A History of Slavery and its Abolition: Esther Copley-1836


Introduction—Design of the work

Section I.

The Nature of Slavery—Slavery defined—Distinguished—from the subjections of childhood—apprenticeship—Imprisonment

Section II.

The Origin of Slavery—Slavery not founded in nature—nor by Divine command—nor by the constitution of society—but by human depravity

Section III.

Slavery acknowledged in Scripture—Slavery recognized and regulated, but not sanctioned—The moral law the rule of human duty—The judicial law takes things as they are, not as they ought to be—The apostolic exhortations to slaves do not imply approbation of the state

Section IV.

Moral Effects of Slavery—Slavery injurious both to the master and slave

Section V.

Sources of Slavery—Crime—War—Debt—Treachery—Parentage

Section VI.

History of Slavery—Early introduction of slavery—Nimrod—The Ishmaelites—Joseph in Egypt—The Israelites in Egypt—Pyramids—Slavery among the Greeks—Spartans—Helots—Learned slave—Athens—Carthage

Section VII.

Slavery among the Romans—Slaves obtained by war— crime—sale—birth. Employment of slaves—Power of masters—Slaves reckoned as chattels—Slaves deserted in their old age—Rome enslaved—Crusades

Section VIII.

Slavery among the Jews—Slavery denounced as a punishment for idolatry—Possession of slaves among the Hebrews—Man-stealing forbidden—Manner of acquiring slaves—Treatment—Humanity enjoined—Observance of the sabbath—Conduct to female slaves—Voluntary servitude—Year of release—The nations of Canaan—Foreign oppressors of Israel—Captivity of the Jews in Assyria—Haman—Nehemiah’s expostulation with the Jews

Section IX.

Slavery in Europe—The feudal system—The Roman conquests—Condition of the peasantry—Britain—Children sold by their parents—Saxon heptarchy—Humane Sentiments—Irish generosity—Slavery by ancestry—Enfranchisement—Ensigns of slavery—Instance of manumission—Redemption of slaves—Decay of slavery in England—Germany—Poland—Russia—Turkey—Italy—Galley slaves—East Indies

Section X.

Negro Slavery—Geography and history of Africa and the West Indies—Origin of negro slavery—Ferdinand of Spain—Las Casas—Ximenes—Charles V.—Louis XIII.—Queen Elizabeth—Sir John Hawkins—Manner of procuring slaves—Anecdotes—Employment of negro slaves—The slave voyage—Despondency and disease—Anecdotes—The slave market—Separation of families—Slave labour—Cultivation of coffee—Cotton—Sugar—Slave driving—Slave wages—Waste of life and decrease of slave population—Legal hardships incident to negro slavery

Section XI.

Degradation connected with Negro Slavery—Branding—Working in chairs—Instruments of confinement and torture—Contempt of colour—Contempt of their country—Regarded as an inferior race—Punishments—Denied the means of instruction

Section XII.

Instances of aggravated Cruelty—Affecting anecdotes

Section XIII.

Partial Amelioration of Slavery

Section XIV.

History of the Abolition of Slavery

Section XV.

The early Advocates of the enslaved Africans— Ximenes—Charles V.—Pope Leo X.—Queen Elizabeth—Milton—Saunderson—Godwyn—Baxter—Tryon—Fox —Edmundson—Southern—Montesquieu—Hutcheson—Foster—Steele—The Society of Friends—Burling—Sandiford—Lay—Woolman—Churchman—Eastburne—Benezet—Whitefield—Wesley—Rush—Franklin—Dillwyn—Sharp—Pope—Thomson—Savage—Wallis—Hughes—Burke—Shenstone—Hayter—Dyer—Philmore—Postlethwaite—Jeffrey—Rousseau—Sterne—Warburton—Day—Beattie—Proyart—Smith—Millar—Robertson—Raynal—Paley—Porteus—Gregory—Wakefield—Ramsay—Smith

Section XVI.

Struggle for Freedom of Negroes in England—Jonathan Strong—Granville Sharp—Somerset

Section XVII.

Preliminary Steps towards the Abolition of the Slave Trade.—Granville Sharp’s appeal to Lord North—Petition from Virginia—Appeal of the Society of Friends—Information diffused—A society formed—Parliament petitioned—Barclay—Peckard—Thomas Clarkson—His prize essay—His convictions—His consecration to the cause—Publication of his work—Hancock—Phillips—Langton—Baker—Lord Scarsdale—Sir Charles Middleton—Hannah More—Hoare—Bevan—Sight of a slave vessel—Wilberforce—Newton—Scott—Reynolds—Boswell—Browne—Proposal to bring the slave trade before Parliament—Reflections

Section XVIII.

Active Measures of the Committee for the Abolition of the Slave Trade.—Clarkson’s “Summary View”— Roscoe’s “Wrongs of Africa”—Currie—Clarkson travels to collect evidence—Falconbridge—Liverpool—African specimens—Clarkson endangered—Rathbone—Manchester—Clarkson preaches—Clarkson’s illness—French correspondents—Accessions to cause of abolition—Oppression overruled—William Pitt—Lord Grenville—Temporizing—Spaarman and Wadstrom—Petitions—Publications—Charles James Fox—The question in Parliament—Fresh evidence—Hannah More— Arnold and Gardiner—Volume of evidence—Speeches in Parliament—Loss of the bill—Clarkson in France—Revolt of St. Domingo—Cowper’s Task—Sierra Leone Company—Abstinence from sugar—Petitions—Delays—Repeated defeats—False confidence—Death of Mr. Pitt—Lord Grenville’s administration—Death of Mr. Fox—Achievement of the abolition of the slave trade

Section XIX.

Measures towards the Abolition of Slavery.—Clarkson’s History of the Abolition—Other works commemorative of that event—The measure insufficient—Registry bill—Publications on slavery—Society for the abolition of slavery—Colonization of negroes—Bolivar—Steele in Barbadoes—Mr. Buxton’s motion in 1823—Mr, Canning’s modifications—Attempts at reform—Immediate emancipation advocated—Colonial contumely—Numerous petitions—Stephen’s “England enslaved by her own Colonies”—Eight successive measures—Anti slavery Society’s meeting—Brougham—Discussion in Parliament—Meetings in Ireland—Accession of King William—Attempts of pro-slavery advocates—Antislavery lectures—Meeting at Bath, at Bristol, Bury St. Edmund’s—Concurrent causes of success—Extension of knowledge—Diffusion of liberal sentiments—Reform Bill—Infatuated opposition—Popular meetings—Mr. Jeremie—Anecdotes—Proofs of negro capacity—West Indian manifesto—Liberated Africans—Negro instruction encouraged by government— Opposed by planters—Tumult excited—Insurrection in Jamaica—Charges against missionaries—Martial law—Missionaries imprisoned—Chapels destroyed—Missionaries’ memorial—Proclamation—Contumely—Intimidation—Negro testimony—Perjury recanted—Magistrates implicated—Interdicts against religion—Mr. Knibb released—Attack on Mr. Bleby—Mr. Baylis assaulted—Mr. Burchell’s departure—Negroes examined by Mr. Knibb—Conduct of religious negroes—Mr. Knibb visits England—Continued persecution in Jamaica—Results of persecution—Missionaries in England—Evidence before the Lords—Religious anniversaries—Anti-slavery meeting—Petition to the King—Mr. Buxton’s motion—Mr. Knibb’s speech—Resolutions of the Baptist Board—Official documents from the West Indies—Resolution of black freeholders—Protest of the missionaries—Speech of Mr. Watkis in the Colonial Assembly—Lord Goderich’s circular—Committee of inquiry—Calumny refuted—Persecution overruled—Lord Mulgrave in Jamaica—Whiteley’s pamphlet—Anti-slavery meeting—Meeting of delegates— Memorial—Mr. Stanley’s plan for emancipation—Objections—Simultaneous feeling—West Indian sentiments—House of Lords—Compensation and Apprenticeship—Death of Wilberforce—Passing of the bill—Provisions of the bill—Review of the bill—Grateful Acknowledgments

Section XX.

Anticipations.—Lord Mulgrave—Marquis of Sligo—Sir James C. Smith—Measures of Government—Return of missionaries—Restoration of chapels—The voluntary system—Benevolent expedients—Celebration of Aug. 1—Antigua, Dominica, Jamaica

Section XXI.

Duties resulting.—Christians’ obligations—Restitution—Missionary efforts—Moravians—Baptist missionaries—Wesleyan mission—London Missionary Society—Church Missionary Society—The London Central Negro’s Friend Society—The Ladies’ Society for promoting the education and improvement of the children of Negroes and people of colour in the West Indies.

Section XXII.

Concluding Observations.—The duty of extending religious instruction among the negroes—Of promoting the utter annihilation of Slavery—The evangelization of Africa