Classical Western: Ancient, Medieval, and Modern : Epistemology and Metaphysics

Pre-Socratic Philosophers: Thales, Anaxagoras, Anaximenies, Ionians, Pythagoras, Parmenides, Heraclitus and Democritus,
The Sophists and Socrates
Plato and Aristotle:
 Plato – Theory of knowledge, knowledge and opinion, theory of Ideas, the method of dialectic, soul and God.
 Aristotle – Classification of the sciences, the theoretical, the practical and the
productive, logic as an organon, critique of Plato’s theory of Ideas, theory of causation, form and matter, potentiality and actuality, soul and God.

Medieval Philosophy:

 Augustine: Problem of Evil.
 Anselm: Ontological argument.
 Thomas Aquinas: Faith and Reason, Essence and Existence, the Existence of God.
Modern Western Philosophy:
 Descartes : Conception of method , Criteria of truth, doubt and methodological
scepticism, cogito ergo sum, innate ideas, Cartesian dualism: mind and matter, proofs for the existence of God, interactionism.
 Spinoza : Substance, Attribute and Mode, the concept of ‘God or Nature’, Intellectual love of God, parallelism, pantheism, three orders of knowing.
 Leibnitz : Monadology, truths of reason and fact, innateness of ideas, proofs for the existence of God, principles of non – contradiction, sufficient reason and identity of indiscernibles, the doctrine of pre -established harmony, problem of freedom.
 Locke : Ideas and their classification, refutation of innate ideas, theory of substance,
distinction between primary and secondary qualities, theory of knowledge, three grades of knowledge.
 Berkeley : Rejection of the distinction between primary and secondary qualities,
immaterialism, critique of abstract ideas, esse est percipi, the problem of solipcism; God and self.
 Hume : Impressions and ideas, knowledge concerning relations of ideas and knowledge concerning matters of fact, induction and causality, the external world and the self, personal identity, rejection of metaphysics, scepticism, reason and the passions.
 Kant : The critical philosophy, classification of judgements, possibility of synthetic a priori judgements, the Copernican revolution, forms of sensibility, categories of understanding, the metaphysical and the transcendental deduction of the categories, phenomenon and noumenon, the Ideas of Reason – soul, God and world as a whole, rejection of speculative metaphysics.
 Hegel : The conception of Geist (spirit), the dialectical method, concepts of being, non – being and becoming, absolute idealism, Freedom.

Philosophy and Party of the National Socialist Movement-Adolf Hitler

Over against all this, the völkisch concept of the world recognizes that the primordial racial elements are of the greatest significance for mankind. In principle, the State is looked upon only as a means to an end and this end is the conservation of the racial characteristics of mankind. Therefore on the völkisch principle we cannot admit that one race is equal to another. By recognizing that they are different, the völkisch concept separates mankind into races of superior and inferior quality.

Judicial Accomplishments and Philosophy- President G. W. Bush

The lesson should be clear to every American: Judges matter. And that means the selection of good judges should be a priority for all of us. I appreciate that many people listening today and here in this room have worked hard to recruit more Americans to this cause. This work is in all our interests, because the truth of the matter is the belief in judicial restraint is shared by the vast majority of American citizens.


If this Discourse appear too long to be read at once, it may be divided into six Parts: and, in the first, will be found various considerations touching the Sciences; in the second, the principal rules of the Method which the Author has discovered, in the third, certain of the rules of Morals which he has deduced from this Method; in the fourth, the reasonings by which he establishes the existence of God and of the Human Soul, which are the foundations of his Metaphysic; in the fifth, the order of the Physical questions which he has investigated

Mozi-one become an instrument for all the world

When ministers and subordinates give importance to their offices yet do not speak, close ministers fall silent, distant officials mumble under their breaths, unrest binds the heart of the people, sycophantic flattery by those at their sides surrounds superiors, and good counsel is obstructed, the state is endangered.

Martin Heidegger: List of Works

Heidegger, M. (1975-) Gesamtausgabe (Collected Edition), Frankfurt: Vittorio Klostermann. Heidegger, M. (1914) Die Lehre vom Urteil im Psychologismus. Ein kritisch-positiver Beitrag zur Logik (The Doctrine of Judgment in Psychologism: A Critical-positive Contribution […]

“The sick”-Lectures on Homoeopathic Philosophy: KENT

Man consists in what he thinks and what he loves and there is nothing else in man. Man’s highest possible love is for his life. Aurum so destroys this that he does not love his life, he will commit suicide. Argentum on the other hand so destroys man’s understanding that he is no longer rational; his memory is entirely ruined. We see them affecting first man’s mind, and proceeding from the mind to the physical economy, to the outermost, to the skin, the hair, the nails.

Sadhana: Rabindranath Tagore


This is why the Upanishads describe those who have attained the goal of human life as ‘peaceful’ and as ‘at-one-with-God,'” meaning that they are in perfect harmony with man and nature, and therefore in undisturbed union with God.We have a glimpse of the same truth in the teachings of Jesus when he says. It is easier for a camel to pass through the eye of a needle than for a rich man to enter the kingdom of Heaven’ – which implies that whatever we treasure for ourselves separates us from others; our possessions are our limitations.