Vote of no-confidence against Prime Minister in Pakistan

  1. Vote of no-confidence against Prime Minister.−

(1) A resolution for a vote of no-confidence moved by not less than twenty per centum of the total membership of the National Assembly may be passed against the Prime inister by the National Assembly.

(2) A resolution referred to in clause (1) shall not be voted upon before the expiration of three days, or later than seven days, from the day on which such resolution is moved in the National Assembly.

(3) A resolution referred to in clause (1) shall not be moved in the National Assembly while the National Assembly is considering demands for grants submitted to it in the Annual Budget Statement.

(4) If the resolution referred to in clause (1) is passed by a majority of the total membership of the National Assembly, the Prime Minister shall cease to hold office.

Substituted by the Revival of the Constitution of 1973 Order, 1985 (P.O. No. 14 of 1985),
published in the Gazette of Pakistan (Extraordinary), dated: 17 March 1985, pp. 185-227, Article 2 read with the Schedule, item 20: the Order came into force on 2 March 1985 and was saved under Article 270A of the Constitution.


Protection of property in Pakistan

24.Protection of property rights.−

(1) No person shall be deprived of his property save in accordance with law.

(2) No property shall be compulsorily acquired or taken possession of save for a public purpose, and save by the authority of law which provides for compensation therefor and either fixes the amount of compensation or specifies the principles on and the manner
in which compensation is to be determined and given.

(3) Nothing in this Article shall affect the validity of −

(a) any law permitting the compulsory acquisition or taking possession of any property for preventing danger to life, property or public health; or

(b) any law permitting the taking over of any property which has been acquired by, or come into the possession of, any person by any unfair means, or in any manner, contrary to law; or

(c) any law relating to the acquisition, administration or disposal of any property which is or is deemed to be enemy property or evacuee property under any law (not being
property which has ceased to be evacuee property under any law); or

(d) any law providing for the taking over of the management of any property by the State for a limited period, either in the public interest or in order to secure the proper
management of the property, or for the benefit of its owner;


(e) any law providing for the acquisition of any class of property for the purpose of −

(i) providing education and medical aid to all or any specified class of citizens; or
(ii) providing housing and public facilities and services such as roads, water supply, sewerage, gas and electric power to all or any specified class of citizens; or
(iii) providing maintenance to those who, on account of unemployment, sickness, infirmity or old age, are unable to maintain themselves; or
(f) any existing law or any law made in pursuance of Article 253.
(4) The adequacy or otherwise of any compensation provided for by any such law as is referred to in this Article, or determined in pursuance thereof, shall not be called in question in any court.


Freedom of speech in Pakistan

19.Freedom of speech, etc.− Every citizen shall have the right to freedom of speech and expression, and there shall be freedom of the press, subject to any reasonable restrictions imposed by law in the interest of the glory of Islam or the integrity, security or defence of Pakistan or any part thereof, friendly relations with foreign States, public order, decency or morality, or in relation to contempt of court, commission of or incitement to an offence.

19A. Right to information−Every citizen shall have the right to have access to information in all matters of public importance subject to regulation and reasonable restrictions imposed by law.


High treason in Pakistan

  1. High treason.−

(1) Any person who abrogates or subverts or suspends or holds in abeyance, or attempts or conspires to abrogate or subvert or suspend or hold in abeyance, the Constitution by use of force or show of force or by any other unconstitutional means shall be guilty of high treason.
(2) Any person aiding or abetting or collaborating the acts mentioned in clause (1) shall likewise be guilty of high treason.
(2A) An act of high treason mentioned in clause (1) or clause (2) shall not be validated by any court including the Supreme Court and a High Court.
(3) Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)] shall by law provide for the punishment of persons found guilty of high treason.


The Republic of Pakistan and its territories

  1. The Republic and its territories.−

(1) Pakistan shall be a
Federal Republic to be known as the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, hereinafter referred to as Pakistan.
(2) The territories of Pakistan shall comprise −
(a) the Provinces of [Balochistan], the [Khyber Pakhtunkhwa], the Punjab and [Sindh];
(b) the Islamabad Capital Territory hereinafter referred to
as the Federal Capital;
(c) the Federally Administered Tribal Areas; and
(d) such States and territories as are or may be included in Pakistan, whether by accession or otherwise.
(3) Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) may by law admit into the Federation new States or areas on such terms and conditions as it thinks fit.


Supreme Judicial Council of Pakistan


(1) There shall be a Supreme Judicial Council of Pakistan, in this Chapter referred to as the Council.

(2) The Council shall consist of,

(a) the Chief Justice of Pakistan;
(b) the two next most senior Judges of the Supreme Court; and
(c) the two most senior Chief Justices of High Courts.

Explanation:- For the purpose of this clause, the inter se seniority of the Chief Justices of the High Courts shall be determined with reference to their dates of appointment as Chief Justice [231] [otherwise than as acting Chief Justice], and in case the dates of such appointment are the same, with reference to their dates of appointment as Judges of any of the High Courts.

(3) If at any time the Council is inquiring into the capacity or conduct of a Judge who is a member of the Council, or a member of the Council is absent or is unable to act due to illness or any other cause, then

(a) if such member is a Judge of the Supreme Court, the Judge of the Supreme Court who is next in seniority below the Judges referred to in paragraph (b) of clause (2), and
(b) if such member is the Chief Justice of a High Court; the Chief Justice of another High Court who is next in seniority amongst the Chief Justices of the remaining High Courts, shall act as a member of the Council in his place.

(4) If, upon any matter inquired into by the Council, there is a difference of opinion amongst its members, the opinion of the majority shall prevail, and the report of the Council to the President shall be expressed in terms of the view of the majority.

(5) If, on information [231A] [from any source, the Council or] the President is of the opinion that a Judge of the Supreme Court or of a High Court,

(a) may be incapable of properly performing the duties of his office by reason of physical or mental incapacity; or
(b) may have been guilty of misconduct, the President shall direct the Council to [231B] [or the Council may, on its own motion,] inquire into the matter.

(6) If, after inquiring into the matter, the Council reports to the President that it is of the opinion,

(a) that the Judge is incapable of performing the duties of his office or has been guilty of misconduct, and
(b) that he should be removed from office,the President may remove the Judge from office.

(7) A Judge of the Supreme Court or of a High Court shall not be removed from office except as provided by this Article.

(8) The Council shall issue a code of conduct to be observed by Judges of the Supreme Court and of the High Courts.


The 17th Amendment to the Constitution brought a significant change in Article 209 of the Constitution. Prior to the Amendment, the Council could process only such matters as were referred to it by the President. Under the amended Article 209, the Council, besides a reference from the President, may, also on its own account, inquire into the conduct or capacity of a Judge of a Superior Court in Pakistan. Continue reading

Supreme Judicial Council of Pakistan-Code of Conduct

(Supreme Judicial Council)


Islamabad, the 2nd September, 2009

No.F.SECRETARY-01/2009/SJC.-ln exercise of powers conferred by Article 209(8) of the Constitution of Islamic Republic of Pakistan, 1973, the Supreme Judicial Council in its meeting on 8th August, 2009 approved the addition of a new Article No. XI in the Code of Conduct for Judges of the supreme Court and High Courts and in its meeting on 29th August, 2009 decided to publish the full text of amended Code of Conduct in the Gazette of Pakistan (Extraordinary) for information of all concerned as under:-

Code of Conduct for Judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts (Framed by the Supreme Judicial Council under Article 128 (4) of the 1962 Constitution as amended upto date under Article 209 (8) of the Constitution of Islamic Republic of Pakistan 1973).

The prime duty of a Judge as an individual is to present before the public an image of justice of the nation. As a member of his court, that duty is brought within the disciplines appropriate to a corporate body.

The Constitution, by declaring that all authority exercisable by the people is a sacred trust from Almighty Allah, makes it plain that the justice of this nation is of Divine origin. It connotes full implementation of the high principles, which are woven into the Constitution, as well as the universal requirements of natural justice. The oath of a Judge implies complete submission to the Constitution, and under the Constitution to the law. Subject to these governing obligations, his function of interpretation and application of the Constitution and the Law is to be discharged for the maintenance of the Rule of Law over the whole range of human activities within the nation.

To be a living embodiment of these powers, functions, and obligations calls for possession of the highest qualities of intellect and character. Equally, it imposes patterns of behavior, which are the hall-mark of distinction of a Judge among his fellow-men.

In this code, an attempt is made to indicate certain traditional requirements of behavior in the Judges of the Superior Courts, conducive to the achievement of a standard of justice worthy of the nation.


On equiponderance stand the heavens and the earth. By equiponderance, oppression meaning unjust and unequal burdens is removed. The Judge’s task is to ensure that such equality should prevail in all things.


A Judge should be God-fearing, law-abiding, abstemious, truthful of tongue, wise in opinion, cautious and forbearing, blameless, and untouched by greed. While dispensing justice, he should be strong without being rough, polite without being weak, awe inspires in his warnings and faithful to his word, always preserving calmness, balance and complete detachment, for the formation of correct conclusions in all matters coming before him.

In the matter of taking his seat and of rising from his seat, he shall be punctilious in point of time, mindful of the courtesies, careful to preserve the dignity of the Court, while maintaining an equal aspect towards all litigants as well as lawyers appearing before him.


To be above reproach, and for this purpose to keep his conduct in all things, ‘official and private, free from impropriety is expected of a Judge.


A Judge must decline resolutely to act in a case involving his own interest, including those of persons whom he regards and treats as near relatives or close friend.

A Judge must rigidly refrain from entering into or continuing any business dealing, howsoever unimportant it may be, with any party to a case before him. Should the dealing be unavoidable, he must discontinue his connection with the case forthwith. A judge must refuse to deal with any case in which he has a connection with one party or its lawyer more than the other, or even with both parties and their lawyers.

To ensure that justice is not only done, but is also seen to be done, a Judge must avoid all possibility of his opinion or action in any case being swayed by any consideration of personal advantage, either direct or indirect.


Functioning as he does in full view of the public, a Judge gets thereby all the publicity that is good for him. He should not seek more. In particular, he should not engage in any public controversy, least of all on a political question, notwithstanding that it involves a question of law.


A Judge should endeavor to avoid, as far as possible, being involved, either on his own behalf or on behalf of others, in litigation or in matters which are liable to lead to litigation such as industry, trade or speculative transactions.

To employ the influence of his position to gain undue advantage, whether immediate or future, is a grave fault.

A Judge must avoid incurring financial or other obligations to private institutions or persons such as may embarrass him in the performance of his functions.


Extra-Judicial duties or responsibilities, official or private, should be generally avoided. He should equally avoid being a candidate, for any elective office in any organization whatsoever.


Gifts are to be received only from near relatives and close friends, and only such as are customary. Everything in the way of favours in consequence of the office must be refused. In accepting any entertainment offered, whether general or particular, care should be taken that its real purpose does not conflict with a Judge’s duty to maintain detachment from likely litigants, and from partisan activity.


In his judicial work, and his relations with other Judges, a Judge should act always for the maintenance of harmony within his own Court, as well as among all Courts and for the integrity of the institution of justice. Disagreement with the opinion of any Judge, whether of equal or of inferior status, should invariably be expressed in terms of courtesy and restraint.


In this judicial work a Judge shall take all steps to decide cases within the shortest time, controlling effectively efforts made to prevent early disposal of cases and make every endeavor to minimize suffering of litigants by deciding cases expeditiously through proper written judgments. A Judge who is unmindful or indifferent towards this aspect of his duty is not faithful to his work, which is a grave fault.


No Judge of the superior judiciary shall render support in any manner whatsoever, including taking or administering oath in violation of the oath, of office prescribed in the Third Schedule to the Constitution, to any authority that acquires power otherwise than through the modes envisaged by the Constitution of Pakistan.

By order of the Council,

(Dr. Faqir Hussain)

Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz (PML-N) government had introduced the 13th amendment in the interim constitution of AJK on May 31, 2018.

Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz (PML-N) government had introduced the 13th amendment in the interim constitution of AJK on May 31, 2018.

Moreover, instead of originating the bill either in the council or the assembly, the government of AJK presented it directly in the joint sitting of AJK council and legislative assembly on the same day and got it passed. The bill presented and passed by the government of AJK was beyond the approved bill of the cabinet. The following amendments were made in the constitution. Continue reading

Who are competent to take admission for LLB Degree in Pakistan


section 4. Admission to LL.B. class:

(i) A person having passed the examination of Higher Secondary Education i.e. Intermediate [or equivalent], shall be eligible for admission to 1st year of
(5 years) LL.B. programme.

[Provided that a person having passed his Bachelor degree examination during 2015-16, will be eligible to apply for admission to 1st year of (previous 3 years) LL.B. programme in morning classes, only in the year 2016, with a recognized University, in its main campus, as specified by the Pakistan Bar Council for which the concerned University will be allocated 100 seats in addition to 100 seats earlier allocated].

[(ii)] Admissions to LL.B. (1st year) shall be on merits.

(iii)] Subject to the provisions of sub-rules (i), (ii) and (iii) above, 5 percent seats shall be reserved for the sons/daughters of Advocates who shall compete for admission in order of merit inter se.

(iv) A candidate shall not be eligible for admission to LL.B. if he.

(i) has been convicted of an offence involving moral turpitude; or

(ii) has been dismissed or removed from service of Government, any local Authority or institution incorporated by the Government under any statute, for corruption or misconduct.

[(v)] The University or the law college will furnish complete list of students admitted to LL.B. programme, to the Pakistan Bar Council within one month of admission with necessary particulars of each student for registration with the Pakistan Bar Council along with registration fee of each student @ Rs. 1000/-”.