्यमद्वेषरागिभिः ।
ं२।०१च्/ हृदयेनाभ्यनुज्ञातो यो धर्मस्तं निबोधत ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।०२अ/ कामात्मता न प्रशस्ता न चैवैहास्त्यकामता ।
ं२।०२च्/ काम्यो हि वेदाधिगमः कर्मयोगश्च वैदिकः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।०३अ/ सङ्कल्पमूलः कामो वै यज्ञाः सङ्कल्पसंभवाः ।
ं२।०३च्/ व्रतानि यमधर्माश्च सर्वे सङ्कल्पजाः स्मृताः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।०४अ/ अकामस्य क्रिया का चिद् दृश्यते नैह कर्हि चित् ।
ं२।०४च्/ यद् यद् हि कुरुते किं चित् तत् तत् कामस्य चेष्टितम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।०५अ/ तेषु सम्यग् वर्तमानो गच्छत्यमरलोकताम् ।
ं२।०५च्/ यथा सङ्कल्पितांश्चैह सर्वान् कामान् समश्नुते ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।०६अ/ वेदोऽखिलो धर्ममूलं स्मृतिशीले च तद्विदाम् ।
ं२।०६च्/ आचारश्चैव साधूनामात्मनस्तुष्टिरेव च ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।०७अ/ यः कश्चित् कस्य चिद् धर्मो मनुना परिकीर्तितः ।
ं२।०७च्/ स सर्वोऽभिहितो वेदे सर्वज्ञानमयो हि सः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।०८अ/ सर्वं तु समवेक्ष्यैदं निखिलं ज्ञानचक्षुषा ।
ं२।०८च्/ श्रुतिप्रामाण्यतो विद्वान् स्वधर्मे निविशेत वै ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।०९अ/ श्रुतिस्मृत्योदितं धर्ममनुतिष्ठन् हि मानवः ।
ं२।०९च्/ इह कीर्तिमवाप्नोति प्रेत्य चानुत्तमं सुखम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१०अ/ श्रुतिस्तु वेदो विज्ञेयो धर्मशास्त्रं तु वै स्मृतिः ।
ं२।१०च्/ ते सर्वार्थेष्वमीमांस्ये ताभ्यां धर्मो हि निर्बभौ ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।११अ/ योऽवमन्येत ते मूले हेतुशास्त्राश्रयाद् द्विजः ।
ं२।११च्/ स साधुभिर्बहिष्कार्यो नास्तिको वेदनिन्दकः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१२अ/ वेदः स्मृतिः सदाचारः स्वस्य च प्रियमात्मनः ।
ं२।१२च्/ एतच्चतुर्विधं प्राहुः साक्षाद् धर्मस्य लक्षणम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१३अ/ अर्थकामेष्वसक्तानां धर्मज्ञानं विधीयते ।
ं२।१३च्/ धर्मं जिज्ञासमानानां प्रमाणं परमं श्रुतिः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१४अ/ श्रुतिद्वैधं तु यत्र स्यात् तत्र धर्मावुभौ स्मृतौ ।
ं२।१४च्/ उभावपि हि तौ धर्मौ सम्यगुक्तौ मनीषिभिः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१५अ/ उदितेऽनुदिते चैव समयाध्युषिते तथा ।
ं२।१५च्/ सर्वथा वर्तते यज्ञ इतीयं वैदिकी श्रुतिः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१६अ/ निषेकादिश्मशानान्तो मन्त्रैर्यस्योदितो विधिः ।
ं२।१६च्/ तस्य शास्त्रेऽधिकारोऽस्मिन् ज्ञेयो नान्यस्य कस्य चित् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१७अ/ सरस्वतीदृशद्वत्योर्देवनद्योर्यदन्तरम् ।
ं२।१७च्/ तं देवनिर्मितं देशं ब्रह्मावर्तं प्रचक्षते ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१८अ/ तस्मिन् देशे य आचारः पारम्पर्यक्रमागतः ।
ं२।१८च्/ वर्णानां सान्तरालानां स सदाचार उच्यते ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१९अ/ कुरुक्षेत्रं च मत्स्याश्च पञ्चालाः शूरसेनकाः ।
ं२।१९च्/ एष ब्रह्मर्षिदेशो वै ब्रह्मावर्तादनन्तरः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।२०अ/ एतद् देशप्रसूतस्य सकाशादग्रजन्मनः ।
ं२।२०च्/ स्वं स्वं चरित्रं शिक्षेरन् पृथिव्यां सर्वमानवाः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।२१अ/ हिमवद्विन्ध्ययोर्मध्यं यत् प्राग् विनशनादपि ।
ं२।२१च्/ प्रत्यगेव प्रयागाच्च मध्यदेशः प्रकीर्तितः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।२२अ/ आ समुद्रात् तु वै पूर्वादा समुद्राच्च पश्चिमात् ।
ं२।२२च्/ तयोरेवान्तरं गिर्योरार्यावर्तं विदुर्बुधाः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।२३अ/ कृष्णसारस्तु चरति मृगो यत्र स्वभावतः ।
ं२।२३च्/ स ज्ञेयो यज्ञियो देशो म्लेच्छदेशस्त्वतः परः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।२४अ/ एतान्द्विजातयो देशान् संश्रयेरन् प्रयत्नतः ।
ं२।२४च्/ शूद्रस्तु यस्मिन् कस्मिन् वा निवसेद् वृत्तिकर्शितः ॥Bछ्.Sछ्॥ %[ं।यस्मिंस्तस्मिन् वा ]
ं२।२५अ/ एषा धर्मस्य वो योनिः समासेन प्रकीर्तिता ।
ं२।२५च्/ संभवश्चास्य सर्वस्य वर्णधर्मान्निबोधत ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।२६अ/ वैदिकैः कर्मभिः पुण्यैर्निषेकादिर्द्विजन्मनाम् ।
ं२।२६च्/ कार्यः शरीरसंस्कारः पावनः प्रेत्य चैह च ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।२७अ/ गार्भैर्होमैर्जातकर्मचौडमौञ्जीनिबन्धनैः ।
ं२।२७च्/ बैजिकं गार्भिकं चैनं द्विजानामपमृज्यते ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।२८अ/ स्वाध्यायेन व्रतैर्होमैस्त्रैविद्येनेज्यया सुतैः ।
ं२।२८च्/ महायज्ञैश्च यज्ञैश्च ब्राह्मीयं क्रियते तनुः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।२९अ/ प्राङ् नाभिवर्धनात् पुंसो जातकर्म विधीयते ।
ं२।२९च्/ मन्त्रवत् प्राशनं चास्य हिरण्यमधुसर्पिषाम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।३०अ/ नामधेयं दशम्यां तु द्वादश्यां वाऽस्य कारयेत् ।
ं२।३०च्/ पुण्ये तिथौ मुहूर्ते वा नक्षत्रे वा गुणान्विते ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।३१अ/ मङ्गल्यं ब्राह्मणस्य स्यात् क्षत्रियस्य बलान्वितम् ।
ं२।३१च्/ वैश्यस्य धनसंयुक्तं शूद्रस्य तु जुगुप्सितम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।३२अ/ शर्मवद् ब्राह्मणस्य स्याद् राज्ञो रक्षासमन्वितम् । %[ं राज्ञा ?]
ं२।३२च्/ वैश्यस्य पुष्टिसंयुक्तं शूद्रस्य प्रेष्यसंयुतम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।३३अ/ स्त्रीणां सुखौद्यमक्रूरं विस्पष्टार्थं मनोहरम् ।
ं२।३३च्/ मङ्गल्यं दीर्घवर्णान्तमाशीर्वादाभिधानवत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।३४अ/ चतुर्थे मासि कर्तव्यं शिशोर्निष्क्रमणं गृहात् ।
ं२।३४च्/ षष्ठेऽन्नप्राशनं मासि यद् वैष्टं मङ्गलं कुले ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।३५अ/ चूडाकर्म द्विजातीनां सर्वेषामेव धर्मतः ।
ं२।३५च्/ प्रथमेऽब्दे तृतीये वा कर्तव्यं श्रुतिचोदनात् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥ %[ं।श्रुतिनोदनात्]
ं२।३६अ/ गर्भाष्टमेऽब्दे कुर्वीत ब्राह्मणस्यौपनायनम् ।
ं२।३६च्/ गर्भादेकादशे राज्ञो गर्भात् तु द्वादशे विशः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।३७अ/ ब्रह्मवर्चसकामस्य कार्यो विप्रस्य पञ्चमे ।
ं२।३७च्/ राज्ञो बलार्थिनः षष्ठे वैश्यस्यैहार्थिनोऽष्टमे ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।३८अ/ आ षोदशाद् ब्राह्मणस्य सावित्री नातिवर्तते ।
ं२।३८च्/ आ द्वाविंशात् क्षत्रबन्धोरा चतुर्विंशतेर्विशः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।३९अ/ अत ऊर्ध्वं त्रयोऽप्येते यथाकालमसंस्कृताः ।
ं२।३९च्/ सावित्रीपतिता व्रात्या भवन्त्यार्यविगर्हिताः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।४०अ/ नैतैरपूतैर्विधिवदापद्यपि हि कर्हि चित् ।
ं२।४०च्/ ब्राह्मान् यौनांश्च संबन्धान्नाचरेद् ब्राह्मणः सह ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥ %[ं।ब्राह्मणैः सह ]
ं२।४१अ/ कार्ष्णरौरवबास्तानि चर्माणि ब्रह्मचारिणः ।
ं२।४१च्/ वसीरन्नानुपूर्व्येण शाणक्षौमाविकानि च ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।४२अ/ मौञ्जी त्रिवृत् समा श्लक्ष्णा कार्या विप्रस्य मेखला ।
ं२।४२च्/ क्षत्रियस्य तु मौर्वी ज्या वैश्यस्य शणतान्तवी ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।४३अ/ मुञ्जालाभे तु कर्तव्याः कुशाश्मन्तकबल्वजैः ।
ं२।४३च्/ त्रिवृता ग्रन्थिनैकेन त्रिभिः पञ्चभिरेव वा ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।४४अ/ कार्पासमुपवीतं स्याद् विप्रस्यौर्ध्ववृतं त्रिवृत् ।
ं२।४४च्/ शणसूत्रमयं राज्ञो वैश्यस्याविकसौत्रिकम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।४५अ/ ब्राह्मणो बैल्वपालाशौ क्षत्रियो वाटखादिरौ ।
ं२।४५च्/ पैलवौदुम्बरौ वैश्यो दण्डानर्हन्ति धर्मतः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।४६अ/ केशान्तिको ब्राह्मणस्य दण्डः कार्यः प्रमाणतः ।
ं२।४६च्/ ललाटसम्मितो राज्ञः स्यात् तु नासान्तिको विशः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।४७अ/ ऋजवस्ते तु सर्वे स्युरव्रणाः सौम्यदर्शनाः ।
ं२।४७च्/ अनुद्वेगकरा नॄणां सत्वचोऽनग्निदूषिताः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।४८अ/ प्रतिगृह्येप्सितं दण्डमुपस्थाय च भास्करम् ।
ं२।४८च्/ प्रदक्षिणं परीत्याग्निं चरेद् भैक्षं यथाविधि ॥


ं२।४९अ/ भवत्पूर्वं चरेद् भैक्षमुपनीतो द्विजोत्तमः ।
ं२।४९च्/ भवन्मध्यं तु राजन्यो वैश्यस्तु भवदुत्तरम् ॥Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।५०अ/ मातरं वा स्वसारं वा मातुर्वा भगिनीं निजाम् ।
ं२।५०च्/ भिक्षेत भिक्षां प्रथमं या चैनं नावमानयेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।५१अ/ समाहृत्य तु तद् भैक्षं यावदन्नममायया । %[ं।यावदर्थं ]
ं२।५१च्/ निवेद्य गुरवेऽश्नीयादाचम्य प्राङ्मुखः शुचिः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।५२अ/ आयुष्यं प्राङ्मुखो भुङ्क्ते यशस्यं दक्षिणामुखः ।
ं२।५२च्/ श्रियं प्रत्यङ्मुखो भुङ्क्ते ऋतं भुङ्क्ते ह्युदङ्मुखः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।५३अ/ उपस्पृश्य द्विजो नित्यमन्नमद्यात् समाहितः ।
ं२।५३च्/ भुक्त्वा चौपस्पृशेत् सम्यगद्भिः खानि च संस्पृशेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।५४अ/ पूजयेदशनं नित्यमद्याच्चैतदकुत्सयन् ।
ं२।५४च्/ दृष्ट्वा हृष्येत् प्रसीदेच्च प्रतिनन्देच्च सर्वशः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।५५अ/ पूजितं ह्यशनं नित्यं बलमूर्जं च यच्छति ।
ं२।५५च्/ अपूजितं तु तद् भुक्तमुभयं नाशयेदिदम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।५६अ/ नौच्छिष्टं कस्य चिद् दद्यान्नाद्यादेतत् तथाऽन्तरा ।
ं२।५६च्/ न चैवात्यशनं कुर्यान्न चौच्छिष्टः क्व चिद् व्रजेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।५७अ/ अनारोग्यमनायुष्यमस्वर्ग्यं चातिभोजनम् ।
ं२।५७च्/ अपुण्यं लोकविद्विष्टं तस्मात् तत् परिवर्जयेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।५८अ/ ब्राह्मेण विप्रस्तीर्थेन नित्यकालमुपस्पृशेत् ।
ं२।५८च्/ कायत्रैदशिकाभ्यां वा न पित्र्येण कदा चन ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।५९अ/ अङ्गुष्ठमूलस्य तले ब्राह्मं तीर्थं प्रचक्षते ।
ं२।५९च्/ कायमङ्गुलिमूलेऽग्रे देवं पित्र्यं तयोरधः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।६०अ/ त्रिराचामेदपः पूर्वं द्विः प्रमृज्यात् ततो मुखम् ।
ं२।६०च्/ खानि चैव स्पृशेदद्भिरात्मानं शिर एव च ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।६१अ/ अनुष्णाभिरफेनाभिरद्भिस्तीर्थेन धर्मवित् ।
ं२।६१च्/ शौचेप्सुः सर्वदाऽचामेदेकान्ते प्रागुदङ्मुखः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।६२अ/ हृद्गाभिः पूयते विप्रः कण्ठगाभिस्तु भूमिपः ।
ं२।६२च्/ वैश्योऽद्भिः प्राशिताभिस्तु शूद्रः स्पृष्टाभिरन्ततः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।६३अ/ उद्धृते दक्षिणे पाणावुपवीत्यौच्यते द्विजः ।
ं२।६३च्/ सव्ये प्राचीनावीती निवीती कण्ठसज्जने ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।६४अ/ मेखलामजिनं दण्डमुपवीतं कमण्डलुम् ।
ं२।६४च्/ अप्सु प्रास्य विनष्टानि गृह्णीतान्यानि मन्त्रवत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।६५अ/ केशान्तः षोडशे वर्षे ब्राह्मणस्य विधीयते ।
ं२।६५च्/ राजन्यबन्धोर्द्वाविंशे वैश्यस्य द्व्यधिके मतः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।६६अ/ अमन्त्रिका तु कार्यैयं स्त्रीणामावृदशेषतः ।
ं२।६६च्/ संस्कारार्थं शरीरस्य यथाकालं यथाक्रमम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।६७अ/ वैवाहिको विधिः स्त्रीणां संस्कारो वैदिकः स्मृतः ।
ं२।६७च्/ पतिसेवा गुरौ वासो गृहार्थोऽग्निपरिक्रिया ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।६८अ/ एष प्रोक्तो द्विजातीनामौपनायनिको विधिः ।
ं२।६८च्/ उत्पत्तिव्यञ्जकः पुण्यः कर्मयोगं निबोधत ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।६९अ/ उपनीयं गुरुः शिष्यं शिक्षयेत्शौचमादितः ।
ं२।६९च्/ आचारमग्निकार्यं च संध्यौपासनमेव च ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।७०अ/ अध्येष्यमाणस्त्वाचान्तो यथाशास्त्रमुदङ्मुखः ।
ं२।७०च्/ ब्रह्माञ्जलिकृतोऽध्याप्यो लघुवासा जितैन्द्रियः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।७१अ/ ब्रह्मारम्भेऽवसाने च पादौ ग्राह्यौ गुरोः सदा ।
ं२।७१च्/ संहत्य हस्तावध्येयं स हि ब्रह्माञ्जलिः स्मृतः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।७२अ/ व्यत्यस्तपाणिना कार्यमुपसङ्ग्रहणं गुरोः ।
ं२।७२च्/ सव्येन सव्यः स्प्रष्टव्यो दक्षिणेन च दक्षिणः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।७३अ/ अध्येष्यमाणं तु गुरुर्नित्यकालमतन्द्रितः ।
ं२।७३च्/ अधीष्व भो इति ब्रूयाद् विरामोऽस्त्विति चारमेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।७४अ/ ब्रह्मणः प्रणवं कुर्यादादावन्ते च सर्वदा ।
ं२।७४च्/ स्रवत्यनोङ्कृतं ?? पूर्वं परस्ताच्च विशीर्यति ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।७५अ/ प्राक्कूलान् पर्युपासीनः पवित्रैश्चैव पावितः ।
ं२।७५च्/ प्राणायामैस्त्रिभिः पूतस्तत ओं।कारमर्हति ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।७६अ/ अकारं चाप्युकारं च मकारं च प्रजापतिः ।
ं२।७६च्/ वेदत्रयान्निरदुहद् भूर्भुवः स्वरितीति च ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।७७अ/ त्रिभ्य एव तु वेदेभ्यः पादं पादमदूदुहत् ।
ं२।७७च्/ तदित्यर्चोऽस्याः सावित्र्याः परमेष्ठी प्रजापतिः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।७८अ/ एतदक्षरमेतां च जपन् व्याहृतिपूर्विकाम् ।
ं२।७८च्/ संध्ययोर्वेदविद् विप्रो वेदपुण्येन युज्यते ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।७९अ/ सहस्रकृत्वस्त्वभ्यस्य बहिरेतत् त्रिकं द्विजः ।
ं२।७९च्/ महतोऽप्येनसो मासात् त्वचैवाहिर्विमुच्यते ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।८०अ/ एतयाऋचा विसंयुक्तः काले च क्रियया स्वया ।
ं२।८०च्/ ब्रह्मक्षत्रियविद्योनिर्गर्हणां याति साधुषु ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।८१अ/ ओंकारपूर्विकास्तिस्रो महाव्याहृतयोऽव्ययाः । %[ंओङ्कार]
ं२।८१च्/ त्रिपदा चैव सावित्री विज्ञेयं ब्रह्मणो मुखम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।८२अ/ योऽधीतेऽहन्यहन्येतां त्रीणि वर्षाण्यतन्द्रितः ।
ं२।८२च्/ स ब्रह्म परमभ्येति वायुभूतः खमूर्तिमान् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।८३अ/ एकाक्षरं परं ब्रह्म प्राणायामः परं तपः ।
ं२।८३च्/ सावित्र्यास्तु परं नास्ति मौनात् सत्यं विशिष्यते ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।८४अ/ क्षरन्ति सर्वा वैदिक्यो जुहोतियजतिक्रियाः ।
ं२।८४च्/ अक्षरं दुष्करं ज्ञेयं ब्रह्म चैव प्रजापतिः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥ %[ं। अक्षरं त्वक्षरं ज्ञेयं]
ं२।८५अ/ विधियज्ञाज् जपयज्ञो विशिष्टो दशभिर्गुणैः ।
ं२।८५च्/ उपांशुः स्यात्शतगुणः साहस्रो मानसः स्मृतः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।८६अ/ ये पाकयज्ञाः चत्वारो विधियज्ञसमन्विताः ।
ं२।८६च्/ सर्वे ते जपयज्ञस्य कलां नार्हन्ति षोडशीम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।८७अ/ जप्येनैव तु संसिध्येद् ब्राह्मणो नात्र संशयः ।
ं२।८७च्/ कुर्यादन्यन्न वा कुर्यान् मैत्रो ब्राह्मण उच्यते ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।८८अ/ इन्द्रियाणां विचरतां विषयेष्वपहारिषु ।
ं२।८८च्/ संयमे यत्नमातिष्ठेद् विद्वान् यन्तैव वाजिनाम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।८९अ/ एकादशेन्द्रियाण्याहुर्यानि पूर्वे मनीषिणः ।
ं२।८९च्/ तानि सम्यक् प्रवक्ष्यामि यथावदनुपूर्वशः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।९०अ/ श्रोत्रं त्वक् चक्षुषी जिह्वा नासिका चैव पञ्चमी ।
ं२।९०च्/ पायूपस्थं हस्तपादं वाक् चैव दशमी स्मृता ।
ं२।९१अ/ बुद्धीन्द्रियाणि पञ्चैषां श्रोत्रादीन्यनुपूर्वशः ।
ं२।९१च्/ कर्मेन्द्रियाणि पञ्चैषां पाय्वादीनि प्रचक्षते ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।९२अ/ एकादशं मनो ज्ञेयं स्वगुणेनौभयात्मकम् ।
ं२।९२च्/ यस्मिन् जिते जितावेतौ भवतः पञ्चकौ गणौ ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।९३अ/ इन्द्रियाणां प्रसङ्गेन दोषं ऋच्छत्यसंशयम् ।
ं२।९३च्/ संनियम्य तु तान्येव ततः सिद्धिं निगच्छति ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।९४अ/ न जातु कामः कामानामुपभोगेन शाम्यति ।
ं२।९४च्/ हविषा कृष्णवर्त्मैव भूय एवाभिवर्धते ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।९५अ/ यश्चैतान् प्राप्नुयात् सर्वान् यश्चैतान् केवलांस्त्यजेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।९५च्/ प्रापणात् सर्वकामानां परित्यागो विशिष्यते ।
ं२।९६अ/ न तथैतानि शक्यन्ते संनियन्तुमसेवया ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।९६च्/ विषयेषु प्रजुष्टानि यथा ज्ञानेन नित्यशः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।९७अ/ वेदास्त्यागश्च यज्ञाश्च नियमाश्च तपांसि च ।
ं२।९७च्/ न विप्रदुष्टभावस्य सिद्धिं गच्छति कर्हि चित् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।९८अ/ श्रुत्वा स्पृष्ट्वा च दृष्ट्वा च भुक्त्वा घ्रात्वा च यो नरः ।
ं२।९८च्/ न हृष्यति ग्लायति वा स विज्ञेयो जितैन्द्रियः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।९९अ/ इन्द्रियाणां तु सर्वेषां यद्येकं क्षरतीन्द्रियम् ।
ं२।९९च्/ तेनास्य क्षरति प्रज्ञा दृतेः पादादिवोदकम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१००अ/ वशे कृत्वेन्द्रियग्रामं संयम्य च मनस्तथा ।
ं२।१००च्/ सर्वान् संसाधयेदर्थानक्षिण्वन् योगतस्तनुम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१०१अ/ पूर्वां संध्यां जपंस्तिष्ठेत् सावित्रीमाऽर्कदर्शनात् ।
ं२।१०१च्/ पश्चिमां तु समासीनः सम्यग् ऋक्षविभावनात् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥ %[ं। पश्चिमां तु सदासीत]
ं२।१०२अ/ पूर्वां संध्यां जपंस्तिष्ठन्नैशमेनो व्यपोहति ।
ं२।१०२च्/ पश्चिमां तु समासीनो मलं हन्ति दिवाकृतम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१०३अ/ न तिष्ठति तु यः पूर्वां नौपास्ते यश्च पश्चिमाम् ।
ं२।१०३च्/ स शूद्रवद् बहिष्कार्यः सर्वस्माद् द्विजकर्मणः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१०४अ/ अपां समीपे नियतो नैत्यकं विधिमास्थितः ।
ं२।१०४च्/ सावित्रीमप्यधीयीत गत्वाऽरण्यं समाहितः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१०५अ/ वेदौपकरणे चैव स्वाध्याये चैव नैत्यके ।
ं२।१०५च्/ नानुरोधोऽस्त्यनध्याये होममन्त्रेषु चैव हि ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१०६अ/ नैत्यके नास्त्यनध्यायो ब्रह्मसत्रं हि तत् स्मृतम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१०६च्/ ब्रह्माहुतिहुतं पुण्यमनध्यायवषट् कृतम् ??॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१०७अ/ यः स्वाध्यायमधीतेऽब्दं विधिना नियतः शुचिः ।
ं२।१०७च्/ तस्य नित्यं क्षरत्येष पयो दधि घृतं मधु ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१०८अ/ अग्नीन्धनं भैक्षचर्यामधःशय्यां गुरोर्हितम् ।
ं२।१०८च्/ आ समावर्तनात् कुर्यात् कृतोपनयनो द्विजः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१०९अ/ आचार्यपुत्रः शुश्रूषुर्ज्ञानदो धार्मिकः शुचिः ।
ं२।१०९च्/ आप्तः शक्तोऽर्थदः साधुः स्वोऽध्याप्या दश धर्मतः ?? ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।११०अ/ नापृष्टः कस्य चिद् ब्रूयान्न चान्यायेन पृच्छतः ।
ं२।११०च्/ जानन्नपि हि मेधावी जडवल्लोक आचरेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१११अ/ अधर्मेण च यः प्राह यश्चाधर्मेण पृच्छति ।
ं२।१११च्/ तयोरन्यतरः प्रैति विद्वेषं वाऽधिगच्छति ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।११२अ/ धर्मार्थौ यत्र न स्यातां शुश्रूषा वाऽपि तद्विधा ।
ं२।११२च्/ तत्र विद्या न वप्तव्या शुभं बीजमिवौषरे ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।११३अ/ विद्ययैव समं कामं मर्तव्यं ब्रह्मवादिना ।
ं२।११३च्/ आपद्यपि हि घोरायां न त्वेनामिरिणे वपेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।११४अ/ विद्या ब्राह्मणमेत्याह शेवधिस्तेऽस्मि रक्ष माम् । %[ं।शेवधिष् टे]
ं२।११४च्/ असूयकाय मां मादास्तथा स्यां वीर्यवत्तमा ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।११५अ/ यमेव तु शुचिं विद्यान्नियतब्रह्मचारिणम् । %[ं। विद्या नियतं ब्रह्मचारिणम्]
ं२।११५च्/ तस्मै मां ब्रूहि विप्राय निधिपायाप्रमादिने ।
ं२।११६अ/ ब्रह्म यस्त्वननुज्ञातमधीयानादवाप्नुयात् ।
ं२।११६च्/ स ब्रह्मस्तेयसंयुक्तो नरकं प्रतिपद्यते ।
ं२।११७अ/ लौकिकं वैदिकं वाऽपि तथाऽध्यात्मिकमेव वा ।
ं२।११७च्/ आददीत यतो ज्ञानं तं पूर्वमभिवादयेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।११८अ/ सावित्रीमात्रसारोऽपि वरं विप्रः सुयन्त्रितः ।
ं२।११८च्/ नायन्त्रितस्त्रिवेदोऽपि सर्वाशी सर्वविक्रयी ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।११९अ/ शय्याऽऽसनेऽध्याचरिते श्रेयसा न समाविशेत् ।
ं२।११९च्/ शय्याऽऽसनस्थश्चैवेनं प्रत्युत्थायाभिवादयेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१२०अ/ ऊर्ध्वं प्राणा ह्युत्क्रमन्ति यूनः स्थविर आयति ।
ं२।१२०च्/ प्रत्युत्थानाभिवादाभ्यां पुनस्तान् प्रतिपद्यते ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१२१अ/ अभिवादनशीलस्य नित्यं वृद्धोपसेविनः ।
ं२।१२१च्/ चत्वारि तस्य वर्धन्ते आयुर्धर्मो यशो बलम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥ %[ं। चत्वारि सम्प्रवर्धन्ते]
ं२।१२२अ/ अभिवादात् परं विप्रो ज्यायांसमभिवादयन् ।
ं२।१२२च्/ असौ नामाहमस्मीति स्वं नाम परिकीर्तयेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१२३अ/ नामधेयस्य ये के चिदभिवादं न जानते ।
ं२।१२३च्/ तान् प्राज्ञोऽहमिति ब्रूयात् स्त्रियः सर्वास्तथैव च ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१२४अ/ भोःशब्दं कीर्तयेदन्ते स्वस्य नाम्नोऽभिवादने ।
ं२।१२४च्/ नाम्नां स्वरूपभावो हि भोभाव ऋषिभिः स्मृतः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१२५अ/ आयुष्मान् भव सौम्यैति वाच्यो विप्रोऽभिवादने ।
ं२।१२५च्/ अकारश्चास्य नाम्नोऽन्ते वाच्यः पूर्वाक्षरः प्लुतः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१२६अ/ यो न वेत्त्यभिवादस्य विप्रः प्रत्यभिवादनम् ।
ं२।१२६च्/ नाभिवाद्यः स विदुषा यथा शूद्रस्तथैव सः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१२७अ/ ब्राह्मणं कुशलं पृच्छेत् क्षत्रबन्धुमनामयम् ।
ं२।१२७च्/ वैश्यं क्षेमं समागम्य शूद्रमारोग्यमेव च ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१२८अ/ अवाच्यो दीक्षितो नाम्ना यवीयानपि यो भवेत् ।
ं२।१२८च्/ भोभवत्पूर्वकं त्वेनमभिभाषेत धर्मवित् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१२९अ/ परपत्नी तु या स्त्री स्यादसंबन्धा च योनितः ।
ं२।१२९च्/ तां ब्रूयाद् भवतीत्येवं सुभगे भगिनीति च ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१३०अ/ मातुलांश्च पितृव्यांश्च श्वशुरान् ऋत्विजो गुरून् ।
ं२।१३०च्/ असावहमिति ब्रूयात् प्रत्युत्थाय यवीयसः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१३१अ/ मातृश्वसा मातुलानी श्वश्रूरथ पितृश्वसा ।
ं२।१३१च्/ सम्पूज्या गुरुपत्नीवत् समास्ता गुरुभार्यया ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१३२अ/ भ्रातुर्भार्यौपसङ्ग्राह्या सवर्णाऽहन्यहन्यपि ।
ं२।१३२च्/ विप्रोष्य तूपसङ्ग्राह्या ज्ञातिसंबन्धियोषितः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१३३अ/ पितुर्भगिन्यां मातुश्च ज्यायस्यां च स्वसर्यपि ।
ं२।१३३च्/ मातृवद् वृत्तिमातिष्ठेन् माता ताभ्यो गरीयसी ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१३४अ/ दशाब्दाख्यं पौरसख्यं पञ्चाब्दाख्यं कलाभृताम् ।
ं२।१३४च्/ त्र्यब्दपूर्वं श्रोत्रियाणां स्वल्पेनापि स्वयोनिषु ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१३५अ/ ब्राह्मणं दशवर्षं तु शतवर्षं तु भूमिपम् ।
ं२।१३५च्/ पितापुत्रौ विजानीयाद् ब्राह्मणस्तु तयोः पिता ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१३६अ/ वित्तं बन्धुर्वयः कर्म विद्या भवति पञ्चमी ।
ं२।१३६च्/ एतानि मान्यस्थानानि गरीयो यद् यदुत्तरम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥ %[ंंआनस्थानानि ]
ं२।१३७अ/ पञ्चानां त्रिषु वर्णेषु भूयांसि गुणवन्ति च ।
ं२।१३७च्/ यत्र स्युः सोऽत्र मानार्हः शूद्रोऽपि दशमीं गतः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१३८अ/ चक्रिणो दशमीस्थस्य रोगिणो भारिणः स्त्रियाः ।
ं२।१३८च्/ स्नातकस्य च राज्ञश्च पन्था देयो वरस्य च ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१३९अ/ तेषां तु समवेतानां मान्यौ स्नातकपार्थिवौ ।
ं२।१३९च्/ राजस्नातकयोश्चैव स्नातको नृपमानभाक् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१४०अ/ उपनीय तु यः शिष्यं वेदमध्यापयेद् द्विजः ।
ं२।१४०च्/ सकल्पं सरहस्यं च तमाचार्यं प्रचक्षते ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१४१अ/ एकदेशं तु वेदस्य वेदाङ्गान्यपि वा पुनः ।
ं२।१४१च्/ योऽध्यापयति वृत्त्यर्थमुपाध्यायः स उच्यते ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१४२अ/ निषेकादीनि कर्माणि यः करोति यथाविधि ।
ं२।१४२च्/ संभावयति चान्नेन स विप्रो गुरुरुच्यते ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१४३अ/ अग्न्याधेयं पाकयज्ञानग्निष्टोमादिकान् मखान् ।
ं२।१४३च्/ यः करोति वृतो यस्य स तस्यर्त्विगिहोच्यते ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१४४अ/ य आवृणोत्यवितथं ब्रह्मणा श्रवणावुभौ ।
ं२।१४४च्/ स माता स पिता ज्ञेयस्तं न द्रुह्येत् कदा चन ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१४५अ/ उपाध्यायान् दशाचार्य आचार्याणां शतं पिता ।
ं२।१४५च्/ सहस्रं तु पितॄन् माता गौरवेणातिरिच्यते ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१४६अ/ उत्पादकब्रह्मदात्रोर्गरीयान् ब्रह्मदः पिता ।
ं२।१४६च्/ ब्रह्मजन्म हि विप्रस्य प्रेत्य चैह च शाश्वतम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१४७अ/ कामान् माता पिता चैनं यदुत्पादयतो मिथः ।
ं२।१४७च्/ संभूतिं तस्य तां विद्याद् यद् योनावभिजायते ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१४८अ/ आचार्यस्त्वस्य यां जातिं विधिवद् वेदपारगः ।
ं२।१४८च्/ उत्पादयति सावित्र्या सा सत्या साऽजराऽमरा ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१४९अ/ अल्पं वा बहु वा यस्य श्रुतस्यौपकरोति यः ।
ं२।१४९च्/ तमपीह गुरुं विद्यात्श्रुतौपक्रियया तया ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१५०अ/ ब्राह्मस्य जन्मनः कर्ता स्वधर्मस्य च शासिता ।
ं२।१५०च्/ बालोऽपि विप्रो वृद्धस्य पिता भवति धर्मतः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१५१अ/ अध्यापयामास पितॄन् शिशुराङ्गिरसः कविः ।
ं२।१५१च्/ पुत्रका इति हौवाच ज्ञानेन परिगृह्य तान् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१५२अ/ ते तमर्थमपृच्छन्त देवानागतमन्यवः ।
ं२।१५२च्/ देवाश्चैतान् समेत्यौचुर्न्याय्यं वः शिशुरुक्तवान् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१५३अ/ अज्ञो भवति वै बालः पिता भवति मन्त्रदः ।
ं२।१५३च्/ अज्ञं हि बालमित्याहुः पितेत्येव तु मन्त्रदम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१५४अ/ न हायनैर्न पलितैर्न वित्तेन न बन्धुभिः ।
ं२।१५४च्/ ऋषयश्चक्रिरे धर्मं योऽनूचानः स नो महान् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१५५अ/ विप्राणां ज्ञानतो ज्यैष्ठ्यं क्षत्रियाणां तु वीर्यतः ।
ं२।१५५च्/ वैश्यानां धान्यधनतः शूद्राणामेव जन्मतः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१५६अ/ न तेन वृद्धो भवति येनास्य पलितं शिरः ।
ं२।१५६च्/ यो वै युवाऽप्यधीयानस्तं देवाः स्थविरं विदुः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१५७अ/ यथा काष्ठमयो हस्ती यथा चर्ममयो मृगः ।
ं२।१५७च्/ यश्च विप्रोऽनधीयानस्त्रयस्ते नाम बिभ्रति ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१५८अ/ यथा षण्ढोऽफलः स्त्रीषु यथा गौर्गवि चाफला ।
ं२।१५८च्/ यथा चाज्ञेऽफलं दानं तथा विप्रोऽनृचोऽफलः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१५९अ/ अहिंसयैव भूतानां कार्यं श्रेयोऽनुशासनम् ।
ं२।१५९च्/ वाक् चैव मधुरा श्लक्ष्णा प्रयोज्या धर्ममिच्छता ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१६०अ/ यस्य वाङ्मनसी शुद्धे सम्यग् गुप्ते च सर्वदा ।
ं२।१६०च्/ स वै सर्वमवाप्नोति वेदान्तोपगतं फलम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१६१अ/ नारुंतुदः स्यादार्तोऽपि न परद्रोहकर्मधीः ।
ं२।१६१च्/ ययाऽस्योद्विजते वाचा नालोक्यां तामुदीरयेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१६२अ/ सम्मानाद् ब्राह्मणो नित्यमुद्विजेत विषादिव ।
ं२।१६२च्/ अमृतस्येव चाकाङ्क्षेदवमानस्य सर्वदा ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१६३अ/ सुखं ह्यवमतः शेते सुखं च प्रतिबुध्यते ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१६३च्/ सुखं चरति लोकेऽस्मिन्नवमन्ता विनश्यति ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१६४अ/ अनेन क्रमयोगेन संस्कृतात्मा द्विजः शनैः ।
ं२।१६४च्/ गुरौ वसन् सञ्चिनुयाद् ब्रह्माधिगमिकं तपः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१६५अ/ तपोविशेषैर्विविधैर्व्रतैश्च विधिचोदितैः ।
ं२।१६५च्/ वेदः कृत्स्नोऽधिगन्तव्यः सरहस्यो द्विजन्मना ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१६६अ/ वेदमेव सदाऽभ्यस्येत् तपस्तप्यन् द्विजोत्तमः ।
ं२।१६६च्/ वेदाभ्यासो हि विप्रस्य तपः परमिहौच्यते ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१६७अ/ आ हैव स नखाग्रेभ्यः परमं तप्यते तपः ।
ं२।१६७च्/ यः स्रग्व्यपि द्विजोऽधीते स्वाध्यायं शक्तितोऽन्वहम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१६८अ/ योऽनधीत्य द्विजो वेदमन्यत्र कुरुते श्रमम् ।
ं२।१६८च्/ स जीवन्नेव शूद्रत्वमाशु गच्छति सान्वयः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१६९अ/ मातुरग्रेऽधिजननं द्वितीयं मौञ्जिबन्धने ।
ं२।१६९च्/ तृतीयं यज्ञदीक्षायां द्विजस्य श्रुतिचोदनात् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१७०अ/ तत्र यद् ब्रह्मजन्मास्य मौञ्जीबन्धनचिह्नितम् ।
ं२।१७०च्/ तत्रास्य माता सावित्री पिता त्वाचार्य उच्यते ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१७१अ/ वेदप्रदानादाचार्यं पितरं परिचक्षते ।
ं२।१७१च्/ न ह्यस्मिन् युज्यते कर्म किञ्चिदा मौञ्जिबन्धनात् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१७२अ/ नाभिव्याहारयेद् ब्रह्म स्वधानिनयनाद् ऋते ।
ं२।१७२च्/ शूद्रेण हि समस्तावद् यावद् वेदे न जायते ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१७३अ/ कृतौपनयनस्यास्य व्रतादेशनमिष्यते ।
ं२।१७३च्/ ब्रह्मणो ग्रहणं चैव क्रमेण विधिपूर्वकम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१७४अ/ यद्यस्य विहितं चर्म यत् सूत्रं या च मेखला ।
ं२।१७४च्/ यो दण्डो यत्च वसनं तत् तदस्य व्रतेष्वपि ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१७५अ/ सेवेतैमांस्तु नियमान् ब्रह्मचारी गुरौ वसन् ।
ं२।१७५च्/ सन्नियम्यैन्द्रियग्रामं तपोवृद्ध्यर्थमात्मनः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१७६अ/ नित्यं स्नात्वा शुचिः कुर्याद् देवर्षिपितृतर्पणम् ।
ं२।१७६च्/ देवताभ्यर्चनं चैव समिदाधानमेव च ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१७७अ/ वर्जयेन् मधु मांसं च गन्धं माल्यं रसान् स्त्रियः ।
ं२।१७७च्/ शुक्तानि यानि सर्वाणि प्राणिनां चैव हिंसनम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१७८अ/ अभ्यङ्गमञ्जनं चाक्ष्णोरुपानच्छत्रधारणम् ।
ं२।१७८च्/ कामं क्रोधं च लोभं च नर्तनं गीतवादनम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१७९अ/ द्यूतं च जनवादं च परिवादं तथाऽनृतम् ।
ं२।१७९च्/ स्त्रीणां च प्रेक्षणालम्भमुपघातं परस्य च ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥%(ं।आलम्भाऽव्)
ं२।१८०अ/ एकः शयीत सर्वत्र न रेतः स्कन्दयेत् क्व चित् ।
ं२।१८०च्/ कामाद् हि स्कन्दयन् रेतो हिनस्ति व्रतमात्मनः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१८१अ/ स्वप्ने सिक्त्वा ब्रह्मचारी द्विजः शुक्रमकामतः ।
ं२।१८१च्/ स्नात्वाऽर्कमर्चयित्वा त्रिः पुनर्मामित्यृचं जपेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१८२अ/ उदकुम्भं सुमनसो गोशकृत्मृत्तिकाकुशान् ।
ं२।१८२च्/ आहरेद् यावदर्थानि भैक्षं चाहरहश्चरेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१८३अ/ वेदयज्ञैरहीनानां प्रशस्तानां स्वकर्मसु ।
ं२।१८३च्/ ब्रह्मचार्याहरेद् भैक्षं गृहेभ्यः प्रयतोऽन्वहम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१८४अ/ गुरोः कुले न भिक्षेत न ज्ञातिकुलबन्धुषु ।
ं२।१८४च्/ अलाभे त्वन्यगेहानां पूर्वं पूर्वं विवर्जयेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१८५अ/ सर्वं वापि चरेद् ग्रामं पूर्वौक्तानामसंभवे ।
ं२।१८५च्/ नियम्य प्रयतो वाचमभिशस्तांस्तु वर्जयेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१८६अ/ दूरादाहृत्य समिधः सन्निदध्याद् विहायसि ।
ं२।१८६च्/ सायं।प्रातश्च जुहुयात् ताभिरग्निमतन्द्रितः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१८७अ/ अकृत्वा भैक्षचरणमसमिध्य च पावकम् ।
ं२।१८७च्/ अनातुरः सप्तरात्रमवकीर्णिव्रतं चरेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१८८अ/ भैक्षेण वर्तयेन्नित्यं नैकान्नादी भवेद् व्रती ।
ं२।१८८च्/ भैक्षेण व्रतिनो वृत्तिरुपवाससमा स्मृता ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१८९अ/ व्रतवद् देवदैवत्ये पित्र्ये कर्मण्यथर्षिवत् ।
ं२।१८९च्/ काममभ्यर्थितोऽश्नीयाद् व्रतमस्य न लुप्यते ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१९०अ/ ब्राह्मणस्यैव कर्मैतदुपदिष्टं मनीषिभिः ।
ं२।१९०च्/ राजन्यवैश्ययोस्त्वेवं नैतत् कर्म विधीयते ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१९१अ/ चोदितो गुरुणा नित्यमप्रचोदित एव वा ।
ं२।१९१च्/ कुर्यादध्ययने यत्नमाचार्यस्य हितेषु च ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥ %[ंऽध्ययने योगम्]
ं२।१९२अ/ शरीरं चैव वाचं च बुद्धीन्द्रियमनांसि च ।
ं२।१९२च्/ नियम्य प्राञ्जलिस्तिष्ठेद् वीक्षमाणो गुरोर्मुखम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१९३अ/ नित्यमुद्धृतपाणिः स्यात् साध्वाचारः सुसंवृतः ।
ं२।१९३च्/ आस्यतामिति चौक्तः सन्नासीताभिमुखं गुरोः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१९४अ/ हीनान्नवस्त्रवेषः स्यात् सर्वदा गुरुसन्निधौ ।
ं२।१९४च्/ उत्तिष्ठेत् प्रथमं चास्य चरमं चैव संविशेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१९५अ/ प्रतिश्रावणसंभाषे शयानो न समाचरेत् ।
ं२।१९५च्/ नासीनो न च भुञ्जानो न तिष्ठन्न पराङ्मुखः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१९६अ/ आसीनस्य स्थितः कुर्यादभिगच्छंस्तु तिष्ठतः ।
ं२।१९६च्/ प्रत्युद्गम्य त्वाव्रजतः पश्चाद् धावंस्तु धावतः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१९७अ/ पराङ्मुखस्याभिमुखो दूरस्थस्येत्य चान्तिकम् ।
ं२।१९७च्/ प्रणम्य तु शयानस्य निदेशे चैव तिष्ठतः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१९८अ/ नीचं शय्याऽऽसनं चास्य नित्यं स्याद् गुरुसन्निधौ ।
ं२।१९८च्/ गुरोस्तु चक्षुर्विषये न यथेष्टासनो भवेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।१९९अ/ नौदाहरेदस्य नाम परोक्षमपि केवलम् ।
ं२।१९९च्/ न चैवास्यानुकुर्वीत गतिभाषितचेष्टितम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।२००अ/ गुरोर्यत्र परिवादो निन्दा वाऽपि प्रवर्तते ।
ं२।२००च्/ कर्णौ तत्र पिधातव्यौ गन्तव्यं वा ततोऽन्यतः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।२०१अ/ परीवादात् खरो भवति श्वा वै भवति निन्दकः ।
ं२।२०१च्/ परिभोक्ता कृमिर्भवति कीटो भवति मत्सरी ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।२०२अ/ दूरस्थो नार्चयेदेनं न क्रुद्धो नान्तिके स्त्रियाः ।
ं२।२०२च्/ यानासनस्थश्चैवैनमवरुह्याभिवादयेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।२०३अ/ प्रतिवातेऽनुवाते च नासीत गुरुणा सह । %[ं।प्रतिवातानुवाते]
ं२।२०३च्/ असंश्रवे चैव गुरोर्न किं चिदपि कीर्तयेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।२०४अ/ गोऽश्वौष्ट्रयानप्रासादप्रस्तरेषु कटेषु च ।
ं२।२०४च्/ आसीत गुरुणा सार्धं शिलाफलकनौषु च ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।२०५अ/ गुरोर्गुरौ सन्निहिते गुरुवद् वृत्तिमाचरेत् ।
ं२।२०५च्/ न चानिसृष्टो गुरुणा स्वान् गुरूनभिवादयेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।२०६अ/ विद्यागुरुष्वेवमेव नित्या वृत्तिः स्वयोनिषु ।
ं२।२०६च्/ प्रतिषेधत्सु चाधर्माद् हितं चोपदिशत्स्वपि ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।२०७अ/ श्रेयःसु गुरुवद् वृत्तिं नित्यमेव समाचरेत् ।
ं२।२०७च्/ गुरुपुत्रेषु चार्येषु गुरोश्चैव स्वबन्धुषु ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥ %[ं।गुरुपुत्रे तथाचार्ये]
ं२।२०८अ/ बालः समानजन्मा वा शिष्यो वा यज्ञकर्मणि ।
ं२।२०८च्/ अध्यापयन् गुरुसुतो गुरुवत्मानमर्हति ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।२०९अ/ उत्सादनं च गात्राणां स्नापनौच्छिष्टभोजने ।
ं२।२०९च्/ न कुर्याद् गुरुपुत्रस्य पादयोश्चावनेजनम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।२१०अ/ गुरुवत् प्रतिपूज्याः स्युः सवर्णा गुरुयोषितः ।
ं२।२१०च्/ असवर्णास्तु सम्पूज्याः प्रत्युत्थानाभिवादनैः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।२११अ/ अभ्यञ्जनं स्नापनं च गात्रोत्सादनमेव च ।
ं२।२११च्/ गुरुपत्न्या न कार्याणि केशानां च प्रसाधनम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।२१२अ/ गुरुपत्नी तु युवतिर्नाभिवाद्यैह पादयोः ।
ं२।२१२च्/ पूर्णविंशतिवर्षेण गुणदोषौ विजानता ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।२१३अ/ स्वभाव एष नारीणां नराणामिह दूषणम् ।
ं२।२१३च्/ अतोऽर्थान्न प्रमाद्यन्ति प्रमदासु विपश्चितः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।२१४अ/ अविद्वांसमलं लोके विद्वांसमपि वा पुनः ।
ं२।२१४च्/ प्रमदा ह्युत्पथं नेतुं कामक्रोधवशानुगम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।२१५अ/ मात्रा स्वस्रा दुहित्रा वा न विविक्तासनो भवेत् ।
ं२।२१५च्/ बलवानिन्द्रियग्रामो विद्वांसमपि कर्षति ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।२१६अ/ कामं तु गुरुपत्नीनां युवतीनां युवा भुवि ।
ं२।२१६च्/ विधिवद् वन्दनं कुर्यादसावहमिति ब्रुवन् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।२१७अ/ विप्रोष्य पादग्रहणमन्वहं चाभिवादनम् ।
ं२।२१७च्/ गुरुदारेषु कुर्वीत सतां धर्ममनुस्मरन् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।२१८अ/ यथा खनन् खनित्रेण नरो वार्यधिगच्छति ।
ं२।२१८च्/ तथा गुरुगतां विद्यां शुश्रूषुरधिगच्छति ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।२१९अ/ मुण्डो वा जटिलो वा स्यादथ वा स्यात्शिखाजटः ।
ं२।२१९च्/ नैनं ग्रामेऽभिनिम्लोचेत् सूर्यो नाभ्युदियात् क्व चित् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।२२०अ/ तं चेदभ्युदियात् सूर्यः शयानं कामचारतः ।
ं२।२२०च्/ निम्लोचेद् वाऽप्यविज्ञानाज् जपन्नुपवसेद् दिनम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।२२१अ/ सूर्येण ह्यभिनिर्मुक्तः शयानोऽभ्युदितश्च यः । %[ंऽभिनिम्लुक्तः]
ं२।२२१च्/ प्रायश्चित्तमकुर्वाणो युक्तः स्यान् महतेनसा ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।२२२अ/ आचम्य प्रयतो नित्यमुभे संध्ये समाहितः ।
ं२।२२२च्/ शुचौ देशे जपञ्जप्यमुपासीत यथाविधि ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।२२३अ/ यदि स्त्री यद्यवरजः श्रेयः किं चित् समाचरेत् ।
ं२।२२३च्/ तत् सर्वमाचरेद् युक्तो यत्र चास्य रमेन् मनः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।२२४अ/ धर्मार्थावुच्यते श्रेयः कामार्थौ धर्म एव च ।
ं२।२२४च्/ अर्थ एवैह वा श्रेयस्त्रिवर्ग इति तु स्थितिः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।२२५अ/ आचार्यश्च पिता चैव माता भ्राता च पूर्वजः ।
ं२।२२५च्/ नार्तेनाप्यवमन्तव्या ब्राह्मणेन विशेषतः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।२२६अ/ आचार्यो ब्रह्मणो मूर्तिः पिता मूर्तिः प्रजापतेः ।
ं२।२२६च्/ माता पृथिव्या मूर्तिस्तु भ्राता स्वो मूर्तिरात्मनः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।२२७अ/ यं मातापितरौ क्लेशं सहेते संभवे नृणाम् ।
ं२।२२७च्/ न तस्य निष्कृतिः शक्या कर्तुं वर्षशतैरपि ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।२२८अ/ तयोर्नित्यं प्रियं कुर्यादाचार्यस्य च सर्वदा ।
ं२।२२८च्/ तेष्वेव त्रिषु तुष्टेषु तपः सर्वं समाप्यते ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।२२९अ/ तेषां त्रयाणां शुश्रूषा परमं तप उच्यते ।
ं२।२२९च्/ न तैरनभ्यनुज्ञातो धर्ममन्यं समाचरेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।२३०अ/ त एव हि त्रयो लोकास्त एव त्रय आश्रमाः ।
ं२।२३०च्/ त एव हि त्रयो वेदास्त एवौक्तास्त्रयोऽग्नयः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।२३१अ/ पिता वै गार्हपत्योऽग्निर्माताऽग्निर्दक्षिणः स्मृतः ।
ं२।२३१च्/ गुरुराहवनीयस्तु साऽग्नित्रेता गरीयसी ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।२३२अ/ त्रिष्वप्रमाद्यन्नेतेषु त्रीन् लोकान् विजयेद् गृही ।
ं२।२३२च्/ दीप्यमानः स्ववपुषा देववद् दिवि मोदते ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।२३३अ/ इमं लोकं मातृभक्त्या पितृभक्त्या तु मध्यमम् ।
ं२।२३३च्/ गुरुशुश्रूषया त्वेवं ब्रह्मलोकं समश्नुते ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।२३४अ/ सर्वे तस्यादृता धर्मा यस्यैते त्रय आदृताः ।
ं२।२३४च्/ अनादृतास्तु यस्यैते सर्वास्तस्याफलाः क्रियाः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।२३५अ/ यावत् त्रयस्ते जीवेयुस्तावत्नान्यं समाचरेत् ।
ं२।२३५च्/ तेष्वेव नित्यं शुश्रूषां कुर्यात् प्रियहिते रतः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।२३६अ/ तेषामनुपरोधेन पारत्र्यं यद् यदाचरेत् ।
ं२।२३६च्/ तत् तन्निवेदयेत् तेभ्यो मनोवचनकर्मभिः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।२३७अ/ त्रिष्वेतेष्वितिकृत्यं हि पुरुषस्य समाप्यते ।
ं२।२३७च्/ एष धर्मः परः साक्षादुपधर्मोऽन्य उच्यते ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।२३८अ/ श्रद्दधानः शुभां विद्यामाददीतावरादपि ।
ं२।२३८च्/ अन्यादपि परं धर्मं स्त्रीरत्नं दुष्कुलादपि ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।२३९अ/ विषादप्यमृतं ग्राह्यं बालादपि सुभाषितम् ।
ं२।२३९च्/ अमित्रादपि सद्वृत्तममेध्यादपि काञ्चनम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।२४०अ/ स्त्रियो रत्नान्यथो विद्या धर्मः शौचं सुभाषितम् ।
ं२।२४०च्/ विविधानि च शिल्पानि समादेयानि सर्वतः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।२४१अ/ अब्राह्मणादध्यायनमापत्काले विधीयते ।
ं२।२४१च्/ अनुव्रज्या च शुश्रूषा यावदध्यायनं गुरोः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।२४२अ/ नाब्राह्मणे गुरौ शिष्यो वासमात्यन्तिकं वसेत् ।
ं२।२४२च्/ ब्राह्मणे वाऽननूचाने काङ्क्षन् गतिमनुत्तमाम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।२४३अ/ यदि त्वात्यन्तिकं वासं रोचयेत गुरोः कुले ।
ं२।२४३च्/ युक्तः परिचरेदेनमा शरीरविमोक्षणात् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।२४४अ/ आ समाप्तेः शरीरस्य यस्तु शुश्रूषते गुरुम् ।
ं२।२४४च्/ स गच्छत्यञ्जसा विप्रो ब्रह्मणः सद्म शाश्वतम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।२४५अ/ न पूर्वं गुरवे किं चिदुपकुर्वीत धर्मवित् ।
ं२।२४५च्/ स्नास्यंस्तु गुरुणाऽज्ञप्तः शक्त्या गुर्व्र्थमाहरेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।२४६अ/ क्षेत्रं हिरण्यं गामश्वं छत्रौपानहमासनम् । %[ं।छत्रोपानहमन्ततः]
ं२।२४६च्/ धान्यं शाकं च वासांसि गुरवे प्रीतिमावहेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥ %[ं।धान्यं वासांसि शाकं वा गुरवे प्रीतिमाहरन्)]
ं२।२४७अ/ आचार्ये तु खलु प्रेते गुरुपुत्रे गुणान्विते ।
ं२।२४७च्/ गुरुदारे सपिण्डे वा गुरुवद् वृत्तिमाचरेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।२४८अ/ एतेष्वविद्यमानेषु स्थानासनविहारवान् ।
ं२।२४८च्/ प्रयुञ्जानोऽग्निशुश्रूषां साधयेद् देहमात्मनः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं२।२४९अ/ एवं चरति यो विप्रो ब्रह्मचर्यमविप्लुतः ।
ं२।२४९च्/ स गच्छत्युत्तमस्थानं न चैह जायते पुनः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

अध्याय ३     CHAPTER  3     

ं३।०१अ/ षट् त्रिंशदाब्दिकं चर्यं गुरौ त्रैवेदिकं व्रतम् ।
ं३।०१च्/ तदर्धिकं पादिकं वा ग्रहणान्तिकमेव वा ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।०२अ/ वेदानधीत्य वेदौ वा वेदं वाऽपि यथाक्रमम् ।
ं३।०२च्/ अविप्लुतब्रह्मचर्यो गृहस्थाश्रममावसेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।०३अ/ तं प्रतीतं स्वधर्मेण ब्रह्मदायहरं पितुः ।
ं३।०३च्/ स्रग्विणं तल्प आसीनमर्हयेत् प्रथमं गवा ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।०४अ/ गुरुणानुमतः स्नात्वा समावृत्तो यथाविधि ।
ं३।०४च्/ उद्वहेत द्विजो भार्यां सवर्णां लक्षणान्विताम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।०५अ/ असपिण्डा च या मातुरसगोत्रा च या पितुः ।
ं३।०५च्/ सा प्रशस्ता द्विजातीनां दारकर्मणि मैथुने ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥ %[ंऽमैथिनी]
ं३।०६अ/ महान्त्यपि समृद्धानि गोऽजाविधनधान्यतः ।
ं३।०६च्/ स्त्रीसंबन्धे दशैतानि कुलानि परिवर्जयेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।०७अ/ हीनक्रियं निश्पुरुषं निश्छन्दो रोमशार्शसम् ??।
ं३।०७च्/ क्षयामयाव्य्ऽपस्मारिश्वित्रिकुष्ठिकुलानि च ??॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।०८अ/ नोद्वहेत् कपिलां कन्यां नाधिकाङ्गीं न रोगिणीम् ।
ं३।०८च्/ नालोमिकां नातिलोमां न वाचाटां न पिङ्गलाम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥ %[ं।वाचालां ]
ं३।०९अ/ नऋक्षवृक्षनदीनाम्नीं नान्त्यपर्वतनामिकाम् ।
ं३।०९च्/ न पक्ष्यहिप्रेष्यनाम्नीं न च भीषणनामिकाम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१०अ/ अव्यङ्गाङ्गीं सौम्यनाम्नीं हंसवारणगामिनीम् ।
ं३।१०च्/ तनुलोमकेशदशनां मृद्वङ्गीमुद्वहेत् स्त्रियम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।११अ/ यस्यास्तु न भवेद् भ्राता न विज्ञायेत वा पिता । %[ं।वै(वा पिता]
ं३।११च्/ नौपयच्छेत तां प्राज्ञः पुत्रिकाऽधर्मशङ्कया ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१२अ/ सवर्णाऽग्रे द्विजातीनां प्रशस्ता दारकर्मणि ।
ं३।१२च्/ कामतस्तु प्रवृत्तानामिमाः स्युः क्रमशोऽवराः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१३अ/ शूद्रैव भार्या शूद्रस्य सा च स्वा च विशः स्मृते ।
ं३।१३च्/ ते च स्वा चैव राज्ञश्च ताश्च स्वा चाग्रजन्मनः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१४अ/ न ब्राह्मणक्षत्रिययोरापद्यपि हि तिष्ठतोः ।
ं३।१४च्/ कस्मिंश्चिदपि वृत्तान्ते शूद्रा भार्यौपदिश्यते ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१५अ/ हीनजातिस्त्रियं मोहादुद्वहन्तो द्विजातयः ।
ं३।१५च्/ कुलान्येव नयन्त्याशु ससन्तानानि शूद्रताम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१६अ/ शूद्रावेदी पतत्यत्रेरुतथ्यतनयस्य च ।
ं३।१६च्/ शौनकस्य सुतोत्पत्त्या तदपत्यतया भृगोः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१७अ/ शूद्रां शयनमारोप्य ब्राह्मणो यात्यधोगतिम् ।
ं३।१७च्/ जनयित्वा सुतं तस्यां ब्राह्मण्यादेव हीयते ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१८अ/ दैवपित्र्यातिथेयानि तत्प्रधानानि यस्य तु ।
ं३।१८च्/ नाश्नन्ति पितृदेवास्तन्न च स्वर्गं स गच्छति ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१९अ/ वृषलीफेनपीतस्य निःश्वासोपहतस्य च ।
ं३।१९च्/ तस्यां चैव प्रसूतस्य निष्कृतिर्न विधीयते ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२०अ/ चतुर्णामपि वर्णानं प्रेत्य चैह हिताहितान् ।
ं३।२०च्/ अष्टाविमान् समासेन स्त्रीविवाहान्निबोधत ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२१अ/ ब्राह्मो दैवस्तथैवार्षः प्राजापत्यस्तथाऽसुरः ।
ं३।२१च्/ गान्धर्वो राक्षसश्चैव पैशाचश्चाष्टमोऽधमः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२२अ/ यो यस्य धर्म्यो वर्णस्य गुणदोषौ च यस्य यौ ।
ं३।२२च्/ तद् वः सर्वं प्रवक्ष्यामि प्रसवे च गुणागुणान् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२३अ/ षडानुपूर्व्या विप्रस्य क्षत्रस्य चतुरोऽवरान् ।
ं३।२३च्/ विश्।शूद्रयोस्तु तानेव विद्याद् धर्म्यानराक्षसान् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥ %[ं।धर्म्यान्न राक्षसान्]
ं३।२४अ/ चतुरो ब्राह्मणस्याद्यान् प्रशस्तान् कवयो विदुः ।
ं३।२४च्/ राक्षसं क्षत्रियस्यैकमासुरं वैश्यशूद्रयोः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२५अ/ पञ्चानां तु त्रयो धर्म्या द्वावधर्म्यौ स्मृताविह ।
ं३।२५च्/ पैशाचश्चासुरश्चैव न कर्तव्यौ कदा चन ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२६अ/ पृथक् पृथग् वा मिश्रौ वा विवाहौ पूर्वचोदितौ ।
ं३।२६च्/ गान्धर्वो राक्षसश्चैव धर्म्यौ क्षत्रस्य तौ स्मृतौ ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२७अ/ आच्छाद्य चार्चयित्वा च श्रुतशीलवते स्वयम् ।
ं३।२७च्/ आहूय दानं कन्याया ब्राह्मो धर्मः प्रकीर्तितः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२८अ/ यज्ञे तु वितते सम्यग् ऋत्विजे कर्म कुर्वते ।
ं३।२८च्/ अलङ्कृत्य सुतादानं दैवं धर्मं प्रचक्षते ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२९अ/ एकं गोमिथुनं द्वे वा वरादादाय धर्मतः ।
ं३।२९च्/ कन्याप्रदानं विधिवदार्षो धर्मः स उच्यते ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।३०अ/ सहौभौ चरतां धर्ममिति वाचाऽनुभाष्य च ।
ं३।३०च्/ कन्याप्रदानमभ्यर्च्य प्राजापत्यो विधिः स्मृतः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।३१अ/ ज्ञातिभ्यो द्रविणं दत्त्वा कन्यायै चैव शक्तितः ।
ं३।३१च्/ कन्याप्रदानं स्वाच्छन्द्यादासुरो धर्म उच्यते ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।३२अ/ इच्छयाऽन्योन्यसंयोगः कन्यायाश्च वरस्य च ।
ं३।३२च्/ गान्धर्वः स तु विज्ञेयो मैथुन्यः कामसंभवः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।३३अ/ हत्वा छित्त्वा च भित्त्वा च क्रोशन्तीं रुदतीं गृहात् ।
ं३।३३च्/ प्रसह्य कन्याहरणं राक्षसो विधिरुच्यते ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।३४अ/ सुप्तां मत्तां प्रमत्तां वा रहो यत्रोपगच्छति ।
ं३।३४च्/ स पापिष्ठो विवाहानां पैशाचश्चाष्टमोऽधमः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥ %[ं।पैशाचः प्रथितोऽधमः]
ं३।३५अ/ अद्भिरेव द्विजाग्र्याणां कन्यादानं विशिष्यते ।
ं३।३५च्/ इतरेषां तु वर्णानामितरेतरकाम्यया ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।३६अ/ यो यस्यैषां विवाहानां मनुना कीर्तितो गुणः ।
ं३।३६च्/ सर्वं शृणुत तं विप्राः सर्वं कीर्तयतो मम ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥ %[ं।सम्यक् कीर्तयतो]
ं३।३७अ/ दश पूर्वान् परान् वंश्यानात्मानं चैकविंशकम् ।
ं३।३७च्/ ब्राह्मीपुत्रः सुकृतकृत्मोचयत्येनसः पितॄन् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।३८अ/ दैवौढाजः सुतश्चैव सप्त सप्त परावरान् ।
ं३।३८च्/ आर्षौढाजः सुतस्त्रींस्त्रीन् षट् षट् कायौढजः सुतः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।३९अ/ ब्राह्मादिषु विवाहेषु चतुर्ष्वेवानुपूर्वशः ।
ं३।३९च्/ ब्रह्मवर्चस्विनः पुत्रा जायन्ते शिष्टसम्मताः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥ %[ं।ब्रह्मवर्चसिनः]
ं३।४०अ/ रूपसत्त्वगुणोपेता धनवन्तो यशस्विनः ।
ं३।४०च्/ पर्याप्तभोगा धर्मिष्ठा जीवन्ति च शतं समाः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।४१अ/ इतरेषु तु शिष्टेषु नृशंसाऽनृतवादिनः ।
ं३।४१च्/ जायन्ते दुर्विवाहेषु ब्रह्मधर्मद्विषः सुताः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।४२अ/ अनिन्दितैः स्त्रीविवाहैरनिन्द्या भवति प्रजा ।
ं३।४२च्/ निन्दितैर्निन्दिता नॄणां तस्मान्निन्द्यान् विवर्जयेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।४३अ/ पाणिग्रहणसंस्कारः सवर्णासूपदिश्यते ।
ं३।४३च्/ असवर्णास्वयं ज्ञेयो विधिरुद्वाहकर्मणि ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।४४अ/ शरः क्षत्रियया ग्राह्यः प्रतोदो वैश्यकन्यया ।
ं३।४४च्/ वसनस्य दशा ग्राह्या शूद्रयोत्कृष्टवेदने ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।४५अ/ ऋतुकालाभिगामी स्यात् स्वदारनिरतः सदा ।
ं३।४५च्/ पर्ववर्जं व्रजेच्चैनां तद्व्रतो रतिकाम्यया ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।४६अ/ ऋतुः स्वाभाविकः स्त्रीणां रात्रयः षोडश स्मृताः ।
ं३।४६च्/ चतुर्भिरितरैः सार्धमहोभिः सद्विगर्हितैः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।४७अ/ तासामाद्याश्चतस्रस्तु निन्दितैकादशी च या ।
ं३।४७च्/ त्रयोदशी च शेषास्तु प्रशस्ता दशरात्रयः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।४८अ/ युग्मासु पुत्रा जायन्ते स्त्रियोऽयुग्मासु रात्रिषु ।
ं३।४८च्/ तस्माद् युग्मासु पुत्रार्थी संविशेदार्तवे स्त्रियम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।४९अ/ पुमान् पुंसोऽधिके शुक्रे स्त्री भवत्यधिके स्त्रियाः ।
ं३।४९च्/ समेऽपुमान् पुं।स्त्रियौ वा क्षीणेऽल्पे च विपर्ययः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।५०अ/ निन्द्यास्वष्टासु चान्यासु स्त्रियो रात्रिषु वर्जयन् ।
ं३।५०च्/ ब्रह्मचार्येव भवति यत्र तत्राश्रमे वसन् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।५१अ/ न कन्यायाः पिता विद्वान् गृह्णीयात् शुल्कमण्वपि ।
ं३।५१च्/ गृह्णंशुल्कं हि लोभेन स्यान्नरोऽपत्यविक्रयी ??॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।५२अ/ स्त्रीधनानि तु ये मोहादुपजीवन्ति बान्धवाः ।
ं३।५२च्/ नारीयानानि वस्त्रं वा ते पापा यान्त्यधोगतिम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।५३अ/ आर्षे गोमिथुनं शुल्कं के चिदाहुर्मृषैव तत् ।
ं३।५३च्/ अल्पोऽप्येवं महान् वाऽपि विक्रयस्तावदेव सः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥ %[ं।तावानेव स विक्रयः]
ं३।५४अ/ यासां नाददते शुल्कं ज्ञातयो न स विक्रयः ।
ं३।५४च्/ अर्हणं तत् कुमारीणामानृशंस्यं च केवलम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥ %[ंंअ केवलम्]
ं३।५५अ/ पितृभिर्भ्रातृभिश्चैताः पतिभिर्देवरैस्तथा ।
ं३।५५च्/ पूज्या भूषयितव्याश्च बहुकल्याणमीप्सुभिः ॥

ं३।५६अ/ यत्र नार्यस्तु पूज्यन्ते रमन्ते तत्र देवताः ।
ं३।५६च्/ यत्रैतास्तु न पूज्यन्ते सर्वास्तत्राफलाः क्रियाः ॥

[ Fओल्लोविन्ग् तेन् वेर्सेसरे मिस्सिन्गिन् ं।]
ं३।५७अ/ शोचन्ति जामयो यत्र विनश्यत्याशु तत् कुलम् । %[नोतिन् ं]
ं३।५७च्/ न शोचन्ति तु यत्रैता वर्धते तद् हि सर्वदा ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥ %[नोतिन् ं]
ं३।५८अ/ जामयो यानि गेहानि शपन्त्यप्रतिपूजिताः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥ %[नोतिन् ं]
ं३।५८च्/ तानि कृत्याहतानीव विनश्यन्ति समन्ततः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥ %[नोतिन् ं]
ं३।५९अ/ तस्मादेताः सदा पूज्या भूषणाच्छादनाशनैः । %[नोतिन् ं]
ं३।५९च्/ भूतिकामैर्नरैर्नित्यं सत्कारेषूत्सवेषु च । %[नोतिन् ं] ।
ं३।६०अ/ संतुष्टो भार्यया भर्ता भर्त्रा भार्या तथैव च । %[नोतिन् ं]
ं३।६०च्/ यस्मिन्नेव कुले नित्यं कल्याणं तत्र वै ध्रुवम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥ %[नोतिन् ं]
ं३।६१अ/ यदि हि स्त्री न रोचेत पुमांसं न प्रमोदयेत् । %[नोतिन् ं]
ं३।६१च्/ अप्रमोदात् पुनः पुंसः प्रजनं न प्रवर्तते ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥ %[नोतिन् ं]
ं३।६२अ/ स्त्रियां तु रोचमानायां सर्वं तद् रोचते कुलम् । %[नोतिन् ं]
ं३।६२च्/ तस्यां त्वरोचमानायां सर्वमेव न रोचते ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥ %[नोतिन् ं]
ं३।६३अ/ कुविवाहैः क्रियालोपैर्वेदानध्ययनेन च । %[नोतिन् ं]
ं३।६३च्/ कुलान्यकुलतां यान्ति ब्राह्मणातिक्रमेण च ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥ %[नोतिन् ं]
ं३।६४अ/ शिल्पेन व्यवहारेण शूद्रापत्यैश्च केवलैः । %[नोतिन् ं]
ं३।६४च्/ गोभिरश्वैश्च यानैश्च कृष्या राजोपसेवया ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥ %[नोतिन् ं]
ं३।६५अ/ अयाज्ययाजनैश्चैव नास्तिक्येन च कर्मणाम् । %[नोतिन् ं]
ं३।६५च्/ कुलान्याशु विनश्यन्ति यानि हीनानि मन्त्रतः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥ %[नोतिन् ं]
ं३।६६अ/ मन्त्रतस्तु समृद्धानि कुलान्यल्पधनान्यपि । %[नोतिन् ं]
ं३।६६च्/ कुलसङ्ख्यां च गच्छन्ति कर्षन्ति च महद् यशः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥ %[नोतिन् ं]
[ःएरेऽफ़्तेर्ं’ः नुम्बेरिः ᳚१०᳚]
ं३।६७अ[५७ंअ]/ वैवाहिकेऽग्नौ कुर्वीत गृह्यं कर्म यथाविधि ।
ं३।६७च्[५७ंच्]/ पञ्चयज्ञविधानं च पक्तिं चान्वाहिकीं गृही ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।६८अ[५८ंअ]/ पञ्च सूना गृहस्थस्य चुल्ली पेषण्युपस्करः ।
ं३।६८च्[५८ंच्]/ कण्डनी चौदकुम्भश्च बध्यते यास्तु वाहयन् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥ %[ं।वध्यते]
ं३।६९अ[५९ंअ]/ तासां क्रमेण सर्वासां निष्कृत्यर्थं महर्षिभिः ।
ं३।६९च्[५९ंच्]/ पञ्च कॢप्ता महायज्ञाः प्रत्यहं गृहमेधिनाम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।७०अ[६०ंअ]/ अध्यापनं ब्रह्मयज्ञः पितृयज्ञस्तु तर्पणम् ।
ं३।७०च्[६०ंच्]/ होमो दैवो बलिर्भौतो नृयज्ञोऽतिथिपूजनम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।७१अ[६१ंअ]/ पञ्चैतान् यो महाऽयज्ञान्न हापयति शक्तितः ।
ं३।७१च्[६१ंच्]/ स गृहेऽपि वसन्नित्यं सूनादोषैर्न लिप्यते ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।७२अ[६२ंअ]/ देवताऽतिथिभृत्यानां पितॄणामात्मनश्च यः ।
ं३।७२च्[६२ंच्]/ न निर्वपति पञ्चानामुच्छ्वसन्न स जीवति ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।७३अ[६३ंअ]/ अहुतं च हुतं चैव तथा प्रहुतमेव च ।
ं३।७३च्[६३ंच्]/ ब्राह्म्यं हुतं प्राशितं च पञ्चयज्ञान् प्रचक्षते ? ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।७४अ[६४ंअ]/ जपोऽहुतो हुतो होमः प्रहुतो भौतिको बलिः ।
ं३।७४च्[६४ंच्]/ ब्राह्म्यं हुतं द्विजाग्र्यार्चा प्राशितं पितृतर्पणम् ? ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।७५अ[६५ंअ]/ स्वाध्याये नित्ययुक्तः स्याद् दैवे चैवैह कर्मणि ।
ं३।७५च्[६५ंच्]/ दैवकर्मणि युक्तो हि बिभर्तीदं चराचरम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।७६अ[६६ंअ]/ अग्नौ प्रास्ताऽहुतिः सम्यगादित्यमुपतिष्ठते ।
ं३।७६च्[६६ंच्]/ आदित्याज् जायते वृष्तिर्वृष्टेरन्नं ततः प्रजाः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।७७अ[६७ंअ]/ यथा वायुं समाश्रित्य वर्तन्ते सर्वजन्तवः । %[ं।सर्वे जीवन्ति जन्तवः]
ं३।७७च्[६७ंच्]/ तथा गृहस्थमाश्रित्य वर्तन्ते सर्व आश्रमाः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥ %[ं।वर्तन्त इतराश्रमः]
ं३।७८अ[६८ंअ]/ यस्मात् त्रयोऽप्याश्रमिणो ज्ञानेनान्नेन चान्वहम् ।
ं३।७८च्[६८ंच्]/ गृहस्थेनैव धार्यन्ते तस्माज् ज्येष्ठाश्रमो गृही ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥ %[क्:गृहं ]
ं३।७९अ[६९ंअ]/ स संधार्यः प्रयत्नेन स्वर्गमक्षयमिच्छता ।
ं३।७९च्[६९ंच्]/ सुखं चेहेच्छताऽत्यन्तं योऽधार्यो दुर्बलेन्द्रियैः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।८०अ[७०ंअ]/ ऋषयः पितरो देवा भूतान्यतिथयस्तथा ।
ं३।८०च्[७०ंच्]/ आशासते कुटुम्बिभ्यस्तेभ्यः कार्यं विजानता ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।८१अ[७१ंअ]/ स्वाध्यायेनार्चयेतऋषीन् होमैर्देवान् यथाविधि ।
ं३।८१च्[७१ंच्]/ पितॄंश्राद्धैश्च नॄनन्नैर्भूतानि बलिकर्मणा ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।८२अ[७२ंअ]/ कुर्यादहरहः श्राद्धमन्नाद्येनोदकेन वा । %[ं।दद्यादहरहः ]
ं३।८२च्[७२ंच्]/ पयोमूलफलैर्वाऽपि पितृभ्यः प्रीतिमावहन् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।८३अ[७३ंअ]/ एकमप्याशयेद् विप्रं पित्र्यर्थे पाञ्चयज्ञिके । %[ं।पित्र्यर्थं]
ं३।८३च्[७३ंच्]/ न चैवात्राशयेत् किं चिद् वैश्वदेवं प्रति द्विजम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।८४अ[७४ंअ]/ वैश्वदेवस्य सिद्धस्य गृह्येऽग्नौ विधिपूर्वकम् ।
ं३।८४च्[७४ंच्]/ आभ्यः कुर्याद् देवताभ्यो ब्राह्मणो होममन्वहम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।८५अ[७५ंअ]/ अग्नेः सोमस्य चैवादौ तयोश्चैव समस्तयोः ।
ं३।८५च्[७५ंच्]/ विश्वेभ्यश्चैव देवेभ्यो धन्वन्तरय एव च ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।८६अ[७६ंअ]/ कुह्वै चैवानुमत्यै च प्रजापतय एव च ।
ं३।८६च्[७६ंच्]/ सह द्यावापृथिव्योश्च तथा स्विष्टकृतेऽन्ततः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।८७अ[७७ंअ]/ एवं सम्यग् हविर्हुत्वा सर्वदिक्षु प्रदक्षिणम् ।
ं३।८७च्[७७ंच्]/ इन्द्रान्तकाप्पतीन्दुभ्यः सानुगेभ्यो बलिं हरेत् ??॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।८८अ[७८ंअ]/ मरुद्भ्य इति तु द्वारि क्षिपेदप्स्वद्भ्य इत्यपि ??।
ं३।८८च्[७८ंच्]/ वनस्पतिभ्य इत्येवं मुसलोलूखले हरेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।८९अ[७९ंअ]/ उच्छीर्षके श्रियै कुर्याद् भद्रकाल्यै च पादतः ।
ं३।८९च्[७९ंच्]/ ब्रह्मवास्तोष्पतिभ्यां तु वास्तुमध्ये बलिं हरेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।९०अ[८०ंअ]/ विश्वेभ्यश्चैव देवेभ्यो बलिमाकाश उत्क्षिपेत् ।
ं३।९०च्[८०ंच्]/ दिवाचरेभ्यो भूतेभ्यो नक्तञ्चारिभ्य एव च ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।९१अ[८१ंअ]/ पृष्ठवास्तुनि कुर्वीत बलिं सर्वात्मभूतये । %[ं।सर्वान्नभूतये ]
ं३।९१च्[८१ंच्]/ पितृभ्यो बलिशेषं तु सर्वं दक्षिणतो हरेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।९२अ[८२ंअ]/ शूनां च पतितानां च श्वपचां पापरोगिणाम् ।
ं३।९२च्[८२ंच्]/ वयसानां कृमीणां च शनकैर्निर्वपेद् भुवि ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥ %[ं।वयसां च]
ं३।९३अ[८३ंअ]/ एवं यः सर्वभूतानि ब्राह्मणो नित्यमर्चति ।
ं३।९३च्[८३ंच्]/ स गच्छति परं स्थानं तेजोमूर्तिः पथार्जुना ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।९४अ[८४ंअ]/ कृत्वैतद् बलिकर्मैवमतिथिं पूर्वमाशयेत् ।
ं३।९४च्[८४ंच्]/ भिक्षां च भिक्षवे दद्याद् विधिवद् ब्रह्मचारिणे ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।९५अ[८५ंअ]/ यत् पुण्यफलमाप्नोति गां दत्त्वा विधिवद् गुरोः ।
ं३।९५च्[८५ंच्]/ तत् पुण्यफलमाप्नोति भिक्षां दत्त्वा द्विजो गृही ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।९६अ[८६ंअ]/ भिक्षामप्युदपात्रं वा सत्कृत्य विधिपूर्वकम् ।
ं३।९६च्[८६ंच्]/ वेदतत्त्वार्थविदुषे ब्राह्मणायोपपादयेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।९७अ[८७ंअ]/ नश्यन्ति हव्यकव्यानि नराणामविजानताम् ।
ं३।९७च्[८७ंच्]/ भस्मीभूतेषु विप्रेषु मोहाद् दत्तानि दातृभिः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥ %[ं।भस्मभूतेषु ]
ं३।९८अ[८८ंअ]/ विद्यातपस्समृद्धेषु हुतं विप्रमुखाग्निषु ।
ं३।९८च्[८८ंच्]/ निस्तारयति दुर्गाच्च महतश्चैव किल्बिषात् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।९९अ[८९ंअ]/ सम्प्राप्ताय त्वतिथये प्रदद्यादासनौदके ।
ं३।९९च्[८९ंच्]/ अन्नं चैव यथाशक्ति सत्कृत्य विधिपूर्वकम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥ %[क्:संस्कृत्य)]
ं३।१००अ[९०ंअ]/ शिलानप्युञ्छतो नित्यं पञ्चाग्नीनपि जुह्वतः ।
ं३।१००च्[९०ंच्]/ सर्वं सुकृतमादत्ते ब्राह्मणोऽनर्चितो वसन् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१०१अ[९१ंअ]/ तृणानि भूमिरुदकं वाक् चतुर्थी च सूनृता ।
ं३।१०१च्[९१ंच्]/ एतान्यपि सतां गेहे नोच्छिद्यन्ते कदा चन ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१०२अ[९२ंअ]/ एकरात्रं तु निवसन्नतिथिर्ब्राह्मणः स्मृतः ।
ं३।१०२च्[९२ंच्]/ अनित्यं हि स्थितो यस्मात् तस्मादतिथिरुच्यते ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१०३अ[९३ंअ]/ नैकग्रामीणमतिथिं विप्रं साङ्गतिकं तथा ।
ं३।१०३च्[९३ंच्]/ उपस्थितं गृहे विद्याद् भार्या यत्राग्नयोऽपि वा ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१०४अ[९४ंअ]/ उपासते ये गृहस्थाः परपाकमबुद्धयः ।
ं३।१०४च्[९४ंच्]/ तेन ते प्रेत्य पशुतां व्रजन्त्यन्नादिदायिनः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१०५अ[९५ंअ]/ अप्रणोद्योऽतिथिः सायं सूर्यौढो गृहमेधिना ।
ं३।१०५च्[९५ंच्]/ काले प्राप्तस्त्वकाले वा नास्यानश्नन् गृहे वसेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१०६अ[९६ंअ]/ न वै स्वयं तदश्नीयादतिथिं यन्न भोजयेत् ।
ं३।१०६च्[९६ंच्]/ धन्यं यशस्यमायुष्यं स्वर्ग्यं वाऽतिथिपूजनम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१०७अ[९७ंअ]/ आसनावसथौ शय्यामनुव्रज्यामुपासनाम् ।
ं३।१०७च्[९७ंच्]/ उत्तमेषूत्तमं कुर्याद् हीने हीनं समे समम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१०८अ[९८ंअ]/ वैश्वदेवे तु निर्वृत्ते यद्यन्योऽतिथिराव्रजेत् ।
ं३।१०८च्[९८ंच्]/ तस्याप्यन्नं यथाशक्ति प्रदद्यान्न बलिं हरेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१०९अ[९९ंअ]/ न भोजनार्थं स्वे विप्रः कुलगोत्रे निवेदयेत् ।
ं३।१०९च्[९९ंच्]/ भोजनार्थं हि ते शंसन् वान्ताशीत्युच्यते बुधैः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।११०अ[१००ंअ]/ न ब्राह्मणस्य त्वतिथिर्गृहे राजन्य उच्यते ।
ं३।११०च्[१००ंच्]/ वैश्यशूद्रौ सखा चैव ज्ञातयो गुरुरेव च ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१११अ[१०१ंअ]/ यदि त्वतिथिधर्मेण क्षत्रियो गृहमाव्रजेत् ।
ं३।१११च्[१०१ंच्]/ भुक्तवत्सु च विप्रेषु कामं तमपि भोजयेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।११२अ[१०२ंअ]/ वैश्यशूद्रावपि प्राप्तौ कुटुम्बेऽतिथिधर्मिणौ ।
ं३।११२च्[१०२ंच्]/ भोजयेत् सह भृत्यैस्तावानृशंस्यं प्रयोजयन् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।११३अ[१०३ंअ]/ इतरानपि सख्यादीन् सम्प्रीत्या गृहमागतान् ।
ं३।११३च्[१०३ंच्]/ प्रकृत्यान्नं यथाशक्ति भोजयेत् सह भार्यया ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।११४अ[१०४ंअ]/ सुवासिनीः कुमारीश्च रोगिणो गर्भिणीः स्त्रियः ।
ं३।११४च्[१०४ंच्]/ अतिथिभ्योऽग्र एवैतान् भोजयेदविचारयन् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥ %[ंऽतिथिभ्योऽन्वगेवैतान्]
ं३।११५अ[१०५ंअ]/ अदत्त्वा तु य एतेभ्यः पूर्वं भुङ्क्तेऽविचक्षणः ।
ं३।११५च्[१०५ंच्]/ स भुञ्जानो न जानाति श्वगृध्रैर्जग्धिमात्मनः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।११६अ[१०६ंअ]/ भुक्तवत्स्वथ विप्रेषु स्वेषु भृत्येषु चैव हि ।
ं३।११६च्[१०६ंच्]/ भुञ्जीयातां ततः पश्चादवशिष्टं तु दम्पती ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।११७अ[१०७ंअ]/ देवान् ऋषीन् मनुष्यांश्च पितॄन् गृह्याश्च देवताः ।
ं३।११७च्[१०७ंच्]/ पूजयित्वा ततः पश्चाद् गृहस्थः शेषभुग् भवेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।११८अ[१०८ंअ]/ अघं स केवलं भुङ्क्ते यः पचत्यात्मकारणात् ।
ं३।११८च्[१०८ंच्]/ यज्ञशिष्टाशनं ह्येतत् सतामन्नं विधीयते ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।११९अ[१०९ंअ]/ राजर्त्विग्स्नातकगुरून् प्रियश्वशुरमातुलान् ।
ं३।११९च्[१०९ंच्]/ अर्हयेन् मधुपर्केण परिसंवत्सरात् पुनः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१२०अ[११०ंअ]/ राजा च श्रोत्रियश्चैव यज्ञकर्मण्युपस्थितौ । %[ंउपस्थिते ]
ं३।१२०च्[११०ंच्]/ मधुपर्केण सम्पूज्यौ न त्वयज्ञ इति स्थितिः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१२१अ[१११ंअ]/ सायं त्वन्नस्य सिद्धस्य पत्न्यमन्त्रं बलिं हरेत् ।
ं३।१२१च्[१११ंच्]/ वैश्वदेवं हि नामैतत् सायं प्रातर्विधीयते ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१२२अ[११२ंअ]/ पितृयज्ञं तु निर्वर्त्य विप्रश्चन्द्रक्षयेऽग्निमान् । %[क्:चैन्दुक्षये ]
ं३।१२२च्[११२ंच्]/ पिण्डान्वाहार्यकं श्राद्धं कुर्यान् मासानुमासिकम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१२३अ[११३ंअ]/ पितॄणां मासिकं श्राद्धमन्वाहार्यं विदुर्बुधाः ।
ं३।१२३च्[११३ंच्]/ तच्चामिषेणा कर्तव्यं प्रशस्तेन प्रयत्नतः ??॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१२४अ[११४ंअ]/ तत्र ये भोजनीयाः स्युर्ये च वर्ज्या द्विजोत्तमाः ।
ं३।१२४च्[११४ंच्]/ यावन्तश्चैव यैश्चान्नैस्तान् प्रवक्ष्याम्यशेषतः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१२५अ[११५ंअ]/ द्वौ दैवे पितृकार्ये त्रीनेकैकमुभयत्र वा । %[ं।पितृकृत्ये]
ं३।१२५च्[११५ंच्]/ भोजयेत् सुसमृद्धोऽपि न प्रसज्जेत विस्तरे ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥ %[ंंअ प्रवर्तेत]
ं३।१२६अ[११६ंअ]/ सत्क्रियां देशकालौ च शौचं ब्राह्मणसम्पदः ।
ं३।१२६च्[११६ंच्]/ पञ्चैतान् विस्तरो हन्ति तस्मान्नैहेत विस्तरम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१२७अ[११७ंअ]/ प्रथिता प्रेतकृत्यैषा पित्र्यं नाम विधुक्षये ।
ं३।१२७च्[११७ंच्]/ तस्मिन् युक्तस्यैति नित्यं प्रेतकृत्यैव लौकिकी ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१२८अ[११८ंअ]/ श्रोत्रियायैव देयानि हव्यकव्यानि दातृभिः ।
ं३।१२८च्[११८ंच्]/ अर्हत्तमाय विप्राय तस्मै दत्तं महाफलम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१२९अ[११९ंअ]/ एकैकमपि विद्वांसं दैवे पित्र्ये च भोजयेत् । %[ं।भोजयन्]
ं३।१२९च्[११९ंच्]/ पुष्कलं फलमाप्नोति नामन्त्रज्ञान् बहूनपि ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१३०अ[१२०ंअ]/ दूरादेव परीक्षेत ब्राह्मणं वेदपारगम् ।
ं३।१३०च्[१२०ंच्]/ तीर्थं तद् हव्यकव्यानां प्रदाने सोऽतिथिः स्मृतः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१३१अ[१२१ंअ]/ सहस्रं हि सहस्राणामनृचां यत्र भुञ्जते ।
ं३।१३१च्[१२१ंच्]/ एकस्तान् मन्त्रवित् प्रीतः सर्वानर्हति धर्मतः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१३२अ[१२२ंअ]/ ज्ञानोत्कृष्टाय देयानि कव्यानि च हवींषि च ।
ं३।१३२च्[१२२ंच्]/ न हि हस्तावसृग्दिग्धौ रुधिरेणैव शुध्यतः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१३३अ[१२३ंअ]/ यावतो ग्रसते ग्रासान् हव्यकव्येष्वमन्त्रवित् ।
ं३।१३३च्[१२३ंच्]/ तावतो ग्रसते प्रेतो दीप्तशूलर्ष्ट्ययोगुडान् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१३४अ[१२४ंअ]/ ज्ञाननिष्ठा द्विजाः के चित् तपोनिष्ठास्तथाऽपरे ।
ं३।१३४च्[१२४ंच्]/ तपःस्वाध्यायनिष्ठाश्च कर्मनिष्ठास्तथाऽपरे ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१३५अ[१२५ंअ]/ ज्ञाननिष्ठेषु कव्यानि प्रतिष्ठाप्यानि यत्नतः ।
ं३।१३५च्[१२५ंच्]/ हव्यानि तु यथान्यायं सर्वेष्वेव चतुर्ष्वपि ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१३६अ[१२६ंअ]/ अश्रोत्रियः पिता यस्य पुत्रः स्याद् वेदपारगः ।
ं३।१३६च्[१२६ंच्]/ अश्रोत्रियो वा पुत्रः स्यात् पिता स्याद् वेदपारगः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१३७अ[१२७ंअ]/ ज्यायांसमनयोर्विद्याद् यस्य स्यात्श्रोत्रियः पिता ।
ं३।१३७च्[१२७ंच्]/ मन्त्रसम्पूजनार्थं तु सत्कारमितरोऽर्हति ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१३८अ[१२८ंअ]/ न श्राद्धे भोजयेन् मित्रं धनैः कार्योऽस्य सङ्ग्रहः ।
ं३।१३८च्[१२८ंच्]/ नारिं न मित्रं यं विद्यात् तं श्राद्धे भोजयेद् द्विजम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१३९अ[१२९ंअ]/ यस्य मित्रप्रधानानि श्राद्धानि च हवींषि च ।
ं३।१३९च्[१२९ंच्]/ तस्य प्रेत्य फलं नास्ति श्राद्धेषु च हविःषु च ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१४०अ[१३०ंअ]/ यः सङ्गतानि कुरुते मोहात्श्राद्धेन मानवः ।
ं३।१४०च्[१३०ंच्]/ स स्वर्गाच्च्यवते लोकात्श्राद्धमित्रो द्विजाधमः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१४१अ[१३१ंअ]/ संभोजानि साऽभिहिता पैशाची दक्षिणा द्विजैः ।
ं३।१४१च्[१३१ंच्]/ इहैवास्ते तु सा लोके गौरन्धेवैकवेश्मनि ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१४२अ[१३२ंअ]/ यथैरिणे बीजमुप्त्वा न वप्ता लभते फलम् ।
ं३।१४२च्[१३२ंच्]/ तथाऽनृचे हविर्दत्त्वा न दाता लभते फलम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१४३अ[१३३ंअ]/ दातॄन् प्रतिग्रहीतॄंश्च कुरुते फलभागिनः ।
ं३।१४३च्[१३३ंच्]/ विदुषे दक्षिणां दत्त्वा विधिवत् प्रेत्य चैह च ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१४४अ[१३४ंअ]/ कामं श्राद्धेऽर्चयेन् मित्रं नाभिरूपमपि त्वरिम् ।
ं३।१४४च्[१३४ंच्]/ द्विषता हि हविर्भुक्तं भवति प्रेत्य निष्फलम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१४५अ[१३५ंअ]/ यत्नेन भोजयेत्श्राद्धे बह्वृचं वेदपारगम् ।
ं३।१४५च्[१३५ंच्]/ शाखान्तगमथाध्वर्युं छन्दोगं तु समाप्तिकम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१४६अ[१३६ंअ]/ एषामन्यतमो यस्य भुञ्जीत श्राद्धमर्चितः ।
ं३।१४६च्[१३६ंच्]/ पितॄणां तस्य तृप्तिः स्यात्शाश्वती साप्तपौरुषी ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१४७अ[१३७ंअ]/ एष वै प्रथमः कल्पः प्रदाने हव्यकव्ययोः ।
ं३।१४७च्[१३७ंच्]/ अनुकल्पस्त्वयं ज्ञेयः सदा सद्भिरनुष्ठितः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१४८अ[१३८ंअ]/ मातामहं मातुलं च स्वस्रीयं श्वशुरं गुरुम् ।
ं३।१४८च्[१३८ंच्]/ दौहित्रं विट्पतिं बन्धुं ऋत्विग् याज्यौ च भोजयेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१४९अ[१३९ंअ]/ न ब्राह्मणं परीक्षेत दैवे कर्मणि धर्मवित् ।
ं३।१४९च्[१३९ंच्]/ पित्र्ये कर्मणि तु प्राप्ते परीक्षेत प्रयत्नतः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१५०अ[१४०ंअ]/ ये स्तेनपतितक्लीबा ये च नास्तिकवृत्तयः ।
ं३।१५०च्[१४०ंच्]/ तान् हव्यकव्ययोर्विप्राननर्हान् मनुरब्रवीत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१५१अ[१४१ंअ]/ जटिलं चानधीयानं दुर्बालं कितवं तथा ।
ं३।१५१च्[१४१ंच्]/ याजयन्ति च ये पूगांस्तांश्च श्राद्धे न भोजयेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१५२अ[१४२ंअ]/ चिकित्सकान् देवलकान् मांसविक्रयिणस्तथा । %[ंॅहिकित्सकादेवलकामांसविक्रयिणस्तथा]
ं३।१५२च्[१४२ंच्]/ विपणेन च जीवन्तो वर्ज्याः स्युर्हव्यकव्ययोः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१५३अ[१४३ंअ]/ प्रेष्यो ग्रामस्य राज्ञश्च कुनखी श्यावदन्तकः ।
ं३।१५३च्[१४३ंच्]/ प्रतिरोद्धा गुरोश्चैव त्यक्ताग्निर्वार्धुषिस्तथा ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१५४अ[१४४ंअ]/ यक्ष्मी च पशुपालश्च परिवेत्ता निराकृतिः ।
ं३।१५४च्[१४४ंच्]/ ब्रह्मद्विष्परिवित्तिश्च गणाभ्यन्तर एव च ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१५५अ[१४५ंअ]/ कुशीलवोऽवकीर्णी च वृषलीपतिरेव च ।
ं३।१५५च्[१४५ंच्]/ पौनर्भवश्च काणश्च यस्य चौपपतिर्गृहे ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१५६अ[१४६ंअ]/ भृतकाध्यापको यश्च भृतकाध्यापितस्तथा ।
ं३।१५६च्[१४६ंच्]/ शूद्रशिष्यो गुरुश्चैव वाग्दुष्टः कुण्डगोलकौ ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१५७अ[१४७ंअ]/ अकारणे परित्यक्ता मातापित्रोर्गुरोस्तथा । %[क्:अकारणपरित्यक्ता ]
ं३।१५७च्[१४७ंच्]/ ब्राह्मैर्यौनैश्च संबन्धैः संयोगं पतितैर्गतः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१५८अ[१४८ंअ]/ अगारदाही गरदः कुण्डाशी सोमविक्रयी ।
ं३।१५८च्[१४८ंच्]/ समुद्रयायी बन्दी च तैलिकः कूटकारकः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१५९अ[१४९ंअ]/ पित्रा विवदमानश्च कितवो मद्यपस्तथा ।
ं३।१५९च्[१४९ंच्]/ पापरोग्यभिशस्तश्च दाम्भिको रसविक्रयी ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१६०अ[१५०ंअ]/ धनुःशराणां कर्ता च यश्चाग्रेदिधिषूपतिः ।
ं३।१६०च्[१५०ंच्]/ मित्रध्रुग् द्यूतवृत्तिश्च पुत्राचार्यस्तथैव च ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१६१अ[१५१ंअ]/ भ्रामरी गण्डमाली च श्वित्र्यथो पिशुनस्तथा ।
ं३।१६१च्[१५१ंच्]/ उन्मत्तोऽन्धश्च वर्ज्याः स्युर्वेदनिन्दक एव च ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१६२अ[१५२ंअ]/ हस्तिगोऽश्वौष्ट्रदमको नक्षत्रैर्यश्च जीवति ।
ं३।१६२च्[१५२ंच्]/ पक्षिणां पोषको यश्च युद्धाचार्यस्तथैव च ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१६३अ[१५३ंअ]/ स्रोतसां भेदको यश्च तेषां चावरणे रतः ।
ं३।१६३च्[१५३ंच्]/ गृहसंवेशको दूतो वृक्षारोपक एव च ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१६४अ[१५४ंअ]/ श्वक्रीडी श्येनजीवी च कन्यादूषक एव च ।
ं३।१६४च्[१५४ंच्]/ हिंस्रो वृषलवृत्तिश्च गणानां चैव याजकः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१६५अ[१५५ंअ]/ आचारहीनः क्लीबश्च नित्यं याचनकस्तथा ।
ं३।१६५च्[१५५ंच्]/ कृषिजीवी श्लीपदी च सद्भिर्निन्दित एव च ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१६६अ[१५६ंअ]/ औरभ्रिको माहिषिकः परपूर्वापतिस्तथा ।
ं३।१६६च्[१५६ंच्]/ प्रेतनिर्यापकश्चैव वर्जनीयाः प्रयत्नतः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१६७अ[१५७ंअ]/ एतान् विगर्हिताचारानपाङ्क्तेयान् द्विजाधमान् ।
ं३।१६७च्[१५७ंच्]/ द्विजातिप्रवरो विद्वानुभयत्र विवर्जयेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१६८अ[१५८ंअ]/ ब्राह्मणो त्वनधीयानस्तृणाग्निरिव शाम्यति । %[ं।ब्राह्मणः ह्यनधीयानः ]
ं३।१६८च्[१५८ंच्]/ तस्मै हव्यं न दातव्यं न हि भस्मनि हूयते ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१६९अ[१५९ंअ]/ अपाङ्क्तदाने यो दातुर्भवत्यूर्ध्वं फलौदयः । %[ंऽपङ्क्त्यदाने]
ं३।१६९च्[१५९ंच्]/ दैवे हविषि पित्र्ये वा तं प्रवक्ष्याम्यशेषतः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥ %[ं।दैवे कर्मणि]
ं३।१७०अ[१६०ंअ]/ अव्रतैर्यद् द्विजैर्भुक्तं परिवेत्र्यादिभिस्तथा ।
ं३।१७०च्[१६०ंच्]/ अपाङ्क्तेयैर्यदन्यैश्च तद् वै रक्षांसि भुञ्जते ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१७१अ[१६१ंअ]/ दाराग्निहोत्रसंयोगं कुरुते योऽग्रजे स्थिते ।
ं३।१७१च्[१६१ंच्]/ परिवेत्ता स विज्ञेयः परिवित्तिस्तु पूर्वजः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१७२अ[१६२ंअ]/ परिवित्तिः परिवेत्ता यया च परिविद्यते ।
ं३।१७२च्[१६२ंच्]/ सर्वे ते नरकं यान्ति दातृयाजकपञ्चमाः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१७३अ[१६३ंअ]/ भ्रातुर्मृतस्य भार्यायां योऽनुरज्येत कामतः ।
ं३।१७३च्[१६३ंच्]/ धर्मेणापि नियुक्तायां स ज्ञेयो दिधिषूपतिः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१७४अ[१६४ंअ]/ परदारेषु जायेते द्वौ सुतौ कुण्डगोलकौ ।
ं३।१७४च्[१६४ंच्]/ पत्यौ जीवति कुण्डः स्यान् मृते भर्तरि गोलकः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१७५अ[१६५ंअ]/ तौ तु जातौ परक्षेत्रे प्राणिनौ प्रेत्य चैह च । %[ं।ते तु जाताः परक्षेत्रे प्राणिनः]
ं३।१७५च्[१६५ंच्]/ दत्तानि हव्यकव्यानि नाशयन्ति प्रदायिनाम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१७६अ[१६६ंअ]/ अपाङ्क्त्यो यावतः पङ्क्त्यान् भुञ्जानाननुपश्यति । %[ंऽपङ्क्त्यो यावतः]
ं३।१७६च्[१६६ंच्]/ तावतां न फलं तत्र दाता प्राप्नोति बालिशः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१७७अ[१६७ंअ]/ वीक्ष्यान्धो नवतेः काणः षष्टेः श्वित्री शतस्य तु । %[ं।शतस्य च ]
ं३।१७७च्[१६७ंच्]/ पापरोगी सहस्रस्य दातुर्नाशयते फलम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१७८अ[१६८ंअ]/ यावतः संस्पृशेदङ्गैर्ब्राह्मणान् शूद्रयाजकः ।
ं३।१६८च्[१६८ंच्]/ तावतां न भवेद् दातुः फलं दानस्य पौर्तिकम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१७९अ[१६९ंअ]/ वेदविद्चापि विप्रोऽस्य लोभात् कृत्वा प्रतिग्रहम् ।
ं३।१७९च्[१६९ंच्]/ विनाशं व्रजति क्षिप्रमामपात्रमिवाम्भसि ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१८०अ[१७०ंअ]/ सोमविक्रयिणे विष्ठा भिषजे पूयशोणितम् ।
ं३।१८०च्[१७०ंच्]/ नष्टं देवलके दत्तमप्रतिष्ठं तु वार्धुषौ ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१८१अ[१७१ंअ]/ यत् तु वाणिजके दत्तं नैह नामुत्र तद् भवेत् ।
ं३।१८१च्[१७१ंच्]/ भस्मनीव हुतं द्रव्यं तथा पौनर्भवे द्विजे ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१८२अ[१७२ंअ]/ इतरेषु त्वपाङ्क्त्येषु यथोद्दिष्टेष्वसाधुषु । %[
ं३।१८२च्[१७२ंच्]/ मेदोऽसृङ्मांसमज्जाऽस्थि वदन्त्यन्नं मनीषिणः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१८३अ[१७३ंअ]/ अपाङ्क्त्योपहता पङ्क्तिः पाव्यते यैर्द्विजोत्तमैः । %[ं:अपङ्क्त्यौपहता पङ्क्तिः]
ं३।१८३च्[१७३ंच्]/ तान्निबोधत कार्त्स्न्येन द्विजाग्र्यान् पङ्क्तिपावनान् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१८४अ[१७४ंअ]/ अग्र्याः सर्वेषु वेदेषु सर्वप्रवचनेषु च ।
ं३।१८४च्[१७४ंच्]/ श्रोत्रियान्वयजाश्चैव विज्ञेयाः पङ्क्तिपावनाः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१८५अ[१७५ंअ]/ त्रिणाचिकेतः पञ्चाग्निस्त्रिसुपर्णः षडङ्गवित् ।
ं३।१८५च्[१७५ंच्]/ ब्रह्मदेयात्मसन्तानो ज्येष्ठसामग एव च ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥ %[ं।ब्रह्मदेयानुसन्तानो ]
ं३।१८६अ[१७६ंअ]/ वेदार्थवित् प्रवक्ता च ब्रह्मचारी सहस्रदः ।
ं३।१८६च्[१७६ंच्]/ शतायुश्चैव विज्ञेया ब्राह्मणाः पङ्क्तिपावनाः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१८७अ[१७७ंअ]/ पूर्वेद्युरपरेद्युर्वा श्राद्धकर्मण्युपस्थिते ।
ं३।१८७च्[१७७ंच्]/ निमन्त्रयेत त्र्य्ऽवरान् सम्यग् विप्रान् यथौदितान् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥ %[ंंइमन्त्रयीत ]
ं३।१८८अ[१७८ंअ]/ निमन्त्रितो द्विजः पित्र्ये नियतात्मा भवेत् सदा ।
ं३।१८८च्[१७८ंच्]/ न च छन्दांस्यधीयीत यस्य श्राद्धं च तद् भवेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१८९अ[१७९ंअ]/ निमन्त्रितान् हि पितर उपतिष्ठन्ति तान् द्विजान् ।
ं३।१८९च्[१७९ंच्]/ वायुवत्चानुगच्छन्ति तथाऽसीनानुपासते ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१९०अ[१८०ंअ]/ केतितस्तु यथान्यायं हव्ये कव्ये द्विजोत्तमः ।
ं३।१९०च्[१८०ंच्]/ कथं चिदप्यतिक्रामन् पापः सूकरतां व्रजेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१९१अ[१८१ंअ]/ आमन्त्रितस्तु यः श्राद्धे वृषल्या सह मोदते ।
ं३।१९१च्[१८१ंच्]/ दातुर्यद् दुष्कृतं किं चित् तत् सर्वं प्रतिपद्यते ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१९२अ[१८२ंअ]/ अक्रोधनाः शौचपराः सततं ब्रह्मचारिणः ।
ं३।१९२च्[१८२ंच्]/ न्यस्तशस्त्रा महाभागाः पितरः पूर्वदेवताः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१९३अ[१८३ंअ]/ यस्मादुत्पत्तिरेतेषां सर्वेषामप्यशेषतः ।
ं३।१९३च्[१८३ंच्]/ ये च यैरुपचर्याः स्युर्नियमैस्तान्निबोधत ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१९४अ[१८४ंअ]/ मनोर्हैरण्यगर्भस्य ये मरीच्यादयः सुताः ।
ं३।१९४च्[१८४ंच्]/ तेषां ऋषीणां सर्वेषां पुत्राः पितृगणाः स्मृताः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१९५अ[१८५ंअ]/ विराज्सुताः सोमसदः साध्यानां पितरः स्मृताः ?।
ं३।१९५च्[१८५ंच्]/ अग्निष्वात्ताश्च देवानां मारीचा लोकविश्रुताः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१९६अ[१८६ंअ]/ दैत्यदानवयक्षाणां गन्धर्वौरगरक्षसाम् ।
ं३।१९६च्[१८६ंच्]/ सुपर्णकिन्नराणां च स्मृता बर्हिषदोऽत्रिजाः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१९७अ[१८७ंअ]/ सोमपा नाम विप्राणां क्षत्रियाणां हविर्भुजः ।
ं३।१९७च्[१८७ंच्]/ वैश्यानामाज्यपा नाम शूद्राणां तु सुकालिनः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१९८अ[१८८ंअ]/ सोमपास्तु कवेः पुत्रा हविष्मन्तोऽङ्गिरःसुताः ।
ं३।१९८च्[१८८ंच्]/ पुलस्त्यस्याज्यपाः पुत्रा वसिष्ठस्य सुकालिनः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।१९९अ[१८९ंअ]/ अग्निदग्धानग्निदग्धान् काव्यान् बर्हिषदस्तथा । %[ंऽनग्निदग्धानग्निदग्धान्]
ं३।१९९च्[१८९ंच्]/ अग्निष्वात्तांश्च सौम्यांश्च विप्राणामेव निर्दिशेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२००अ[१९०ंअ]/ य एते तु गणा मुख्याः पितॄणां परिकीर्तिताः ।
ं३।२००च्[१९०ंच्]/ तेषामपीह विज्ञेयं पुत्रपौत्रमनन्तकम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२०१अ[१९१ंअ]/ ऋषिभ्यः पितरो जाताः पितृभ्यो देवमानवाः ।
ं३।२०१च्[१९१ंच्]/ देवेभ्यस्तु जगत् सर्वं चरं स्थाण्वनुपूर्वशः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२०२अ[१९२ंअ]/ राजतैर्भाजनैरेषामथो वा रजतान्वितैः ।
ं३।२०२च्[१९२ंच्]/ वार्यपि श्रद्धया दत्तमक्षयायौपकल्पते ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२०३अ[१९३ंअ]/ दैवकार्याद् द्विजातीनां पितृकार्यं विशिष्यते ।
ं३।२०३च्[१९३ंच्]/ दैवं हि पितृकार्यस्य पूर्वमाप्यायनं स्मृतम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२०४अ[१९४ंअ]/ तेषामारक्षभूतं तु पूर्वं दैवं नियोजयेत् ।
ं३।२०४च्[१९४ंच्]/ रक्षांसि विप्रलुम्पन्ति श्राद्धमारक्षवर्जितम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२०५अ[१९५ंअ]/ दैवाद्यन्तं तदीहेत पित्र्याद्यन्तं न तद् भवेत् ।
ं३।२०५च्[१९५ंच्]/ पित्र्याद्यन्तं त्वीहमानः क्षिप्रं नश्यति सान्वयः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२०६अ[१९६ंअ]/ शुचिं देशं विविक्तं च गोमयेनोपलेपयेत् ।
ं३।२०६च्[१९६ंच्]/ दक्षिणाप्रवणं चैव प्रयत्नेनोपपादयेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२०७अ[१९७ंअ]/ अवकाशेषु चोक्षेषु जलतीरेषु चैव हि ।
ं३।२०७च्[१९७ंच्]/ विविक्तेषु च तुष्यन्ति दत्तेन पितरः सदा ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२०८अ[१९८ंअ]/ आसनेषूपकॢप्तेषु बर्हिष्मत्सु पृथक्पृथक् ।
ं३।२०८च्[१९८ंच्]/ उपस्पृष्टौदकान् सम्यग् विप्रांस्तानुपवेशयेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२०९अ[१९९ंअ]/ उपवेश्य तु तान् विप्रानासनेष्वजुगुप्सितान् ।
ं३।२०९च्[१९९ंच्]/ गन्धमाल्यैः सुरभिभिरर्चयेद् दैवपूर्वकम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२१०अ[२००ंअ]/ तेषामुदकमानीय सपवित्रांस्तिलानपि ।
ं३।२१०च्[२००ंच्]/ अग्नौ कुर्यादनुज्ञातो ब्राह्मणो ब्राह्मणैः सह ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२११अ[२०१ंअ]/ अग्नेः सोमयमाभ्यां च कृत्वाऽप्यायनमादितः ।
ं३।२११च्[२०१ंच्]/ हविर्दानेन विधिवत् पश्चात् संतर्पयेत् पितॄन् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२१२अ[२०२ंअ]/ अग्न्यभावे तु विप्रस्य पाणावेवोपपादयेत् ।
ं३।२१२च्[२०२ंच्]/ यो ह्यग्निः स द्विजो विप्रैर्मन्त्रदर्शिभिरुच्यते ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२१३अ[२०३ंअ]/ अक्रोधनान् सुप्रसादान् वदन्त्येतान् पुरातनान् ।
ं३।२१३च्[२०३ंच्]/ लोकस्याप्यायने युक्तान् श्राद्धदेवान् द्विजोत्तमान् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥ %[ं।श्राद्धे देवान् द्विजोत्तमान्]
ं३।२१४अ[२०४ंअ]/ अपसव्यमग्नौ कृत्वा सर्वमावृत्य विक्रमम् । %[ं।आवृत्परिक्रमं ]
ं३।२१४च्[२०४ंच्]/ अपसव्येन हस्तेन निर्वपेदुदकं भुवि ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२१५अ[२०५ंअ]/ त्रींस्तु तस्माद् हविःशेषात् पिण्डान् कृत्वा समाहितः ।
ं३।२१५च्[२०५ंच्]/ औदकेनैव विधिना निर्वपेद् दक्षिणामुखः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२१६अ[२०६ंअ]/ न्युप्य पिण्डांस्ततस्तांस्तु प्रयतो विधिपूर्वकम् ।
ं३।२१६च्[२०६ंच्]/ तेषु दर्भेषु तं हस्तं निर्मृज्याल्लेपभागिनाम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२१७अ[२०७ंअ]/ आचम्यौदक्परावृत्य त्रिरायम्य शनैरसून् ।
ं३।२१७च्[२०७ंच्]/ षड् ऋतूंश्च नमस्कुर्यात् पितॄनेव च मन्त्रवत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२१८अ[२०८ंअ]/ उदकं निनयेत्शेषं शनैः पिण्डान्तिके पुनः ।
ं३।२१८च्[२०८ंच्]/ अवजिघ्रेच्च तान् पिण्डान् यथान्युप्तान् समाहितः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२१९अ[२०९ंअ]/ पिण्डेभ्यस्त्वल्पिकां मात्रां समादायानुपूर्वशः । %[ं।पिण्डेभ्यः स्वल्पिकां]
ं३।२१९च्[२०९ंच्]/ तानेव विप्रानासीनान् विधिवत् पूर्वमाशयेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२२०अ[२१०ंअ]/ ध्रियमाणे तु पितरि पूर्वेषामेव निर्वपेत् ।
ं३।२२०च्[२१०ंच्]/ विप्रवद् वाऽपि तं श्राद्धे स्वकं पितरमाशयेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥ %[ं।श्राद्धं ]
ं३।२२१अ[२११ंअ]/ पिता यस्य निवृत्तः स्याज् जीवेच्चापि पितामहः । %[ं।पिता यस्य तु वृत्तः स्याज्]
ं३।२२१च्[२११ंच्]/ पितुः स नाम सङ्कीर्त्य कीर्तयेत् प्रपितामहम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२२२अ[२१२ंअ]/ पितामहो वा तत्श्राद्धं भुञ्जीतैत्यब्रवीन् मनुः ।
ं३।२२२च्[२१२ंच्]/ कामं वा समनुज्ञातः स्वयमेव समाचरेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२२३अ[२१३ंअ]/ तेषां दत्त्वा तु हस्तेषु सपवित्रं तिलौदकम् ।
ं३।२२३च्[२१३ंच्]/ तत्पिण्डाग्रं प्रयच्छेत स्वधैषामस्त्विति ब्रुवन् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥ %[ं।प्रयच्छेत् तु ]
ं३।२२४अ[२१४ंअ]/ पाणिभ्यां तूपसङ्गृह्य स्वयमन्नस्य वर्धितम् । %[ं।वर्द्धितम्]
ं३।२२४च्[२१४ंच्]/ विप्रान्तिके पितॄन् ध्यायन् शनकैरुपनिक्षिपेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२२५अ[२१५ंअ]/ उभयोर्हस्तयोर्मुक्तं यदन्नमुपनीयते ।
ं३।२२५च्[२१५ंच्]/ तद् विप्रलुम्पन्त्यसुराः सहसा दुष्टचेतसः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२२६अ[२१६ंअ]/ गुणांश्च सूपशाकाद्यान् पयो दधि घृतं मधु ।
ं३।२२६च्[२१६ंच्]/ विन्यसेत् प्रयतः पूर्वं भूमावेव समाहितः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२२७अ[२१७ंअ]/ भक्ष्यं भोज्यं च विविधं मूलानि च फलानि च ।
ं३।२२७च्[२१७ंच्]/ हृद्यानि चैव मांसानि पानानि सुरभीणि च ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२२८अ[२१८ंअ]/ उपनीय तु तत् सर्वं शनकैः सुसमाहितः ।
ं३।२२८च्[२१८ंच्]/ परिवेषयेत प्रयतो गुणान् सर्वान् प्रचोदयन् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२२९अ[२१९ंअ]/ नास्रमापातयेज् जातु न कुप्येन्नानृतं वदेत् ।
ं३।२२९च्[२१९ंच्]/ न पादेन स्पृशेदन्नं न चैतदवधूनयेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२३०अ[२२०ंअ]/ अस्रं गमयति प्रेतान् कोपोऽरीननृतं शुनः ।
ं३।२३०च्[२२०ंच्]/ पादस्पर्शस्तु रक्षांसि दुष्कृतीनवधूननम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२३१अ[२२१ंअ]/ यद् यद् रोचेत विप्रेभ्यस्तत् तद् दद्यादमत्सरः ।
ं३।२३१च्[२२१ंच्]/ ब्रह्मोद्याश्च कथाः कुर्यात् पितॄणामेतदीप्सितम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२३२अ[२२२ंअ]/ स्वाध्यायं श्रावयेत् पित्र्ये धर्मशास्त्राणि चैव हि ।
ं३।२३२च्[२२२ंच्]/ आख्यानानीतिहासांश्च पुराणानि खिलानि च ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२३३अ[२२३ंअ]/ हर्षयेद् ब्राह्मणांस्तुष्टो भोजयेच्च शनैःशनैः ।
ं३।२३३च्[२२३ंच्]/ अन्नाद्येनासकृच्चैतान् गुणैश्च परिचोदयेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२३४अ[२२४ंअ]/ व्रतस्थमपि दौहित्रं श्राद्धे यत्नेन भोजयेत् ।
ं३।२३४च्[२२४ंच्]/ कुतपं चासनं दद्यात् तिलैश्च विकिरेन् महीम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२३५अ[२२५ंअ]/ त्रीणि श्राद्धे पवित्राणि दौहित्रः कुतपस्तिलाः ।
ं३।२३५च्[२२५ंच्]/ त्रीणि चात्र प्रशंसन्ति शौचमक्रोधमत्वराम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२३६अ[२२६ंअ]/ अत्युष्णं सर्वमन्नं स्याद् भुञ्जीरंस्ते च वाग्यताः ।
ं३।२३६च्[२२६ंच्]/ न च द्विजातयो ब्रूयुर्दात्रा पृष्टा हविर्गुणान् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२३७अ[२२७ंअ]/ यावदुष्मा भवत्यन्नं यावदश्नन्ति वाग्यताः ।
ं३।२३७च्[२२७ंच्]/ पितरस्तावदश्नन्ति यावन्नओक्ता हविर्गुणाः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२३८अ[२२८ंअ]/ यद् वेष्टितशिरा भुङ्क्ते यद् भुङ्क्ते दक्षिणामुखः ।
ं३।२३८च्[२२८ंच्]/ सौपानत्कश्च यद् भुङ्क्ते तद् वै रक्षांसि भुञ्जते ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२३९अ[२२९ंअ]/ चाण्डालश्च वराहश्च कुक्कुटः श्वा तथैव च ।
ं३।२३९च्[२२९ंच्]/ रजस्वला च षण्ढश्च नैक्षेरन्नश्नतो द्विजान् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२४०अ[२३०ंअ]/ होमे प्रदाने भोज्ये च यदेभिरभिवीक्ष्यते ।
ं३।२४०च्[२३०ंच्]/ दैवे हविषि पित्र्ये वा तद् गच्छत्ययथातथम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२४१अ[२३१ंअ]/ घ्राणेन सूकरो हन्ति पक्षवातेन कुक्कुटः । %[ं।शूकरो ]
ं३।२४१च्[२३१ंच्]/ श्वा तु दृष्टिनिपातेन स्पर्शेणावरवर्णजः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२४२अ[२३२ंअ]/ खञ्जो वा यदि वा काणो दातुः प्रेष्योऽपि वा भवेत् ।
ं३।२४२च्[२३२ंच्]/ हीनातिरिक्तगात्रो वा तमप्यपनयेत् पुनः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२४३अ[२३३ंअ]/ ब्राह्मणं भिक्षुकं वाऽपि भोजनार्थमुपस्थितम् ।
ं३।२४३च्[२३३ंच्]/ ब्राह्मणैरभ्यनुज्ञातः शक्तितः प्रतिपूजयेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२४४अ[२३४ंअ]/ सार्ववर्णिकमन्नाद्यं संनीयाप्लाव्य वारिणा ।
ं३।२४४च्[२३४ंच्]/ समुत्सृजेद् भुक्तवतामग्रतो विकिरन् भुवि ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२४५अ[२३५ंअ]/ असंस्कृतप्रमीतानां त्यागिनां कुलयोषिताम् ।
ं३।२४५च्[२३५ंच्]/ उच्छिष्टं भागधेयं स्याद् दर्भेषु विकिरश्च यः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२४६अ[२३६ंअ]/ उच्छेषणां भूमिगतमजिह्मस्याशठस्य च ।
ं३।२४६च्[२३६ंच्]/ दासवर्गस्य तत् पित्र्ये भागधेयं प्रचक्षते ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२४७अ[२३७ंअ]/ आसपिण्डक्रियाकर्म द्विजातेः संस्थितस्य तु ।
ं३।२४७च्[२३७ंच्]/ अदैवं भोजयेत्श्राद्धं पिण्डमेकं च निर्वपेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२४८अ[२३८ंअ]/ सहपिण्डक्रियायां तु कृतायामस्य धर्मतः ।
ं३।२४८च्[२३८ंच्]/ अनयैवावृता कार्यं पिण्डनिर्वपनं सुतैः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२४९अ[२३९ंअ]/ श्राद्धं भुक्त्वा य उच्छिष्टं वृषलाय प्रयच्छति ।
ं३।२४९च्[२३९ंच्]/ स मूढो नरकं याति कालसूत्रमवाक्षिराः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२५०अ[२४०ंअ]/ श्राद्धभुग् वृषलीतल्पं तदहर्योऽधिगच्छति ।
ं३।२५०च्[२४०ंच्]/ तस्याः पुरीषे तं मासं पितरस्तस्य शेरते ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२५१अ[२४१ंअ]/ पृष्ट्वा स्वदितमित्येवं तृप्तानाचामयेत् ततः ।
ं३।२५१च्[२४१ंच्]/ आचान्तांश्चानुजानीयादभितो रम्यतामिति ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२५२अ[२४२ंअ]/ स्वधाऽस्त्वित्येव तं ब्रूयुर्ब्राह्मणास्तदनन्तरम् ।
ं३।२५२च्[२४२ंच्]/ स्वधाकारः परा ह्याषीः सर्वेषु पितृकर्मसु ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२५३अ[२४३ंअ]/ ततो भुक्तवतां तेषामन्नशेषं निवेदयेत् ।
ं३।२५३च्[२४३ंच्]/ यथा ब्रूयुस्तथा कुर्यादनुज्ञातस्ततो द्विजैः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२५४अ[२४४ंअ]/ पित्र्ये स्वदितमित्येव वाच्यं गोष्ठे तु सुशृतम् ।
ं३।२५४च्[२४४ंच्]/ सम्पन्नमित्यभ्युदये दैवे रुचितमित्यपि ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥ %[ं।सम्पन्नम्]
ं३।२५५अ[२४५ंअ]/ अपराह्णस्तथा दर्भा वास्तुसम्पादनं तिलाः । %[ं।सम्पादनं]
ं३।२५५च्[२४५ंच्]/ सृष्टिर्मृष्टिर्द्विजाश्चाग्र्याः श्राद्धकर्मसु सम्पदः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२५६अ[२४६ंअ]/ दर्भाः पवित्रं पूर्वाह्णो हविष्याणि च सर्वशः ।
ं३।२५६च्[२४६ंच्]/ पवित्रं यच्च पूर्वोक्तं विज्ञेया हव्यसम्पदः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२५७अ[२४७ंअ]/ मुन्यन्नानि पयः सोमो मांसं यच्चानुपस्कृतम् ।
ं३।२५७च्[२४७ंच्]/ अक्सारलवणं चैव प्रकृत्या हविरुच्यते ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२५८अ[२४८ंअ]/ विसृज्य ब्राह्मणांस्तांस्तु नियतो वाग्यतः शुचिः । %[ं।विसर्ज्य ब्राह्मनांस्तांस्तु प्रयतो विधिपूर्वकम्]
ं३।२५८च्[२४८ंच्]/ दक्षिणां दिशमाकाङ्क्षन् याचेतैमान् वरान् पितॄन् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२५९अ[२४९ंअ]/ दातारो नोऽभिवर्धन्तां वेदाः संततिरेव च ।
ं३।२५९च्[२४९ंच्]/ श्रद्धा च नो मा व्यगमद् बहुदेयं च नोऽस्त्विति ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२६०अ[२५०ंअ]/ एवं निर्वपणं कृत्वा पिण्डांस्तांस्तदनन्तरम् ।
ं३।२६०च्[२५०ंच्]/ गां विप्रमजमग्निं वा प्राशयेदप्सु वा क्षिपेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२६१अ[२५१ंअ]/ पिण्डनिर्वपणं के चित् परस्तादेव कुर्वते ।
ं३।२६१च्[२५१ंच्]/ वयोभिः खादयन्त्यन्ये प्रक्षिपन्त्यनलेऽप्सु वा ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२६२अ[२५२ंअ]/ पतिव्रता धर्मपत्नी पितृपूजनतत्परा ।
ं३।२६२च्[२५२ंच्]/ मध्यमं तु ततः पिण्डमद्यात् सम्यक् सुतार्थिनी ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२६३अ[२५३ंअ]/ आयुष्मन्तं सुतं सूते यशोमेधासमन्वितम् ।
ं३।२६३च्[२५३ंच्]/ धनवन्तं प्रजावन्तं सात्त्विकं धार्मिकं तथा ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२६४अ[२५४ंअ]/ प्रक्षाल्य हस्तावाचाम्य ज्ञातिप्रायं प्रकल्पयेत् ।
ं३।२६४च्[२५४ंच्]/ ज्ञातिभ्यः सत्कृतं दत्त्वा बान्धवानपि भोजयेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥ %[ं।दत्वा]
ं३।२६५अ[२५५ंअ]/ उच्छेषणं तु तत् तिष्ठेद् यावद् विप्रा विसर्जिताः । %[क्:यत् तिष्ठेद् ]
ं३।२६५च्[२५५ंच्]/ ततो गृहबलिं कुर्यादिति धर्मो व्यवस्थितः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२६६अ[२५६ंअ]/ हविर्यच्चिररात्राय यच्चानन्त्याय कल्पते ।
ं३।२६६च्[२५६ंच्]/ पितृभ्यो विधिवद् दत्तं तत् प्रवक्ष्याम्यशेषतः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२६७अ[२५७ंअ]/ तिलैर्व्रीहियवैर्माषैरद्भिर्मूलफलेन वा ।
ं३।२६७च्[२५७ंच्]/ दत्तेन मासं तृप्यन्ति विधिवत् पितरो नृणाम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२६८अ[२५८ंअ]/ द्वौ मासौ मत्स्यमांसेन त्रीन् मासान् हारिणेन तु ।
ं३।२६८च्[२५८ंच्]/ औरभ्रेणाथ चतुरः शाकुनेनाथ पञ्च वै ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२६९अ[२५९ंअ]/ षण्मासांश्छागमांसेन पार्षतेन च सप्त वै ।
ं३।२६९च्[२५९ंच्]/ अष्टावेनस्य मांसेन रौरवेण नवैव तु ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥ %[ंऽइणेयमांसेन ]
ं३।२७०अ[२६०ंअ]/ दशमासांस्तु तृप्यन्ति वराहमहिषामिषैः ।
ं३।२७०च्[२६०ंच्]/ शशकूर्मयोस्तु मांसेन मासानेकादशैव तु ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२७१अ[२६१ंअ]/ संवत्सरं तु गव्येन पयसा पायसेन च । %[ं।संवत्सरे ]
ं३।२७१च्[२६१ंच्]/ वार्ध्रीणसस्य मांसेन तृप्तिर्द्वादशवार्षिकी ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२७२अ[२६२ंअ]/ कालशाकं महाशल्काः खङ्गलोहामिषं मधु ।
ं३।२७२च्[२६२ंच्]/ आनन्त्यायैव कल्प्यन्ते मुन्यन्नानि च सर्वशः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२७३अ[२६३ंअ]/ यत् किं चिन् मधुना मिश्रं प्रदद्यात् तु त्रयोदशीम् ।
ं३।२७३च्[२६३ंच्]/ तदप्यक्षयमेव स्याद् वर्षासु च मघासु च ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२७४अ[२६४ंअ]/ अपि नः स कुले भूयाद् यो नो दद्यात् त्रयोदशीम् ।
ं३।२७४च्[२६४ंच्]/ पायसं मधुसर्पिर्भ्यां प्राक् छाये कुञ्जरस्य च ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२७५अ[२६५ंअ]/ यद् यद् ददाति विधिवत् सम्यक् श्रद्धासमन्वितः ।
ं३।२७५च्[२६५ंच्]/ तत् तत् पितॄणां भवति परत्रानन्तमक्षयम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२७६अ[२६६ंअ]/ कृष्णपक्षे दशम्यादौ वर्जयित्वा चतुर्दशीम् ।
ं३।२७६च्[२६६ंच्]/ श्राद्धे प्रशस्तास्तिथयो यथैता न तथैतराः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२७७अ[२६७ंअ]/ युक्षु कुर्वन् दिनर्क्षेषु सर्वान् कामान् समश्नुते ।
ं३।२७७च्[२६७ंच्]/ अयुक्षु तु पितॄन् सर्वान् प्रजां प्राप्नोति पुष्कलाम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२७८अ[२६८ंअ]/ यथा चैवापरः पक्षः पूर्वपक्षाद् विशिष्यते ।
ं३।२७८च्[२६८ंच्]/ तथा श्राद्धस्य पूर्वाह्णादपराह्णो विशिष्यते ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२७९अ[२६९ंअ]/ प्राचीनावीतिना सम्यगपसव्यमतन्द्रिणा ।
ं३।२७९च्[२६९ंच्]/ पित्र्यमानिधनात् कार्यं विधिवद् दर्भपाणिना ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२८०अ[२७०ंअ]/ रात्रौ श्राद्धं न कुर्वीत राक्षसी कीर्तिता हि सा ।
ं३।२८०च्[२७०ंच्]/ संध्ययोरुभयोश्चैव सूर्ये चैवाचिरौदिते ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२८१अ[२७१ंअ]/ अनेन विधिना श्राद्धं त्रिरब्दस्यैह निर्वपेत् ।
ं३।२८१च्[२७१ंच्]/ हेमन्तग्रीष्मवर्षासु पाञ्चयज्ञिकमन्वहम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२८२अ[२७२ंअ]/ न पैतृयज्ञियो होमो लौकिकेऽग्नौ विधीयते ।
ं३।२८२च्[२७२ंच्]/ न दर्शेन विना श्राद्धमाहिताग्नेर्द्विजन्मनः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२८३अ[२७३ंअ]/ यदेव तर्पयत्यद्भिः पितॄन् स्नात्वा द्विजोत्तमः ।
ं३।२८३च्[२७३ंच्]/ तेनैव कृत्स्नमाप्नोति पितृयज्ञक्रियाफलम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२८४अ[२७४ंअ]/ वसून् वदन्ति तु पितॄन् रुद्रांश्चैव पितामहान् ।
ं३।२८४च्[२७४ंच्]/ प्रपितामहांस्तथाऽदित्यान् श्रुतिरेषा सनातनी ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२८५अ[२७५ंअ]/ विघसाशी भवेन्नित्यं नित्यं वाऽमृतभोजनः ।
ं३।२८५च्[२७५ंच्]/ विघसो भुक्तशेषं तु यज्ञशेषं तथाऽमृतम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं३।२८६अ[२७६ंअ]/ एतद् वोऽभिहितं सर्वं विधानं पाञ्चयज्ञिकम् ।
ं३।२८६च्[२७६ंच्]/ द्विजातिमुख्यवृत्तीनां विधानं श्रूयतामिति ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥


अध्याय ४
ं४।०१अ/ चतुर्थमायुषो भागमुषित्वाऽद्यं गुरौ द्विजाः ।
ं४।०१च्/ द्वितीयमायुषो भागं कृतदारो गृहे वसेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं४।०२अ/ अद्रोहेणैव भूतानामल्पद्रोहेण वा पुनः ।
ं४।०२च्/ या वृत्तिस्तां समास्थाय विप्रो जीवेदनापदि ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं४।०३अ/ यात्रामात्रप्रसिद्ध्यर्थं स्वैः कर्मभिरगर्हितैः ।
ं४।०३च्/ अक्लेशेन शरीरस्य कुर्वीत धनसञ्चयम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं४।०४अ/ ऋतामृताभ्यां जीवेत् तु मृतेन प्रमृतेन वा ।
ं४।०४च्/ सत्यानृताभ्यामपि वा न श्ववृत्त्या कदा चन ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं४।०५अ/ ऋतमुञ्छशिलं ज्ञेयममृतं स्यादयाचितम् ।
ं४।०५च्/ मृतं तु याचितं भैक्षं प्रमृतं कर्षणं स्मृतम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं४।०६अ/ सत्यानृतं तु वाणिज्यं तेन चैवापि जीव्यते ।
ं४।०६च्/ सेवा श्ववृत्तिराख्याता तस्मात् तां परिवर्जयेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं४।०७अ/ कुसूलधान्यको वा स्यात् कुम्भीधान्यक एव वा ।
ं४।०७च्/ त्र्यहेहिको वाऽपि भवेदश्वस्तनिक एव वा ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं४।०८अ/ चतुर्णामपि चैतेषां द्विजानां गृहमेधिनाम् ।
ं४।०८च्/ ज्यायान् परः परो ज्ञेयो धर्मतो लोकजित्तमः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं४।०९अ/ षट्कर्मैको भवत्येषां त्रिभिरन्यः प्रवर्तते ।
ं४।०९च्/ द्वाभ्यामेकश्चतुर्थस्तु ब्रह्मसत्त्रेण जीवति ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं४।१०अ/ वर्तयंश्च शिलौञ्छाभ्यामग्निहोत्रपरायणः ।
ं४।१०च्/ इष्टीः पार्वायणान्तीयाः केवला निर्वपेत् सदा ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं४।११अ/ न लोकवृत्तं वर्तेत वृत्तिहेतोः कथं चन ।
ं४।११च्/ अजिह्मामशथां शुद्धां जीवेद् ब्राह्मणजीविकाम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं४।१२अ/ संतोषं परमास्थाय सुखार्थी संयतो भवेत् ।
ं४।१२च्/ संतोषमूलं हि सुखं दुःखमूलं विपर्ययः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं४।१३अ/ अतोऽन्यतमया वृत्त्या जीवंस्तु स्नातको द्विजः ।
ं४।१३च्/ स्वर्गायुष्ययशस्यानि व्रताणीमानि धारयेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥ %[ं।स्वर्ग्यायुष्य ]
ं४।१४अ/ वेदोदितं स्वकं कर्म नित्यं कुर्यादतन्द्रितः ।
ं४।१४च्/ तद् हि कुर्वन् यथाशक्ति प्राप्नोति परमां गतिम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं४।१५अ/ नैहेतार्थान् प्रसङ्गेन न विरुद्धेन कर्मणा ।
ं४।१५च्/ न विद्यमानेष्वर्थेषु नार्त्यामपि यतस्ततः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥ %[ंंअ कल्पमानेष्वर्थेषु ]
ं४।१६अ/ इन्द्रियार्थेषु सर्वेषु न प्रसज्येत कामतः ।
ं४।१६च्/ अतिप्रसक्तिं चैतेषां मनसा संनिवर्तयेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं४।१७अ/ सर्वान् परित्यजेदर्थान् स्वाध्यायस्य विरोधिनः ।
ं४।१७च्/ यथा तथाऽध्यापयंस्तु सा ह्यस्य कृतकृत्यता ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं४।१८अ/ वयसः कर्मणोऽर्थस्य श्रुतस्याभिजनस्य च ।
ं४।१८च्/ वेषवाग्बुद्धिसारूप्यमाचरन् विचरेदिह ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं४।१९अ/ बुद्धिवृद्धिकराण्याशु धन्यानि च हितानि च ।
ं४।१९च्/ नित्यं शास्त्राण्यवेक्षेत निगमांश्चैव वैदिकान् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं४।२०अ/ यथा यथा हि पुरुषः शास्त्रं समधिगच्छति ।
ं४।२०च्/ तथा तथा विजानाति विज्ञानं चास्य रोचते ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं४।२१अ/ ऋषियज्ञं देवयज्ञं भूतयज्ञं च सर्वदा ।
ं४।२१च्/ नृयज्ञं पितृयज्ञं च यथाशक्ति न हापयेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं४।२२अ/ एतानेके महायज्ञान् यज्ञशास्त्रविदो जनाः ।
ं४।२२च्/ अनीहमानाः सततमिन्द्रियेष्वेव जुह्वति ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं४।२३अ/ वाच्येके जुह्वति प्राणं प्राणे वाचं च सर्वदा ।
ं४।२३च्/ वाचि प्राणे च पश्यन्तो यज्ञनिर्वृत्तिमक्षयाम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं४।२४अ/ ज्ञानेनैवापरे विप्रा यजन्त्येतैर्मखैः सदा । %[ं। यजन्ते तैर्मखैः सदा]
ं४।२४च्/ ज्ञानमूलां क्रियामेषां पश्यन्तो ज्ञानचक्षुषा ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं४।२५अ/ अग्निहोत्रं च जुहुयादाद्यन्ते द्युनिशोः सदा ।
ं४।२५च्/ दर्शेन चार्धमासान्ते पौर्णमासेन चैव हि ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं४।२६अ/ सस्यान्ते नवसस्येष्ट्या तथार्तुअन्ते द्विजोऽध्वरैः ।
ं४।२६च्/ पशुना त्वयनस्यादौ समान्ते सौमिकैर्मखैः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥ %[ंऽयनान्ते तु समांते]
ं४।२७अ/ नानिष्ट्वा नवसस्येष्ट्या पशुना चाग्निमान् द्विजः ।
ं४।२७च्/ नवान्नमद्यात्मांसं वा दीर्घमायुर्जिजीविषुः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं४।२८अ/ नवेनानर्चिता ह्यस्य पशुहव्येन चाग्नयः ।
ं४।२८च्/ प्राणानेवात्तुमिच्छन्ति नवान्नामिषगर्धिनः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं४।२९अ/ आसनाशनशय्याभिरद्भिर्मूलफलेन वा ।
ं४।२९च्/ नास्य कश्चिद् वसेद् गेहे शक्तितोऽनर्चितोऽतिथिः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं४।३०अ/ पाषण्डिनो विकर्मस्थान् बैडालव्रतिकान् शठान् ।
ं४।३०च्/ हैतुकान् बकवृत्तींश्च वाङ्मात्रेणापि नार्चयेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं४।३१अ/ वेदविद्याव्रतस्नातांश्रोत्रियान् गृहमेधिनः ।
ं४।३१च्/ पूजयेद् हव्यकव्येन विपरीतांश्च वर्जयेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं४।३२अ/ शक्तितोऽपचमानेभ्यो दातव्यं गृहमेधिना ।
ं४।३२च्/ संविभागश्च भूतेभ्यः कर्तव्योऽनुपरोधतः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं४।३३अ/ राजतो धनमन्विच्छेत् संसीदन् स्नातकः क्षुधा ।
ं४।३३च्/ याज्यान्तेवासिनोर्वाऽपि न त्वन्यत इति स्थितिः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं४।३४अ/ न सीदेत् स्नातको विप्रः क्षुधा शक्तः कथं चन ।
ं४।३४च्/ न जीर्णमलवद्वासा भवेच्च विभवे सति ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं४।३५अ/ कॢप्तकेशनखश्मश्रुर्दान्तः शुक्लाम्बरः शुचिः ।
ं४।३५च्/ स्वाध्याये चैव युक्तः स्यान्नित्यमात्महितेषु च ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं४।३६अ/ वैणवीं धारयेद् यष्टिं सोदकं च कमण्डलुम् ।
ं४।३६च्/ यज्ञोपवीतं वेदं च शुभं रौक्मे च कुण्डले ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं४।३७अ/ नेक्षेतोद्यन्तमादित्यं नास्तं यान्तं कदा चन ।
ं४।३७च्/ नोपसृष्टं न वारिस्थं न मध्यं नभसो गतम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं४।३८अ/ न लङ्घयेद् वत्सतन्त्रीं न प्रधावेच्च वर्षति ।
ं४।३८च्/ न चोदके निरीक्षेत स्वरूपमिति धारणा ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं४।३९अ/ मृदं गां दैवतं विप्रं घृतं मधु चतुष्पथम् ।
ं४।३९च्/ प्रदक्षिणानि कुर्वीत प्रज्ञातांश्च वनस्पतीन् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं४।४०अ/ नोपगच्छेत् प्रमत्तोऽपि स्त्रियमार्तवदर्शने ।
ं४।४०च्/ समानशयने चैव न शयीत तया सह ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं४।४१अ/ रजसाऽभिप्लुतां नारीं नरस्य ह्युपगच्छतः ।
ं४।४१च्/ प्रज्ञा तेजो बलं चक्षुरायुश्चैव प्रहीयते ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं४।४२अ/ तां विवर्जयतस्तस्य रजसा समभिप्लुताम् ।
ं४।४२च्/ प्रज्ञा तेजो बलं चक्षुरायुश्चैव प्रवर्धते ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं४।४३अ/ नाश्नीयाद् भार्यया सार्धं नैनामीक्षेत चाश्नतीम् ।
ं४।४३च्/ क्षुवतीं जृम्भमाणां वा न चासीनां यथासुखम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं४।४४अ/ नाञ्जयन्तीं स्वके नेत्रे न चाभ्यक्तामनावृताम् ।
ं४।४४च्/ न पश्येत् प्रसवन्तीं च तेजस्कामो द्विजोत्तमः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं४।४५अ/ नान्नमद्यादेकवासा न नग्नः स्नानमाचरेत् ।
ं४।४५च्/ न मूत्रं पथि कुर्वीत न भस्मनि न गोव्रजे ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं४।४६अ/ न फालकृष्टे न जले न चित्यां न च पर्वते ।
ं४।४६च्/ न जीर्णदेवायतने न वल्मीके कदा चन ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं४।४७अ/ न ससत्त्वेषु गर्तेषु न गच्छन्नपि न स्थितः ।
ं४।४७च्/ न नदीतीरमासाद्य न च पर्वतमस्तके ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं४।४८अ/ वायुअग्निविप्रमादित्यमपः पश्यंस्तथैव गाः ।
ं४।४८च्/ न कदा चन कुर्वीत विण्मूत्रस्य विसर्जनम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ंख़्४।४९अ[५०ंअ]/ तिरस्कृत्योच्चरेत् काष्ठलोष्ठपत्रतृणादिना । %[ं।तृणादि च]
ंख़्४।४९च्[५०ंच्]/ नियम्य प्रयतो वाचं संवीताङ्गोऽवगुण्ठितः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ंख़्४।५०अ[५१ंअ]/ मूत्रोच्चारसमुत्सर्गं दिवा कुर्यादुदङ्मुखः ।
ंख़्४।५०च्[५१ंच्]/ दक्षिणाऽभिमुखो रात्रौ संध्यायोश्च यथा दिवा ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ंख़्४।५१अ[५२ंअ]/ छायायामन्धकारे वा रात्रावहनि वा द्विजः ।
ंख़्४।५१च्[५२ंच्]/ यथासुखमुखः कुर्यात् प्राणबाधभयेषु च ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ंख़्४।५२अ[४९ंअ]/ प्रत्यग्निं प्रतिसूर्यं च प्रतिसोमोदकद्विजम् ।
ंख़्४।५२च्[४९ंच्]/ प्रतिगु प्रतिवातं च प्रज्ञा नश्यति मेहतः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥ %[क्:प्रतिगां प्रतिवातं]
ं४।५३अ/ नाग्निं मुखेनोपधमेन्नग्नां नैक्षेत च स्त्रियम् ।
ं४।५३च्/ नामेध्यं प्रक्षिपेदग्नौ न च पादौ प्रतापयेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं४।५४अ/ अधस्तान्नोपदध्याच्च न चैनमभिलङ्घयेत् ।
ं४।५४च्/ न चैनं पादतः कुर्यान्न प्राणाबाधमाचरेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं४।५५अ/ नाश्नीयात् संधिवेलायां न गच्छेन्नापि संविशेत् । %[
ं४।५५च्/ न चैव प्रलिखेद् भूमिं नात्मनोऽपहरेत् स्रजम् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं४।५६अ/ नाप्सु मूत्रं पुरीषं वा ष्ठीवनं वा समुत्सृजेत् ।
ं४।५६च्/ अमेध्यलिप्तमन्यद् वा लोहितं वा विषाणि वा ।
ं४।५७अ/ नैकः सुप्यात्शून्यगेहे न श्रेयांसं प्रबोधयेत् । %[शून्यगृहे स्वप्यान्]
ं४।५७च्/ नोदक्ययाऽभिभाषेत यज्ञं गच्छेन्न चावृतः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं४।५८अ/ अग्न्यगारे गवां गोष्ठे ब्राह्मणानां च संनिधौ ।
ं४।५८च्/ स्वाध्याये भोजने चैव दक्षिणं पाणिमुद्धरेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं४।५९अ/ न वारयेद् गां धयन्तीं न चाचक्षीत कस्य चित् ।
ं४।५९च्/ न दिवीन्द्रायुधं दृष्ट्वा कस्य चिद् दर्शयेद् बुधः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं४।६०अ/ नाधर्मिके वसेद् ग्रामे न व्याधिबहुले भृशम् ।
ं४।६०च्/ नैकः प्रपद्येताध्वानं न चिरं पर्वते वसेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं४।६१अ/ न शूद्रराज्ये निवसेन्नाधार्मिकजनावृते ।
ं४।६१च्/ न पाषण्डिगणाक्रान्ते नोपस्षृटेऽन्त्यजैर्नृभिः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं४।६२अ/ न भुञ्जीतोद्धृतस्नेहं नातिसौहित्यमाचरेत् ॥

ं४।६२च्/ नातिप्रगे नातिसायं न सायं प्रातराशितः ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं४।६३अ/ न कुर्वीत वृथाचेष्टां न वार्यञ्जलिना पिबेत् ।
ं४।६३च्/ नोत्सङ्गे भक्षयेद् भक्ष्यान्न जातु स्यात् कुतूहली ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥

ं४।६४अ/ न नृत्येदथ वा गायेन्न वादित्राणि वादयेत् । %[ंंअ नृत्येन्नैव गायेच्च न वादित्राणि वादयेत्)]
ं४।६४च्/ नास्फोटयेन्न च क्ष्वेडेन्न च रक्तो विरावयेत् ॥ Bछ्.Sछ्॥ %[ंंअ च रक्तो