“The sick”-Lectures on Homoeopathic Philosophy: KENT

SUMMARY: Hahnemann once said, “There are no diseases, but sick people,” from which it is clear that Hahnemann understood that the diseases so-called, e.g., Bright’s disease, liver disease, etc. were but the grosser forms of disease results, viz., appearances of disease. The sick man will be made sick under every circumstance, whereas the healthy man could live in a lazaretto. To get at the real nature of the human economy, and to lead up from that to sickness, opens out a field for investigation in a most scientific way. Sickness can be learned by the study of the provings of drugs upon the healthy economy. Hahnemann made use of the information thus obtained when he stated that the mind is the key to the man. The symptoms of the mind have been found by all his followers to be the most important symptoms in a remedy and in a sickness. Man consists in what he thinks and what he loves and there is nothing else in man. Man’s highest possible love is for his life. Aurum so destroys this that he does not love his life, he will commit suicide. Argentum on the other hand so destroys man’s understanding that he is no longer rational; his memory is entirely ruined. We see them affecting first man’s mind, and proceeding from the mind to the physical economy, to the outermost, to the skin, the hair, the nails.

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Sadhana: Rabindranath Tagore

RAVINDRANATH TAGORE

The Relation of the Individual to the Universe

THE CIVILIZATION OF ancient Greece was nurtured within city walls. In fact, all the modern civilizations have their cradles of brick and mortar.

These walls leave their mark deep in the minds of men. They set up a principle of ‘divide and rule’ in our mental outlook, which begets in us a habit of securing all our conquests by fortifying them and separating them from one another. We divide nation and nation, knowledge and knowledge, man and nature. It breeds in us a strong suspicion of whatever is beyond the barriers we have built, and everything has to fight hard for its entrance into our recognition. When the first Aryan invaders appeared in India it was a vast land of forests, and the new-comers rapidly took advantage of them. These forests afforded them shelter from the fierce heat of the sun and the ravages of tropical storms, pastures for cattle, fuel for sacrificial fire, and materials for building cottages. And the different Aryan clans with their patriarchal heads settled in the different forest tracts which had some special advantage of natural protection, and food and water in plenty.

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Chronology of the Most Important Modern Philosophical Work: Harald Høffding

Chronology of the Most Important Philosophical Work: Harald Høffding

  1. Cusanus: De docta ignorantia.
  2. Machiavelli: Il principe.
  3. Pomponazzi: De immortalitate animæ.
  4. Vives: De anima et vita.
  5. Melanchthon: De anima.
  6. Copernicus: De revolutionibus orbium coelestium.
  7. Ramus: Institutiones dialecticæ.
  8. Telesio: De rerum natura.
  9. Bodin: La république.
  10. Montaigne: Essais.
  11. Sanchez: Quod nihil scitur.
  12. Bruno: De umbris idearum.
  13. ” Cena delle ceneri.
  14. ” De l’ infinite universo et mondi.
  15. ” De la causa, principio, et uno.
  16. ” De gl’heroici furori.
  17. ” De triplici minimo.
  18. ” De immenso.

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THE PHILOSOPHY OF SHELLEY’S POETRY: W.B YEATS 1900

THE PHILOSOPHY OF SHELLEY’S POETRY

I. HIS RULING IDEAS

When I was a boy in Dublin I was one of a group who rented a room in a mean street to discuss philosophy. My fellow-students got more and more interested in certain modern schools of mystical belief, and I never found anybody to share my one unshakable belief. I thought that whatever of philosophy has been made poetry is alone permanent, and that one should begin to arrange it in some regular order, rejecting nothing as the make-believe of the poets. I thought, so far as I can recollect my thoughts after so many years, that if a powerful and benevolent spirit has shaped the destiny of this world, we can better discover that destiny from the words that have gathered up the heart’s desire of the world, than from historical records, or from speculation, wherein the heart withers. Since then I have observed dreams and visions very carefully, and am now certain that the imagination has some way of lighting on the truth that the reason has not, and that its commandments, delivered when the body is still and the reason silent, are the most binding we can ever know. I have re-read Prometheus Unbound, which I had hoped my fellow-students would have studied as a sacred book, and it seems to me to have an even more certain place than I had thought, among the sacred books of the world. I remember going to a learned scholar to ask about its deep meanings, which I felt more than understood, and his telling me that it was Godwin’s Political Justice put into rhyme, and that Shelley was a crude revolutionist, and believed that the overturning of kings and priests would regenerate mankind. I quoted the lines which tell how the halcyons ceased to prey on fish, and how poisonous leaves became good for food, to show that he foresaw more than any political regeneration, but was too timid to push the argument. I still believe that one cannot help believing him, as this scholar I know believes him, a vague thinker, who mixed occasional great poetry with a phantastic rhetoric, unless one compares such passages, and above all such passages as describe the liberty he praised, till one has discovered the system of belief that lay behind them.

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The Madman: His Parables and Poems by Kahlil Gibran

The Madman

His Parables and Poems

By Kahlil Gibran

You ask me how I became a madman. It happened thus: One day, long before many gods were born, I woke from a deep sleep and found all my masks were stolen,—the seven masks I have fashioned and worn in seven lives,—I ran maskless through the crowded streets shouting, “Thieves, thieves, the cursed thieves.”

Men and women laughed at me and some ran to their houses in fear of me.

And when I reached the market place, a youth standing on a house-top cried, “He is a madman.” I looked up to behold him; the sun kissed my own naked face for the first time. For the first time the sun kissed my own naked face and my soul was inflamed with love for the sun, and I wanted my masks no more. And as if in a trance I cried, “Blessed, blessed are the thieves who stole my masks.”

Thus I became a madman.

And I have found both freedom and safety in my madness; the freedom of loneliness and the safety from being understood, for those who understand us enslave something in us.

But let me not be too proud of my safety. Even a Thief in a jail is safe from another thief.

God

In the ancient days, when the first quiver of speech came to my lips, I ascended the holy mountain and spoke unto God, saying, “Master, I am thy slave. Thy hidden will is my law and I shall obey thee for ever more.”

But God made no answer, and like a mighty tempest passed away.

And after a thousand years I ascended the holy mountain and again spoke unto God, saying, “Creator, I am thy creation. Out of clay hast thou fashioned me and to thee I owe mine all.”

And God made no answer, but like a thousand swift wings passed away.

And after a thousand years I climbed the holy mountain and spoke unto God again, saying, “Father, I am thy son. In pity and love thou hast given me birth, and through love and worship I shall inherit thy kingdom.”

And God made no answer, and like the mist that veils the distant hills he passed away.

And after a thousand years I climbed the sacred mountain and again spoke unto God, saying, “My God, my aim and my fulfillment; I am thy yesterday and thou are my tomorrow. I am thy root in the earth and thou art my flower in the sky, and together we grow before the face of the sun.”

Then God leaned over me, and in my ears whispered words of sweetness, and even as the sea that enfoldeth a brook that runneth down to her, he enfolded me.

And when I descended to the valleys and the plains God was there also.

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THE PROPHET By Kahlil Gibran-1923

“His power came from some great reservoir of spiritual life else it could not have been so universal and so potent, but the majesty and beauty of the language with which he clothed it were all his own?”

—Claude Bragdon

CONTENTS

The Coming of the Ship
On Love
On Marriage
On Children
On Giving
On Eating and Drinking
On Work
On Joy and Sorrow
On Houses
On Clothes
On Buying and Selling
On Crime and Punishment
On Laws
On Freedom
On Reason and Passion
On Pain
On Self-Knowledge
On Teaching
On Friendship
On Talking
On Time
On Good and Evil
On Prayer
On Pleasure
On Beauty
On Religion
On Death
The Farewell

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Appearance and Reality-F. H. BRADLEY

APPEARANCE AND REALITY

A METAPHYSICAL ESSAY

F. H. BRADLEY

Second Edition (Revised), with an Appendix

1897

Francis Herbert Bradley

Appearance and Reality

PREFACE (1893)

I HAVE described the following work as an essay in metaphysics. Neither in form nor extent does it carry out the idea of a system. Its subject indeed is central enough to justify the exhaustive treatment of every problem. But what I have done is incomplete, and what has been left undone has often been omitted arbitrarily. The book is a more or less desultory handling of perhaps the chief questions in metaphysics. There were several reasons why I did not attempt a more systematic treatise, and to carry out even what I proposed has proved enough for my powers. I began this book in the autumn of 1887, and, after writing the first two fifths of it in twelve months, then took three years with the remainder. My work has been suspended several times through long intervals of compulsory idleness, and I have been glad to finish it when and how I could. I do not say this to obviate criticism on a book now deliberately published. But, if I had attempted more, I should probably have completed nothing. And in the main I have accomplished all that lay within my compass. This volume is meant to be a critical discussion of first principles, and its object is to stimulate enquiry and doubt. To originality in any other sense it makes no claim. If the reader finds that on any points he has been led once more to reflect, I shall not have failed, so far as I can, to be original. But I should add that my book is not intended for the beginner. Its language in general I hope is not over-technical, but I have sometimes used terms intelligible only to the student.

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THE FUNCTION OF PHILOSOPHY-Alfred Ayer

THE FUNCTION OF PHILOSOPHY -1936

Among the superstitions from which we are freed by the  abandonment of metaphysics is the view that it is the business of the philosopher to construct a deductive system.  In rejecting this view wc are not, of course, suggesting  that the philosopher can dispense with deductive reasoning.  We are simply contesting his right to posit certain first  principles, and then offer them with their consequences as  a complete picture of reality. To discredit this procedure,  one has only to show that there can be no Jlrst principles of the kind it requires.

As it is the function of these first principles to provide a  certain “basis for our knowledge, it is clear that they are not  to be found among the so-called laws of nature. For we  .shall see that the ‘laws of nature’, if they are not mere  definitions, are simply hypotheses which may be confuted  by experience. And, indeed, it has never been the practice  of the system-builders in philosophy to choose inductive  generalizations for their premises. Rightly regarding such  generalizations as being merely probable, they subordin ate them to principles which they believe to be logically  certain.

This is illustrated most clearly in the system of  Descartes. It is commonly said that Descartes attempted  to derive all human knowledge from premises whose truth was intuitively certain : but this interpretation puts an undue stress on the element of psychology in his system. I  think he realized well enough that a mere appeal to intuition was insufficient for his purpose, since men are not all  equally credulous, and that what he was really trying to  do was to base all our knowledge on propositions which it would be self-contradictory to deny. He thought he had  found such a proposition ia ‘cogito’, -which must not here  be understood in its ordinary sense of ‘I think’ but rather as meaning ‘there is a thought now’. In fact he was wrong,  because “non cogito’ would be self-contradictory only if it  negated itself; and this no significant proposition can do.
But even if it were true that such a proposition as ‘there is  a thought now’ “was logically certain, it still would not  serve Descartes’s purpose. For if ‘cogito’ is taken in this  sense, his initial principle, ‘cogito ergo sum’, is false. ” exist’ -docs not follow from ‘there is a thought now’. The  fact that a thought occurs at a given moment does not  entail that any other thought has occurred at any other  moment, still less that there has occurred a serks of  thoughts sufficient to constitute a single self. As Hume  conclusively showed, no one event intrinsically points to  any other. We infer the existence of events which we are  not actually observing, with the help of .general principles.  But these principles must be obtained inductively. By mere  deduction from what is immediately given we cannot advance a single step beyond. And, consequently, any attempt to base a deductive system on propositions which describe what is immediately given is bound to be a failure.

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The Arhat-Jaina Darshan: Madhavacharya

MANGALACHARAN

1. I worship Śiva, the abode of eternal knowledge, the storehouse of supreme felicity; by whom the earth and the rest were produced, in him only has this all a maker.

2. Daily I follow my Guru Sarvajña-Vishṇu, who knows all the Ágamas, the son of Śárṅgapáṇi, who has gone to the further shore of the seas of all the systems, and has contented the hearts of all mankind by the proper meaning of the term Soul.

3. The synopsis of all the systems is made by the venerable Mádhava mighty in power, the Kaustubha-jewel of the milk-ocean of the fortunate Sáyaṇa.

4. Having thoroughly searched the Śástras of former teachers, very hard to be crossed, the fortunate Sáyaṇa-Mádhava[5] the lord has expounded them for the delight of the good. Let the virtuous listen with a mind from which all envy has been far banished; who finds not delight in a garland strung of various flowers?

THE ÁRHATA SYSTEM

The Gymnosophists (Jainas), rejecting these opinions of the Muktakachchhas, and maintaining continued existence to a certain extent, overthrow the doctrine of the momentariness of everything. (They say): If no continuing soul is accepted, then even the arrangement of the means for attaining worldly fruit in this life will be useless. But surely this can never be imagined as possible—that one should act and another reap the consequences! Therefore as this conviction, “I who previously did the deed, am the person who now reap its consequences,” establishes undoubtedly the existence of a continuing soul, which remains constant through the previous and the subsequent period, the discriminating Jaina Arhats reject as untenable the doctrine of momentary existence, i.e., an existence which lasts only an instant, and has no previous or subsequent part.

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THE VEDAS, BRÂHMANAS AND THEIR PHILOSOPHY – Surendranath Dasgupta 1922

The Vedas and their antiquity.

The sacred books of India, the Vedas, are generally believed to be the earliest literary record of the Indo-European race. It is indeed difficult to say when the earliest portions of these compositions came into existence. Many shrewd guesses have been offered, but none of them can be proved to be incontestably true. Max Müller supposed the date to be 1200 B.C., Haug 2400 B.C. and Bâl Gangâdhar Tilak 4000 B.C. The ancient Hindus seldom kept any historical record of their literary, religious or political achievements. The Vedas were handed down from mouth to mouth from a period of unknown antiquity; and the Hindus generally believed that they were never composed by men. It was therefore generally supposed that either they were taught by God to the sages, or that they were of themselves revealed to the sages who were the “seers” (mantradrastâ) of the hymns. Thus we find that when some time had elapsed after the composition of the Vedas, people had come to look upon them not only as very old, but so old that they had, theoretically at least, no beginning in time, though they were believed to have been revealed at some unknown remote period at the beginning of each creation.

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