Constitution of the Soviet Union(USSR) 1936

Constitution (Fundamental law) of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

With Ammendments and Additions adopted by the First, Second, Third, Sixth, Seventh and Eighth Sessions of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R

Kremlin, Moscow,⁠December 5, 1936

Chapter I: The Organization of Society

ARTICLE 1. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is a socialist state of workers and peasants.

ARTICLE 2. The Soviets of Working People’s Deputies, which grew and attained strength as a result of the overthrow of the landlords and capitalists and the achievement of the dictatorship of the proletariat, constitute the political foundation of the U.S.S.R.

ARTICLE 3. In the U.S.S.R. all power belongs to the working people of town and country as represented by the Soviets of Working People’s Deputies.

ARTICLE 4. The socialist system of economy and the socialist ownership of the means and instruments of production, firmly established as a result of the abolition of the capitalist system of economy, the abrogation of private ownership of the means and instruments of production and the abolition of the exploitation of man by man, constitute the economic foundation of the U.S.S.R.

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Revised Constitution of American Samoa

Article I: Bill of Rights

Sections

  1. Freedom of religion, speech, press, rights of assembly and petition.
  2. No deprivation of life, liberty or property without due process.
  3. Policy protective legislation.
  4. Dignity of the individual.
  5. Protection against unreasonable searchesand seizures.
  6. Rights of an accused.
  7. Habeas corpus.
  8. Quartering of militia.
  9. Imprisonment for debt.
  10. Slavery prohibited.
  11. Treason.
  12. Subversives ineligible to hold public office.
  13. Retroactive laws and bills of attainder.
  14. Health, safety, morals and general welfare.
  15. Education.
  16. Unspecified rights and privileges and immunities.

 

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THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED ARAB EMIRATES

EDITION: 2010

Preamble

WE, the Rulers of the Emirates of Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Ajman, Um AI Quwain and Fujairah, Reflecting our will and the will of the people of our emirates to form themselves into a Federation provide a better life and more enduring stability, and enjoy a higher international standing for the Emirates and all their people; Desiring to create closer links among themselves in the form of an independent sovereign federal state capable of protecting its existence and the existence of its members and cooperating with the sister Arab states and with all other friendly member states of the United Nations Organization and of the community of nations, in general, on the basis of mutual respect and exchange of interests and benefits;

Desiring also to lay the foundation for federal rule in the coming years on a sound basis that reflects the reality and the capacity of the Emirates at the present time, enables the Federation to achieve its objectives, safeguards the identity of its members in a way consistent with these objectives and, at the same time, prepares the people of the Federation for a dignified and free constitutional life while going ahead towards a full-fledged representative democratic regime in an Islamic and Arab community free of fear and anxiety; and Realizing that it is our dearest desire and strongest determination to achieve all the above-mentioned in order to push ahead our country and our people up to take an appropriate place among the civilized states and nations, Announce to Allah, the Supreme and Almighty, and to all the people our approval of the Constitution undersigned by us .

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Introduction to the Study of the Law of the Constitution: Albert Venn Dicey [1915]

Albert Venn Dicey, Introduction to the Study of the Law of the Constitution [1915]

 Table of Contents:

 

  • CONTENTS
  • I
  • II
  • PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION
  • PREFACE TO THE EIGHTH EDITION
  • INTRODUCTION
  • AIM
  • SOVEREIGNTY OF PARLIAMENT
  • POSSIBLE CHANGE IN CONSTITUTION OR CHARACTER OF THE PARLIAMENTARY SOVEREIGN (EFFECT OF THE PARLIAMENT ACT, 1911)
  • THE STATE OF THINGS IMMEDIATELY BEFORE THE PASSING OF THE PARLIAMENT ACT
  • THE DIRECT EFFECTS OF THE PARLIAMENT ACT
  • PRACTICAL CHANGE IN THE AREA OF PARLIAMENTARY SOVEREIGNTY (RELATION OF THE IMPERIAL PARLIAMENT TO THE DOMINIONS)
  • First Question
  • Rule 1
  • Rule 2
  • Rule 3
  • Rule 4
  • Second Question
  • THE RULE OF LAW
  • DECLINE IN REVERENCE FOR RULE OF LAW
  • Legislation
  • Distrust of Judges and of Courts
  • Lawlessness
  • COMPARISON BETWEEN THE PRESENT OFFICIAL LAW OF ENGLAND AND THE PRESENT DROIT ADMINISTRATIF OF FRANCE
  • CONVENTIONS OF THE CONSTITUTION
  • FIRST QUESTION
  • ANSWER
  • MERE CONVENTIONS
  • ENACTED CONVENTIONS
  • SECOND QUESTION
  • ANSWER
  • THIRD QUESTION
  • ANSWER
  • DEVELOPMENT DURING THE LAST THIRTY YEARS OF NEW CONSTITUTIONAL IDEAS
  • TWO GENERAL OBSERVATIONS
  • First Observation
  • Second Observation
  • CRITICISM OF EACH OF THE FOUR NEW CONSTITUTIONAL IDEAS
  • Woman Suffrage
  • The Causes
  • The Main Lines of Argument
  • First Argument
  • Answer
  • Second Argument
  • Answer
  • Proportional Representation
  • First Proposition
  • Second Proposition
  • Third Proposition
  • Objections to the Third Proposition
  • Second Objection
  • Third Objection
  • Federalism
  • Leading Characteristics of Federal Government
  • The Characteristics of Federal Government in Relation to Imperial Federalism
  • Characteristics of Federal Government in Relation to Home Rule All Round
  • The Referendum
  • The Causes
  • The Main Argument Against the Referendum
  • The Main Argument in Favour of the Referendum
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • OUTLINE OF SUBJECT
  • THE TRUE NATURE OF CONSTITUTIONAL LAW
  • PART I: THE SOVEREIGNTY OF PARLIAMENT
    • Chapter I: THE NATURE OF PARLIAMENTARY SOVEREIGNTY
    • NATURE OF PARLIAMENTARY SOVEREIGNTY
    • Unlimited Legislative Authority of Parliament
    • The Absence of Any Competing Legislative Power
    • ALLEGED LEGAL LIMITATIONS ON THE LEGISLATIVE SOVEREIGNTY OF PARLIAMENT
    • DIFFICULTIES AS TO THE DOCTRINE OF PARLIAMENTARY SOVEREIGNTY
    • Chapter II: PARLIAMENT AND NON-SOVEREIGN LAW-MAKING BODIES
    • CHARACTERISTICS OF SOVEREIGN PARLIAMENT
    • CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-SOVEREIGN LAW-MAKING BODIES
    • Subordinate Law-making Bodies
    • Foreign Non-sovereign Legislatures
    • Chapter III: PARLIAMENTARY SOVEREIGNTY AND FEDERALISM
  • PART II: THE RULE OF LAW
    • Chapter IV: THE RULE OF LAW: ITS NATURE AND GENERAL APPLICATIONS
    • Chapter V: THE RIGHT TO PERSONAL FREEDOM
    • REDRESS FOR ARREST
    • WRIT OF HABEAS CORPUS
    • Nature of Writ
    • The Habeas Corpus Acts
    • Suspension of the Habeas Corpus Act
    • An Act of Indemnity
    • Chapter VI: THE RIGHT TO FREEDOM OF DISCUSSION
    • Chapter VII: THE RIGHT OF PUBLIC MEETING1
    • FIRST LIMITATION
    • SECOND LIMITATION
    • Chapter VIII: MARTIAL LAW
    • Chapter IX: THE ARMY
    • THE STANDING ARMY
    • A SOLDIER’S POSITION AS A CITIZEN
    • A SOLDIER’S POSITION AS A MEMBER OF THE ARMY
    • THE TERRITORIAL FORCE
    • Chapter X: THE REVENUE1
    • SOURCE OF PUBLIC REVENUE
    • AUTHORITY FOR EXPENDING REVENUE
    • SECURITY FOR THE PROPER APPROPRIATION OF THE REVENUE
    • Chapter XI: THE RESPONSIBILITY OF MINISTERS
    • Chapter XII: RULE OF LAW COMPARED WITH DROIT ADMINISTRATIF
    • FIRST PERIOD: NAPOLEON AND THE RESTORATION, 1800–1830
    • SECOND PERIOD: THE ORLEANS MONARCHY AND THE SECOND EMPIRE 1830–187030
    • THIRD PERIOD: THE THIRD REPUBLIC, 1870–1908
    • The Period of Unnoticed Growth, 1800–18 (Période D’élaboration Secréte)
    • The Period of Publication, 1818–60 (Période de Divulgation)
    • The Period of Organisation, 1860–1908 (Période d’Organisation)
    • Chapter XIII: RELATION BETWEEN PARLIAMENTARY SOVEREIGNTY AND THE RULE OF LAW
  • PART III: THE CONNECTION BETWEEN THE LAW OF THE CONSTITUTION AND THE CONVENTIONS OF THE CONSTITUTION
    • Chapter XIV: NATURE OF CONVENTIONS OF CONSTITUTION
    • Chapter XV: THE SANCTION BY WHICH THE CONVENTIONS OF THE CONSTITUTION ARE ENFORCED

 

  • APPENDIX
  • Note I: RIGIDITY OF FRENCH CONSTITUTIONS
  • Note II: DIVISION OF POWERS IN FEDERAL STATES
  • THE UNITED STATES
  • THE SWISS CONFEDERATION
  • THE CANADIAN DOMINION
  • THE COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA
  • THE GERMAN EMPIRE
  • Note III: DISTINCTION BETWEEN A PARUAMENTARY EXECUTIVE AND A NON-PARLIAMENTARY EXECUTIVE
  • Note IV: THE RIGHT OF SELF-DEFENCE
  • FIRST THEORY
  • SECOND THEORY
  • Note V: QUESTIONS CONNECTED WITH THE RIGHT OF PUBLIC MEETING
  • DOES THERE EXIST ANY GENERAL RIGHT OF MEETING IN PUBLIC PLACES?
  • WHAT IS THE MEANING OF THE TERM “AN UNLAWFUL ASSEMBLY”?
  • WHAT ARE THE RIGHTS OF THE CROWN OR ITS SERVANTS IN DEALING WITH AN UNLAWFUL ASSEMBLY?
  • WHAT ARE THE RIGHTS POSSESSED BY THE MEMBERS OF A LAWFUL ASSEMBLY WHEN THE MEETING IS INTERFERED WITH OR DISPERSED BY FORCE?
  • Note VI: DUTY OF SOLDIERS CALLED UPON TO DISPERSE AN UNLAWFUL ASSEMBLY
  • Note VII: THE MEANING OF AN “UNCONSTITUTIONAL” LAW
  • Note VIII: SWISS FEDERALISM89
  • THE FEDERAL COUNCIL
  • THE FEDERAL ASSEMBLY
  • THE FEDERAL TRIBUNAL
  • THE REFERENDUM
  • Note IX: AUSTRALIAN FEDERALISM101
  • FEDERAL GOVERNMENT
  • THE PARLIAMENTARY EXECUTIVE
  • AMENDMENT OF THE CONSTITUTION
  • MAINTENANCE OF THE RELATION WITH THE UNITED KINGDOM
  • Note X: MARTIAL LAW IN ENGLAND DURING TIME OF WAR OR INSURRECTION121
  • NATURE OF MARTIAL LAW
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • OTHER DOCTRINES WITH REGARD TO MARTIAL LAW
  • The Doctrine of the Prerogative
  • The Doctrine of Immunity
  • The Doctrine of Political Necessity or Expediency154
  • Note XI: CONSTITUTION OF THE TRIBUNAL DES CONFLITS
  • Note XII: PROCEEDINGS AGAINST THE CROWN
  • AS TO BREACH OF CONTRACT
  • AS TO WRONGS
  • Note XIII: PARLIAMENT ACT, 1911 [I & 2 Geo. 5. Ch. Ch. 13.]

 

  • INDEX

Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil 1988

Constitutional Process in Brazil

1500-Portuguese land in the area and claim it to the Portuguese crown
1822-Son of Portuguese king declares independence from Portugal and crowns himself Peter I, Emperor of Brazil.
1889-Monarchy overthrown, federal republic established
1930-Revolt places Getulio Vargas at head of provisional revolutionary government.
1937-Vargas leads coup, rules as dictator with military backing. Economy placed under authoritarian state control, start of social welfare revolution and reform of laws governing industry.
1945-Vargas ousted in military coup. Elections held under caretaker government. New constitution returns power to states.
1964-Goulart ousted in bloodless coup, flees into exile. Military rule associated with repression but also with rapid economic growth based on state-ownership of key sectors.
1974-General Ernesto Geisel becomes president, introduces reforms which allow limited political activity and elections.
1988-New constitution reduces presidential powers.
1997-Constitution changed to allow president to run for re-election

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CONSTITUTION OF THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA

Preamble

Chapter I General Principles

Chapter II The Fundamental Rights and Duties of Citizens

Chapter III The Structure of the State

Section 1 The National People’s Congress
Section 2 The President of the People’s Republic of China
Section 3 The State Council
Section 4 The Central Military Commission
Section 5 The Local People’s Congresses and Local People’s Governments at Various Levels
Section 6 The Organs of Self-Government of National Autonomous Areas
Section 7 The People’s Courts and the People’s Procuratorates

Chapter IV The National Flag, the National Anthem, the National Emblem and the Capital

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The Constitution of Canada

CONSTITUTION ACT, 1867

1 – I. PRELIMINARY
3 – II. UNION
9 – III. EXECUTIVE POWER
17 – IV. LEGISLATIVE POWER
21 – The Senate
37 – The House of Commons
53 – Money Votes; Royal Assent
58 – V. PROVINCIAL CONSTITUTIONS
58 – Executive Power
69 – Legislative Power
69 – 1. Ontario
71 – 2. Quebec
81 – 3. Ontario and Quebec
88 – 4. Nova Scotia and New Brunswick
89 – 5. Ontario, Quebec, and Nova Scotia
90 – 6. The Four Provinces
91 – VI. DISTRIBUTION OF LEGISLATIVE POWERS
91 – Powers of the Parliament
92 – Exclusive Powers of Provincial Legislatures
92A – Non-Renewable Natural Resources, Forestry Resources and Electrical Energy
93 – Education
94 – Uniformity of Laws in Ontario,  Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick
94A – Old Age Pensions
95 – Agriculture and Immigration
96 – VII. JUDICATURE
102 – VIII. REVENUES; DEBTS; ASSETS; TAXATION
127 – IX. MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS
127 – General
134 – Ontario and Quebec
145 – X. INTERCOLONIAL RAILWAY
146 – XI. ADMISSION OF OTHER COLONIES
THE FIRST SCHEDULE
THE SECOND SCHEDULE
THE THIRD SCHEDULE
THE FOURTH SCHEDULE
THE FIFTH SCHEDULE
THE SIXTH SCHEDULE

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Constitution of France

France is an indivisible, secular, democratic and social republic

Constitution of October 4, 1958

Consolidated version as of December 24, 2019

The Government of the Republic, in accordance with the constitutional law of June 3, 1958, proposed, The French people adopted, The President of the Republic promulgates the constitutional law whose content follows:

Article PREAMBLE Find out more about this article …

Amended by Constitutional law n ° 2005-205 of March 1, 2005 – art. 1

The French People solemnly proclaim their attachment to Human Rights and to the principles of national sovereignty as defined by the Declaration of 1789, confirmed and supplemented by the preamble to the 1946 Constitution, as well as to the rights and duties defined in the 2004 Environmental Charter.

By virtue of these principles and that of the self-determination of the peoples, the Republic offers to the overseas territories which manifest the will to join it new institutions based on the common ideal of freedom, equality and fraternity and designed for their democratic development.

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Appointment of General Qamar Javed Bajwa as COAS shall be continued for six months: Pakistan SC-28/11/2019

Observed: Article 243 of the Constitution, therefore, clearly shows that the President shall, subject to law, raise and maintain the military, however, the laws referred to above do not specify the tenure, retirement, re-appointment and extension of the COAS or of a General of the Pakistan Army.

IN THE SUPREME COURT OF PAKISTAN

(Original Jurisdiction)

PRESENT:

Mr. Justice Asif Saeed Khan Khosa, CJ Mr. Justice Mazhar Alam Khan Miankhel Mr. Justice Syed Mansoor Ali Shah

Constitution Petition No. 39 of 2019

(Against Extension of Tenure of Chief of the Army Staff)

The Jurists Foundation through its Chairman         …Petitioner

versus

Federal Government through Secretary Ministry of Defence, etc. …Respondents

Petitioner: In person.

For the respondents: Mr. Anwar Mansoor Khan, Attorney-General for Pakistan with

Mr. Sajid Ilyas Bhatti, Addl. Attorney-General

Mr. Amir-ur-Rehman, Addl. Attorney General

Ch. Ishtiaq Ahmed, Addl. Attorney General.

Mr. Sohail Mehmood, Dy. Attorney General.

Mian Asghar Ali, Dy. Attorney General. Assisted by Ms. Faryal Shah Afridi, Advocate.

Syed Iqbal Hussain, ASC.

Brig. Falak Naz, Director (Law), M/o Defence.

Flt. Lt. Khalid Abbas, Asst. Director (Law), M/o Defence.

Brig. Muhammad Khalid Khan, JAG Department, GHQ.

Lt. Col Rai Tanveer Ahmed Kharral, OIC, JAG Department, GHQ.

Dr. Farogh Nasim, ASC for respondent No.4, alongwith
Mr. Abid S. Zuberi, ASC.

assisted by M/s Ayan Memon, Mr. Shahid Naseem Gondal & Barriser Neelum Bukhari.

Constitution Petition No. 39 of 2019

Date of hearing: 28.11.2019

ORDER

For detailed reasons to be recorded later we pass the following short order:-

2. The extension/reappointment of General Qamar Javed Bajwa, Chief of the Army Staff (“COAS”) has been challenged before us. In the proceedings before us during the last three days the Federal Government has moved from one position to another referring to it as reappointment, limiting of retirement or extension of tenure and has also interchangeably placed reliance on Article 243(4)(b) of the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, 1973 (“Constitution”) and Regulation 255 of the Army Regulations (Rules), 1998. However, finally today the Federal Government through the learned Attorney General for Pakistan has presented this Court with a recent summary approved by the President on the advice of the Prime Minister along with Notification dated 28.11.2019 which shows that General Qamar Javed Bajwa has been appointed as COAS under Article 243(4)(b) of the Constitution with effect from 28.11.2019.

3. We have examined Article 243(4)(b) of the Constitution, Pakistan Army Act, 1952, Pakistan Army Act Rules, 1954 and Army Regulations (Rules), 1998 and inspite of the assistance rendered by the learned Attorney-General, we could not find any provision relating to the tenure of COAS or of a General and whether the COAS can be reappointed or his term can be extended or his retirement can be limited or suspended under the Constitution or the law. The learned Attorney-General has taken pains to explain that the answers to these questions are based on practice being followed in the Pakistan Army but the said practice has not been codified under the law.

4. Article 243 of the Constitution clearly mandates that the Federal Government shall have control and command of the Armed Forces and the supreme command of the Armed Forces Constitution Petition No. 39 of 2019 3 shall vest in the President. It further provides that the President shall, subject to law, have power to raise and maintain the military, etc. and it is the President who on the advice of the Prime Minister shall appoint, inter alia, COAS. Article 243 of the Constitution, therefore, clearly shows that the President shall, subject to law, raise and maintain the military, however, the laws referred to above do not specify the tenure, retirement, re-appointment and extension of the COAS or of a General of the Pakistan Army.

5. The learned Attorney-General has categorically assured the Court that this practice being followed is to be codified under the law and undertakes that the Federal Government shall initiate the process to carry out the necessary legislation in this regard and seeks a period of six months for getting the needful done. Considering that the COAS is responsible for the command, discipline, training, administration, organization and preparedness for war of the Army and is the Chief Executive in General Headquarters, we, while exercising judicial restraint, find it appropriate to leave the matter to the Parliament and the Federal Government to clearly specify the terms and conditions of service of the COAS through an Act of Parliament and to clarify the scope of Article 243 of the Constitution in this regard. Therefore, the current appointment of General Qamar Javed Bajwa as COAS shall be subject to the said legislation and shall continue for a period of six months from today, whereafter the new legislation shall determine his tenure and other terms and conditions of service.

6. This petition is disposed of in the above terms.

Chief Justice

Judge

Islamabad,

28th November, 2019
Approved for reporting.
Judge
Sadaqat

Article 243, 244 and 245 of the Constitution of Pakistan

Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, 1973

Part XII: Miscellaneous

Chapter 2: Armed Forces.

689 [ 243. Command of Armed Forces –

(1) The Federal Government shall have control and command of the Armed Forces.

(2) Without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing provision, the Supreme  command of the Armed Forces shall vest in the President.

(3) The President shall subject to law, have power-

(a) to raise and maintain the Military, Naval and Air Forces of Pakistan; and the Reserves of such Forces; and
(b) to grant Commissions in such Forces.

(3) The President shall, on advice of the Prime Minister, appoint-

(a) the Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee;
(b) the Chief of the Army Staff;
(c) the Chief of the Naval Staff; and
(d) the Chief of the Air Staff,
and shall also determine their salaries and allowances. ] 689

244 Oath of Armed Forces.

Every member of the Armed Forces shall make oath in the form set out in the Third Schedule.

245 Functions of Armed Forces.

696[(1)] 696 The Armed Forces shall, under the directions of the Federal Government, defend Pakistan against external aggression or threat of war, and, subject to law, act in aid of civil power when called upon to do so.

697[ (2) The validity of any direction issued by the Federal Government under clause (1) shall not be called in question in any court.

(3) A High Court shall not exercise any jurisdiction under Article 199 in relation to any area in which the Armed Forces of Pakistan are, for the time being, acting in aid of civil power in pursuance of Article 245:

Provided that this clause shall not be deemed to affect the jurisdiction of the High Court in respect of any proceeding pending immediately before the day on which the Armed Forces start acting in aid of civil power.

(4) Any proceeding in relation to an area referred to in clause (3) instituted on or after the day the Armed Forces start acting in aid of civil power and pending in any High Court shall remain suspended for the period during which the Armed Forces are so acting.] 697


Foot Notes

689 Substituted by Constitution (Eighteenth Amendment) Act, 2010, Section 90 (with effect from April 19, 2010) for :
243 Command of Armed Forces.
(1) The Federal Government shall have control and command of the Armed Forces.

690[ (1A) Without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing provision, the Supreme Command of the Armed Forces shall vest in the President. ] 690
(2) The President shall, subject to law, have power-
(a) to raise and maintain the Military, Naval and Air Forces of Pakistan; and the Reserves of such Forces; 691[and] 691
(b) to grant Commissions in such Forces 692[.] 692
693[] 693

694[ (3) The President shall, 695[in consultation with the Prime Minister] 695, appoint-
(a) the Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee;
(b) the Chief of the Army Staff;
(c) the Chief of the Naval Staff; and
(d) the Chief of the Air Staff,
and shall also determine their salaries and allowances.” ] 694

690 Inserted by Revival of Constitution of 1973 Order, 1985 (President’s Order No. 14 of 1985), Art 2, Sch. item 50 (with effect from March 2, 1985).
691 Inserted by Legal Framework Order, 2002 (Chief Executive’s Order No. 24 of 2002), Article 3(1), Sch. item 23(1)(a) (with effect from August 21, 2002).
692 Substituted by Legal Framework Order, 2002 (Chief Executive’s Order No. 24 of 2002), Article 3(1), Sch. item 23(1)(b) (with effect from August 21, 2002) for “; and”.
693 The following was omitted by Legal Framework Order, 2002 (Chief Executive’s Order No. 24 of 2002), Article 3(1), Sch. item 23(1)(b) (with effect from August 21, 2002) : :
(c) to appoint the Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee, the Chief of the Army Staff, the Chief of the Naval Staff and the Chief of the Air Staff, and determine their salaries and allowances.
694 Inserted by Legal Framework Order, 2002 (Chief Executive’s Order No. 24 of 2002), Article 3(1), Sch. item 23(2) (with effect from August 21, 2002).
695 Substituted by Constitution (Seventeenth Amendment) Act, 2003 (3 of 2003), Article 8 (with effect from December 31, 2003) for “in his discretion”.
696 Renumbered by Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1977 (23 of 1977), Section 4 (with effect from April 21, 1977)
697 Inserted by Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1977 (23 of 1977), Section 4 (with effect from April 21, 1977).


The Constitution of Pakistan