LAND AND TENANCY SYSTEM IN INDIA ( PRE- INDEPENDENCE ERA )
Agricultural land in India was administered under three systems of which Zamindari system covered nearly 57 percent of total area extending over nine provinces including Bengal, Bihar, Eastern U.P., North Madras and parts of Assam and Orissa. The Mahalwari system, which covered 5 percent of the total area and the Ryotwari system, which covered about 38 percent of the total area also generated unprotected tenants, sub tenants and sharecroppers, who did not have any tenurial security over the land they cultivated.
In the Zamindari system, the land revenue was collected from the farmers by the Zamindars. The system was created by the East India Company when in 1793 Lord CornwalUs entered into “Permanent Settlement” with landlords with a view to increase the revenue of the company. The status of a zamindar is intermediary. The number of intermediaries between the government and the actual cultivator was multiple in number. According to the Simon Commission Report (1928) in some cases there were as many as 50 intermediaries.
The cultivator under Rayatwari system deals directly with the government. He takes land from it and pays to it land revenue. No intermediary, therefore, stands between the tiller and the government as under the Zamindari system. So long as he regularly pays land revenue, he continues to hold the land and cannot be evicted. He has even the right to sell the land. Since the ownership of land vests with the government, he has simply the right of occupancy. It is for this reason that he is known as an occupancy tenant.The system is to be found largely in Maharastra, Gujarat, Assam, Tamil Nadu, and Madhya Pradesh.
In Mahalwari system land is held under the joint ownership of the entire village community. The members of the community jointly and individually are responsibly for the payment of land revenue to the government. Generally, the village community appoints a certain person for this purpose.This system is prevalent in Punjab, U.P. and in some places of Madhya Pradesh.
After independence, first attempt at Land Reforms in the Country began with the abolition of intermediaries and bringing the tenant into direct contact with the State under the ryotwari tenure. Following State enactments made towards this end.
(a) A.P. (Andhra Area) Estates (Abolition and Conversion into Ryotwari) Act 1948.
(b) A.P. (Telangana Area) Abolition of Inams Act, 1955.
(c) A.P. (Andhra Area) Inams (Abolition and Conversion into Ryotwari) Act, 1956.
(d) A.P. (Telangana Area) Abolition of Jagirs Regulation 1358 Fasali.
After expropriatory legislation, next step taken in the field of Land Reforms is protection of tenants by means of the enactments mentioned below :
(a) A.P. (Telangana Area) Tenancy and Agricultural Land Act, 1950.
(b) A.P. (Andhra Area) Tenancy Act, 1956.
The most important step in the field of Land Reforms taken in the State was to impose a ceiling on agricultural land holdings. The A.P. Land Reforms (Ceiling on Agricultural Holdings) Act 1973, enacted for this purpose can be said to be culmination of land reforms in the State
Tamil Nadu Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling on Land) Act 1961
The Tamil Nadu Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling on Land) Act, 1961 (Tamil Nadu Act 58/61) was enacted with a view to reduce the disparity in the ownership of the agricultural land and concentration of such land with certain persons and to distribute such land among the landless poor.
Tamil Nadu Agricultural Lands Record of Tenancy Rights Act, 1969.
Tamil Nadu Land Reforms (fixation of Ceiling on Land) Rules, 1962.
Tamil Nadu Land Reforms (disposal of Surplus Land) Rules, 1965.
Tamil Nadu Land Reforms (compensation for Surplus Land) Rules, 1966.
The Zamindari system in Uttar Pradesh developed along with Bengal’s. The system started with the appointment of Mansaram and his relatives in 1738 and Uttar Pradesh got credit of becoming first in enacting Land Reforms Act, “Uttar Pradesh Zamindar Abolition Land Reforms (UPZA&LR) Act, 1950.
Features of the UPZA&LR Act-1950:
(1) The act abolished all intermediaries.
(2) The rights of intermediaries were acquired on payment of compensation at eight times of their net assets.
(3) Rehabilitation grant provided for smaller Zamindars (who paid up to Rs. 10,000 land revenue annually to the Govt.) or a graded scale of 2 to 20 times of the net assets, being largest for low incomes and smallest for those comparatively large incomes.
(4) The tenant was entitled to ownership on payment of 10 times their rent and henceforth called ‘BHUMIDHAR’ who will pay at land revenue 50% of his existing rent. (5) Land was settled with the cultivator ‘Sir’ and ‘Khud Kasht’ and grove land could be retained in the name of personal cuhivation. Hired labour is also included in the definition of personal cultivation. In such land, the Zamindar becomes “BHUMIDAR”
(6) Before the act, there were intermediaries. Now a system of temire with four classes of tenants was established, two major (BHUMIDHAR & SIRDAR) and two minor (ASAMIS AND ADIVASIS). Government was to acquire Zamindari right in all property not covered under the head of personal cultivation. In 1954, the class of Adivasi was abolished and converted to Sirdar. On 08/01/1977 tenancy changed to just 3 classesSankramanie Bhumidhar with transferable rights. Asankramanie Bhumidhar with nontransferable rights and Assami (Non-heritable and Non transferable). Tenants were redefined as Sirdars with permanent heritable (but not saleable) rights in their holding and can become Bhumidhars (with saleable rights) on payment of 10 times of the annual rent.
(7) Prohibition of letting and subletting of land.
(8) Prohibition of accumulation of land beyond 12 l/2acre in U P applicable to the entire family- spouse, minor sons and minor daughters (later amendment), the act tried to prevent fragmentation of land. In consolidated areas, no person could transfer fragments except in cases where the purchaser’s land is contiguous.
(9) This act created a uniform rule of succession, irrespective of personal laws.
(10) Creation of village Republics – the Land Management Committee (LMC), the executive body of the gram sabha is responsible for development of village lands.
(11) The weaker sections of the society have been given protection- no scheduled caste is permitted to transfer his land to non- scheduled caste, unless the collector’s permission is sought. If after selling land the remaining holding of an SC would be less than 3.125 acre, then permission is refused. For Scheduled Tribes, the collector cannot give permission at all. Under Sec-178, a criminal proceeding can be instituted against the person who has illegally grabbed the land of SC and ST.
U.P. Imposition Ceiling on Land Holdings Act-1960
the Act brings sweeping changes to the entire revenue regime, while repealing 32 enactments in total (including Uttar Pradesh Zamindari Abolition and Land Reforms Act, 1950 and the United Provinces Land Revenue Act ,1901)
- West Bengal Non-Agricultural Tenancy Act, 1949
- Waste Lands (Requisitioning and Utilization) Act, 1952
- West Bengal Bargadars Act, 1956
- West Bengal Land Reforms Act, 1956
- WEST BENGAL ESTATE ACQUISITION ACT
- WEST BENGAL THIKA TENANCY ACT 2001
|अधिनियम व नियम / Acts & Rules|
|भूमि अर्जन अधिनियम, 1894
Land Acquisition Act, 1894
|भूमि अर्जन (कंपनी) नियम, 1963
Land Acquisition (Companies) Rules, 1963
|राष्ट्रीय पुनर्वास और पुनर्स्थापन नीति, 2007
National Rehabilitation & Resettlement Policy, 2007
|भूमि अर्जन, पुनर्वासन और पुनव्यर्वस्थापन में उचित प्रतिकर और पारदर्शिता अधिकार अधिनियम, 2013
Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act, 2013
|भूमि अर्जन, पुनर्वासन और पुनव्यर्वस्थापन में उचित प्रतिकर और पारदर्शिता अधिकार अधिनियम, 2013 /
Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act, 2013
अधिनियम / Act भूमि अर्जन, पुनर्वासन और पुनव्यर्वस्थापन में उचित प्रतिकर और पारदर्शिता अधिकार अधिनियम (संशोधन) अध्यादेश, 2014 /
Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act (Amendment) Ordinance, 2014 भूमि अर्जन, पुनर्वासन और पुनव्यर्वस्थापन में उचित प्रतिकर और पारदर्शिता अधिकार अधिनियम (संशोधन) अध्यादेश, 2015 /
Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act (Amendment) Ordinance, 2015 भूमि अर्जन, पुनर्वासन और पुनव्यर्वस्थापन में उचित प्रतिकर और पारदर्शिता अधिकार अधिनियम (संशोधन) द्वितीय अध्यादेश, 2015 /
Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act (Amendment) Second Ordinance, 2015
भूमि अर्जन, पुनर्वासन और पुनव्यर्वस्थापन में उचित प्रतिकर और पारदर्शिता अधिकार अधिनियम (संशोधन) विधेयक, 2015 /
भूमि अर्जन, पुनर्वासन और पुनव्यर्वस्थापन में उचित प्रतिकर और पारदर्शिता अधिकार अधिनियम (संशोधन) द्वितीय विधेयक, 2015 /
भूमि अर्जन, पुनर्वासन और पुनव्यर्वस्थापन में उचित प्रतिकर और पारदर्शिता अधिकार अधिनियम, 2013 की धारा 10 के तहत अधिसूचनाएं / Notifications under section 10 of the Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act, 2013
भूमि अर्जन, पुनर्वासन और पुनव्यर्वस्थापन में उचित प्रतिकर और पारदर्शिता अधिकार (प्रतिकर, पुनर्वासन और पुनव्यर्वस्थापन, विकास योजना) नियम, 2015 /
भूमि अर्जन, पुनर्वासन और पुनव्यर्वस्थापन में उचित प्रतिकर और पारदर्शिता अधिकार अधिनियम, 2013 के बारे में स्पष्टीकरण – महाराष्ट्र सरकार द्वारा उठाए गए मुद्दों के संबंध में
Clarifications on Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act, 2013 – with respect to issues raised by the Government of Maharashtra
भूमि अर्जन, पुनर्वासन और पुनव्यर्वस्थापन में उचित प्रतिकर और पारदर्शिता अधिकार (कठिनाइयों को दूर करना) आदेश, 2015 /
भूमि अर्जन, पुनर्वासन और पुनव्यर्वस्थापन में उचित प्रतिकर और पारदर्शिता अधिकार (सामाजिक समाघात निर्धारण और सहमति) नियम, 2014 /
अधिनियम के प्रारम्भ की राजपत्र अधिसूचना /
अनुछेद 2(1)(b)(i) में उद्धत किए अनुसार, अवसरंचना अनुभाग, आर्थिक कार्य विभाग, वित्त मंत्रालय की राजपत्र अधिसूचना /
|रजिस्ट्रीकरण अधिनियम, 1908
The Registration Act, 1908
अक्सर पूछे जाने वाले प्रश्न (एफ ए क्यू)
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
Acceptance of consent based Aadhaar authentication services offered by UIDAI as a valid method of collecting the information mentioned in Section 32-A of Registration Act, 1908
|रजिस्ट्रीकरण (संशोधन) विधेयक, 2013
2013 का विधेयक संख्यांक 47 – राज्य सभा में पुर:स्थापित रूप मेंRegistration (Amendment) Bill, 2013
Bill No. XLVII of 2013 – as introduced in Rajya Sabha
रजिस्ट्रेशन (संशोधन) विधेयक, 2013 पर रिपोर्ट – ग्रामीण विकास पर संसदीय स्थायी समिति द्वारा प्रस्तुत नौंवी रिपोर्ट (2014-2015)
Report on Registration (Amendment) Bill, 2013 – 9th Report presented by Parliamentary Standing Committee on Rural Development (2014-2015)
|LAND AND LAND REFORM DEPARTMENT||West Bengal|