Tag: Res Judicata

Might and ought means

he words “might and ought” are used in a conjunctive sense. They denote that a matter must be of such a nature as could have been raised as a ground of defence or attack and should have been raised in the earlier suit.

Asgar & Ors. Vs. Mohan Varma & Ors-05/02/2019

An issue which the appellants might and ought to have asserted in the earlier round of proceedings is deemed to have been directly and substantially in issue. The High Court was, in this view of the matter, entirely justified in coming to the conclusion that the failure of the appellants to raise a claim would result in the application of the principle of constructive res judicata both having regard to the provisions of Sections 4 and 5 of the Act of 1958 and to the provisions of Order XXI Rules 97 to 101 of the CPC.

The embargo in Order II Rule 2 will arise only if the claim, which is omitted or relinquished and the reliefs which are omitted and not claimed, arise from one cause of action but If there is more than one cause of action the rule shall not apply

Pramod Kumar & ANR. Vs. Zalak Singh & Ors. – MAY 10, 2019 – The principle underlying Order II Rule 2 is that no man can be vexed twice over the same cause of action. All claims and reliefs, which arise from a cause of action, must be comprehended in one single suit. Order II Rule 2 provides for the principle of repose. If this be the underlying object of Order II Rule 2, the fact that at the time when the first suit was filed even though the second alienation could be challenged and it stemmed from one single cause of action and not two different causes of action, the mere fact that a different period of limitation is provided, cannot stand in the way of the bar under Order II Rule 2.

A decree obtained by fraud cannot be used as res judicata and the same can be challenged by a separate Suit-SC

SUPREME COURT OF INDIA JUDGMENTS

RAM CHANDRA SINGH VS
SAVITRI DEVI AND OTHERS – judiciary in India also possesses inherent power, specially u/s 151 CPC, to recall its judgment or order if it is obtained by fraud” on Court, In the case of fraud on a party to the suit or proceedings, the Court may direct the affected party to file a separate suit for setting aside the decree obtained by fraud. Inherent powers are powers, which are resident in all Courts, especially of superior jurisdiction. These powers spring not from legislation but from the nature and the constitution of the tribunals or Courts themselves so as to enable them to maintain their dignity, secure obedience to its process and rules, protect its officers from indignity and wrong and to punish unseemly behavior. This power is necessary for the orderly administration of the Court’s business.

Exceptions to Res Judicata

The principle of res judicata would not apply if the decree has been obtained by practicing misrepresentation or fraud on the court, or where the proceedings had been taken all together under a special Statute. More so, every finding in the earlier judgment would not operate as res judicata.