Precedent is the principle in law of using the past in order to assist in current interpretation and decision-making. Precedent can be of two types. Binding or mandatory precedent is a precedent under the doctrine of stare decisis that a court must consider when deciding a case. Advisory precedent are cases which a court may use but is not required to use to decide its cases.
An appeal is the act or fact of challenging a judicially cognizable and binding decision to a higher judicial authority. In common law jurisdictions, most commonly, this means formally filing a notice of appeal with a […]
Passing judgment without a judicial process Prejudice is, as the name implies, the process of “pre-judging” something. In general, it implies coming to a judgment on the subject before learning where the preponderance […]
A judgment or judgement, in a legal context, is synonymous with the formal decision made by a court following legal proceedings. At the same time the court may also make a range of court orders, such as imposing a sentence upon a guilty defendant in a criminal matter, […]
The sheriff is both a political and a legal office held under English common law, Scots law or American common law, or the person who holds such office. Modern usage United States In the United States a sheriff is […]
Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone […]
English Parliament A body now called the English Parliament first arose during the thirteenth century, referred to variously as ‘colloquium’ and ‘parliamentum’. It shared most of the powers typical of representative institutions in medieval and […]
Feudalism Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. Even […]
Tax A tax is an involuntary fee paid by individuals or businesses to a government. Taxes may be paid in cash or kind (although payments in kind may not always be allowed or classified as taxes in […]
States as sovereign political entities In international law and international relations, a state is a geographic political entity possessing politicial sovereignty, i.e. not being subject to any higher political authority. In casual language, the idea of a “state” […]
The Government runs the country and has responsibility for developing and implementing policy and for drafting laws. It is also known as the Executive. The Government is usually formed by the party that gains the most seats in the House of Commons at a general election. It is headed by the Prime Minister who appoints government ministers. Members of the Government sit in Parliament and are accountable to it. Government departments and their agencies are responsible for putting government policy into practice.