Public functionary

“Public functionary” is defined in Section-2(m) as under: 2 (m) “public functionary’ means a person who is or has been at any time- (i) the Chief Minister or a Minister (ii) a […]


It is well-known that the idea of establishment of Office of Lokpal and Lokayuktas came from Justitio Ombudsman, commonly called, Just Ombudsman, prevalent in European countries where such Office was established as […]

Lokpal Laws in In India

It extends to the whole of India and it shall apply to all public servants in and outside India. Jurisdiction Jurisdiction of Lokpal to include Prime Minister, Ministers, members of Parliament, Groups A, B, C and D officers and officials of Central Government. Complaint […]

Class action

One or more members of a class may sue or be sued as representative parties on behalf of all if: 1. the class is so numerous that joinder of all members, whether otherwise […]

Current Issues

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Appreciation of evidence and burden of proof in election cases

Law settled by Supreme Court of India:

It will be seen from the following decisions that it has been consistently laid down by the Supreme Court in a number of cases that burden of proof resting on a person seeking a declaration of voidness of election is very heavy in the sense that he is required to prove every charge of corrupt practice beyond reasonable doubt. In other words, the burden to be discharged by the petitioner in a case is the same as the burden on the prosecution to prove a criminal charge.


Application of Law at the time of War

The Geneva Laws(Conventions)


The convention shall apply to all cases of declared war or of any other armed conflict which may arise between two or more of the High Contracting Parties, even if the state of war is not recognized by one of them. The Convention shall also apply to all cases of partial or total occupation of the territory of a High Contracting Party, even if the said occupation meets with no armed resistance.


India is as much a Hindu nation as England and America are Christian nations

India that is Bharat

A wrong argument: That by virtue of its majority being the deciding factor in a democracy, India is a Hindu nation.

The correction[ Mimamsa ]: We the people of India have descended from a common Hindu patriarchy and then we adopted multiple ways of prayer system for our salvation and peace. For the administration and management of the wealth pertain the Hindu Rastra(Nation), we commissioned a set of secular rule and judicial system in the country. For the political unity and emancipation, we adopted from the west the pattern of parliament for Indian State headed by an elected President, to be advised by Prime minister- in- cabinet.