Classical Western: Ancient, Medieval, and Modern : Epistemology and Metaphysics

Pre-Socratic Philosophers: Thales, Anaxagoras, Anaximenies, Ionians, Pythagoras, Parmenides, Heraclitus and Democritus,
The Sophists and Socrates
Plato and Aristotle:
 Plato – Theory of knowledge, knowledge and opinion, theory of Ideas, the method of dialectic, soul and God.
 Aristotle – Classification of the sciences, the theoretical, the practical and the
productive, logic as an organon, critique of Plato’s theory of Ideas, theory of causation, form and matter, potentiality and actuality, soul and God.

Medieval Philosophy:

 Augustine: Problem of Evil.
 Anselm: Ontological argument.
 Thomas Aquinas: Faith and Reason, Essence and Existence, the Existence of God.
Modern Western Philosophy:
 Descartes : Conception of method , Criteria of truth, doubt and methodological
scepticism, cogito ergo sum, innate ideas, Cartesian dualism: mind and matter, proofs for the existence of God, interactionism.
 Spinoza : Substance, Attribute and Mode, the concept of ‘God or Nature’, Intellectual love of God, parallelism, pantheism, three orders of knowing.
 Leibnitz : Monadology, truths of reason and fact, innateness of ideas, proofs for the existence of God, principles of non – contradiction, sufficient reason and identity of indiscernibles, the doctrine of pre -established harmony, problem of freedom.
 Locke : Ideas and their classification, refutation of innate ideas, theory of substance,
distinction between primary and secondary qualities, theory of knowledge, three grades of knowledge.
 Berkeley : Rejection of the distinction between primary and secondary qualities,
immaterialism, critique of abstract ideas, esse est percipi, the problem of solipcism; God and self.
 Hume : Impressions and ideas, knowledge concerning relations of ideas and knowledge concerning matters of fact, induction and causality, the external world and the self, personal identity, rejection of metaphysics, scepticism, reason and the passions.
 Kant : The critical philosophy, classification of judgements, possibility of synthetic a priori judgements, the Copernican revolution, forms of sensibility, categories of understanding, the metaphysical and the transcendental deduction of the categories, phenomenon and noumenon, the Ideas of Reason – soul, God and world as a whole, rejection of speculative metaphysics.
 Hegel : The conception of Geist (spirit), the dialectical method, concepts of being, non – being and becoming, absolute idealism, Freedom.

Meditations on First Philosophy:René Descartes

how can I doubt that these hands or this whole body are mine? To doubt such things I would have to liken myself to brain-damaged madmen who are convinced they are kings when really they are paupers, or say they are dressed in purple when they are naked, or that they are pumpkins, or made of glass. Such people are insane, and I would be thought equally mad if I modelled myself on them.

General Introduction to the Philosophy of History: Hegel

The very essence of spirit is action. It makes itself what it essentially is; it is its own product, its own work. Thus it becomes object of itself, thus it is presented to itself as an external existence. Likewise the spirit of a people: it is a definite spirit that builds itself up to an objective world. This world, then, stands and continues in its religion, its cult, its customs, its constitution and political laws, the whole scope of its institutions, its events and deeds.

Introduction to the History of Philosophy: Hegel

In the Christian religion the principle of which we speak has been rather expressed in the form of feeling and representation than articulated in the form of pure thought.What is essential in this story is that the tree from which Adam eats is the tree of the knowledge of good and evil; the rest is simply imaginary. The point at which we now stand is the result of all the work that has been done over a period Of 2300 years; it is what the World-Spirit has brought before itself in its thinking consciousness.

NIRVANA SHATAKAM-निर्वाणषट्कम्

निर्वाण षट्कम श्रीमच्छंकरभगवतः मनोबुद्धयहंकारचित्तानि नाहम् – न च श्रोत्र जिह्वे न च घ्राण नेत्रे न च व्योम भूमिर्न तेजॊ न वायु: चिदानन्द रूप: शिवोऽहम् शिवोऽहम् ॥1॥ न च प्राण संज्ञो न वै […]

Why self-contained Brahman created this universe

आत्मा वा इदमेक एवाग्र आसीत् । नान्यत्किञ्चन मिषत् । स ईक्षत लोकान्नु सृजा इति ॥ १,१.१ ॥ स ईक्षतेमे नु लोकाः । लोकपालान्नु सृजा इति । सोऽद्भ्य एव पुरुषं समुद्धृत्यामूर्च्छयत् ॥ १,१.३ […]