Make Precis and give suitable Title.

  1. In early civilisations, most communities were sharply divided into two classes, Precis Writing those who laboured and those who did not. The small number of rulers – kings, priests, military leaders – lived in great comfort, and did very little work. The vast majority of the population enjoyed very few comforts, did a lot of work, and had scarcely any political power. In some societies, there was an even more wretched
    class, the slaves, who had no rights at all.
    The Industrial Revolution of Europe led to the production of vast quantities of goods, and workers began to be dissatisfied with their poverty. The factory owners needed skilled workers, and gradually they realised that they must show goodwill to their workforce, in order to stay in business. As in many other reforms, some enlightened slowly spread that workers were entitled to some consideration. Since men were free to work for any master they chose, good master soon had the pick of the workers and old-fashioned employers found themselves with a factory full of lower-grade workforce. Such a situation soon led to an all-round improvement in standards, and good employers tried to raise working conditions still higher. These improvements were speeded up by the increased orgnisation of workers in Trade Union movements, particularly in low-standard factories, where the owner often had to deal with strike action by dissatisfied workers.
    Now that the working classes are getting better and better working conditions, the need to strike has lessened considerably; and employers and workers alike have come to realise that they depend on each other for their livelihood. (292 words)


ANSWER: An important feature of this century is the improvement of the lot of the workers. In earlier ciyilisations, kings, priests, etc., lived confortably doing little, while the majority vhrked hard with few comforts and rights. Some societies had slaves too. During the Industrial Revolution, production increased and workers started feeling
dissatisfied. Clever employers attracted the best workers by offering better conditions and thus led to improvement in production. Some employers thought that workers had a right to better conditions. Soon Trade unions were organised to fight for workers rights with srrikes, if necessary. Now, there is increasing realisation of the mutual dependence of employers and their workers. (107 words)

2. The chief object of the repetitive form of advertisement is to help people to remember the prduct. The general principle is similar to that followed by Bajaj Automotives Ltd: “You just can’t beat a bajaj”. The repetition of a phrase, the inclusion of a trade name or a trade mark in every advertisement; is intended to impress upon the mind of the reader listener that name or phrase or picture. The response sought by the advertiser is achieved when a customer enters a shop for, say, toothpaste. To the shop-keeper’s question, “hy particular brand, please?, . the customer gives the reply that is in his mind, not necessarily because he has arrived at a decision by any process of reasoning, nor because some strong feeling has been aroused for some particular brand, but simply because he has repeatedly seen the name, wd it is associated in his mind with the idea of a good toothpaste. k Some trade names become so common that they displace the true name of the commodity itself, such as ‘vaseline’, the well-known trade name for ‘petroleum jelly’. Advertisements which have relied on repetition have, in the past, proved very powerful, b”t with the increased variety of proprietary articles and products
intended for the same purpose, this kind of advertising is losing some ok its value because of the confusion of names that arise in a customer’s mind when he wishes
to buy, say, cigarettes, tobacco, soap, chocolates, tea and other goods which are widely used. (248 words)


ANSWER: The use of repetition is the simplest form of advertising. In advertisements, repeated use of a particular phrase or trade-mark aims to make such an impression on the customer that he will tend to buy that product. Indeed, some trade-names, ‘vaseline’ for example, have become so well known that they are used instead of the real name of the products. Owing to the large number of consumer articles and products now in the market, advertising by repetition is less effective than it was in the past. (87 words)

Make Precis and give suitable Title.

1]  Trees give shade for the benefit of others, and while they themselves stand in the sun and endure the scorching heat, they produce the fruit of which others profit. The character of good men is like that of trees. What is the use of this perishable body if no use is made of it for the benefit of mankind? Sandalwood, the more it is rubbed, the more scent does it yield. Sugarcane, the more it is peeled and cut up into pieces, the more juice does it produce. The men who are noble at heart do not lose their qualities even in losing their lives. What matters whether men praise them or not? What difference does it make whether they die at this moment or whether lives are prolonged? Happen what may, those who tread in the right path will not set foot in any other. Life itself is unprofitable to a man who does not live for others. To live for the mere sake of living one’s life is to live the life of dog and crows. Those who lay down their lives for the sake of others will assuredly dwell forever in a world of bliss.


Good men live for others
The character of good men is like that of trees. They live for others and do not lose their qualities even in losing their lives. They always follow the right path. Praise is immaterial to them To live for one’s own sake is to lead the life of beasts. Only those who lay down their lives for others will live for ever in a world of bliss.

2] It is physically impossible for a well-educated, intellectual, or brave man to make money the chief object of his thoughts just as it is for him to make his dinner the principal object of them. All healthy people like their dinners, but their dinner is not the main object of their lives. So all healthy minded people like making money ought to like it and enjoy the sensation of winning it; it is something better than money.

A good soldier, for instance, mainly wishes to do his fighting well. He is glad of his pay—very properly so and justly grumbles when you keep him ten years without it—till, his main mission of life is to win battles, not to be paid for winning them. So of clergymen. The clergyman’s object is essentially baptize and preach not to be paid for preaching. So of doctors. They like fees no doubt—ought to like them; yet if they are brave and well-educated the entire object to their lives is not fees. They on the whole, desire to cure the sick; and if they are good doctors and the choice were fairly to them, would rather cure their patient and lose their fee than kill him and get it. And so with all the other brave and rightly trained men: their work is first, their fee second—very important always; but still second.


Money-making is a common attraction in life. But it cannot be the principal aim of well educated, cultured and brave man. A brave soldier prizes honour and victory more than his pay. A good clergyman is more interested in the moral welfare of his people than his returns. A doctor (good) values the care of his patient far more than his fees. Thus with all the well-educated, intellectual persons, their work is first, money next.

3] Home is the young, who known “nothing of the world and who would be forlorn and sad, if thrown upon it. It is providential, shelter of the weak and inexperienced, who have to learn as yet to cope with the temptations which lies outside of it. It is the place of training of those who are not only ignorant, but have no yet learnt how to learn, and who have to be taught by careful individual trail, how to set about profiting by the lessons of teacher. And it is the school of elementary studies—not of advances, for such studies alone can make master minds. Moreover, it is the shrine of our best affections, the bosom of our fondest recollections, at spell upon our after life, a stay for world weary mind and soul; wherever we are, till the end comes. Such are attributes or offices of home, and like to these, in one or other sense or measure, are the attributes and offices of a college in a university.


Home shelters the young who are weak and inexperienced and unable to face the temptations in life. It is a centre of their elementary education and a nursery of sweet affections and pleasant memories. Its magic lasts forever. A weary mind turns to it for rest. Such is the function of a home and in some measure of the

4] Teaching is the noblest of professions. A teacher has a scared duty to perform. It is he on whom rests the responsibility of moulding the character of young children. Apart from developing their intellect, he can inculcate in them qualities of good citizenship, remaining neat and clean, talking decently and sitting properly. These virtues are not easy to be imbibed. Only he who himself leads a life of simplicity, purity and rigid discipline can successfully cultivate these habits in his pupils.

Besides a teacher always remain young. He may grow old in age, but not in spite. Perpetual contact with budding youths keeps him happy and cheerful. There are moments when domestic worries weigh heavily on his mind, but the delightful company of innocent children makes him overcome his transient moods of despair.


Teaching is the noblest profession. A teacher himself leading a simple, pure and disciplined life can mould the character of the young children and make them neat and good mannered citizens. Besides he remains every young forgetting his own domestic worries in the constant company of the young.

5] English education and English language have done immense goods to India, inspite of their glaring drawbacks. The notions of democracy and self-government are the born of English education. Those who fought and died for mother India’s freedom were nursed in the cradle of English thought and culture. The West has made contribution to the East. The history of Europe has fired the hearts of our leaders. Our struggle for freedom has been inspired by the struggles for freedom in England, America and France. If our leaders were ignorant of English and if they had not studied this language, how could they have been inspired by these heroic struggles for freedom in other lands? English, therefore, did us great good in the past and if properly studied will do immense good in future.

English is spoken throughout the world. For international contact our comrherce and trade, for the development of our practical ideas, for the scientific studies, English-is indispensable “English is very rich in literature,” our own literature has been made richer by this foreign language. It will really be a fatal day if we altogether forget Shakespeare, Milton, Keats and Shaw.


Notwithstanding its various defects English education has done great good to India. The ideas of democracy and self-government are its gifts. Nursed on English education the Indian leaders were inspired by the Western thought, culture and freedom struggles. They fought for and won their motherland’s freedom. Being spoken thought-out the world English is necessary for interna­tional contact, trade, commerce and science. English is rich in literature; its master mind cannot be neglected.

6] When we survey our lives and efforts we soon observe that almost the whole of our actions and desires are bound up with the existence of other human beings. We notice that whole nature resembles that of the social animals. We eat food that others have produced, wear clothes that others have made, live in houses that others have built. The greater part of our knowledge and beliefs has been passed on to us by other people though the medium of a language which others have created. Without language and mental capacities, we would have been poor indeed comparable to higher animals.

We have, therefore, to admit that we owe our principal knowledge over the least to the fact of living in human society. The individual if left alone from birth would remain primitive and beast like in his thoughts and feelings to a degree that we can hardly imagine. The individual is what he is and has the significance that he has, not much in virtue of the individuality, but rather as a member of a great human community, which directs his material and spiritual existence from the cradle to grave.


Being social animals, human beings have their actions and desires bound up with society. In matter of food, clothes, knowledge and belief they are interdependent. They use language created by others. Without language their mental power would not grow. They are superior to beast, because they live in human society. An individual life left alone from birth would grow utterly beast like. So human society and not individuality guides man’s material and spiritual existence.

7] All human beings are liable to err. To be at peace with oneself,the realization of this fact is essential.Humanity is faced with numerous struggles and difficulties.We should view our own problems as part of a universal struggle and brace ourselves to meet every difficulty with fortitude.To be frantic and desperate n such occasions cannot help the situation .Perhaps the greatest folly is for each of us to hug his troubles to himself.Often the path through our worst worries can be made smoother if we seek the guidance of a trusted friend. But there are limits to human wisdom.The only adequate way to endure large evils is to find large consolations.The key to this search is prayer.The faith in a beneficent “Higher Power” can carry us through our most anxious moments.It has cured many people of their diseases and banished melancholy from their hearts.It was faith in God coupled with hardwork, which enabled Alexis Carrel to face ridicule and rejection calmly and finally became the recipient of the Nobel Prize.Finally ,how much less we should be if we could see our struggle as a part of the struggle of a whole creation intent on growth and renewal. By doing so, we not only make our lives easier ,but we also add our bit to the sum of human dignity and faith.


Man is not perfect so one should not take his mistakes on heart and consider his problems as universal struggle.The best way to combat evils and hopelessness,one should rely on divine medicine,that is prayer and faith in Almighty.Only hard work along with faith leads to success like as Alexis Carrel who achieved Nobel prize.One should consider his individual struggle as contribution in betterment of humanity.

Precis writing for Competitive Examinations


Practice Set

Men and women are of equal rank but they are not identical. They are be peerless pair being supplementary to one another, each helps the other so that without one the existence of the other cannot be conceived and, therefore it follows as a necessary corollary from these facts that anything that will impair the status of either of them will involve the equal ruin of them both. In framing any scheme of women’s education this cardinal truth must be constantly kept in mind. Man is supreme in the outward activities of a married air and therefore it is in the fitness of things that he should have a greater knowledge thereof. On the other hand, noise life is entirely the sphere of woman and, therefore in domestic affairs, in the upbringing and education of children, woman ought to have more knowledge Not that knowledge should be divided into water tight compartment’s or that so that some branches of knowledge should be closed to anyone, but unless courses of instruction are based on discriminating appreciation of these basic principles, the fullest life of man and woman cannot be developed. Among the manifold misfortunes that may befall humanity, the loss of health is one of the severest. All the joys which life can give cannot outweigh the sufferings of the sick. Among the manifold misfortunes that may befall humanity, the loss of health is one of the severest. All the joys which life can give cannot outweigh the sufferings of the sick. [word:251]

Almost every country in the world believes that it has some special dispensation from Providence, that it is of the chosen people or race and that others, whether they are good or bad, are somewhat inferior creatures. It is extraordinary now this kind of feeling persists in all nations of East as well as of the West without exception. The nations of the East are strongly entrenched in their own ideas and convictions and sometimes in their own sense of superiority about certain matters. Anyhow in the course of the last two or three hundred years, they have received many knocks on the head and they have been humiliated, and they have been debased and they have been humiliated, and they have been debased and they have been exploited. And so, in spite of their feeling that they were superior in many ways, they were forced to admit that they could be knocked about and exploited. To some extent, this brought a sense of realism to them. Three was also an attempt to escape from reality by saying that it was sad that we were not so advanced in material or technical things but that these were after all superficial things. Nevertheless we were superior in essential things, in spiritual things and moral values. I have no doubt that spiritual things and moral values are ultimately more important than other things, but the way one finds escape in the thought that one is spiritually superior simply because one is inferior in a material and physical sense, is surprising. It does not followed by any means. It is an escape from facing up the causes of one’s degradation. [word:- 278]

India has witnessed great expansion of educational opportunities since the attainment of independence. However, the disables children have not yet benefited in any substantial manner from the growth in educational facilities. Education of handicapped children, ultimately become more dependent and non productive. It is therefore believed that scarce national resources should not be wasted on them. Further, it has been our misconceived notion that the education of handicapped children requires highly specialized people and as such, it must essentially be very costly. Maybe, precisely for these wrong notions we have not been able to involve clinical and educational specialization programmers of training and education exclusively meant for handicapped children. It is encouraging to note that the new National Policy on Education has recommended the placement of such children in regular schools so as to provide them integrated education along with normal students. The integrated education will take care of the different needs of various categories and types of disabled children. The objective is to place the disabled children in ordinary schools for imparting education with the help of special teachers, aids and other resources. For fulfilling this objective an array of the necessary infrastructure by way of training of teachers, provision of equipment and book etc are some of the basic pre-requisition. Hopefully, the parents and their handicapped children will be greatly relieved when the latter are transferred to regular schools. [WORD: 231 ]

A drop of water fell out of the cloud into the sea, and finding itself lost in such an immensity of fluid matter, broke out into the following reflection: ‘Alas! What an inconsiderable creature am I in this prodigious ocean of waters: My existence is of no concern in the universe; ‘I am reduced to a kind of nothing, and am the least of the works of God’. It so happened that an oyster which lay in the neighbourhood of this drop chanced to gape and swallow it up in the midst of this his soliloquy. The drop, say the fables, lay a great while hardening in the shell, until by degrees it was ripened into a pearl, falling into the hands of a diver, after a long series of adventures, is at present that famous pearl which is fixed on the top of the Persian diadem.

ANSWER: Once, a drop of water, while falling into the sea, ruminated on its inconsequential existence in the vast ocean. Just then, an oyster swallowed it. The water drop, embedded in the shell, became a pearl in due course. A diver got it. After changing many hands, it now decorates the Persian crown.

Odisha, a small state in the east coast of India, was battered by Cyclone Philine in the last weekend. The cyclone came from the Bay of Begal. It was the result of a low pressure area developing in the sea. From a location a few hundred kilometers off the coast, Cyclone Philine gradually moved towards the land. The wind speed was nearly 220 kilometers per hour. The violent wind hit villages near the coastline with deadly force. Mud houses were flattened, trees uprooted and power lines were reduced to tangled heaps of wire. Fortunately, weather radars tracked the Philine doggedly as a result of which people were evacuated from their houses that fell in the projected path of Cyclone Philine. Millions of people were quickly moved to temporary shelters with remarkable efficiency. This reduced the death toll to negligible numbers. It was a remarkable success of disaster management in India. In another operation, the Coast Guard spotted a cargo ship at night that had tilted dangerously in the waters a few kilometers off Bengal. Responding to its SOS call, the Coast Guard rushed to its rescue and lifted out the sailors who were floating on their life boat in the dark near their ship.

ANSWER: Odisha suffers Nature’s Fury

Three days ago, Cyclone Philine coming from a low-pressure area in the Bay of Bengal tore through the coastal areas of the small eastern Indian state Odisha. With 220 kmph wind-speed, it flattened houses, and uprooted trees and power lines. Disaster management personnel evacuated millions to safety from the radar-predicted cyclone path. Also, the Coast Guard rescued some sailors from their life boat at night. Their ship had careened dizzily in the sea.

Trees give shade for the benefit of others, and while they themselves stand in the sun and endure the scorching heat, they produce the fruit of which others profit. The character of good men is like that of trees. What is the use of this perishable body if no use is made of it for the benefit of mankind? Sandalwood, the more it is rubbed, the more scent does it yield. Sugarcane, the more it is peeled and cut up into pieces, the more juice does it produce. The men who are noble at heart do not lose their qualities even in losing their lives. What matters whether men praise them or not? What
difference does it make whether they die at this moment or whether lives are prolonged?
Happen what may, those who tread in the right path will not set foot in any other. Life itself is unprofitable to a man who does not live for others. To live for the mere sake of living one’s life is to live the life of dog and crows. Those who lay down their lives for the sake of others will assuredly dwell forever in a world of bliss.

Answer : Good men live for others
The character of good men is like that of trees. They live for others and do not lose their qualities even in losing their lives. They always follow the right path. Praise is immaterial to them. To live for one’s own sake is to lead the life of beasts. Only those who lay down their lives for others will live forever in a world of bliss

 Make a précis in about 110 words of the following passage and give it a title

The Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP) will start working closely with banks to kick-start the government’s Start-Up India initiative in both rural and urban India. Commerce and Industry Minister Nirmala Sitharaman said the government would ensure that startups don’t run out of money and that their equity requirements don’t go unattended. The minister was talking to the media on the sidelines of a FICCI event.

The department is spearheading the Start-Up India initiative announced by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in his Independence Day address. Sitharaman said DIPP would work with banks across the country, especially in rural areas. “If each of these (bank) branches gives tribal or Dalit population something to start up with, it would take the whole startup and innovate India (initiative) thought to district level,” she said.

DIPP is also working on ways to reach out to the urban educated and the deprived section of the society to build entrepreneurship. “All over the country, youngsters are coming up with ideas of entrepreneurship. They don’t have time to wait, we don’t have time to lose,” Sitharaman said. The commerce minister said there is a need for greater participation of industry in driving ahead the movement of Skill India. “India needs an ecosystem where talent and skills can be nurtured. Through our 10,000 crore fund of fund for startups, we will provide soft loans, capital to those who want to start fresh enterprises,” she said.

The skill development and entrepreneurship ministry currently offers certified training in 31 different sectors under the Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana. Sitharaman, in another event organized by the Confederation of Indian Industry, said India, which ranked 142 in the World Bank’s Ease of Doing Business Report this year, is likely to fare better next year since the government has initiated certain reforms to improve the standing. [WORD: 302]

Title- ‘Entrepreneurship: The Future of India’

Answer: The government has understood the importance of entrepreneurship and development of new ideas to make the country industrially developed. It has launched several programmes to support the youngsters financially by helping those getting loans without much hassle as well as with skill development in various disciplines. The government is also ensuring that both the rural and urban areas get the benefit of these schemes. This will make the new ideas sustainable in the long run because the young generation will be encouraged to take up entrepreneurship initiatives with fresh ideas. This approach of the government is expected to make India a better destination in the world to do business.

Precis Writing for Judicial Examinations

A  précis is a clear, concise, and logical summary of a passage preserving its essential ideas.

What to do

  1. Read the paragraph and count the words
  2. Write important points and link them
  3. Start writing the paragraph and review them
  4. While writing, don’t go back and read the paragraph again
  5. Edit and modify
  6. Number of words in Precis should of 1/3 of the actual paragraph
  7. Don’t change the central idea of the paragraph
  8. Retain the keywords of the paragraph
  9. Don’t waste your time in counting words, instead count lines.
  10. Your precis should be completed in one paragraph only
  11. Avoid weak sentences
  12. Don’t give your personal opinion
  13. Don’t use any idiom of your own
  14. Never conclude anything of your own
  15. Never assume anything
  16. Give a name of the Precis, reflecting the theme.



There is an enemy beneath our feet – an enemy more deadly for his complete impartiality. He recognizes no national boundaries, no political parties. Everyone in the world is threatened by him. The enemy is the earth itself. When an earthquake strikes, the world trembles. The power of a quake is greater than anything man himself can produce. But today scientists are directing a great deal of their effort into finding some way of combating earthquakes, and it is possible that at some time in the near future mankind will have discovered a means of protecting itself from earthquakes.An earthquake strikes without warning. When it does, its power is immense. If it strikes a modern city, the damage it causes is as great as if it has struck a primitive village. Gas mains burst, explosions are caused and fires are started. Underground railways are wrecked. Buildings collapse, bridges fall, dams burst, gaping crevices appear in busy streets.If the quake strikes at sea, huge tidal waves sweep inland. If it strikes in mountain regions, avalanches roar down into the valley. Consider the terrifying statistics from the past 1755: Lisbon, capital of Portugal – the city destroyed entirely and 450 killed. 1970: Peru: 50,000 killed.In 1968 an earthquake struck Alaska. As this is a relatively unpopulated part, only a few people were killed. But it is likely that this was one of the most powerful quakes ever to have hit the world. Geologists estimate that during the tremors, the whole of the state moved over 80 feet farther west into the Pacific Ocean. Imagine the power of something that can move an entire subcontinent! This is the problem that the scientists face. They are dealing with forces so immense that man cannot hope to resist them. All that can be done is to try to pinpoint just where the earthquake will strike and work from there. At least some precautionary measures can then be taken to save lives and some of the property. (330 Words)’

Earthquake – the deadly enemy of mankind.
Damage caused by an earthquake in general.
Damage caused by an earthquake-in particular,
What can the scientists do?

Earthquake – The Great Destroyer

Earthquake is the mankind’s deadly enemy. Earthquake strikes all without a distinction of nationality or political affiliation. The power of a quake is greater than that of any man-made weapon of destruction. An earthquake strikes mankind without a warning. A modern city when struck is reduced -to a nibble. A quake strikes plains, seas and mountains causing all round destruction. The quake struck Lisbon in 1755 killing 450; Peru in 1970 killing 50,000; Alaska in 1968 moving it 80 feet into the Pacific Ocean. Scientists are trying to find out means to combat earthquakes, to predict the origin of the quake so that precaution can be taken to save man and property from destruction.(115 words) 

Write a Precis of the following passage.

One of our most difficult problems is what we call discipline and it is really very complex. You see, society feels that it must control or discipline the citizen, shape his mind according to certain religious, social, moral and economic patterns.

Now, is discipline necessary at all? Please listen carefully. Don’t immediately say YES or NO. Most of us feel, especially while we are young, that there should be no discipline, that we should be allowed to do whatever we like and we think that is freedom. But merely to say that we should be free and so on has very little meaning without understanding the whole problem of discipline.

The keen athlete is disciplining himself the whole time, isn’t he? His joy in playing games and the very necessity to keep fit makes him go to bed early, refrain from smoking, eat the right food and generally observe the rules of good health. His discipline and punctuality is not an imposition but a natural outcome of his enjoyment of athletics. [171 words]

Hints: Though discipline seems to be a problem, it is necessary for all. Discipline shapes our mind and regulates our habits. Some want to be free and think that it is not necessary. Discipline and punctuality give enjoyment to athletes.


Write a Precis of the following passage.

There are different types of forests in India. So, the products received from these forests are also several. The following are some of the forest products which are important in the growth and development of industries.

Forest products and the industries based on them:

(i) Timber : Timber from the forest are utilised in building activities, industries and in carpentry workshops. In Andaman Islands, Asia’s largest saw mill has been in operation.

(ii) Rubber : Rubber trees are grown in large numbers on the Western Ghats. As a consequence, there are a large number of industries dependent on rubber in the Peninsular India.

(iii) Wood Pulp : Wood pulp is made from the wood of the forests and paper is manufactured from the pulp. Paper mills are large in number in the States of Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, West Bengal and Madhya Pradesh. In the city of Nepa in Madhya Pradesh, there is a newsprint industry.

(iv) Lac and Wax : Lac and Wax are forest products and they are used in manufacturing paints. Thus a number of industries make use of forest products.

(v) And for the growth of the cottage industries the forests have been responsible in many an instance. [197 WORDS]


Many forest products are useful to man. Timber, rubber, Wood pulp, Lac and Wax are some of them. Timber is used for building activities. Rubber is useful for making many things. Wood pulp is used for making paper. Lac and Wax are used in making paints. There are many industries in India which depend on forest products.

Write a Precis of the following passage.

Prevention is better than cure. It is recognised that the only way to get rid of malaria completely is o get rid of the mosquitoes which cause it. Malaria is always associated with damp and marshy land. This is not because the land is damp, but because the static water is the breeding place of the mosquitoes which begin their life as a larva in the water. Malaria does not frequently occur in dry desert countries because mosquitoes can not breed there. The only way to destroy mosquitoes is to prevent their breeding in static water. This can be done by draining all ponds and pools. And by keeping them covered in the breeding season with a film of kerosene oil which by depriving the larva of air, kills them.


  • Prevention is better than cure.
  • Mosquitoes cause malaria.
  • We should get rid of malaria.
  • The static water is the breeding place of mosquitoes.
  • If the land is dry, the mosquitoes will not breed there.
  • WE should destroy the mosquitoes by draining all ponds and pools.
  • Another way to destroy the mosquitoes is to cover the ponds and the pools with a layer of kerosene oil.
  • The larvas get air and ultimately die.


  1. Summarize each section. Use your notes to write a brief summary for each section or paragraph, restricting the length to one or two sentences.
  2. Review and revise. Read through your précis. It should clearly express the original meaning of the text while retaining the same basic tone.
  3. Write in the present tense and maintain that tense throughout the paragraph.  Use active voice instead of passive voice.


Write a Precis of the following passage.

In her essay “Cyberspace and Identity” (1999), Sherry Turkle argues that “today’s life on the screen dramatizes and concretizes a range of cultural trends that encourage us to think of identity in terms of multiplicity and flexibility” . Turkle supports her assertion by juxtaposing theories of cyberspace and identity formation with older understandings of identity found in psychology, sociology, and philosophy. Her purpose is to show readers that theories on cyberspace and identity, which claim that identity is multiple and cyclical, do not overturn, but rather add to our understandings of identity in order to encourage her audience “to rethink our relationship to the computer culture and psychoanalytic culture as proudly held joint citizenship” (278). Turkle’s tone assumes a highly educated audience who is familiar with theories not only of cyberspace and identity, but sociology and psychology as well.



  • Clarity, which means your reader should understand what a writer intended to convey. Achieve it through using simple language and structure of your precis.
  • Correctness, which means you should watch spelling, grammar, and punctuation you use, as well as facts, figures, and dates you address.
  • Coherence, which means the logical interconnection of the original’s ideas. Your audience shouldn’t lose their interest while reading.
  • Conciseness, which means avoiding unnecessary details in your précis. Don’t omit essential facts but avoid wordy expressions, repetitions, wateriness, etc.

Write a Precis of the following passage

Water is the basis of all life. Every animal or every pliant contains a substantial proportion of free or combined water in its body and no kind of physical activity is possible in which water does not play an essential part. Water is necessary for animal life, while moisture in the soil is equally imperative for life and growth of plants and trees, though the quantity necessarily varies enormously from plant to plant.
The conservation and utilization of water is thus fundamental for human welfare. The main source of water is rainfall or snowfall. Much of Indian agriculture depends on seasonal rainfall and is therefore, very sensitive to any failure or irregularly of the some. During the rainy season large quantities of rain water flow down into the streams and rivers and ultimately find their way to the sea, and are, therefore, lost to the country. The harassing of our rivers is, therefore, it great national problem to be dealt with no national lines. Vast areas of land which at present are mere scrub, jungles could be turned into fertile and prosperous country by harassing this source of water.

Title: – Conservation and Utilization of Water.

Precis: – Water being so necessary for animal and plant life should be harnessed to our own use. The main source of water is rain. Most of
the rain water goes into rivers. This water must be used for making our barren land fertile. The conservation and utilization of water is,
therefore, a great national problem to be dealt with at the national level.

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As early as the sixth or seventh century B.C. Panini wrote his great grammar of the Sanskrit language. He mentions previous grammars and already in his time Sanskrit had crystallized and become the language of an ever-growing literature. Panini͛s book is something more than a mere grammar. To has been described by the Soviet. Professor Th. Stcherabatsky, of Leningrad, as one of the greatest productions of the human mind Panini is still the standard authority on Sanskrit grammar. Through subsequent grammarians have added to it and interpreted it. It is interesting to note that Panini mentions the Greek script. This indicates that there were some kind of contacts between India and the Greeks long before Alexander came to the East. The study of astronomy was specially pursued and it often merged with astrology. Medicine had its textbooks and there were hospitals. Dhanwantri is the legendary found of the Indian science of medicine. The best known old textbooks however, date from the early centuries of the Christian era. These are by Charka on medicine and Sushruta on surgery. Charka is supposed to have been the royal court physician of kanishka who had his capital in the north-West.
These text books enumerate a large number of diseases and give methods of diagnosis and treatment. They deal with surgery, obstetrics, baths, diet, hygiene, infant feeding, and medical education. The approach was experimental, and dissection of dead bodies was being practiced in course of surgical training. Various surgical instruments are mentioned by Sushrutas, as well as operations including amputation of limbs, abdominal, caesarean section, cataract, etc. Wounds were sterilized by fumigator. In the third or fourth century B.C. there were also hospitals for animals. This was probably due to the influence of Jainism and Buddhism with their emphasis on non- violence. [300 WORDS]

Title:- India advancement in the Ancient Ages.

Precis:- Panini wrote his great grammar of Sanskrit in the 6th century B.C. This grammar is the standard grammar of Sanskrit language. In ancient India, the study of astronomy was merged with astrology. Medicine was also much developed at that time, Charka wrote books on medicine and Shushruta wrote on surgery. These books deal with many diseases and the methods of their treatment. They also deal with surgery, obstetrics, hygiene and medical education. Surgery was also much developed. The sterilization of wounds was known to physicians of that time. Due to the influence of Jainism and Buddhism, there were hospitals for animals in India in the third or fourth century.[109 WORDS]

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It is physically impossible for a well-educated or brave man to make money the chief object of his thoughts, just as it is for him to make his dinner the principal object of them. All healthy people like their dinners, but their dinner is not the main object of their lives. So all healthy minded people like making money—ought to like it and enjoy the sensation of winning it; it is something better than money. A good soldier, for instance, mainly wishes to do his fighting well. He is glad of his pay—very properly so, and justly grumbles when you keep him ten years without it—still his main notion of life is to win battles, not to be paid for winning them. So of clergyman͛s object is essentially to baptize and preach, not to be paid for preaching. So of doctors. They like fees no doubt, — out to like them; yet if they are brave and well educated, the entire object of their lives is a not fee. They, on the whole, desire to cure the sick, and, if they are good doctors, and the choice were fairly put to them, would rather cure their patient and lose their fee than kill him and get it. And so with all the other brave and rightly trained men; their work is first, their fee second – very important always, but still second.[233 WORDS]

Duty First, Fee afterward

Precis: Moneymaking is not the sole object of the well educated, intellectual, or brave men. A brave soldier͛s main notion of life is to fight to win battles, not to be paid for winning them. A noble clergyman is concerned more with the welfare of the humanity than his pay. A good doctor desires far more to cure his patient than to get his fee. Thus, for all cultured people, their duty comes first, then their fee. [76 Words]